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1.
REVISA (Online) ; 13(Especial 1): 305-314, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538292

ABSTRACT

Objetivoaplicar metodologias práticas de biologia no ensino médio em escola estadual de Feira de Santana do período noturno, utilizando a biotecnologia com intuito de proporcionar novas experiências didáticas para jovens e adultos. Método: A abordagem metodológica é de modo qualitativo e descritivo através de relato de experiência, com aplicação de aula prática com materiais de baixo custo sobre a extração de DNA.Resultados: Com relação às dificuldades enfrentadas na Educação Básica, esta forma de metodologia do trabalho realizado mostrou-se produtiva, uma vez que possibilitou um espaço para discussão e troca de experiências dos alunos associando com seu cotidiano. Conclusão: Esta pesquisa mostrou que o uso desta abordagem didática facilitou o entendimento dos conteúdos trabalhados e do diálogo aluno-professor, evidenciando-a como uma ótima ferramenta para ser trabalhada na sala de aula


Objective: to apply practical biology methodologies in high school at a state school in Feira de Santana at night, using biotechnology with the aim of providing new teaching experiences for young people and adults. Methods:The methodological approach is qualitative and descriptive through experience reports, with the application of practical classes with low-cost materials on DNA extraction. Results: In relation to the difficulties faced in Basic Education, this form of work methodology proved to be productive, as itprovided a space for discussion and exchange of students' experiences associated with their daily lives. Conclusion:This research showed that the use of this didactic approach facilitated the understanding of the content covered and the student-teacher dialogue, highlighting it as a great tool to be used in the classroom


Objetivo: aplicar metodologías prácticas de biología en la escuela secundaria en una escuela pública de Feira de Santana en horario nocturno, utilizando la biotecnología con el objetivo de brindar nuevas experiencias de enseñanza a jóvenes y adultos. Métodos: El enfoque metodológico es cualitativo y descriptivo a través de relatos de experiencia, con la aplicación de clases prácticas con materiales de bajo costo sobre extracción de ADN. Resultados: En relación a las dificultades enfrentadas en la Educación Básica, esta forma de metodología de trabajo resultó productiva, ya que brindó un espacio de discusión e intercambio de experiencias de los estudiantes asociadas a su vida cotidiana. Conclusión: Esta investigación demostró que el uso de este enfoque didáctico facilitó la comprensión de los contenidos tratados y el diálogo alumno-profesor, destacándolo como una gran herramienta para ser utilizado en el aula.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257071, 2024. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364496

ABSTRACT

In advanced biotechnology, the utilization of enzymes to achieve new or modified compounds with antibacterial, fungicidal, and anti-cancer specifications is crucial. Mushroom lactases are a hopeful biocatalyst for the synthesis and modification of different compounds. They are an accessible and inexpensive enzyme for the preparation of reaction objects and have recently received attention. Laccase purification was performed from basidiomycete Lentinus strigosus (LS) in several stages: Stage 1. On ion-exchange chromatography on TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), two distinctly separated laccase activity peaks were observed, eluted from the carrier at 0.21 and 0.27 M NaCl. In order to reduce the loss of enzymes, all fractions with laccase activity were collected, concentrated, and desalted using an ultrafiltration cell (Amicon, United States) with a UM-10 membrane. Stage 2. The resulting preparation with laccase activity was applied to a Q-Sepharose column (60 ml). Two well-separated peaks with laccase activity were obtained during the elution: laccase I (0.12 M NaCl) and laccase II (0.2 M NaCl). Stage 3. In the course of further purification of both enzymes, carried out on anion-exchange carrier Resource Q (6 ml), a broken gradient was used: 0 - 10%, 10 - 20%, and 20 - 100% with 1M NaCl. Stage 4. Both laccase I and laccase II, obtained after Resource Q, were desalted, concentrated to 1 ml each, and applied to a Superdex 75 gel filtration column. As a result, two laccases were obtained in a homogeneous form.


