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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 132-146, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342208

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects of dichloromethane extract (DME) from Myrcia splendenson alterations caused by type 2 diabetes in the blood and kidney of rats, in order to reduce side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Rats received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg),15 minutes after nicotinamide (120 mg/kg) or water. After 72 hours, the glycemic levels were evaluated to confirm diabetes and the animals received (15 days) DME (25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/Kg) or water. DME partially reversed hyperglycemia and (100 and 150 mg/kg) reversed hypertriglyceridemia. Histopathological findings elucidated that DME reduced damage to pancreatic islets. DME 150 mg/kgreversed the increases in TBA-RS, the reduction in the sulfhydryl content, 100 and 150 mg/kg increased CAT, reversed the decrease in GSH-Px and increased it activity in the blood. DME 150 mg/kg reversed CAT and GSH-Px reductions in the kidney. We believe that DME effects might be dependent on the presence of phenolic compounds.


Investigamos los efectos del extracto de diclorometano (DME)de Myrcia splendens sobre las alteraciones causadas por la diabetes tipo 2 en la sangre y los riñones de las ratas, para reducir los efectos secundarios causados por las drogas sintéticas. Las ratas recibieron estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg), 15 minutos después de la nicotinamida (120 mg/kg) o agua. Después de 72 horas, se confirmo la diabetes y los animales recibieron (15 días) DME (25, 50, 100 o 150 mg/Kg) o agua. DME revierte parcialmente la hiperglucemia y revierte la hipertrigliceridemia. DME redujo el daño a los islotes pancreáticos. DME revirtió los aumentos en TBA-RS, la reducción en el contenido de sulfhidrilo, aumentó la CAT, revirtió la disminución en GSH-Px y aumentó su actividad en la sangre. Además, DME revirtió las reducciones de CAT y GSH-Px en el riñón. Creemos que los efectos provocados por DME pueden depender de la presencia de compuestos fenólicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Methylene Chloride/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 188-206, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104201

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to screen the Rhazya stricta Decne root for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidants potential through invitro assays along with phytochemical and elemental analyses. The crude extract was prepared through maceration and fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction technique. The spectroscopic studies indicated the presence of various phytochemical classes in the extract and its fractions. The antioxidant assays showed notable results along with a good concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Enzyme inhibition assays demonstrated glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting the enzyme activity which could reduce post-prandial blood glucose level. The Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition assay results showed the novel DPP-IV inhibition activity of the plant extract and all fractions showed noteworthy enzyme inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity. Conclusively, the Rhazya stricta root extract displayed its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals and micro-nutrients.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne por su potencial antihiperglicémico y antioxidante a través de ensayos in vitro junto con análisis fitoquímicos y elementales. El extracto crudo se preparó por maceración y se fraccionó usando una técnica de extracción solvente-solvente. Los estudios espectroscópicos indicaron la presencia de varias clases fitoquímicas en el extracto y sus fracciones. Los ensayos antioxidantes mostraron resultados notables junto con una importante concentración de contenido fenólico y flavonoide. Los ensayos de inhibición enzimática demostraron efectos reductores de la glucosa al inhibir la actividad enzimática que podría reducir el nivel de glucosa posprandial en sangre. Los resultados del ensayo de inhibición de Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) mostraron la nueva actividad de inhibición de DPP-IV del extracto de la planta y todas las fracciones mostraron una notable inhibición enzimática y actividad antihiperglicémica. En conclusión, el extracto de raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne mostró su potencial antioxidante y antihiperglicémico debido a la presencia de varias clases de fitoquímicos y micronutrientes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Flavonoids/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Plant Roots/chemistry , Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phytochemicals , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 61-68, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056398

ABSTRACT

Fruit purees can be added to diet as alternative sources of bioactive compounds for the prevention and/or improvement of the complications of metabolic syndrome. In this work we evaluated the effect of the intake of low-fat diets enriched with fruit purees (guava-strawberry, guava-blackberry, guava-soursop, guava-passion fruit) on the body weight and biochemical markers in metabolic syndrome analogy (MSA)-induced rats. The rats (n=6 for each treatment) were induced with a high fat diet and were injected with streptozotocin, one dose every week for 4 consecutive weeks after fasting overnight, then healthy rats were fed with standard diet and MS rats were fed with standard diet plus each of the fruit puree, for 4 weeks. As novel findings, the diet enriched with fruit purees was associated with a reduction in body weight (~13-21 %) and a control in the metabolism of glucose by decreasing plasma glucose (~5963 %). Also, there was a reduction in the total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, low-density lipoproteins, and low enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase, useful metabolites in the control of inflammatory processes in the liver. A notable improvement in the liver morphology was observed indicating that the treatments had a hepatoprotective effect. The diet enriched with guava-blackberry puree caused the best results on most biochemical markers of MS rats. Therefore, diets enriched with fruit purees can be an alternative for MS individuals for the control and improvement of the complications caused by this syndrome.


