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1.
Rev. ADM ; 79(1): 28-31, ene.-feb. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361815

ABSTRACT

Introducción: A finales de noviembre de 2021, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) designó a la cepa conocida como B.1.1.529 como una variante de preocupación y le otorgó la designación ómicron, con lo cual se convierte en la cuarta variante de preocupación enumerada, junto con las variantes alfa, beta, gamma y delta. El propósito de este estudio es presentar información de la aparición, características y algunos datos de la variante ómicron. Conclusiones: Las deficientes infraestructuras en los sistemas de salud que hay en nuestro país, la baja tasa de vacunación y la presencia de comorbilidades e inmunodeficiencia en la población inducen a que ésta sea más susceptible a la infección de estas nuevas variantes. Se requiere un esfuerzo global del gobierno, las industrias farmacéuticas/biotecnológicas y las instituciones académicas y sanitarias para contener eficazmente esta pandemia (AU)


Introduction: In late November 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated the strain known as B.1.1.529 as a variant of concern, and granted it the omicron designation, making it the fourth variant of concern listed along with alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants. The purpose of the study is to present information on the occurrence, characteristics and some data on the omicron variant. Conclusions: The deficient health infrastructures present in our country, the low vaccination rate and the presence of population with comorbidities and immunodeficiency or both, are more susceptible to infection to these new variants. A global effort by the government, pharmaceutical/biotechnology industries, and academic and health institutions is required to effectively contain this pandemic (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Bioethics , Biotechnology , Global Health , Vaccination , Mexico
2.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(4): 716-726, out.-dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365503

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo busca contribuir para a compreensão da história e dos modelos teóricos da bioética por meio de abordagem interdisciplinar que engloba diversas áreas do conhecimento, em especial história e filosofia. Num primeiro momento, o trabalho procura caracterizar o panorama histórico de surgimento da bioética, as questões terminológicas surgidas nesse período e o enquadramento da bioética como disciplina ou campo de discursividade. Posteriormente, o texto apresenta os principais paradigmas teóricos da bioética e os analisa criticamente.


Abstract This article seeks to contribute to the understanding of the history and theoretical models of bioethics by an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses different areas of knowledge, especially history and philosophy. First, the study characterizes the historical background on the emergence of bioethics, the terminological issues that arose in this period, and the framing of bioethics as a discipline or field of discourse. Subsequently, the text presents the main theoretical paradigms of bioethics and critically analyzes them.


Resumen El artículo busca contribuir a la comprensión de la historia y los modelos teóricos de la bioética a través de un enfoque interdisciplinario que abarca varias áreas del conocimiento, especialmente la historia y la filosofía. En un primer momento, el trabajo busca caracterizar el panorama histórico del surgimiento de la Bioética, las cuestiones terminológicas surgidas en ese período y el encuadre de la bioética como disciplina o campo de discursividad. Posteriormente, el texto presenta los principales paradigmas teóricos de la Bioética y los analiza críticamente.


Subject(s)
Bioethics/history , Biotechnology , Models, Theoretical
3.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(3): 599-608, ago.2021. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292116

ABSTRACT

| INTRODUÇÃO: No contexto de reabilitação em gerontologia surge como destaque a melhoria da capacidade de execução de tarefas motoras a fim de promover a autonomia, dessa maneira, é preciso investigar ferramentas para viabilizar esse objetivo clinico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de um treino com realidade virtual não imersiva sobre a execução da tarefa motora real em idosos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODO: Trata-se de um relato de casos, com intervenção única, utilizando o Nintendo® Wii com sujeitos de idade superior a 60 anos submetidos à intervenção com treinamento de arremesso no jogo wii sports resort, e avaliados com analise cinemática angular de vídeo com o software Kinovea®, antes e depois da intervenção, protocolo composto por uma bateria de dez arremessos, antes e após a intervenção, além da avaliação subjetiva da melhora pós-treino. RESULTADOS: Participaram da pesquisa 4 sujeitos, sendo 3 do sexo feminino, com média de idade 70,7 anos ± 7,13 e escolaridade 8 anos ± 6,16. Para as variáveis angulares verificou-se que, após o treino com Wii, houve acentuação na flexão de ombro e decréscimo no cotovelo para na postura inicial do arremesso; já na posição final do arremesso, ocorreu decréscimo na extensão de cotovelo e aumento da flexão de punho. Também foi verificado aumento do salto e diminuição no tempo de execução da tarefa. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: Diante disso é possível concluir que o Nintendo® Wii se mostra um recurso potencial para melhoria de gestos no âmbito real para idosos.