Na biotecnologia moderna, o uso de enzimas para obter compostos novos ou modificados com propriedades antibacterianas, antifúngicas e anticancerígenas é crucial. Lactases de cogumelos são biocatalisadores promissores para síntese e modificação de diferentes compostos, por serem enzimas baratas e disponíveis para a preparação de componentes de reação, e vem recebendo a devida atenção recentemente. A purificação da lacase foi realizada a partir do basidiomiceto Lentinus strigosus em vários estágios: Etapa 1 - na cromatografia de troca iônica em TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), foram observados dois picos de atividade da lacase distintamente separados, com eluição do transportador a 0,21 e 0,27 M de NaCl. Para reduzir a perda de enzimas, todas as frações com atividade de lacase foram coletadas, concentradas e dessalinizadas em uma célula de ultrafiltração (Amicon, Estados Unidos) com membrana UM-10; Etapa 2 - a preparação resultante com atividade de lacase foi aplicada a uma coluna Q-Sepharose (60 ml). Durante a eluição, foram obtidos dois picos bem separados com atividade de lacase: lacase I (NaCl 0,12 M) e lacase II (NaCl 0,2 M); Etapa 3 - no decurso da purificação adicional de ambas as enzimas, realizada no Recurso Q de transportador de troca aniônica (6 ml), um gradiente quebrado foi usado: 0-10%, 10-20% e 20-100% com NaCl 1M; Etapa 4 - tanto a lacase I como a lacase II, obtidas após o Recurso Q, foram dessalinizadas e concentradas para 1 ml cada e aplicadas a uma coluna de filtração em gel Superdex 75. Como resultado, duas lacases foram obtidas de forma homogênea.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Biotechnology , Laccase , Enzymes , Anti-Bacterial Agents
3.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 1506-1521, dez. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1538192

ABSTRACT

O advento das biotecnologias no mundo contemporâneo, em particular das Novas Tecnologias Reprodutivas (NTR's), liberando a sexualidade dos antigos imperativos da procriação, nos oferece uma prova contundente da abertura ilimitada da vida à transformação das condições em que as normas vitais engajam os organismos no processo de individuação. Mais do que isso, evidencia o caráter essencialmente contingente da ligação entre vida, morte e sexualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho é examinar a fecundidade da concepção freudiana de sublimação - lida sob o registro das transformações que a ela se impõem com o advento do conceito de pulsão de morte (1920) - em subsidiar uma reflexão ética e política acerca dos efeitos da incidência das Novas Tecnologias Reprodutivas (NTR's) nos campos da reprodução, da sexualidade e do laço social. Nossa hipótese é a de que o fenômeno das biotecnologias desvela, sob a cobertura do temor, tão frequentemente evocado por alguns de nossos contemporâneos, de dilapidação das instituições e dos modos de vida sobre os quais acreditávamos poder fundar nossa fantasmática "humanidade", a infinita potência da vida em recriar-se diante d'isso que quer destruí-la.


The advent of biotechnologies in the contemporary world, particularly New Reproductive Technologies (NTRs), freeing sexuality from the old imperatives of procreation, offers us overwhelming proof of the unlimited opening up of life to the transformation of conditions in which vital norms engage the organisms in the individuation process. Even more so, it highlights the essentially contingent character of the connection between life, death, and sexuality. The aim of this study is, therefore, to examine the fruitfulness of the Freudian conception of sublimation, read under the register of the transformations imposed upon this notion with the advent of the death drive concept (1920), in subsidizing an ethical and political reflection on the effects of the incidence of NTRs in the reproduction, sexuality and social bond fields. Our hypothesis is that the biotechnologies phenomenon reveals, under the cover of fear, so often evoked by some of our contemporaries, of institutional dilapidation and ways of life in which we believed we could establish our fantastic "humanity", the infinite life's power to recreate itself in the face of that which wants to destroy it.


