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1.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 20(1): e210081, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365204

ABSTRACT

Hypersaline estuaries are commonly found in the Semiarid Northeast Brazilian coast. However, the utilization of these estuaries by early life stages of fishes is less well documented. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental factors on the ichthyoplankton, and to describe their spatial and temporal variation in two estuaries (Tubarão and Casqueira). The sampling were diurnally in four excursions carried out during two dry-season months (November and December 2017) and two rainy-season months (May and July 2018). A total of 423 larvae representing 30 species (14 families) and 2,762 eggs (five families) were collected. Although the community structures were similar in both estuaries, there was strong seasonal variation, with higher abundances observed during the dry season. Low rainfall was the primary environmental driver affecting ichthyoplankton in both estuaries. Other environmental factors, such as depth, water temperature, and channel width, were also predictor variables for the distribution of eggs and larvae. The ichthyoplankton was dominated by marine estuarine-dependent species in both estuaries, accounting for 76% of individuals. The presence of the early life stages of typically marine species suggests that hypersaline environments provide important nursery areas and play an essential role for some coastal fish species.(AU)


Os estuários hipersalinos são comumente encontrados na região semiárida da costa nordestina brasileira. No entanto, a utilização desses estuários pelos primeiros estágios de vida dos peixes é pouco documentada. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de fatores ambientais sobre o ictioplâncton e descrever sua variação espacial e temporal em dois estuários (Tubarão e Casqueira). As amostragens foram diurnas em quatro excursões realizadas em dois meses da estação seca (novembro e dezembro de 2017) e dois meses da estação chuvosa (maio e julho de 2018). Um total de 423 larvas representando 30 espécies (14 famílias) e 2.762 ovos (cinco famílias) foram coletadas. Embora as estruturas das comunidades fossem semelhantes em ambos os estuários, houve fortes diferenças de variação sazonal, com maiores abundâncias observadas durante a estação seca. A baixa precipitação foi o principal fator ambiental que afetou o ictioplâncton em ambos os estuários. Outros fatores, como profundidade, temperatura da água e largura do canal, também foram preditoras para a distribuição de ovos e larvas. O ictioplâncton foi dominado por espécies marinhas dependentes em ambos os estuários, representando 76% dos indivíduos. A presença de estágios iniciais de espécies tipicamente marinhas sugere que ambientes hipersalinos fornecem áreas de berçário importantes e desempenham um papel essencial para algumas espécies de peixes costeiros.(AU)


Subject(s)
Zooplankton , Biological Factors , Estuaries , Salinity
2.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 32: e3266, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360526

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Identificar a associação entre características pessoais e ambientais de crianças com provável transtorno do desenvolvimento da coordenação (TDC). Participaram 42 pais, 32 professores e 42 pré-escolares (3,4±0,5 anos). Como instrumentos foram utilizados o Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (MABC-2), o Teste de Maturidade Mental Columbia (EMMC), o Questionário da Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisas (ABEP), o Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), o Swanson Nolan and Pelham IV Scale (SNAP-IV), o Questionário de percepção de pais/responsáveis sobre habilidades motoras, acadêmicas, emocionais e comportamentais e o Early Years Movement Skills Checklist. Na análise foi utilizado o teste Shapiro Wilk e Regressão Logística Binária (p<0,05). Os resultados demostraram diferença estatisticamente significativa para as seguintes características associadas às crianças com persistência de TDC: 1) características pessoais: o peso ao nascer, a idade de sentar, o desenvolvimento cognitivo, os problemas de linguagem e os problemas de conduta; 2) características ambientais da família: a união estável dos pais, a melhor qualidade do ambiente domiciliar; 3) no ambiente escolar o nível de escolaridade do professor. Conclui-se que as crianças que nasceram com maior peso, que apresentaram desenvolvimento cognitivo superior, vivem com pais em união estável, que possuem professor de sala especialista e apresentaram menores chances de persistir no TDC.


ABSTRACT Identify the associtation among personal and environmental characteristics on the motor development of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The participants were 42 parents, 32 teachers and 42 preschoolers' (3.4±0.5years). As measurement instruments: The Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (MABC2), the Columbia Mental Maturity test (EMMC), the Questionnaire of the Brazilian Association of Research Companies (ABEP), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the Swanson Nolan and Pelham IV Scale (SNAP-IV), Structured Questionnaire for parents on motor, academic, emotional and behavioral skills and Early Years Movement Skills Checklist were used. For data analysis, the Shapiro Wilk test and Binary Logistic Regression were used, adopting p <0.05. Results shown statistically significant difference for the personal characteristics associated with children with persistence DCD: 1) birth weight, age to sit, cognitive development, language problems and conduct problems; 2) For home characteristics: quality of the home environment and the parents' stable union were taken into account; 3) For day care center, the education of the classroom teacher was considered. In conclusion, children who were born with greater weight, who had higher cognitive development, live with parents in a stable relationship and who have a specialized classroom teacher were less likely to persist in DCD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Behavior , Family Characteristics , Motor Skills Disorders , Physical Education and Training , Marriage , Biological Factors , Child Development , Emotions , Faculty , Motor Disorders , Language Development , Motor Skills
3.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 454-462, sep.-oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249945

ABSTRACT

Resumen En los últimos años, la introducción de diversos medicamentos biológicos para el tratamiento de la psoriasis ha aumentado considerablemente el arsenal terapéutico del médico, con lo cual se ha logrado un fuerte impacto positivo en el control de la enfermedad. Con el fin de proveer de las mejores recomendaciones para el uso de estos biológicos en los pacientes afectados de psoriasis, el grupo mexicano de expertos en psoriasis PSOMEX ha formulado recomendaciones para mejorar la comprensión y el posicionamiento terapéutico de este tipo de medicamentos.