INTRODUCTION: In the context of rehabilitation in gerontology, the improvement of the ability to perform motor tasks is highlighted to promote autonomy, so it is necessary to investigate tools to achieve this clinical objective. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of training with non-immersive virtual reality on the execution of the real motor task in the elderly. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This is a case report, with a single intervention using the Nintendo® Wii, with subjects over 60 years old who underwent intervention with throw training in the game Wii sports resort and evaluated with video angular kinematic analysis with the Kinovea® software before and after the intervention, a protocol consisting of a battery of ten shots before and after the intervention, in addition to the subjective assessment of posttraining improvement. RESULTS: Four subjects participated in the research, 3 females, with a mean age of 70.7 years ± 7.13 and schooling 8 years ± 6.16. For the angular variables, it was found that, after training with the Wii, in the initial throwing posture, there was an accentuation in the shoulder flexion and a decrease in the elbow for the same movement in the final position. There was a decrease in the elbow extension and an increase in the wrist flexion. It was also verified an increase in the jump and a decrease in the task execution time. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Given this, it is possible to conclude that the Nintendo® Wii is a potential resource for improving gestures in real life for the elderly


Subject(s)
Aged , Biotechnology , Learning
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 85-92, July. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) can synthesize functionally diverse bioactive peptides by incorporating nonproteinogenic amino acids, offering a rich source of new drug leads. The bacterium Escherichia coli is a well-characterized production host and a promising candidate for the synthesis of nonribosomal peptides, but only limited bioprocess engineering has been reported for such molecules. We therefore developed a medium and optimized process parameters using the design of experiments (DoE) approach. RESULTS: We found that glycerol is not suitable as a carbon source for rhabdopeptide production, at least for the NRPS used for this study. Alternative carbon sources from the tricarboxylic acid cycle achieved much higher yields. DoE was used to optimize the pH and temperature in a stirred-tank reactor, revealing that optimal growth and optimal production required substantially different conditions. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a chemically defined adapted M9 medium matching the performance of complex medium (lysogeny broth) in terms of product concentration. The maximum yield in the reactor under optimized conditions was 126 mg L-1, representing a 31-fold increase compared to the first shaking-flask experiments with M9 medium and glycerol as the carbon source. Conditions that promoted cell growth tended to inhibit NRPS productivity. The challenge was therefore to find a compromise between these factors as the basis for further process development.


Subject(s)
Peptide Synthases/metabolism , Bioreactors/microbiology , Escherichia coli , Temperature , Biotechnology , Carbon/metabolism , Models, Statistical , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Bioengineering , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
5.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 32(2): e1642, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341367

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue implementar un modelo didáctico para formar competencias informacionales en estudiantes de la Ingeniería Bioinformática pertenecientes a la Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas. Se realizó un estudio de caso en el que se aplicó la prueba no paramétrica Dócima de Wilcoxon, así como métodos, técnicas y procedimientos investigativos. Se obtuvo como resultado un modelo didáctico en la asignatura Ingeniería de Software, centrado en los proyectos de investigación que realizan los estudiantes en el Centro de Ingeniería Genética y Biotecnología. Se concluye que el modelo aplicado es adecuado al lograrse niveles de formación de competencias informacionales en estudiantes de Ingeniería en Bioinformática(AU)


The purpose of the study was to implement a didactic model for the development of information competencies in bioinformatics engineering students from the Information Sciences University. A case study was performed based on the Wilcoxon non-parametric test as well as other research methods, techniques and procedures. The result obtained was a didactic model for the Software Engineering course, centered on the research projects conducted by students at the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, in Cuba. It is concluded that the model applied is appropriate, since Bioinformatics Engineering students achieve satisfactory information competence levels(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Research Design , Information Science/methods , Information Literacy , Biotechnology/methods
6.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(4): 204-218, 20210000. fig, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359441