La llegada de las biotecnologías en el mundo contemporáneo, en particular de las Nuevas Tecnologías Reproductivas (NTR's), liberando la sexualidad de los imperativos de la procreación, nos ofrece una prueba contundente de la abertura ilimitada de la vida a la transformación de las condiciones en que las normas vitales capacitan el organismo a la individuación. Más allá de eso, se evidencia el carácter esencialmente contingente de la ligación entre vida, muerte y sexualidad. El objetivo de este estudio es examinar la fecundidad de la concepción freudiana de sublimación - leída bajo el registro de las transformaciones que a ella se imponen con la llegada del concepto de pulsión de muerte (1920) - en subsidiar una reflexión ética y política acerca de los efectos de la incidencia de las Nuevas Tecnologías Reproductivas (NTR's) en los campos de la reproducción, de la sexualidad y del lazo social. Nuestra hipótesis es que el fenómeno de las biotecnologías desvela, bajo la cobertura del temor, tan frecuentemente evocado por algunos de nuestros contemporáneos, de dilapidación de las instituciones y de los modos de vida sobre los cuales creíamos poder fundar nuestra fantasmática "humanidad", la infinita potencia de la vida en recrearse de ante d'eso que quiere destruirla.


Subject(s)
Sublimation, Psychological , Reproductive Techniques , Death , Freudian Theory , Biotechnology/methods , Sexuality
4.
Aesthethika (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 19(2): 13-28, sept. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1523171

ABSTRACT

La mayor parte de los films sobre inteligencia artificial hacen de esta un pretexto para tratar otras cuestiones: los peligros de la tecnociencia al servicio de intereses económicos, bélicos o políticos, la violencia de género, la segregación, los riesgos de un sistema político totalitario, o la deshumanización de la sociedad consumista en que vivimos. Las películas que optan por imaginar un futuro cercano en que se produzca la "singularidad" de un programa que se subjetive y empiece a desear, odiar o amar, pueden ordenarse en cinco grandes escenarios típicos: programas autoconscientes empoderados, subjetividades humanas transformadas en programa computacional, androides diseñados mediante biotecnología, robots que devienen humanos, y robots que semejan a humanos, pero no lo son


Most films about artificial intelligence make this a pretext to address other issues: the dangers of technoscience at the service of economic, war or political interests, gender violence, segregation, the risks of a totalitarian political system, or the dehumanization of the consumerist society in which we live. The films that choose to imagine a near future in which the "singularity" of a program that becomes subjective and begins to desire, hate or love occurs, can be organized into five large typical scenarios: empowered self-conscious programs, human subjectivities transformed into a computer program, androids designed through biotechnology, robots that become humans, and robots that look like humans, but are not.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biotechnology , Artificial Intelligence , Dehumanization , Social Marginalization , Motion Pictures
5.
Aesthethika (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 19(1): 41-45, ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518457

ABSTRACT

En "Crímenes del futuro", David Cronenberg pone a jugar el cruce de las variables cuerpo y tecnología. El cuerpo, como campo de intervención y transformación por la acción de la tecnología, se ofrece al espectador a modo de presentación artística. El guion de la película es abordado a través de un recorrido, por momentos irónico, por momentos "monstruoso", tomando en cuenta los cruces con el discurso del psicoanálisis. Se acentúan así las distintas maneras de gozar del ser humano con y del cuerpo, ubicándolo siempre en primer plano


In "Crimes of the future", David Cronenberg brings to play the intersection of the variables body and technology. The body, as a field of intervention and transformation by the action of technology, is offered to the viewer as an artistic presentation. The film's script is approached through a journey, at times ironic, at times "monstrous", taking into account the intersections with the discourse of psychoanalysis. Thus, the different ways of enjoying the human being with and of the body are accentuated, always placing it in the foreground


Subject(s)
Humans , Biotechnology , Human Body , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Crime , Motion Pictures
7.
Rev. polis psique ; 12(3): 126-150, 2023-04-13.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1517518

ABSTRACT

De um lado, Paul Preciado discorre sobre a produção do corpo tecnobiomolecular em uma era gerida pela farmacologia e pela indústria do sexo. De outro, e sem contradição, Deleuze e Guattari reconhecem a operação de uma axiomática do capital, uma modelização global dos processos de codificação dos fluxos desejantes. Esta pesquisa procura correlacionar os pensamentos dos autores e propõe a discussão sobre uma axiomática farmacopornográfica, isto é, um modelo de codificação dos corpos, da economia, da política e do desejo regulado pelo que Preciado chama de novo governo do ser vivo, o legado tecnológico das guerras do século XX. Este artigo busca compreender a produção artificial do corpo e seus movimentos em meio à sexopolítica e à máquina capitalista integrada. A construção tecnobiomolecular do corpo não é dissociada dos resquícios políticos e tecnológicos do pós-guerra, tampouco das sínteses conectivas e disjuntivas que o permeiam. (AU)