Los purés de frutas se pueden agregar a la dieta como fuentes alternativas de compuestos bioactivos para la prevención y / o mejora de las complicaciones del síndrome metabólico. En este trabajo evaluamos el efecto de la ingesta de dietas bajas en grasas, enriquecidas con purés de frutas (guayaba-fresa, guayaba-mora, guayaba-guanábana, guayaba-maracuyá) sobre el peso corporal y los marcadores bioquímicos en el síndrome metabólico (SM) inducido en ratas. Las ratas (n = 6 para cada tratamiento) fueron inducidas con una dieta alta en grasas y se les inyectó estreptozotocina, una dosis cada semana durante 4 semanas consecutivas después de ayunar durante la noche. Luego, las ratas sanas fueron alimentadas con una dieta estándar; y las ratas con SM fueron alimentadas con dieta estándar más cada uno de los purés de frutas, durante 4 semanas. Como hallazgos novedosos, la dieta enriquecida con purés de frutas se asoció con una reducción en el peso corporal (~ 13-21 %) y un control en el metabolismo de la glucosa al disminuir la glucosa en plasma (~ 59-63 %). Además, hubo una reducción en el colesterol total, triacilgliceroles, lipoproteínas de baja densidad, y bajas actividades enzimáticas de alanina aminotransferasa, fosfatasa alcalina y gama-glutamil transferasa, metabolitos útiles en el control de los procesos inflamatorios en el hígado. Se observó una mejora notable en la morfología del hígado, lo que indica que los tratamientos tuvieron un efecto hepatoprotector. La dieta enriquecida con puré de guayaba y mora causó los mejores resultados en la mayoría de los marcadores bioquímicos de las ratas con SM. Por lo tanto, las dietas enriquecidas con purés de frutas pueden ser una alternativa para las personas con SM, para el control y la mejora de las complicaciones causadas por este síndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diet, Fat-Restricted , Metabolic Syndrome , Fruit , Liver/drug effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Biomarkers , Albumins/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Transaminases/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Liver/chemistry
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 41-47, Jan. 2020. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087517

ABSTRACT

Background: The harmful effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications have become a major global public health problem. In this study, the effects of Momordica charantia saponins (MCS) on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and insulin signaling pathway in type 2 diabetic rats were investigated. Results: MCS could attenuate the tendency of weight loss of the model rats. It could also improve glucose tolerance; reduce fasting blood glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol; and increase the insulin content and insulin sensitivity index of the rats. The activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased, and the content of malondialdehyde decreased in the liver and pancreas tissues of rats in MCS-treated groups significantly. In addition, the expression of p-IRS-1 (Y612) and p-Akt (S473) increased, and the expression of p-IRS-1 (S307) decreased in the liver tissues and pancreas tissues of rats in MCS-treated groups significantly. Conclusion: MCS has an antidiabetic effect, which may be related to its improving the lipid metabolism disorder, reducing oxidative stress level, and regulating the insulin signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Saponins/therapeutic use , Momordica charantia/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pancreas/drug effects , Saponins/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight , Insulin Resistance , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Lipids , Liver/drug effects
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(10): 1254-1264, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041026

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Real-world effectiveness of basal insulin therapy is affected by poor treatment persistence, often occurring soon after initiation. This analysis is part of an international cross-sectional study conducted in T2DM patients and is intended to describe the reasons behind non-persistence to insulin therapy in Brasil. METHODS Responders to an online survey in seven countries were classified as continuers (no gap of ≥7 days), interrupters (interrupted therapy for ≥7 days within first 6 months, then restarted), and discontinuers (terminated therapy for ≥7 days within first 6 months, and did not start it again before the survey). We present the results from the Brazilian cohort. RESULTS Of 942 global respondents, 156 were from Brasil, with a mean age of 34 years and a mean of 5.8 years since T2DM diagnosis. Reasons contributing to insulin continuation (n=50) were improved glycemic control (82%) and improved physical feeling (50%). Common reasons for interruption (n=51) or discontinuation (n=55) were, respectively, weight gain (47.1%, 43.6%), hypoglycemia (45.1%, 38.2%), and pain from injections (39.2%, 49.1%). However, not all patients who reported weight gain and hypoglycemia as a reason for interruption or discontinuation experienced these: 16/24 (66.7%) and 22/24 (91.7%) participants had weight gain, and 13/23 (56.5%) and 15/21 (71.4%) had hypoglycemia, respectively. The most important reason for possible re-initiation for interrupters and discontinuers, respectively, was persuasion by the physician/HCP (80.4%, 72.7%). CONCLUSION The benefits of basal insulin therapy motivated continuers to persist with the treatment; experienced or anticipated side effects contributed to interruption and discontinuation. Physician and patient training is key in the treatment of diabetes.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Dados de vida real sobre como a eficácia da terapia com insulina é afetada pela baixa persistência ao tratamento que ocorre logo após o início da terapia. Esta análise é a parte brasileira de um estudo transversal internacional conduzido em pacientes com DM2 que teve como objetivo descrever as razões relacionadas à não persistência ao tratamento com insulina. METODOLOGIA O estudo realizado em sete países por meio de questionários on-line classificou como pacientes continuadores (aqueles que não apresentaram intervalo ≥7 dias sem uso da insulina), interrompedores (interromperam a terapia por ≥7 dias nos primeiros seis meses de uso, depois recomeçaram) e descontinuadores (interromperam a terapia por ≥7 dias nos primeiros seis meses de uso e não retornaram). Nesta análise descrevemos os dados da coorte brasileira. RESULTADOS Dos 942 pacientes incluídos, 156 eram do Brasil, com idade média de 34 anos e média de seis anos desde o diagnóstico de DM2. Razões que contribuíram para o uso contínuo da insulina (n=50) foram a melhora do controle glicêmico (82%) e a melhora no estado geral (50%). Razões para a interrupção (n=51) ou para a descontinuação (n=55) foram, respectivamente, ganho de peso (41,7%, 43,6%), hipoglicemia (45,1%, 38,2%) e dor à aplicação (39,2%, 49,1%). Entretanto, nem todos os pacientes que reportaram ganho de peso e hipoglicemia como possível razão para interrupção ou descontinuação realmente apresentaram esses eventos: 16/24 (66,7%) e 22/24 (91,4%) dos participantes apresentaram ganho de peso e 13/23 (56,6%) e 15/21 (71,4%) apresentaram hipoglicemia, respectivamente. A razão mais importante para o possível recomeço entre os interrompedores e descontinuadores foi a persuasão de médicos/profissionais de saúde (80,4% e 72,7%, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES Os benefícios do tratamento com insulina basal motivaram continuadores a persistir com a terapia; a experiência ou a antecipação de eventos adversos contribuíram para a interrupção e descontinuação. O treinamento de médicos e pacientes é um dos pilares fundamentais do tratamento do diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Physician-Patient Relations , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Brazil , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 376-384, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019349