ABSTRACT

Los biorreactores de sistemas de un solo uso (SUSs), también conocidos como biorreactores desechables, se han convertido en una parte integral de las instalaciones biotecnológicas de fabricación para bioproductos con un mercado potencial que espera una tasa de crecimiento de casi el 15,5% durante el período pronosticado: 2018 a 2023. Los biorreactores SUSs son más seguros, simples y flexibles al compararlos con sus contrapartes, biorreactores de acero inoxidable, por lo que su uso se está incrementando en la industria biofarmacéutica principalmente en la planificación de vías rápidas de proyectos complejos, incluidos los relacionados con la pandemia de SARS-CoV-2. Así, el uso de SUS se ha convertido en una alternativa eficaz para la producción rápida de candidatos a vacunas. Pero algunas desventajas técnicas y operativas aún obstaculizan su uso en todo el mundo. Esta revisión brinda una visión racional del uso, los tipos, los parámetros operativos y las nuevas aplicaciones de los biorreactores SUSs en la industria biofarmacéutica. Asimismo, también se discuten los parámetros apropiados y las limitaciones de este equipo, enfocándose en su uso para la producción de vacunas contra COVID-19


Single-Use-Systems (SUSs) Bioreactors, also known as disposable bioreactors, have become an integral part of biotechnology manufacturing facilities for bioproducts with a potential market expecting a growth rate of nearly 15.5% over the forecast period: 2018 to 2023. SUSs bioreactors are comparatively safe, simple, and flexible than their stainless-steel bioreactors counterparts thus, their usage is being augmented in the biopharmaceutical industry mainly in planning fast tracks of complex projects, including those related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Thus, the use of SUSs has become an effective alternative for the rapid production of vaccine candidates. However, some technical and operational disadvantages still hamper their worldwide use. This review gives a rational insight into SUSs bioreactors use, types, operational parameters and new applications in the biopharmaceutical industry. Likewise, the appropriate parameters and limitations of this equipment, focusing on its use for vaccine production against COVID-19 are also discussed


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopharmaceutics , Biotechnology , Bioreactors , Industrial Development , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 95-109, May. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343466

ABSTRACT

Chloroplast biotechnology has emerged as a promissory platform for the development of modified plants to express products aimed mainly at the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and energy industries. This technology's high value is due to its high capacity for the mass production of proteins. Moreover, the interest in chloroplasts has increased because of the possibility of expressing multiple genes in a single transformation event without the risk of epigenetic effects. Although this technology solves several problems caused by nuclear genetic engineering, such as turning plants into safe bio-factories, some issues must still be addressed in relation to the optimization of regulatory regions for efficient gene expression, cereal transformation, gene expression in non-green tissues, and low transformation efficiency. In this article, we provide information on the transformation of plastids and discuss the most recent achievements in chloroplast bioengineering and its impact on the biopharmaceutical and agricultural industries; we also discuss new tools that can be used to solve current challenges for their successful establishment in recalcitrant crops such as monocots.


Subject(s)
Transformation, Genetic , Biological Products , Chloroplasts , Crops, Agricultural , Biotechnology , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Plants, Genetically Modified
8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(2): 163-169, Mar,-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153124