On the one hand, Paul Preciado talks about the production of the technobiomolecular body in an era managed by pharmacology and the sex industry. On the other hand, and without contradiction, Deleuze and Guattari recognize the operation of an axiomatics of capital, a global modeling of the codification processes of desiring flows. This research aims to correlate the authors' thoughts and proposes a discussion about a pharmacopornographic axiomatics, in other words, a model of codification of bodies, economy,politics and desire regulated by what Preciado calls the new government of living beings, the technological legacy of the 20thcentury wars. This article seeks to understand the artificial production of the body and its movements amidst sex politics and the integrated capitalistic machine. The technobiomolecular construction of the body is not dissociated from the political and technological remnants of the post-war period, nor from the connective and disjunctive syntheses that permeate it. (AU)


Por un lado, Paul Preciado habla de la producción del cuerpo tecnobiomolecular en una era manejada por la farmacología y la indsutria del sexo. Por otro lado, y sin contradicción, Deleuze y Guattari reconocen el funcionamiento de una axiomática del capital, un modelado global de los procesos de codificación de los flujos deseantes. Esta investigación busca correlacionar los pensamientos de los autores y propone una discusión sobre una axiomática farmacopornográfica, es decir, un modelo de codificación de cuerpos, economía, política y deseo regulado por lo que Preciado llama el nuevo gobierno de los seres vivos, el legado tecnológico de las guerras delsiglo XX. Este artículo busca compreender la producción artificial del cuerpo y sus movimentos em medio de la política sexual y la máquina capitalista integrada. La Construcción tecnobiomolecular del cuerpo no esta disociada de los remanentes políticos y tecnológicos de la posguerra, ni de las síntesis conectivas y disyuntivas que lo impregnan. (AU)


Subject(s)
Pharmacology , Biotechnology , Human Body , Capitalism , Sex Work , Sexuality , Necropolitics
8.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e232955, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1517825

ABSTRACT

Water-insoluble exopolysaccharides (I-EPS) are a virulence factor for dental biofilms. It has already been demonstrated that mango pulp induces the secretion of glucan-hydrolytic enzymes in the fungus Trichoderma harzianum, and that they have an effect on I-EPS from young biofilms. Aim: Evaluate the effect of mango peel as an enzyme inducer in T. harzianum, and the effect of enzymes secreted on mature biofilms. Methods: Fractions of the peel (PL) and ethanol-precipitated pulp (PP) of Tommy Atkins mangoes were sterilized and added to a culture medium containing T. harzianum for induction of hydrolytic enzymes. After 192 h, the culture medium was centrifuged and the supernatant (enzyme extract) was used as treatment on S. mutans biofilms (n=9): a) NaCl 0.9 %; b) 0.12 % chlorhexidine digluconate; and c) extract of enzymes induced by PL or PP. Acidogenicity, bacterial viability, quantification of insoluble polysaccharides, and three-dimensional analysis of the biofilm by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (α=5 %). Results: The hydrolytic enzymes did not alter the metabolism or bacterial viability of the biofilm (p<0.05). Although the images obtained by SEM suggest some degree of matrix degradation, the quantification of I-EPS for the PL and PP groups did not differ from the control group (p>0.05), suggesting a slight effect on the disorganization of the mature S. mutans biofilm. Conclusion: The results suggest that mango peel fraction can induce secretion of mutanase by T. harzianum, however in an insufficient amount to generate significant degradation on cariogenic biofilm.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Waste Management , Biofilms , Mangifera , Glucans
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 93 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437666