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To test the influence of oral fructose and glucose dose-response solutions in blood glucose (BG), glucagon, triglycerides, uricaemia, and malondialdehyde in postprandial states in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Subjects and methods The study had a simple-blind, randomized, two-way crossover design in which T1DM patients were selected to receive fructose and glucose solutions (75g of sugars dissolved in 200 mL of mineral-water) in two separate study days, with 2-7 weeks washout period. In each day, blood samples were drawn after 8h fasting and at 180 min postprandial to obtain glucose, glucagon, triglycerides, uric acid, lactate, and malondialdehyde levels. Results Sixteen T1DM patients (seven men) were evaluated, with a mean age of 25.19 ± 8.8 years, a mean duration of disease of 14.88 ± 4.73 years, and glycated hemoglobin of 8.13 ± 1.84%. Fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG levels than glucose (4.4 ± 5.5 mmol/L; and 12.9 ± 4.1 mmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01). Uric acid levels increased after fructose (26.1 ± 49.9 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and reduced after glucose (-13.6 ± 9.5 µmol/L; p < 0.01). The malondialdehyde increased after fructose (1.4 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and did not change after glucose solution (-0.2 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p = 0.40). Other variables did not change. Conclusions Fructose and glucose had similar sweetness, flavor and aftertaste characteristics and did not change triglycerides, lactate or glucagon levels. Although fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG than glucose, it increased uric acid and malondialdehyde levels in T1DM patients. Therefore it should be used with caution. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01713023.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Postprandial Period/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Cross-Over Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Tolerance
7.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(2): 33-39, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011143

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To compare sex difference in metabolic effect of olanzapine versus aripiprazole on schizophrenia. Methods A twelve-week prospective open-label cohort study to compare four subgroups according to first-episode schizophrenia patients' type of drug usage and sex: female aripiprazole (n = 11), male aripiprazole (n = 11), female olanzapine (n = 10), and male olanzapine (n = 11) for body mass index, fasting serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting glucose. Results Aripiprazole may be associated with weight gain in female patients with low-baseline weight. Aripiprazole may have an adverse effect of weight and favorable effects of circulating glucose and lipid on female over male schizophrenia patients. The aripiprazole-induced changes in glucose and lipid may be independent of body fat storage, especially for female schizophrenia patients. Olanzapine may have adverse effects of weight, glucose and lipid profiles on female over male schizophrenic patients. Discussion Our findings fill the gap in knowledge and provide a sex-specific guidance to psychiatrist better tailoring treatment to individual sex-differential characteristics and a key clue to understand the sex-differential mechanism of antipsychotics-induced metabolic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Aripiprazole/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Triglycerides/blood , Weight Gain/drug effects , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Prospective Studies , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
8.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(4): 208-215, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088029