Abstract In recent years, the introduction of a series of biological drugs for the treatment of psoriasis has considerably increased the therapeutic armamentarium of doctors, and thus a strongly positive impact on the control of this condition has been achieved. With the purpose to provide the best recommendations for the use of these biological agents in patients with psoriasis, the Mexican group of psoriasis experts, PSOMEX, has developed recommendations in order to improve the understanding and therapeutic positioning of this type of medications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Psoriasis/therapy , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Complications/therapy , Societies, Medical , Age Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Mexico
4.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(3): 155-161, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1126297

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: With the evolution of diagnostic techniques in traumatic brain injury (TBI), the study of neurological injury has made progress based on the concepts of primary and secondary injury, leading to the era of proteomics to understand the complex molecular events involved in the process. Objectives: This narrative review is intended to discuss the state of the art of the most frequently used biomarkers in TBI, their clinical utility, and the implications for therapeutic decision-making protocols. Materials and methods: In order to fulfill the objective of this paper, a literature review was conducted of the most important databases. Results: Several biomarkers have been studied as prognostic factors in patients with TBI. Learning about their sensitivity and specificity in neurological injury, and its post-trauma evolution over time, has been the goal of various papers in the past few years. Conclusion: Breakthroughs in the study of protein degradation make it necessary to broaden the spectrum and knowledge of new diagnostic methods in TBI. Further studies are needed to define the role of biomarkers and to promote protocols integrating specific values.


Resumen Introducción: Con la evolución de las técnicas diagnósticas en el trauma craneoencefálico, el estudio de la lesión neurológica ha progresado sobre los conceptos de lesión primaria y secundaria, para entrar así en la era de la proteómica y, con ella, entender los complejos eventos moleculares existentes en su proceso. Objetivos: En esta revisión narrativa se pretende presentar el estado actual de los biomarcadores que más se usan en lesión cerebral traumática, su utilidad clínica y las implicaciones en protocolos de decisión terapéutica. Materiales y métodos: Para dar respuesta al objetivo de este trabajo, se realizó una revisión de la literatura en las principales bases de datos. Resultados: Se han estudiado varios biomarcadores como factor pronóstico en pacientes con trauma craneoencefálico. Conocer su sensibilidad y especificidad para la lesión neurológica, así como su evolución en el tiempo tras el traumatismo, ha sido el objetivo de diversos trabajos en los últimos años. Conclusión: El avance en el estudio de los productos de degradación de las proteínas hace necesario ampliar el espectro y el conocimiento en el campo de los nuevos métodos diagnósticos en el trauma craneoencefálico. Se requieren más estudios para definir la función de los biomarcadores y proponer protocolos que integren valores específicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Soft Tissue Injuries , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Prognosis , Biological Factors/administration & dosage , Proteomics
5.
Rev. argent. reumatolg. (En línea) ; 31(3): 6-18, set. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1149670

ABSTRACT

La persistencia en el tratamiento es un marcador subrogante de éxito de tratamiento a largo plazo. Objetivo: Evaluar la persistencia de los agentes biológicos utilizados para el tratamiento de pacientes con artritis reumatoidea (AR) a un tiempo de 5 años y determinar las principales causas asociadas a persistencia o discontinuación. Material y métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura (RSL), según las recomendaciones PRISMA, en las bases de datos Pubmed, Cochrane y Lilacs, y estudios presentados en los congresos ACR, EULAR, PANLAR (2018/2019) hasta Enero 2020. Dos revisoras independientes, evaluaron todas las publicaciones identificadas, por título y abstract y por full text, de acuerdo a la metodología PICO. Los criterios de elegibilidad fueron estudios de pacientes ≥ 18 años con diagnóstico de AR, en tratamiento con agentes biológicos, que midieran persistencia/discontinuación en un período de tiempo igual o superior a 5 años y que estuvieran en idioma inglés o español. En el caso de falta de acuerdo entre las dos revisoras, un tercer revisor fue consultado. La información extraída fue analizada mediante estadística descriptiva, se calculó el porcentaje promedio de persistencia de cada agente biológico a los 5 años. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 56 artículos luego de la remoción de los duplicados y de la exclusión por título/abstract, y por full text. De ellos 13, eran fase de extensión a largo plazo de estudios randomizados controlados, 15 cohortes retrospectivas, 18 cohortes prospectivas y 10 cohortes retro-prospectivas y correspondían a un total de 72177 (rango: 79-10396) pacientes con AR, con una edad media 53.8 años ± 12.1, 78.2% de sexo femenino y un tiempo promedio de evolución de la AR de 9.7 años ± 8.4. En 33.9% de los estudios, la terapia biológica estaba combinada con drogas modificadoras de la AR convencionales (DMARs-c), en 3.6% en monoterapia, 48.2% ambas modalidades y en 14.3% no informaba. Un estudio fue realizado en 1° línea (metotrexato näive), 29 estudios en 2° línea (respuesta inadecuada a MTX y/o DMARs-c), 5 en 3° línea (respuesta inadecuada a DMARs biológicas-b-), 12 en ≥2° línea terapéutica y en 9 no especificaban. En 30 estudios que evaluaron 2° línea terapéutica, la mayor persistencia correspondió a tocilizumab (TCZ) 66.41% (IC95% 57.8-79.94), abatacept (ABA) 57.91% (IC95% 50.96-64.87) y golimumab (GOL) 54.38% (IC95% 48.58-60.19). Y 10 estudios, en los cuales el DMAR-b había sido analizado en 3° línea terapéutica, las mayores tasas de retención correspondieron a rituximab (RTX) 61.19% (IC95% 57.53-66.22) y TCZ 61.1% (IC95% 58.81-63.32). Entre los estudios que evaluaron predictores, los más frecuentemente asociados a mayor sobrevida fueron: tratamiento combinado con DMAR-c, etanercept versus infliximab y adalimumab y 2° línea de tratamiento vs 3° o 4° línea y los asociados a menor sobrevida fueron: mayor uso de esteroides, mayor actividad basal de la enfermedad y sexo femenino. Conclusiones: En esta RSL, la persistencia de los DMAR-b a 5 años en pacientes con respuesta inadecuada a DMARs-c y DMARs-b fue numéricamente mayor para los agentes no TNFi. Y entre los TNFi, GOL presentó mayor retención en 2° línea terapéutica.