ABSTRACT

A quimioprevenção do câncer refere-se ao uso de compostos naturais ou sintéticos para prevenir o desenvolvimento das neoplasias antes do estabelecimento da malignidade. O ácido butirico (AB) atua como um potente quimiopreventivo na hepatocarcinogênese, reduzindo o número e o tamanho de lesões pré neoplásicas persistentes (pLPN), induzindo a apoptose e modulando mecanismos epigenéticos. Já o ácido caprílico (AC), além da sua atuação como potencializador de absorção, vem sendo investigado na área da prevenção do câncer. Neste cenário, o objetivo do trabalho visa avaliar a atividade quimiopreventiva de lipídios estruturados (EST) obtidos por interesterificação enzimática da tributirina com a tricaprilina, na fase de promoção da hepatocarcinogênese experimental. Após o processo de interesterificação, o produto final apresentou novos triacilgliceróis com composição de duas moléculas de ácido butírico para uma de ácido caprilíco. Ratos machos isogênicos da linhagem Fischer 344 foram submetidos ao modelo do hepatócito resistente, sendo distribuídos em dois grupos e tratados diariamente por via intragástrica com lipídios estruturados (EST) ou com o seu controle isocalórico, a maltodextrina (MD), durante a fase de promoção. Como esperado, não houve diferença estatística (p>0,05) em relação ao peso inicial e final dos animais dos grupos MD e EST, o que indica ausência de toxicidade dos compostos administrados. Na análise macroscópica do fígado, foi observada uma redução de 33,3% no grupo EST em relação ao número médio de nódulos macroscópicos em comparação ao grupo MD, porém essa redução não atingiu diferença estatística (p>0,05). Para a avaliação das lesões pré neoplásicas (LPN) foi utilizada a marcação imunoistoquímica para glutationa-S-transferase (GST-P). O grupo EST apresentou uma redução no número de lesões em remodelação e total GSTP-P+, quando comparado com o grupo MD (p<0,05). Quando avaliada a % de corpúsculos apoptóticos e índice de proliferação celular, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos (p>0,05). Animais tratados com lipídios estruturados apresentaram maiores (p<0,05) concentrações de AC e AB por grama de tecido hepático em relação ao tratamento com maltodextrina. Em relação aos danos no DNA, o grupo EST resultou em cometas de comprimentos menores (p<0,05), menores níveis de γ-H2AX (p<0,05) e maiores concentrações de p53 nuclear, quando comparados aos animais que receberam maltodextrina, sugerindo uma proteção contra danos no DNA no grupo tratado com EST. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com EST resultou em ações efetivas na fase de promoção da hepatocarcinogênese experimental


Cancer chemoprevention refers to the use of natural or synthetic compounds to prevent the development of neoplasms before the establishment of malignancy. Butyric acid (AB) acts as a potent chemopreventive in hepatocarcinogenesis, reducing the number and size of persistent preneoplastic lesions (pLPN), inducing apoptosis and modulating epigenetic mechanisms. Caprylic acid (CA), in addition to its role as an absorption enhancer, has been investigated in the area of cancer prevention. In this scenario, the objective of this work was to evaluate the chemopreventive activity of structured lipids (EST) obtained by enzymatic interesterification of tributyrin with tricaprylin, in the phase of promotion experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. After the interesterification process, the final product presented new triacylglycerols with a composition of two molecules of butyric acid to one of caprylic acid. Isogenic male Fischer 344 rats were submitted to the resistant hepatocyte model, divided into two groups and treated daily intragastrically with structured lipids (EST) or with its isocaloric control, maltodextrin (MD), during the promotion phase. As expected, there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) in relation to the initial and final weight of the animals in the MD and EST groups, which indicates the absence of toxicity of the administered compounds. In the macroscopic analysis of the liver, a reduction of 33.3% was observed in the EST group in relation to the mean number of macroscopic nodules compared to the MD group, but this reduction did not reach a statistical difference (p>0.05). For the evaluation of pre-neoplastic lesions (PNL) immunohistochemical staining for glutathione-Stransferase (GST-P) was used. The EST group showed a reduction in the number of remodeling lesions and total GSTP-P+, when compared to the MD group (p<0.05). Animals treated with structured lipids had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of AC and AB per gram of liver tissue compared to treatment with maltodextrin. Regarding DNA damage, the EST group resulted in comets of shorter lengths (p<0.05), lower levels of γ-H2AX (p<0.05) and high concentration of nuclear p53, when compared to animals that received maltodextrin, suggesting protection against DNA damage in the EST treated group. The results showed that EST treatment resulted in effective actions in the promotion phase of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Chemoprevention , Lipase/analysis , Neoplasms/pathology , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Biotechnology/classification , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Absenteeism
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 807-841, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970408