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of coconut water and to analyze the use of coconut water solution for the conservation of human corneas. Methods: This was an experimental and controlled study performed at the Eye Bank of the General Hospital of Fortaleza. The coconut water-based solution was prepared at the Goat Seed Technology Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Medicine of the State University of Ceará. Discarded corneas from the Eye Bank were divided into two groups for sequential experiments: G1, coconut water-based solution (experimental group), and G2, conservative treatment with OPTISOL GS® (control group). The osmolality of corneas in G1 was analyzed sequentially at 275, 300, 325, 345, 365, and 400 mOsm/L. The viability of the corneas was determined by specular microscopy and biomicroscopy on the first, third, and seventh days. Results: Corneas preserved in a solution of 365 and 345 mOsm/L had a transparency of 8 mm until the third day and had diffuse edema in the periphery, central folds, and partial epithelium loss until the seventh day. The 365-mOsm/L solution was associated with the worst results during follow-up. Corneas placed in Optisol-GS retained their original aspects. Conclusions: Coconut water-based preservative partially maintained corneal transparency and epithelial integrity, especially during the first three days of follow-up. The coconut water-based solutions used were not effective for use as preservatives in a human eye bank.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivos: As características físico-químicas e o baixo custo da água de coco foram fundamentais para o este estudo. Analisar o uso de solução a base de água de coco como meio de conservação de córneas humanas em banco de olhos. Métodos: Estudo experimental e controlado realizado no Banco de Olhos do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza. Utilizou-se solução à base de água de coco preparada no laboratório de Tecnologia de Sêmen de Caprinos do Departamento de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Estadual do Ceará. Foram usadas córneas de descartes divididas em dois grupos: G1 (Conservante com água de coco) - grupo experimental e G2 (grupo Conservante com OPTISOL GS®) grupo controle, em experimentos sequenciais. A osmolaridade do G1 foi analisada sequencialmente com 275, 300, 325, 345, 365 e 400 mOsm/L. A viabilidade das córneas foram realizadas por microscopia especular e biomicroscopia nos 1º, 3º e 7º dias. Resultados: As córneas em solução de 365 e 345 mOsm/L apresentavam transparência nos 8mm centrais até o 3º dia, com edema em toda periferia, dobras centrais e edema 2+, com perda parcial do epitélio até 7º dia, sendo o de maior osmolaridade com melhor transparência durante o seguimento. Grupo com 275, 300 e 400 mOsm/L, córnea opaca, edema difuso, perda total do epitélio no 3º dia. As córneas em Optisol mantiveram seus aspectos. Conclusões: O conservante à base de água de coco manteve em parte a transparência corneana e a integridade epitelial, especialmente nos primeiros 3 dias de seguimento. A solução conservante com água de coco nas formulações utilizadas não se mostrou eficaz para o uso em banco de olhos humanos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Organ Preservation/methods , Biotechnology/methods , Organ Preservation Solutions/chemistry , Foods Containing Coconut , Eye Banks/organization & administration , Epidemiology, Experimental
9.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 37-42, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178964

ABSTRACT

El término CRISPR, por su acrónimo en inglés refiere a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, es decir, repeticiones palindrómicas cortas, agrupadas y regularmente esparcidas, por sus características en el genoma, pertenece naturalmente al sistema de defensa de bacterias y arqueas. Este ha sido adaptado biotecnológicamente para la edición del ADN de células eucariotas, incluso de células humanas. El sistema CRISPR-Cas para editar genes consta, en forma generalizada, de dos componentes: una proteína nucleasa (Cas) y un ARN guía (sgRNA). La simplicidad del complejo lo hace una herramienta molecular reprogramable capaz de ser dirigida y de editar cualquier sitio en un genoma conocido. Su principal foco son las terapias para enfermedades hereditarias monogénicas y para el cáncer. Sin embargo, además de editor de genes, la tecnología CRISPR se utiliza para edición epigenética, regulación de la expresión génica y método de diagnóstico molecular. Este artículo tiene por objetivo presentar una revisión de las aplicaciones de la herramienta molecular CRISPR-Cas, particularmente en el campo biomédico, posibles tratamientos y diagnósticos, y los avances en investigación clínica, utilizando terapia génica con CRISPR/Cas más relevantes hasta la fecha. (AU)


CRISPR are Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, which naturally belong to the defense system of bacteria and archaea. It has been biotechnologically adapted for editing the DNA of eukaryotic cells, including human cells. The CRISPR-Cas system for editing genes generally consists of two components, a nuclease protein (Cas) and a guide RNA (sgRNA). The simplicity of the complex makes it a reprogrammable molecular tool capable of being targeted and editing any site in a known genome. Its main focus is therapies for monogenic inherited diseases and cancer. However, in addition to gene editor, CRISPR technology is used for epigenetic editing, regulation of gene expression, and molecular diagnostic methods. This article aims to present a review of the applications of the CRISPR-Cas molecular tool, particularly in the biomedical field, possible treatments and diagnoses, and the advances in clinical research, using the most relevant CRISPR-Cas gene therapy to date. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Biotechnology , Genetic Therapy/methods , Gene Expression , Genome, Human/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Epigenomics/trends , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/genetics , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/therapeutic use , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy
10.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(1): 76-86, enero-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251063