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Si bien, los edulcorantes no nutritivos (ENN) estevia y D-tagatosa han sido reportados como seguros, han demostrado tener algunos efectos metabólicos tras su ingesta. OBJETIVO: Describir los efectos de la ingesta de estevia y D-tagatosa sobre el metabolismo de la glucosa y ácido úrico, y del apetito-saciedad, a partir de la evidencia disponible. MÉTODOS: Revisión descriptiva. Se realizó búsqueda en PubMed utilizando los siguientes términos y palabras clave: "stevia rebaudiana", "tagatose", "D-tagatose", "blood glucose", "insulin", "metabolic processes", "uric acid", "hyperuricemia", "appetite" o "satiety". El análisis de los estudios seleccionados fue discrecional. RESULTADOS: Existen estudios que demuestran efectos beneficiosos tras el consumo de estevia o D-tagatosa sobre el control glicémico, apetito y saciedad tanto en sujetos sanos como con alteraciones en el metabolismo de la glucosa. Por otra parte, un número importante de estudios que evalúan la ingesta de estevia reportan efectos nulos sobre dichos parámetros. En relación al ácido úrico, solo un estudio en sujetos con enfermedad renal crónica reporta aumento en la concentración de ácido úrico plasmático tras la ingesta de 500 mg/día de estevia. Pocos estudios han evaluado el efecto de la ingesta de D-tagatosa sobre uricemia, en sujetos sanos y diabéticos, reportando un aumento transitorio y significativo en los niveles de ácido úrico sérico, sin embargo, no se ha logrado demostrar un efecto hiperuricémico asociado. Es importante destacar que la metodología de los estudios revisados es heterogénea, especialmente en relación al tamaño muestral, tiempo, dosis y vía de adminitración del edulcorante. CONCLUSIÓN: La ingesta de estevia y D-tagatosa ha demostrado efectos beneficiosos sobre el metabolismo de la glucosa, el apetito y la saciedad. El efecto del consumo de D-tagatosa sobre ácido úrico sérico requiere mayor evidencia para demostrar su significancia clínica.


INTRODUCTION: No-nutritive sweeteners stevia and D-tagatose have been reported as safe according to their acceptable daily intake, however, they have been shown to have metabolic effects after their ingestion. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of stevia and D-tagatose intake on parameters associated to glucose, uric acid metabolism and on appetite-satiety, considering the available evidence. METHODS: Descriptive review. PubMed search was carried out to identify the totality of the published articles. The following terms and key words were used: "stevia rebaudiana", "tagatose", "D-tagatose", "blood glucose", "insulin", "metabolic processes", "uric acid", "hyperuricemia", "appetite" o "satiety". The analysis of the selected studies was discretionary. RESULTS: studies have shown beneficial effects of stevia and D-tagatose consumption on glycemic control, appetite and satiety in healthy subjects as well as subjects with impairment glucose metabolism. On the other hand, a significant number of studies evaluating estevia intake report null effects on these parameters. In relation to uric acid, only one study in subjects with chronic kidney disease reported an increase in plasmatic uric acid concentration after the intake of 500 mg/day of stevia. Several studies have evaluated the effect of D-tagatose intake on plasmatic uric acid, in healthy and diabetic subjects, reporting a transient and significant increase in serum uric acid levels, however, has not been able to demonstrate an associated hyperuricemic effect. It is important to highlight that the methodology of the studies reviewed is heterogeneous, especially in relation to sample size, dose administered, time and route of exposure to the sweetener. CONCLUSION: Stevia and D-tagatose intake has shown beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, appetite and satiety. The effects of the consumption of both sweeteners on uric acid require further study to demonstrate their clinic significance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sweetening Agents/pharmacology , Uric Acid/metabolism , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Appetite/drug effects , Satiation/drug effects , Stevia/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Hexoses/pharmacology , Insulin/metabolism
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1235-1240, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975689

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to search the effect of wheatgrass on the Total Antioxidan (TAS)-Oxidan Status (TOS) and DNA damage in rat with diabetes. The rats used in the study were randomly divided into 4 groups that each of has 10 rats: Control group; 1 ml single dose phosphate-citrate buffer injected i.p (pH: 4.5), Diabetes group; 45 mg/kg single dose streptozotocin injected i.p., Wheatgrass group; was given oral wheatgrass (10 ml/kg/day) for 6 weeks, Diabetes +Wheatgrass group; 45 mg/kg single dose streptozotocin injected i.p. and wheatgrass (10 ml/kg/day) was given by oral during 6 weeks. After the process of experiment during 6 weeks, blood sample and pancreas tissue were taken. The analysis were done of blood glucose levels, TAS, TOS levels by colorimetric kits; DNA damage by ELISA kits in serum. The pancreas tissues were examined histopathologically. In the group of Diabetes+Wheatgrass was determined that the levels of glucose levels (p<0.001), TOS (p<0.05) and OSI (p<0.01) statistically decreased and heal histopatolojical compared to diabetes group. In the group of Wheatgrass was determined that the levels of TAS p<0.05 statistically increased from other groups. The statistical significance were not found in the level of serum 8OHdG differences between the groups. The beta cells were seen to increase in the group receiving wheatgrass for therapeutic purposes.As a conclusion, it was determined that wheatgrass strengthened the anti-oxidant defense system and reduced the glucose level in diabetic rats.