ABSTRACT

This article summarizes the reviews and original research papers published in Chinese Journaol of Biotechnology in the area of biomanufacturing driven by engineered organisms in the year of 2022. The enabling technologies including DNA sequencing, DNA synthesis, and DNA editing as well as regulation of gene expression and in silico cell modeling were highlighted. This was followed by discussing the biomanufacturing of biocatalytics products, amino acids and its derivatives, organic acids, natural products, antibiotics and active peptides, functional polysaccharides, and functional proteins. Lastly, the technologies for utilizing C1 compounds and biomass as well as synthetic microbial consortia were discussed. The aim of this article was to help the readers to gain insights into this rapidly developing field from the journal point of view.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Microbial Consortia , DNA , Biological Products , Publications , Synthetic Biology
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 769-779, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970406

ABSTRACT

Based on the demand of enterprise talents and the characteristics of manufacturing process management in biotechnology, in order to make the students acquire the ability to solve complex engineering problems in the production process, we developed a "Comprehensive Biotechnology Experiment" course, where two-step enzymatic production of l-aspartate and l-alanine were the key processes. In this course, we drew lessons from the site management of the production enterprise, performed the experimental operation mode of four shifts and three operations. The content of this course includes principles, methods and experimental techniques of several core curricula and the site management mode of enterprises. As to the evaluation, the summary of the experimental staff's handover records and the content of teamwork were examined and scored. Through teaching practice and continuous improvement, we developed a complete experimental teaching process and assessment mechanism. Overall, the Comprehensive Biotechnology Experiment course achieved good teaching effect, which may serve as a reference to promote the development of experimental teaching of biotechnology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biotechnology , Curriculum , Students
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 755-768, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970405

ABSTRACT

Production internship is an important teaching tache for undergraduate students to carry out engineering training by using professional skills, and it is a key starting point for fostering application-oriented talents in biotechnology. The Course Group of 'production internship of biotechnology majors' of Binzhou University is investigating application-oriented transformation for local regular colleges and universities, as well as fostering high-level application-oriented talents. By taking green fluorescent protein (GFP) polyclonal antibody as an example, the reform and practice on teaching content, teaching mode, assessment method, continuous improvement of curriculum were carried out. Moreover, the characteristics of the Yellow River Delta-Binzhou Biotechnology & Pharmaceutical Industrial Cluster were taken into account to intensify academic-enterprise cooperation. On one hand, this Course Group designed and rearranged the course contents, carried out essential training through online resources and platforms such as virtual simulation, and recorded, tracked and monitored the progress of production internship through practical testing and software platforms like 'Alumni State'. On the other hand, this Course Group established a practice-and application-oriented assessment method in the process of production internship and a dual evaluation model for continuous improvement. These reform and practices have promoted the training of application-oriented talents in biotechnology, and may serve as a reference for similar courses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Internship and Residency , Curriculum , Students , Biotechnology
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4730-4741, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008054

ABSTRACT

With the high-quality development of biotechnology-related industries in China, the demand for talents and training quality in this field have received extensive attention. Several universities in Nanjing have conducted in-depth analysis on the shortcomings of talent training that does not closely match the needs of industries and enterprises. These universities have since effectively leveraged its professional characteristics, deepened university-enterprise cooperation, and encouraged the alignment of professional development with industrial growth. Biotechnology major has always focused on nurturing individuals with "right conduct, good learning, and strong ability", and capitalized on its comparative disciplinary advantages. These universities vigorously promoted and continuously optimized the model of university-enterprise collaborative training, highlighted the integration of science, industry and education, focused on innovative education teaching methods, as well as practical engineering practice to enhance its quality. The preliminary training results show that this model has promoted students' engineering practical abilities and comprehensive qualities, garnering recognition from employers and students alike.