Treatment persistence is a surrogate marker for long-term treatment success. Objective: To assess the persistence of the biological agents used for treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 5 years period and to determine the main causes associated with persistence or discontinuation. Material and methods: A systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out, according to PRISMA recommendations, including Pubmed, Cochrane and Lilacs databases, and studies presented at the ACR, EULAR, PANLAR congresses (2018/2019) until January 2020. Two independent reviewers evaluated the identified publications, by title and abstract and full text, according to PICO methodology. Eligibility criteria were: studies including RA patients ≥ 18 years, treated with biological agents, which measured persistence/ discontinuation for a period of time equal to or greater than 5 years and who were in English or Spanish language. In the case of lack of agreement between the two reviewers, a third reviewer was consulted. The extracted information was analyzed using descriptive statistics, an average percentage of persistence for each biological agent at 5 years was calculated. Results: 56 articles were selected after removal of duplicates and exclusion by title/abstract, and by full text. Long-term extension phase of randomized controlled studies were 13, another 15 retrospective cohorts, 18 prospective cohorts and 10 retro-prospective cohorts and corresponded to a total of 72177 (range: 79-10396) patients with RA, with a mean age of 53.8 years ± 12.1, 78.2% female and an average RA disease duration of 9.7 years ± 8.4. In 33.9% of the studies, biological therapy was combined with conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (c-DMARDs), in 3.6% monotherapy, 48.2% both modalities, and in 14.3% not reported. One study was in the 1st line (methotrexate näive), 29 studies in 2nd line (inadequate response to MTX and/or c-DMARDs), 5 in 3rd line (inadequate response to biological b-DMARDs), 12 in ≥2nd therapeutic line and in 9 studies did not specify this condition. In 30 studies which evaluated the 2nd therapeutic line, the highest persistence corresponded to tocilizumab (TCZ) 66.41% (95% CI 57.8-79.94), abatacept (ABA) 57.91% (95% CI 50.96-64.87) and golimumab (GOL) 54.38% (95% CI 48.58-60.19). In 10 studies, in which b-DMARD had been analyzed in 3rd therapeutic line, highest retention rates corresponded to rituximab (RTX) 61.19% (95% CI 57.53-66.22) and TCZ 61.1% (95% CI 58.81-63.32). Among studies that evaluated predictors, the most frequently associated with higher survival were: combined treatment with c-DMARD, etanercept versus infliximab and adalimumab and 2nd line of treatment vs. 3rd or 4th line whereas those associated with lower survival rates were: greater use of steroids, higher baseline disease activity, and female gender. Conclusions: In this SLR, the 5-year persistence of b-DMARD in patients with inadequate response to DMARs-c and DMARs-b was numerically greater for non-TNFi agents. And among TNFi, GOL presented a higher retention in 2nd therapeutic line.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Biological Therapy , Biological Factors
6.
Rev. argent. mastología ; 39(144): 39-61, sept. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150855

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de mama se clasifica en 4 subgrupos moleculares de tumores. Estos factores biológicos junto al grado histológico, han tomado importancia en la nueva clasificación TNM ya que permite establecer pronósticos de sobrevida. Objetivo: Analizar la correlación entre los distintos subtipos moleculares de los carcinomas de mama con factores clínico-patológico, la presencia de metástasis axilares y en la re-estadificación de los tumores según la nueva Clasificación TNM de la AJCC. Material y método: Estudio observacional y descriptivo de series de casos, registrados en Registro de Cáncer de Mama (RCM), en Argentina entre los años 2006 a 2016. Resultados: La mayoría de los tumores fueron Luminales. Los estadios avanzados fueron en edades tempranas. El mayor compromiso axilar perteneció a HER2 neu positivos. Se consiguió re estadificar las pacientes aumentando el número de pacientes con estadios IA y IB y descendiendo los estadios IIA, IIIA, IIIB y IIIC. Conclusiones: De los subtipos moleculares con factores clinicopatológicos más desfavorables fueron los Triples Negativos y Her2 neu. La importancia de los factores biológicos a la hora de re estadificar los pacientes según TNM 8° edición, favorece los tratamientos conservadores y específicos contra el tumor evitando el sobre tratamiento e implican menores costos que las plataformas genómcias.