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los compuestos agroquímicos se han utilizado en la agricultura en las últimas décadas para evitar pérdidas por plagas, nutrir la tierra, aumentar el rendimiento y la calidad de los cultivos. Sin embargo, el uso de estas sustancias en muchas ocasiones representa una fuente de contaminación ambiental y riesgos a la salud. Por ello, han surgido nuevas alternativas en la producción alimentaria, como el uso de elicitores, para consolidar una agricultura más sostenible y sin efectos adversos a la salud del consumidor. Los elicitores pueden estimular el metabolismo propio de las plantas para producir compuestos que resultarán en rasgos agronómicos deseados, como metabolitos secundarios de uso nutracéutico. En el presente artículo se muestra la perspectiva científica y ética de proyectos de investigación en los cuales se emplean diferentes elicitores para sustituir el uso de agroquímicos.


Abstract In recent decades, agrochemicals have been used in agriculture to increase crop yields and quality and avoid losses due to pests. However, the use of these substances often imply environmental contamination and potential health risks. To move towards a more sustainable agriculture with less undesirable effects to human health, a novel line of research has recently emerged, proposing alternatives for the use of agrochemicals, such as elicitors. Elicitors, either biotic or abiotic, can stimulate plants biochemical mechanism to produce compounds that will result in desired agronomic traits, such as secondary metabolites to be used as nutraceuticals. This article shows the scientific and the ethic perspective of research projects evaluating the role of different elicitors in replacing the use of agrochemicals.


Resumo Nas últimas décadas, compostos agroquímicos têm sido utilizados na agricultura para evitar pragas, nutrir o solo e aumentar a produtividade e a qualidade das plantas. No entanto, o uso dessas substâncias muitas vezes contamina o meio ambiente e traz riscos à saúde. Por isso, novas alternativas, como os elicitores, surgiram na produção alimentar a fim de consolidar uma agricultura mais sustentável, sem efeitos adversos para a saúde do consumidor. Os elicitores podem estimular o próprio metabolismo das plantas para produzir compostos que resultarão em características agronômicas desejadas, como metabólitos secundários para uso nutracêutico. Este artigo mostra a perspectiva científica e ética de projetos de pesquisa em que diferentes elicitores substituem agroquímicos.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Health , Agrochemicals , Sustainable Agriculture
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200401, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249212

ABSTRACT

Abstract The cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are considered as one of the important group of biopolymers having significant ecological, industrial, and biotechnological importance. Cyanobacteria are regarded as a very abundant source of structurally diverse, high molecular weight polysaccharides having variable composition and roles according to the organisms and the environmental conditions in which they are produced. Due to their structural complexity, versatility and valuable biological properties, they are now emerging as high-value compounds. They are possessing exceptional properties and thus are being widely explored for various applications like in food and pharmaceutical industries, in bioremediation for removal of heavy metals, for soil conditioning, as biopolymers, bioadhesives, and bioflocculants. However, poor understanding of their complex structural properties, lack of concrete information regarding the genes encoding the proteins involved in the EPS biosynthetic pathways, their process of production and about the associated factors controlling their structural stability, strongly limits their commercialization and applications in the various fields of biotechnology. Owing to the above context, the present review is aimed to organize the available information on applications of cyanobacterial EPSs in the field of biotechnology and to identify the research gaps for improved industrial utilization and commercialization of these biomaterials.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Biotechnology/methods , Cyanobacteria , Polysaccharides
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200531, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249210

ABSTRACT

Abstract Microalgae research has attracted interest worldwide and in order to advance algal biotechnology in Brazil, government has been funding several projects. In the last 10 years, two main funds were provided by the National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) agency to researchers in Brazil, who study the potential uses of microalgae for biomass, bioproducts and biofuels production. These funded projects addressed aspects of algal strain identification, development of algal cultivation techniques, designing photobioreactors and raceway ponds, modeling harvesting and dewatering process, maximizing biomass and oil productivities, characterizing chemical composition with different extractions systems and determining physiochemical properties of biodiesel. This review presents the state of art of algal research conducted by Brazilian institutions. Special attention is given to the recent progress on microalgal cultivation, high-value products extracted from microalgae and potential biofuels production. This review may serve as a policy instrument for planning next steps for algal research in Brazil as well as for attracting attention from international researchers who work with microalgae and would like to pursue a future partnership on algal research with Brazilian research institutions.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Biofuels , Microalgae , Photobioreactors
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2256-2271, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887794