El objetivo de este estudio fue buscar el efecto del pasto de trigo sobre el estado total de antioxidantes (TAS) -Oxidan Status (TOS) y el daño del ADN en ratas con diabetes. Las ratas analizadas en el estudio se dividieron aleatoriamente en 4 grupos de 10 ejemplares cada uno: grupo control; 1 ml de tampón fosfato-citrato de dosis única inyectado i.p. (pH: 4,5)., Grupo diabetes; 45 mg / kg de estreptozotocina en dosis única inyectada i.p., grupo pasto de trigo; se administró pasto de trigo oral (10 ml / kg / día) durante 6 semanas, grupo diabetes + pasto de trigo; 45 mg / kg de estreptozotocina en dosis única inyectada i.p. y pasto de trigo (10 ml / kg / día) por vía oral durante 6 semanas. Después del proceso experimental durante 6 semanas, se tomaron muestras de sangre y tejido de páncreas. Se midieron los niveles de glucosa en sangre, TAS, y TOS mediante kits colorimétricos; El daño al ADN fue realizado por kits de ELISA en suero. Los tejidos del páncreas se examinaron histopatológicamente. En el grupo de diabetes + pasto de trigo se determinó que los niveles de glucosa (p <0,001), TOS (p <0,05) y OSI (p <0,01) disminuyeron estadísticamente y curaron histopatológicamente en comparación con el grupo de diabetes. En el grupo de pasto de trigo se determinó que los niveles de TAS p <0,05 se incrementaron estadísticamente con respecto a otros grupos. No fue estadísticamente significativo el nivel de las diferencias séricas de 8OHdG entre los grupos. Se observó que las células beta aumentaron en el grupo que recibió pasto de trigo con fines terapéuticos. Como conclusión, se determinó que el pasto de trigo fortaleció el sistema de defensa antioxidante y redujo el nivel de glucosa en las ratas diabéticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Triticum/chemistry , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Pancreas/drug effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , DNA Damage/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Oxidants/blood , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Insulin-Secreting Cells/drug effects , Antioxidants/analysis
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 424-430, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This analysis compared the efficacy and safety of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, and the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor, saxagliptin, both added on to metformin. Materials and methods: This was a post-hoc analysis from a double-blind, randomized, 24-week clinical trial (NCT01606007) of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) inadequately controlled with metformin. We compared the dapagliflozin 10 mg (n = 179) and saxagliptin 5 mg (n = 176) treatment arms. Results: Dapagliflozin showed significantly greater mean reductions versus saxagliptin in HbA1c (difference versus saxagliptin [95% CI]: −0.32% [-0.54, −0.10]; p < 0.005), fasting plasma glucose (-0.98 [-1.42, −0.54] mmol/L; p < 0.0001), body weight (-2.39 [-3.08, −1.71] kg; p < 0.0001) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-3.89 [-6.15, −1.63] mmHg; p < 0.001). More dapagliflozintreated than saxagliptin-treated patients achieved the composite endpoint of HbA1c reduction ≥ 0.5%, weight loss ≥ 2 kg, SBP reduction ≥ 2 mmHg and no major/minor hypoglycemia (24% versus 7%). No major events of hypoglycemia were reported. More patients on dapagliflozin (6%) versus saxagliptin (0.6%) experienced genital infections. Conclusion: Dapagliflozin demonstrated greater glycemic efficacy than saxagliptin with additional benefits on weight and SBP, and the safety profile was consistent with previous studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Adamantane/analogs & derivatives , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Adamantane/adverse effects , Adamantane/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Dipeptides/adverse effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/therapeutic use , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(2): 193-200, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887652

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To study the effect of using a one time high dose "stoss therapy" of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol: VD2) on indices of insulin sensitivity {whole body sensitivity index: WBISI} and secretion {insulinogenic index: IGI} measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in obese adolescents with VDD (25 OHD; serum metabolite of vit D: < 30 ng/dL). Subjects and methods In a randomized placebo controlled cross over design 20 obese adolescents with vitamin D deficiency (VDD) had baseline OGTT. Arm A received one time high dose 300,000 IU of ergocalciferol and Arm B received placebo. After 6 weeks the adolescents were reassigned to Arm A if they were in Arm B and vice versa. 25OHD, calcium, parathyroid hormone, comprehensive metabolic panel, urine calcium creatinine ratio were measured at each study visit. OGTTs to assess indices of sensitivity and secretion were done at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks respectively. Results Adolescents were obese and insulin resistant (mean ± SD: mean age = 15.1 ± 1.9 years; BMI: 32.7 ± 9.8; homeostatic model of insulin resistance: HOMA-IR: 4.2 ± 2.8). Stoss therapy with VD2 increased 25OHD from baseline (16.7 ± 2.9 to 19.5 ± 4.5; p = 0.0029) when compared to the placebo. WBISI (2.8 ± 1.9) showed a trend towards improvement in Rx group (p = 0.0577) after adjustment for covariates. IGI (3 ± 2.2) showed an improvement in both Rx and placebo groups. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that using a high dose of VD2 (300,000 IU) did not have any beneficial effect on insulin sensitivity (whole body sensitivity index {WBISI}) and secretory indices (insulinogenic index {IGI}) in obese adolescents. High dose "stoss therapy" of VD2 did not appear to have any beneficial effect on glucose homeostasis on obese adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Ergocalciferols/administration & dosage , Pediatric Obesity/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Insulin Resistance , Body Mass Index , Cross-Over Studies , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Glucose Tolerance Test , Homeostasis/drug effects
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52: 60, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903473