Introduction: Breast cancer is classified into 4 molecular subgroups. These biological factors, together with the histological grade, are important factors in the 8th edition of the TNM Classification, and allow establishing survival prognoses in patients with breast cancer. Objetive: The main objetive was to analyse the correlation between different molecular subtypes of breast carcinomas, the presence of axillary metastases and the correlation of tumours in the new TNM Classification. Material and method: Observational and descriptive restrospective study of case series registred in RCM, in Argentina between 2006 and 2016. Results: Most of the tumours were Luminals. The clinical presentation of advanced stages was more frequent at early ages. The molecular subtypes with the highest axillary involvement were HER2 neu tumours. We managed to re-stage the patients to the TNM Classification 8th edition, increasing the number of patients with stages IA and IB and decreasing the stage IIA, IIIA, IIIB and IIIC. Conclusions: Triples negative tumours were diagnosed in more advanced stages, according to the new TNM Classification, than the Luminals. The surgical decision was not modified according to the molecular subtype. We conclude the importance of biological factors when re-staging patients according to the new TNM Classification 8th edition because it increases the number of conservative treatments, and more targets treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Biological Factors , Classification , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 323-332, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131674

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic immune-mediated diseases that present a relapsing and remitting course and requires long-term treatment. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy has changed the management of the disease by reducing the need for hospitalizations, surgeries and improving patient´s quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to discuss the role of anti-TNF agents in IBD, highlighting the situations where its use as first-line therapy would be appropriate. METHODS: Narrative review summarizing the best available evidence on the topic based on searches in databases such as MedLine and PubMed up to April 2020 using the following keywords: "inflammatory bowel disease'', "anti-TNF agents" and ''biologic therapy''. CONCLUSION: Biological therapy remains the cornerstone in the treatment of IBD. In the absence of head-to-head comparisons, the choice of the biological agent may be challenging and should take into account several variables. Anti-TNF agents should be considered as first line therapy in specific scenarios such as acute severe ulcerative colitis, fistulizing Crohn's disease and extra-intestinal manifestations of IBD, given the strong body of evidence supporting its efficacy and safety in these situations.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: As doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII), tanto a doença de Crohn (DC) como a retocolite ulcerativa (RCU), são doenças crônicas imunomediadas que se apresentam com períodos de surto e remissão e requerem terapia a longo prazo. A terapia com anti-fator de necrose tumoral (anti-TNF) tem mudado o manejo da doença reduzindo a necessidade de hospitalizações, cirurgias e melhorando a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar uma revisão sobre a importância dos agentes anti-TNF no contexto da DII, levando em consideração situações em que essas drogas são usadas como terapia de primeira linha. MÉTODOS: Revisão narrativa baseada nas melhores evidências disponíveis na literatura através de buscas feitas nas bases de dados MedLine e PubMed até abril de 2020, utilizando as seguintes palavras chaves: "doença inflamatória intestinal'', "agentes anti-TNF" e "terapia biológica". CONCLUSÃO: A terapia biológica permanece sendo fundamental no tratamento da DII. Na ausência de estudos "head-to-head'' comparando os biológicos entre si, a escolha do agente biológico pode ser um desafio na prática clínica e múltiplas variáveis devem ser levadas em consideração. Os agentes anti-TNF devem ser considerados terapia de primeira linha em situações específicas como na colite ulcerativa aguda grave, na doença de Crohn fistulizante e nas manifestações extra-intestinais da doença inflamatória intestinal, uma vez que há evidências científicas robustas que sustentam a sua eficácia e segurança nessas situações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Biological Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
8.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(2): e223, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138897

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La osteoporosis masculina es una enfermedad clínica heterogénea y subdiagnosticada, con múltiples factores de riesgo. Requiere un proceso de diagnóstico en ocasiones más complejo que en las mujeres. Objetivo: Identificar factores biológicos relacionados con la masa ósea en hombres de edad mediana. Métodos: Se realizó estudio descriptivo, transversal, en 43 hombres de edad mediana (40-59 años) entre abril de 2017 y mayo de 2018, que fueron atendidos en el Policlínico Universitario Vedado. Se estudiaron los antecedentes patológicos familiares (APF) de osteoporosis masculina o fracturas por fragilidad, índice de masa corporal (IMC), circunferencia de la cintura (CC), presión arterial (PA), glucemia, colesterol, triglicéridos, creatinina, hormona luteinizante, folículo estimulante, estradiol, testosterona (T), prolactina y paratohormona (PTH) y densitometría dual de Rx (DXA). Según edad y resultado de la DXA, se crearon 4 grupos (de 40-49 y de 50-59 años, en L1-L4 y fémur). Se identificaron hombres con hueso normal y mala masa ósea (MMO). Se determinaron distribuciones de frecuencia (variables cualitativas), y mediana y rango (cuantitativas). Se empleó chi cuadrado para determinar relación entre variables cualitativas y Mann-Whitney para cuantitativas. Para establecer correlación entre variables cuantitativas, se calculó el test de Pearson. Resultados: En hombres de 50-59 años, con antecedentes patológicos familiares de fracturas por fragilidad, predominó la mala masa ósea (75 por ciento). La mediana del índice de masa corporal en hombres de 40-49 años fue mayor (26,7 Kg/m2sc) en los que tenían hueso normal en L1-L4; en los de 50-59 años con aumento de la circunferencia de la cintura predominó la mala masa ósea (3; 75 por ciento). La presión arterial sistólica y diastólica se correlacionaron positivamente con la densidad mineral ósea en L1-L4 ([r = 0,225; p = 0,009], [r = 0,263; p = 0,002]). Hubo correlación positiva entre colesterol y contenido mineral óseo en fémur (r = 0,164; p = 0,002). La testosterona resultó más baja en hombres con hueso normal (40-49 años: 15,3 nmol/L; 50-59 años: 12,5 nmol/L). Se observó correlación negativa entre paratohormona y contenido mineral óseo en fémur (r = -0,324; p = 0,000). Conclusiones: Se puede concluir que, de los factores biológicos estudiados en los hombres de edad mediana del Policlínico Universitario Vedado, los niveles más elevados de presión arterial y colesterol, y más bajos de paratohormona, se asociaron con mejor masa ósea(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Male osteoporosis is a heterogeneous and underdiagnosed clinical condition and with multiple risk factors, which requires a diagnostic process that is sometimes more complex than for women. Objective: To identify biological factors related to bone mass in middle-aged men from "Vedado" University Polyclinic. Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out with 43 middle-aged (40-59 years old) men, between April 2017 and May 2018. The variables were family pathological history of osteoporosis or fragility fractures, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, luteinizing hormone, stimulating follicle, estradiol, testosterone, prolactin and parathyroid hormone, and dual x-ray densitometry. According to age and results of the dual x-ray densitometry, four groups were created (40-49 and 50-59 years old, in L1-L4 and femur). The men with normal bone and poor bone mass were identified. Frequency distributions (qualitative variables), as well as median and range (quantitative variables) were determined. The chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between qualitative variables, and the Mann-Whitney test was used for quantitative variables. To establish correlation between quantitative variables, the Pearson test was used. Results: Among men aged 50-59 years and with a family pathological history of fragility fractures, poor bone mass prevailed (75 percent). The median body mass index among men aged 40-49 years was higher (26.7 kg/m2sc) in those with normal bone in L1-L4; among those aged 50-59 years and with increased waist circumference, poor bone mass predominated (3; 75 percent). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were correlated positively with bone mineral density in L1-L4 [(r = 0.225, p = 0.009), (r = 0.263, p = 0.002)]. There was a positive correlation between cholesterol and bone mineral content in the femur (r = 0.164, p = 0.002). T was lower among men with normal bone (15.3 nmol/L for the group 40-49 years old, and 12.5 nmol/L for the group 50-59 years old). A negative correlation was observed between the parathyroid hormone and bone mineral content values in the femur (r = -0.324, p = 0.000). Conclusions: Among the biological factors studied in middle-aged men from "Vedado" University Polyclinic, higher levels of blood pressure and cholesterol, as well as lower levels of the parathyroid hormone were concluded to be associated with better bone mass(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Biological Factors/adverse effects , Body Mass Index , Densitometry/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(5): 657-664, mayo 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139350