Subject(s)
Humans , Universities , Students , Biotechnology , Curriculum , Industry
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4358-4375, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008030

ABSTRACT

Yeast surface display (YSD) is a technology that fuses the exogenous target protein gene sequence with a specific vector gene sequence, followed by introduction into yeast cells. Subsequently, the target protein is expressed and localized on the yeast cell surface by using the intracellular protein transport mechanism of yeast cells, whereas the most widely used YSD system is the α-agglutinin expression system. Yeast cells possess the eukaryotic post-translational modification mechanism, which helps the target protein fold correctly. This mechanism could be used to display various eukaryotic proteins, including antibodies, receptors, enzymes, and antigenic peptides. YSD has become a powerful protein engineering tool in biotechnology and biomedicine, and has been used to improve a broad range of protein properties including affinity, specificity, enzymatic function, and stability. This review summarized recent advances in the application of YSD technology from the aspects of library construction and screening, antibody engineering, protein engineering, enzyme engineering and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Protein Engineering , Biotechnology , Antibodies/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4335-4357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008029

ABSTRACT

Biomanufacturing uses biological systems, including cells, microorganisms, and enzymes, to produce natural or synthetic molecules with biological activities for use in various industries, such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and agriculture. These bioactive compounds are expected to play important roles in improving the quality of life and prolonging its length. Fortunately, recent advances in synthetic biology and automation technologies have accelerated the development of biomanufacturing, enabling us to create new products and replace conventional methods in a more sustainable manner. As of now, the role of biomanufacturing in the growth and innovation of bioeconomy is steadily increasing, and this techbology becomes a prevalent technology in global markets. To gain a comprehensive understanding of this field, this article presents a retrospective review of Bloomage Biotechnology's Research and Development and briefly reviews the developments of biomanufacturing and offers insights into the futre prospects. In conclusion, biomanufacturing will continue to be an important, environmentally friendly, and sustainable production mode in the ongoing development of bioeconomy.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Biotechnology , Agriculture , Synthetic Biology , Industry
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2896-2903, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981443

ABSTRACT

A rich diversity of wild medicinal plant resources is distributed in China, but the breeding of new plant varieties of Chinese medicinal plants started late and the breeding level is relatively weak. Chinese medicinal plant resources are the foundation for new varieties breeding, and the plant variety rights(PVP) are of great significance for the protection and development of germplasm resources. However, most Chinese medicinal plants do not have a distinctness, uniformity, and stability(DUS) testing guideline. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has put 191 plant species(genera) on protection lists, of which only 30 are medicinal species(genera). At the same time, only 29 of 293 species(genera) plants in the Protection List of New Plant Varieties of the People's Republic of China(Forest and Grass) belong to Chinese medicinal plants. The number of PVP applications and authorization of Chinese medicinal plants is rare, and the composition of variety is unreasonable. Up to now, 29 species(genera) of DUS test guidelines for Chinese medicinal plants have been developed. Some basic problems in the breeding of new varieties of Chinese medicinal plants have appeared, such as the small number of new varieties and insufficient utilization of Chinese medicinal plant resources. This paper reviewed the current situation of breeding of new varieties of Chinese medicinal plants and the research progress of DUS test guidelines in China and discussed the application of biotechnology in the field of Chinese medicinal plant breeding and the existing problems in DUS testing. This paper guides the further application of DUS to protect and utilize the germplasm resources of Chinese medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Biotechnology , Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2265-2283, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981202

ABSTRACT

Natural plant-derived diterpenoids are a class of compounds with diverse structures and functions. These compounds are widely used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food additives industries because of their pharmacological properties such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. In recent years, with the gradual discovery of functional genes in the biosynthetic pathway of plant-derived diterpenoids and the development of synthetic biotechnology, great efforts have been made to construct a variety of diterpenoid microbial cell factories through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, resulting in gram-level production of many compounds. This article summarizes the construction of plant-derived diterpenoid microbial cell factories through synthetic biotechnology, followed by introducing the metabolic engineering strategies applied to improve plant-derived diterpenoids production, with the aim to provide a reference for the construction of high-yield plant-derived diterpenoid microbial cell factories and the industrial production of diterpenoids.