ABSTRACT

The development of biotechnology and the in-depth research on disease mechanisms have led to increased application of enzymes in the treatment of diseases. In addition, enzymes have shown great potential in drug manufacturing, particularly in production of non-natural organic compounds, due to the advantages of mild reaction conditions, high catalytic efficiency, high specificity, high selectivity and few side reactions. Moreover, the application of genetic engineering, chemical modification of enzymes and immobilization technologies have further improved the function of enzymes. This review summarized the advances of using enzymes as drugs for disease treatment or as catalysts for drug manufacturing, followed by discussing challenges, potential solutions and future perspectives on the application of enzymes in the medical and pharmaceutical field.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Biotechnology , Catalysis , Drug Compounding , Enzymes/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2211-2222, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887790

ABSTRACT

Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have been widely used to construct microbial cell factories for efficient production of bio-based chemicals, which mainly focus on the modification and regulation of metabolic pathways. The characteristics of microorganisms themselves, e.g. morphology, have rarely been taken into consideration in the biotechnological production processes. Morphology engineering aims to control cell shapes and cell division patterns by manipulating the genes related to cell morphology, providing a new strategy for developing efficient microbial cell factories. This review summarized the proteins related to cell morphology, followed by illustrating a few examples of using morphology engineering strategies for improving production of bio-based chemicals. This includes increasing intracellular product accumulation by regulating cell size, enhancing extracellular secretion of target products by improving cell permeability, reducing production cost by achieving high cell density, and improving product performance by controlling the degree of product hydrolysis. Finally, challenges and perspectives for the development of morphology engineering were discussed.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Synthetic Biology
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2197-2210, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887789

ABSTRACT

Enzymes and cell factories are the core of industrial biotechnology. They play important roles in various fields such as medicine, chemical industry, food, agriculture, and energy. Usually, natural enzymes and cells need to be engineered to improve the catalytic efficiency, stability and enantioselectivity. Directed evolution makes it possible to rapidly improve the properties of enzymes and cell factories. Sensitive and reliable high-throughput screening approaches are the key for successful and efficient engineering of enzymes and cell factories. In this review, we first summarize the advantages and disadvantages of different screening methods and signal generation strategies as well as their application scope; we then describe the latest advances of ultra-high throughput screening technology applied in the directed evolution of enzymes and cell factories in the past three years. On this basis, we discuss the limiting factors that need to be further improved for high-throughput screening systems and forecast the future development trends of high-throughput screening methods, hoping that researchers in various fields including biotechnology and instrument development can cooperate closely to enhance the reliability and applicability of the high-throughput screening techniques.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Directed Molecular Evolution , Enzymes , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1821-1826, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887765

ABSTRACT

Natural products, important sources of innovative drugs, food, spices and daily chemicals, are closely related to people's healthy life. With the development and integration of modern biological and chemical technologies of natural products, the researches on biosynthesis of natural products have made great progresses in recent years. The biosynthetic pathways of a number of natural products have been analyzed. Many pathway enzymes and modifying enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of natural products have been mined and functionally characterized. Furthermore, genes encoding pathway enzymes have been introduced into chassis to construct cell factories producing natural products through synthetic biology technologies. Also, other biotechnologies including genome editing and genome mining, have been used in the biosynthesis of natural products. In order to further promote the development of researches on biosynthesis of natural products, we edited a Special Issue on the topic of "biosynthesis of natural products", focusing on the researches progress in three aspects: the analysis of biosynthetic pathways of natural products, genome-wide mining and functional characterization of genes encoding tool enzymes, and the scale preparation of natural products by biosynthetic technology. Also included in this Special Issue was the prospect of the biosynthesis of natural products. This Special Issue can provide reference and guidance for the further development of natural product biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Biotechnology , Genome , Synthetic Biology
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4482-4490, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921524