ABSTRACT

The financial coverage granted by law in Chile for patients with psoriatic arthritis who require biological treatment is of paramount importance and a great advance. However physicians must be knowledgeable about the advantages and limitations of this therapy. The challenge of clinicians is to choose the drug with the greater odds of achieving therapeutic success, with less adverse events and lower costs for our health system. This article aims to help doctors to select the best biological treatment for a specific patient, trying to optimize its effectiveness, minimizing adverse effects, always looking for an efficient use of resources.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians/psychology , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Clinical Decision-Making , Chile
10.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0082020, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130150

ABSTRACT

Wood is rich in organic compounds; thus, it is susceptible to attacks by several deteriorating agents because they acknowledge such attacks as a necessary energy supply. Fungi stand out among these agents since they can attack the wood in trees (before felling) and in several post-felling stages. Fungi are biological agents that use organic compounds as food sources, and that is the reason why they degrade most chemical components found in wood. Wood attacked by fungi suffers significant value loss, since these degrading agents affect their mechanical and aesthetic properties. Fungi ­ which are classified as staining, molding and rotting ­ are one of the main responsible for the biggest losses in the timber industry. Wood can be virtually used in a whole range of environments, a fact that makes it susceptible to attacks by different fungal species, since the ideal conditions for fungal development change from species to species. In other words, the fact that one or more fungal species are capable of deteriorating wood is directly related to conditions wood is subjected to. Thus, it is essential knowing how to evaluate fungal attacks, symptoms to be taken into consideration at the time to identify the type of attacking organism and the attack stage, as well as the control and prevention measures to be applied to these organisms.(AU)


Rica em compostos orgânicos, a madeira é suscetível ao ataque de diversos agentes deterioradores por ser reconhecida como suprimento necessário de energia. Entre esses agentes, destacam-se os fungos, cujo início de ataque pode se dar ainda na árvore, antes do abate e nas diversas fases posteriores. Os fungos são agentes biológicos que necessitam de compostos orgânicos como fontes de alimento e, por essa razão, degradam grande parte dos componentes químicos da madeira. As madeiras, quando atacadas por fungos, sofrem grandes perdas de valor, afetando suas propriedades mecânicas e estéticas. Os fungos são considerados um dos principais responsáveis pelos maiores prejuízos na indústria madeireira e são classificados como manchadores, emboloradores e apodrecedores. Praticamente, a madeira pode estar em uso em uma variedade de ambientes; sabendo-se que as condições ideais de desenvolvimento de um fungo são diferentes para cada espécie, a madeira ficará suscetível ao ataque por diferentes espécies de fungos. Ou seja, o fato de uma ou mais espécies de fungos serem encontradas deteriorando a madeira está diretamente relacionado às condições em que ela se encontra. Dessa forma, torna-se importante saber como avaliar os ataques feitos por fungos, os sintomas a serem considerados para identificar o tipo de organismo e o estágio do ataque, bem como as medidas de controle e prevenção desses organismos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Wood , Fungi , Organic Chemicals , Trees , Biological Factors , Environment , Energy Supply
12.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200059, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143217