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the closer follow-up with the supply of insulin pens and the measurement of capillary blood glucose improve the management of older patients with type 2 diabetes without adequate glycemic control despite extensive therapy. METHODS: This is a prospective, non-randomized, quasi-experimental study. We have included 45 patients over 60 years old, from both sexes, with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) > 8.5% using oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin. The intervention consisted of monthly medical visits, with the provision of insulin pens and strips for blood glucose measurement. All patients received insulin pen, refills of Neutral Protamine Hagedorn and regular insulin, needles for the pen, blood glucose meter, and capillary blood glucose tests (three tests/day). Treatment was adjusted with the same endocrinologist monthly for six months. Glycated hemoglobin was measured at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks after intervention. RESULTS: Glycated hemoglobin at baseline was 10.34% (SE = 0.22%) and 8.54% (SE = 0.24%, p < 0.001) and 8.09% (SE = 0.21%, p < 0.001) at 12 and 24 weeks after intervention, respectively, with a significant reduction from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: More frequent medical visits, with treatment inputs including the use of insulin pens and self-monitoring, have improved glycemic control (reduction of 2.25% in HbA1C, on average, at 24 weeks of follow-up). Our data support a change in the management and medical behavior of older patients with chronically decompensated diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Glycemic Index/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Socioeconomic Factors , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Brazil , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Controlled Clinical Trial , Middle Aged
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1437-1443, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893154

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease. There are many natural agents available to control and treat diabetes. Crab shell extract has antioxidant properties. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of crab shell hydroalcoholic extract on blood glucose, liver enzymes, nitric oxide and antioxidant capacity of serum and histological structure of pancreas in diabetic rats. In this experimental study, thirty five male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were divided into control, diabetic and experimental groups (n=7). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Rats were treated for 14 days by crab shell extract with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. Fasting blood glucose, serum levels of liver enzymes, nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Changes of pancreatic tissue were determined using a modified aldehyde fuchsin staining method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Differences were considered statistically significant at P<0.05. Crab shell extract induced a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum levels of nitric oxide and ALT (P=0.033). Also, there were a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (FRAP) (P=0.007), and insignificant decrease in serum levels of AST. The extract improved pancreatic tissue changes caused by diabetes. In conclusion, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects of crab shell increase total antioxidant capacity of serum and decreased blood glucose, serum nitric oxide and ALT levels.


RESUMEN: La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad metabólica común. Hay muchos agentes naturales disponibles para controlar y tratar la diabetes. El extracto de cáscara de cangrejo tiene propiedades antioxidantes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto del extracto hidroalcohólico de la cáscara de cangrejo sobre la glucosa sérica, las enzimas hepáticas, el óxido nítrico y la capacidad antioxidante del suero y la estructura histológica del páncreas en ratas diabéticas. En este estudio experimental, treinta y cinco ratas Wistar machos (180220 g) se dividieron en cinco grupos: control, diabéticos y experimentales (n = 7). La diabetes se indujo por inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina (60 mg / kg). Las ratas se trataron durante 14 días con extracto de cáscara de cangrejo con dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg / kg. Se evaluaron la glucosa en sangre en ayunas, las enzimas hepáticas, el óxido nítrico sérico y la capacidad antioxidante total. Los cambios en el tejido pancreático se determinaron usando un método de tinción de aldehído fucsina modificado. Los datos se analizaron utilizando ANOVA unidireccional. Las diferencias se consideraron estadísticamente significativas a P <0,05. El extracto de cáscara de cangrejo indujo una reducción significativa en la glucosa en sangre, en los niveles séricos de óxido nítrico y ALT (P = 0,033). Además se observó un aumento significativo en la capacidad antioxidante total (FRAP) (P = 0.007), y una disminución insignificante en los niveles séricos de AST. El extracto mejoró los cambios en el tejido pancreático causados por la diabetes. En conclusión, los efectos antioxidantes y antidiabéticos de la cáscara de cangrejo aumentan la capacidad antioxidante total de suero y la disminución de la glucosa en la sangre, el óxido nítrico sérico y los niveles de ALT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Animal Shells/chemistry , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Complex Mixtures/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Pancreas/drug effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Brachyura , Nitric Oxide/blood , Rats, Wistar
14.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 10(4): 131-136, oct. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-998986

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and safety of degludec insulin in Type 1 diabetic patients. PATIENTS AND METHOD: In a prospective study, 230 type 1 diabetics patients, average aged 34 years age and 14 years of diagnosis of diabetes and treated with two doses of insulin glargine U-100, were changed to degludec. Patients had glycosylated hemoglobins (HbA1c) greater than 10 percent. Results were recorded at 3 and 6 months with parameters clinical, biochemical, insulin requirements per kilogram of weight (U/kg/wt) and hypoglycemia. Capillary glycemia was evaluated three times a day and the dose of insulin degludec every two weeks. The statistical analysis used was average and rank, standard deviation, normal Swilk test, categorical Chi2 and continuous ANOVA or Kwallis, and p < 0.05. A psychological survey was conducted to evaluate satisfaction with the new treatment. RESULTS: Fasting blood glucose decreased from 253 (range 243-270) at 180 mg/dl (172-240) at 3 months and at 156 (137-180) at 6 months after the change insulin (p < 0.05). HbA1c, initially 10.6 percent (10.4-12.2) decreased to 8.7 percent (9.3-10.1) and 8.3 percent (8.7-9.7) at 3 and 6 months, respectively (p < 0.05). There was a decrease in basal insulin requirements from 0.7 to 0.4 U/kg/60 percent reduction in hypoglycaemia; both mild and moderate and severe. Isolated nocturnal hypoglycaemias were recorded in only 4 patients in this group. CONCLUSION: Six months of treatment with degludec insulin reduces fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and hypoglycemia, both mild and moderate severe and nocturnal, which makes this new ultra-long acting basal insulin a safe and effective tool for the management of type 1 diabetics patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Insulin, Long-Acting/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Follow-Up Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Insulin, Long-Acting/administration & dosage , Insulin, Long-Acting/adverse effects , Insulin Glargine/administration & dosage , Insulin Glargine/adverse effects , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced
15.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1699-1705, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886771