Subject(s)
Diterpenes/metabolism , Biotechnology , Metabolic Engineering , Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Plants/genetics , Synthetic Biology
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2053-2069, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981189

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the petroleum-based plastic pollution problem has been causing global attention. The idea of "degradation and up-cycling of plastics" was proposed for solving the environmental pollution caused by non-degradable plastics. Following this idea, plastics would be firstly degraded and then reconstructed. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be produced from the degraded plastic monomers as a choice to recycle among various plastics. PHA, a family of biopolyesters synthesized by many microbes, have attracted great interest in industrial, agricultural and medical sectors due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, thermoplasticity and carbon neutrality. Moreover, the regulations on PHA monomer compositions, processing technology, and modification methods may further improve the material properties, making PHA a promising alternative to traditional plastics. Furthermore, the application of the "next-generation industrial biotechnology (NGIB)" utilizing extremophiles for PHA production is expected to enhance the PHA market competitiveness, promoting this environmentally friendly bio-based material to partially replace petroleum-based products, and achieve sustainable development with carbon-neutrality. This review summarizes the basic material properties, plastic upcycling via PHA biosynthesis, processing and modification methods of PHA, and biosynthesis of novel PHA.


Subject(s)
Polyhydroxyalkanoates , Plastics , Biotechnology , Petroleum , Carbon
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1861-1866, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981175

ABSTRACT

Synthetic plastics have been widely used in various fields of the national economy and are the pillar industry. However, irregular production, plastic product use, and plastic waste piling have caused long-term accumulation in the environment, contributing considerably to the global solid waste stream and environmental plastic pollution, which has become a global problem to be solved. Biodegradation has recently emerged as a viable disposal method for a circular plastic economy and has become a thriving research area. In recent years, important breakthroughs have been made in the screening, isolation, and identification of plastic-degrading microorganisms/enzyme resources and their further engineering, which provide new ideas and solutions for treating microplastics in the environment and the closed-loop bio-recycling of waste plastics. On the other hand, the use of microorganisms (pure cultures or consortia) to further transform different plastic degradants into biodegradable plastics and other compounds with high added value is of great significance, promoting the development of a plastic recycling economy and reducing the carbon emission of plastics in their life cycle. We edited a Special Issue on the topic of "Biotechnology of Plastic Waste Degradation and Valorization", focusing on the researches progress in three aspects: Mining microbial and enzyme resources for plastic biodegradation, Design and engineering of plastic depolymerase, and biological high-value transformation of plastic degradants. In total, 16 papers have been collected in this issue including reviews, comments, and research articles, which provide reference and guidance for further development of plastic waste degradation and valorization biotechnology.


Subject(s)
Biodegradable Plastics , Biodegradation, Environmental , Biotechnology
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1275-1289, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981137

ABSTRACT

As human microbiome research advances, a large body of evidence shows that microorganisms are closely related to human health. Probiotics were discovered and used as foods or dietary supplements with health benefits in the last century. Microorganisms have shown broader application prospects in human health since the turn of the century, owing to the rapid development of technologies such as microbiome analysis, DNA synthesis and sequencing, and gene editing. In recent years, the concept of "next-generation probiotics" has been proposed as new drugs, and microorganisms are considered as "live biotherapeutic products (LBP)". In a nutshell, LBP is a living bacterial drug that can be used to prevent or treat certain human diseases and indications. Because of its distinct advantages, LBP has risen to the forefront of drug development research and has very broad development prospects. This review introduces the varieties and research advances on LBP from a biotechnology standpoint, followed by summarizing the challenges and opportunities for LBP clinical implementations, with the aim to facilitate LBP development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Probiotics , Dietary Supplements , Bacteria , Drug Development , Biotechnology
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