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of snakebite envenomation, which is still little known in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to describe the clinical, biological and ultrasonographic aspects of AKI following severe snakebite envenomation managed in the intensive care unit. Method: A prospective observational survey was performed in Benin over a period of 18 months. All patients suffering severe snakebite envenomation (SBE) were included. The diagnosis of AKI was made using the KDIGO criteria. Kidney ultrasound exam was performed in all patients to assess internal bleeding and morphological and structural abnormalities of the kidneys. Results: Fifty-one cases of severe SBE were included. All patients presented inflammatory syndrome and showed abnormal WBCT whereas bleeding was found in 46 of them (90%). The median time to hospital presentation was three days. The majority of patients were male (M/F sex ratio = 1.55) and the median age was 26. Sixteen patients (31%) showed AKI according to the KDIGO criteria. Severe AKI (KDIGO stage 2 and 3) was observed in three patients, including one stage 2 and two stage 3. Kidney ultrasound revealed three cases of kidney capsular hematoma (6%), two cases of kidney hypertrophy (3%), three cases of kidney injury (4%), two stage 1 KDIGO and one stage 2 KDIGO. Only one patient benefited from hemodialysis. All patients showing AKI recovered without sequels. The median duration of hospital stays was four days. Seven patients died (14%) including four among the 16 AKI patients. Antivenom has been administered to 41 patients (80%). The comparison between patients without and with AKI did not show any significant difference except gender (p = 10-2). Conclusion: AKI is a common complication of severe snakebite envenomation. Resulting from inflammatory and hemorrhagic disorders, AKI may prove to be a short-term life-threatening factor.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Viper Venoms , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Renal Insufficiency , Antivenins , Biological Factors
13.
Rev. chil. reumatol ; 36(3): 82-91, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282468

ABSTRACT

Los agentes biológicos han irrumpido como una alternativa eficaz en el tratamiento de las uveítis no-infecciosas, especialmente en cuadros refractarios a inmunosupresores convencionales, con buena tolerancia y rápido efecto. Hay patologías como la enfermedad de Behçet en que incluso pueden estar indicados como tratamiento de primera línea. Este artículo ayudará a reconocer las patologías específicas donde presentan mayor eficacia, entrega herramientas para escoger el agente más adecuado para cada paciente y sugiere estrategias para evitar la pérdida de control de la enfermedad en el largo plazo.


Biological therapies have emerged as an effective option for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis, especially in refractive cases to conventional immunosup-pressive drugs. They are fast-acting, well tolerated, and can be considered as first-line agents for the treatment of certain uveitis like in Behçet ́s disease. This article will aid in identifying the uveitis syndromes where biological therapy is more effective, help choosing the most appropriate agent for a particular case and offer suggestions on how to keep long-term disease control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Uveitis/therapy , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Biological Therapy , Chile , Behcet Syndrome/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 30(3): e300322, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135686

ABSTRACT

Resumen El aumento de las tasas de obesidad y sus consecuencias negativas, tanto individuales como colectivas, reclama la necesidad de nuevos enfoques científicos, que permitan un abordaje multidisciplinar que integre los factores biológicos y socioculturales, explorando en profundidad tanto los aspectos objetivos como subjetivos de este problema. En este sentido, en el presente trabajo proponemos un conjunto de reflexiones teóricas, que puedan servir como marco crítico de actualización de las aportaciones de corte sociocultural en los debates científicos sobre la obesidad y el sobrepeso. Para ello, primero revisaremos las principales características de los enfoques biológico y sociocultural sobre el tema. Y después pasaremos a proponer dicho conjunto de reflexiones, realizando un análisis de los conceptos de tres teóricos sociales de corte crítico, vistos como modelos potencialmente fértiles pero poco usados en este tipo de tema por distintos motivos.


Abstract The increase in obesity rates and their negative consequences, both individually and collectively, call for the need for new scientific approaches, which allow for a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the biological and sociocultural, exploring in depth both aspects objectives as subjective of this problem. In this connection, in this work we propose a set of theoretical reflections, which can serve as a critical framework for updating sociocultural contributions to the scientific debates on obesity and overweight. In order to that first we will review the main characteristics of the biological and sociocultural approaches on the subject. And then we will propose this set of reflections, performing an analysis of the concepts of three critical social theorists, seen as potentially fruitful but little used models in this type of subject by different reasons.


Resumo O aumento das taxas de obesidade e suas consequências negativas, tanto individuais como coletivas, exigem novos enfoques científicos que permitam uma abordagem multidisciplinar que integre fatores biológicos e socioculturais, explorando em profundidade tanto aspectos objetivos como subjetivos desse problema. Neste sentido, no presente trabalho propomos um conjunto de reflexões teóricas que pode servir de marco crítico atualizado de contribuições de corte sociocultural para ou debate científico sobre obesidade e sobrepeso. Para isso, primeiro revisaremos as principais características dos enfoques biológicos e socioculturais deste tema. Depois, passaremos a propor este conjunto de reflexões, realizando uma análise dos conceitos de três teóricos sociais de corte crítico, vistos como modelos potencialmente frutífero que, no entanto, por diferentes motivos, são pouco utilizados nesta temática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Factors , Cultural Factors , Overweight/ethnology , Sociological Factors , Obesity/ethnology
15.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 36(2): e3211, abr.-jul.2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280250