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction/Aim: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats. Methods: Twelve weeks old Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: control (CTRL) standard chow group; high fat diet low carbohydrates group (HFD) and HFD plus daily oral 20U insulin gavage (HFD+INS). Weight and food consumption were weekly obtained. After eight weeks, fasting blood samples were collected for laboratorial analysis. After euthanasia gut samples were isolated. Results: Rat oral insulin treatment decreased body weight gain (p<0,001), fasting glucose and triglycerides serum levels (p<0,05) an increased intestinal weight of distal ileum (P<0,05). Animal submitted to high fat diet presented higher levels of HOMA-IR although significant difference to CT was not achieved. HOMA-beta were significantly higher (p<0.05) in HFD+INS. Visceral fat was 10% lower in HFD+INS but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: In non-diabetic obese rats, oral insulin improves metabolic malfunction associated to rescue of beta-cell activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Glucose/analysis , Weight Loss/drug effects , Diet, High-Fat , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Lipids/blood , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Radioimmunoassay , Rats, Wistar , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(7): 636-641, July 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896368

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world, with high morbidity and mortality rates, resulting in a greatly negative socioeconomic impact. Although there are several classes of oral antidiabetic agents, most of the patients are outside the therapeutic goal range. Objective: To review the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, focusing on their favorable and unfavorable effects, as well as on cardiovascular profile. Method: A literature search on Pubmed database was performed using the following keywords: "SGLT-2 inhibitors," "dapagliflozin," "empagliflozin," "canagliflozin." Results: SGLT-2 inhibitors are a class of oral antidiabetic drugs directed to the kidney. Their mechanism of action is to reduce blood glucose by inducing glycosuria. Extra-glycemic benefits have been described, such as weight loss, decline in blood pressure and levels of triglycerides and uric acid, and they can slow the progression of kidney disease. Genitourinary infections are the main side effects. There is a low risk of hypotension and hypoglycemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious adverse effect, although rare. Empagliflozin has already had its cardiovascular benefit demonstrated and studies with other drugs are currently being performed. Conclusion: SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new treatment option for type 2 diabetes mellitus, acting independently of insulin. They have potential benefits other than the reduction of blood glucose, but also carry a risk for adverse effects.


Resumo Introdução: O diabetes mellitus é uma das doenças crônicas mais frequentes no mundo, com altas taxas de morbimortalidade, resultando em um grande impacto negativo socioeconômico. Apesar de existirem diversas classes de antidiabéticos orais, a maioria dos pacientes acometidos está fora da meta terapêutica. Objetivo: Revisar o uso dos inibidores da SGLT-2 no tratamento do diabetes mellitus tipo 2, com enfoque nos efeitos favoráveis, desfavoráveis e no perfil cardiovascular. Método: Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica transversal com artigos científicos obtidos da base de dados Pubmed, utilizando os descritores: "SGLT-2 inhibitors", "dapagliflozin", "empagliflozin", "canagliflozin". Resultados: Os inibidores da SGLT-2 são uma classe de antidiabéticos orais com atuação no rim. O mecanismo de ação é reduzir a glicemia induzindo glicosúria. Benefícios extraglicêmicos já foram descritos, como redução de peso, pressão arterial, triglicerídeos e ácido úrico, além de retardar a progressão da doença renal. O principal efeito colateral é a infecção geniturinária, com baixo risco de hipotensão e hipoglicemia. Cetoacidose diabética é um efeito adverso grave, mas infrequente. A empagliflozina já teve seu benefício cardiovascular demonstrado, e estudos com outras drogas estão em andamento. Conclusão: Os inibidores da SGLT-2 são uma nova opção de tratamento do diabetes mellitus tipo 2, que atua de forma insulino-independente e com potenciais benefícios adicionais, além da redução da glicemia, mas também com risco de efeitos adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(5): 441-446, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896343

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: To identify factors that can determine the choice of intermittent subcutaneous regular insulin dose in critically ill patients with hyperglycemia. Method: Cross-sectional study in a general adult ICU with 26 beds, data collected between September and October 2014. The variables analyzed were: sex, age, previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, use of corticosteroids, use of lactulose, sepsis, fasting, enteral nutrition, use of dextrose 5% in water, NPH insulin prescription and blood glucose level. Patients with one or more episodes of hyperglycemia (blood glucose greater than 180 mg/dL) were included as a convenience sample, not consecutively. Those with continuous insulin prescription were excluded from analysis. Results: We included 64 records of hyperglycemia observed in 22 patients who had at least one episode of hyperglycemia. The median administered subcutaneous regular human insulin was 6 IU and among the factors evaluated only blood glucose levels were associated with the choice of insulin dose administered. Conclusion: Clinical characteristics such as diet, medications and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus are clearly ignored in the decision-making regarding insulin dose to be administered for glucose control in critically ill patients with hyperglycemia.