ABSTRACT

Protein and Enzyme Engineering is the core and required course for colleague students majored in biotechnology, which plays an important role in the professional training system. In accordance with the "Guidelines for the Development of Ideological Education in Higher Education Institutions" issued by the Ministry of Education, we explored the combination of course teaching with ideological education by considering the features of the biotechnology major and the course and setting up rational teaching objectives. This paper described the strategy, design, implementation and evaluation approaches that were used in the course of "Protein and Enzyme Engineering" to achieve a good integration. The practice starts from story-telling, discussion of life, case study, hot issues discussion, literature discussion and presentations. The scientific spirits, civic character, global vision, eco-civilization and legal consciousness, as well as their native land emotion and cultural confidence, were boosted. The natural integration of the ideological education into the whole process of this course helped to better achieve the goal of curriculum education while promoting teaching excellence.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Curriculum , Humans , Students , Universities
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4475-4481, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921523

ABSTRACT

The construction of "Emerging Engineering Education" aims at cultivating high-quality graduates capable of engineering practice, innovation and international competitiveness. Bilingual courses have become one of the effective means to cultivate qualified students with skills of both professional knowledge and international communication. However, the teaching effect of most bilingual courses is not very ideal. Based on analyzing common problems in the current bilingual teaching, we take the bilingual course of environmental biotechnology as an example, and discusses possible improvement strategies from the aspects of the construction of teaching mode, the establishment of quality control system, the selection of textbooks and the optimization of assessment methods. Moreover, we summarize experience and shortcomings on improving the lecturers' ability, students' learning enthusiasm and school's support. It is expected to provide useful reference for improving the effect of bilingual teaching in biotechnology-relevant courses.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Curriculum , Humans , Students
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3414-3424, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921438

ABSTRACT

With the transformation and revolution of the global plastics recycling system, recycling and upcycling of mixed plastics waste not only reduces the carbon emissions of plastics during its life cycle, but also addresses its potential ecological and environmental hazards. This article summarizes an international cooperation project, "MIXed plastics biodegradation and UPcycling using microbial communities" (MIX-UP) which was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the European Union (NSFC-EU) in 2019. The consortium of MIX-UP consists of 14 partners from European Union and China. Focusing on the global issue of "plastics pollution", this Sino-European MIX-UP project took the mixed waste of petroleum-based plastics (PP, PE, PUR, PET and PS) and bio-based plastics (PLA and PHA) as starting materials for biotechnological conversion into value-added, sustainable biomaterials. MIX-UP has three subprojects: 1) identification of plastics biodegradation pathway and design & engineering of key degrading elements, 2) construction and functional regulation of microbial consortia/enzyme cocktails with high-efficiency for degradation of plastics mixtures, 3) strategy of design and utilization of plastics degradation products for production of high value materials. Through NSFC-EU complementary and cross-disciplinary cooperation, MIX-UP proposes the engineering of a new-to-nature biological route for upcycling, a low carbon and sustainable bio-treatment that is different from the traditional physico-chemical treatment, which will empower the recycling industry to a new dimension. The implementation of the project will not only help to promote innovation and development in the field of biotechnology in China, but also contribute to the achievement of China's carbon neutral goal.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Biotechnology , Carbon , European Union , Microbiota , Plastics
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3405-3410, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921436

ABSTRACT

The international cooperation project "electricity-driven low energy and chemical input technology for accelerated bioremediation" (abridged as "ELECTRA") is jointly supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and European Commission (EC). The ELECTRA consortium consists of 5 research institutions and universities from China and 17 European research institutions and universities, as well as high-tech companies of EC countries. ELECTRA focuses on researches of biodegradation of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) and novel environmental biotechnologies of low-energy and low-chemical inputs. The project has been successfully operated for 2 years, and has made important progresses in obtaining EOCs-degrading microbes, developing weak-electricity-accelerated bioremediation, and 3D-printing techniques for microbial consortium. The ELECTRA has promoted collaborations among the Chinese and European scientists. In the future, ELECTRA will overcome the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and fulfill the scientific objectives through strengthening the international collaboration.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Biotechnology , COVID-19 , Electricity , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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