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El abandono de la lactancia materna exclusiva representa un problema de salud pública que afecta el desarrollo del niño durante los seis primeros meses de vida. Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados al abandono de la lactancia materna exclusiva en una ciudad de Perú. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal, que estuvo constituido por 177 mujeres que acudieron al consultorio de crecimiento y desarrollo de los hospitales "Víctor Ramos Guardia y "EsSalud II" de la ciudad de Huaraz (Perú) durante los meses de julio a diciembre del 2018. Se utilizó la entrevista personal para recolectar los factores socioeconómicos, culturales y biológicos relacionados al abandono de la lactancia materna exclusiva. El programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences versión 25 se utilizó para el análisis de datos. La prueba Chi Cuadrado se usó para evaluar la estadística inferencial. Resultados: De los factores evaluados, solo el biológico se relacionó significativamente al abandono de la lactancia materna exclusiva. El 61,36 por ciento fueron hombres; 55,45 por ciento recibieron lactancia en la primera hora de vida; 38,64 por ciento no tuvieron leche materna; 52,27 por ciento tuvieron buena experiencia con la lactancia materna; 65,91 por ciento consideraron conveniente brindar fórmula láctea; 84,09 por ciento y 97,73 por ciento de niños menores de seis meses estuvieron recibiendo solo lactancia materna y comenzaron a brindar formula láctea; y 52,27 por ciento consideró como motivo de abandono cuando el bebé tenía hambre. Conclusiones: Los factores socioeconómico y cultural no se relacionaron al abandono de la lactancia materna exclusiva, mientras que el factor biológico sí se relaciona significativamente(AU)


Introduction: Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment represents a public health concern that affects child development during the first six months of life. Objective: To identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in a Peruvian city. Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study including 177 women who attended the growth and development clinic of Víctor Ramos Guardia and EsSalud II hospitals in Huaraz City (Peru) during the months from July to December 2018. We used the personal interview to collect the socioeconomic, cultural and biological factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 25) was used for the data analysis. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the inferential statistics. Results: Of the evaluated factors, only the biological one was significantly related to exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. 61.36 percent were men. 55.45 percent were breast-fed in the first hour of life. 38.64 percent had no breast milk. 52.27 percent had a good experience with breastfeeding. 65.91 percent considered it convenient to provide milk formula. 84.09 percent and 97.73 percent of children younger than six months were only breastfed and began to be offered milk formula. 52.27 percent considered that the baby was hungry as reason for abandonment. Conclusions: The socioeconomic and cultural factors were not related to exclusive breastfeeding abandonment, while the biological factor was significantly related to it(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Socioeconomic Factors , Breast Feeding/methods , Biological Factors , Child Development , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Analysis
16.
Rev. argent. reumatol ; 30(1): 3-3, mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013374
17.
Rev. argent. reumatol ; 30(1): 4-9, mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013375

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Actualizar los resultados del registro BIOBADASAR sobre seguridad, duración y causas de interrupción del tratamiento luego de 8 años de seguimiento. Métodos: BIOBADASAR es un registro de seguridad de terapias biológicas establecido por la Sociedad Argentina de Reumatología. Se presenta la descripción de BIOBADASAR 3.0, una cohorte compuesta por 53 centros de Argentina seguidos prospectivamente desde agosto de 2010 hasta enero de 2018. Resultados: Se registraron 4656 pacientes, 6234 tratamientos [3765 casos (terapia con biológicos) y 2469 controles (terapia no biológicos)]. Se interrumpió el tratamiento en el 44,6% en los casos vs. 27,9% en los controles. Causa principal de discontinuación fue por ineficacia (40% casos vs. 32% controles). Se presentaron 3154 eventos adversos (2230 en casos vs. 924 en controles), de los cuales el 13,6% fueron graves (9,8% en casos y 3,7% en controles). El evento adverso (EA) más frecuente en ambos grupos fueron las infecciones (43,56% en casos vs. 34,31% en los controles, RR: 3,42; IC 95%: 3,02-3,88), y de ellas las de vías aéreas superiores (14,5%). Las neoplasias se presentaron en 78 casos vs. 45 en controles (RR: 1,98; IC 95%: 1,37-2,86). Conclusiones: En este sexto reporte no se observan tendencias diferentes sobre seguridad, duración y causas de interrupción del tratamiento respecto a informes previos. Las infecciones fueron el principal EA y la ineficacia, seguido por EA y la pérdida de pacientes las principales causas de suspensión del tratamiento. El advenimiento de nuevos agentes biológicos y la necesidad de control en seguridad a largo plazo, fortalece el uso de este tipo de registro.


Objective: Update the results of the BIOBADASAR registry on safety, duration and causes of treatment interruption after 8 years of follow-up. Methods: BIOBADASAR is a safety record of biological therapies established by the Argentine Society of Rheumatology. The description of BIOBADASAR 3.0 is presented, a cohort of 53 centers in Argentina followed prospectively from August 2010 to January 2018. Results: 4656 patients were registered, 6234 treatments [3765 cases (therapy with biologicals) and 2469 controls (non-biological therapy)]. Treatment was interrupted in 44.6% in cases vs. 27.9% in controls. Main cause of discontinuation was due to inefficiency (40% cases vs. 32% controls). There were 3154 adverse events (2230 in cases vs. 924 in controls), of which 13.6% were tombs (9.8% in cases and 3.7% in controls). The most frequent adverse event (AE) in both groups were infections (43.56% in cases vs. 34.31% in controls, RR: 3.42, 95% CI: 3.02-3.88), and the upper airway pathways (14.5%). Neoplasms were published in 78 cases versus 45 controls (RR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.37-2.86). Conclusions: In this article, there are no different trends regarding safety, duration and causes of interruption of treatment compared to previous reports. Infections were the main causes of treatment discontinuation. The advent of new biological agents and the need for control over long-term security, strengthens the use of this type of registration.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Biological Factors , Research Report
18.
San Salvador; s.n; mar. 30, 2019. 104 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007135

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar conocimientos y prácticas del personal de Odontología y auxiliar de las Unidades Móviles de FOSALUD, sobre los Lineamientos Técnicos sobre Bioseguridad durante el desarrollo de las jornadas médico-odontológicas en el período de febrero-marzo 2019. DISEÑO: El estudio incluyó a 32 personas del personal de Odontología y Auxiliar de las Unidades Móviles del FOSALUD. Se utilizó una encuesta para evaluar los conocimientos y una Guía de Observación para determinar las prácticas del personal sobre lo normado en los Lineamientos. La recolección de datos, llenado y tabulación fueron realizados por la Investigadora, durante los meses de febrero y marzo de 2019. RESULTADOS: El 90.63% del personal tenía conocimiento sobre el contenido de los Lineamientos Técnicos sobre Bioseguridad. En cuanto las prácticas de los Lineamientos, se determinó que el 100% tenía accesibilidad y disponibilidad de las barreras de bioseguridad que brinda la Institución y en su mayoría, las utilizaban durante el desarrollo de las jornadas. CONCLUSIONES: El personal del área de Odontología operativo y auxiliar de las Unidades Móviles del FOSALUD, en su mayoría, tiene conocimiento de los Lineamientos Técnicos sobre Bioseguridad, y utiliza las barreras de protección en la atención de pacientes y recolección de desechos bioinfecciosos, sin embargo, es fundamental el mantener la educación continua para reforzar dichos conocimientos y evitar que dejen de utilizarlas


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Factors , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Containment of Biohazards , Dentistry , Public Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(1): e162, ene.-mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093539

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El cáncer constituye un serio problema de salud a nivel mundial. La introducción de una perspectiva ecológica y evolutiva de las neoplasias malignas tiene como propósito un enfoque más sistémico y objetivo a la naturaleza de este heterogéneo grupo de enfermedades. Con el objetivo de un acercamiento a las ideas más generalizadas existentes en la actualidad sobre la perspectiva ecológica-evolutiva del cáncer, se realizó la presente revisión. El cáncer es un fenómeno universal que afecta a todas las formas de organismos pluricelulares. El riesgo de desarrollar tumores malignos se encuentra estrechamente relacionado con los patrones de historias de vida trazados por el proceso evolutivo, acorde a la necesidad adaptativa de los organismos a los diferentes nichos ecológicos que ocupan. Existe asociación entre el desarrollo evolutivo de mecanismos protectores contra tumores malignos y el costo evolutivo de estos en términos de éxito reproductivo. El éxito reproductivo parece depender del tamaño corporal, la distribución de energía hacia procesos básicos y el riesgo basal de cáncer. La selección natural favorece mecanismos efectivos, que protejan contra el cáncer siempre que permitan una optimización de otros rasgos que determinen el éxito adaptativo. Las conclusiones derivadas de estos principios ecológicos y evolutivos, deben servir para una mejor caracterización de los factores dependientes tanto de los factores biológicos como de los ambientales que influyen en el riesgo de la carcinogénesis. Más del 90 por ciento del incremento del riesgo basal de cáncer, incluso en especies naturales, obedecen a la actividad humana, y por tanto, pueden ser modificables(AU)


ABSTRACT Cancer is a serious health problem worldwide. The introduction of an ecological and evolutionary perspective of malignant neoplasms is aimed at a more systemic and objective approach to the nature of this heterogeneous group of diseases. This paper will review current thinking in the ecological-evolutionary perspective of cancer. Cancer is a universal phenomenon that affects all forms of multicellular organisms. The risk of developing malignant tumors closely associates to the patterns of life histories traced by the evolutionary process according to the adaptive need of organisms to the different ecological niches they occupy. There is an association between the evolutionary development of protective mechanisms against malignant tumors and their evolutionary cost in terms of reproductive success. The later seems to depend on body size, distribution of energy towards basic processes and basal risk of cancer. Natural selection favors effective mechanisms that protect against cancer if they allow optimization of other traits that determine adaptive success. These ecological and evolutionary principles allow concluding that they should serve to better characterize the factors depending on both biological and environmental factors that influence the risk of carcinogenesis. More than 90 percent of the increase in cancer basal risk, even in natural species, is due to human activity, and therefore, modification is possible(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Factors , Ecology , Neoplasms , Nature , Carcinogenesis
20.
Ocotal, Nueva Segovia; s.n; s.n; feb. 2019. 83 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119456

ABSTRACT

Objetivo general: Determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de las normasde bioseguridad por el personal de enfermería de emergencia del Hospital Psiquiátrico Dr. Mario Mendoza de Tegucigalpa, Francisco Morazán, Honduras, febrero 2019. Diseño Metodológico: CAP, Descriptivo, cuantitativo y de corte transversal (conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas), aplicado al personal de enfermería de la sala de emergencia. Resultado: El personal de enfermería en general tiene conocimiento adecuado de: (67.85%), actitud positiva (57.14%) y práctica (42.85%) sobre normas de bioseguridad, pero solo en actitud se alcanzó (100%) en uso de guantes, en menor porcentaje lavado de manos (96.42%) y uso de anteojos (71.50%), en la realización de las prácticas también fue para el uso de guantes con(96.42%), seguido de lavado de manos y uso de anteojos con (53.57%). Conclusiónes: Existe relación significativa entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas por parte del personal de enfermería, ya que en más de la mitad se encontró conocimiento adecuado, pero menos de la mitad lo práctica


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Factors , Biological Pollutants , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Occupational Health , Containment of Biohazards , Nursing Service, Hospital , Public Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Evaluation Studies as Topic
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