Resumo Objetivo: Identificar os fatores associados à escolha da dose de insulina regular subcutânea intermitente em pacientes críticos com hiperglicemia. Método: Estudo transversal em uma UTI geral adulta com 26 leitos. Pacientes com um ou mais episódios de hiperglicemia (glicemia capilar superior a 180 mg/dL) foram incluídos por conveniência, de forma não consecutiva. Aqueles com prescrição de insulina contínua foram excluídos da análise. As variáveis analisadas foram: sexo, idade, diagnóstico prévio de diabetes melito, uso de corticosteroide, uso de lactulose, presença de sepse, jejum, dieta enteral, uso de soro glicosado contínuo, prescrição de insulina NPH e valor da glicemia capilar. Resultados: Foram incluídos 64 registros de hiperglicemia verificados em 22 pacientes que apresentaram pelo menos um episódio de hiperglicemia. O valor mediano administrado de insulina regular humana subcutânea foi de 6,0 UI e, entre os fatores analisados, o único associado à dose de insulina administrada visando à normalização dos níveis glicêmicos foi o valor da glicemia capilar. Conclusão: Evidencia-se a inobservância de características clínicas dos pacientes, como dieta, uso de medicamentos e diagnóstico prévio de diabetes melito, para a tomada de decisão quanto à dose de insulina a ser administrada visando ao controle glicêmico em pacientes críticos com hiperglicemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Critical Illness/therapy , Hyperglycemia/prevention & control , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Reference Values , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Clinical Decision-Making , Injections, Subcutaneous , Intensive Care Units
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(2): 188-192, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838428

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of diacerein as an add-on to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and inadequate glycemic control. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 12 patients with T2DM and inadequate glycemic control [glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) ≥ 7%] with metformin as monotherapy (≥ 1500 mg per day) for at least the previous 90 days. Fasting and postprandial glucose were measured before and after the pharmacological intervention. A1C, lipid profile, creatinine and uric acid were also evaluated. After randomization, all patients continued with their dose of metformin. Six subjects received placebo and the other six volunteers took diacerein. Data were tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. The Institutional Ethics Committee approved the study protocol. Results After 90 days of diacerein as an add-on to metformin, there was a significant decrease in fasting glucose (196 ± 79 vs. 149 ± 70 mg/dL, p < 0.05), postprandial glucose (262 ± 99 vs. 187 ± 70 mg/dlL, p < 0.05) and A1C (8.4 ± 2.0 vs. 6.7 ± 1.7 %, p < 0.05). Conclusions Diacerein as an add-on to metformin in patients with T2DM improved their glycemic control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anthraquinones/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Placebos , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Double-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Postprandial Period , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination , Overweight/physiopathology
19.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 263-272, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886644

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as "cow's hoof", is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was at evaluating the aqueous extract effect of Bauhinia holophylla leaves treatment on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg) in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Bauhinia holophylla leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg during 21 days. On day 17 of treatment, the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed to determine the area under the curve. At the end of the treatment, the animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters analysis. After treatment with Bauhinia holophylla extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. On the other hand, the plant treatment decreased body weight and increased ALT and AST activities. In conclusion, the treatment with aqueous extract of B. holophylla leaves given to diabetic rats presented no hypoglycemic effect in nondiabetic animals and no antidiabetic effect in diabetic animals with the doses studied. In addition, the diabetic animals treated with the B. holophylla extract showed inconvenient effects and its indiscriminate consumption requires particular carefulness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Bauhinia/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Drinking , Eating , Glucose Tolerance Test , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
20.
Tegucigalpa; s.n; 2017. 38 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-877772

ABSTRACT

La diabetes es una enfermedad crónica degenerativa, exponencialmente creciente, y generando altos costos para los sistemas de salud a nivel mundial. Un alto porcentaje de la población utiliza medicina tradicional como extractos de plantas para satisfacer sus necesidades de atención primaria de salud. El objetivo del estudio fue desarrollar y evaluar una infusión de té rojo con moras enriquecido con ß-glucanos para el control de glicemia en personas diabéticas de la aldea de Jicarito. Se utilizó un DCA con un arreglo factorial 2 × 2 × 2, evaluando dos concentraciones de té rojo con mora (50/50 y 75/25), dos temperaturas (75 y 95 °C) y dos tiempos (2 y 5 minutos), seleccionando el tratamiento con mayor contenido de polifenoles totales (P2T2t2). El mejor tratamiento se evaluó en una muestra de 30 diabéticos, a los cuáles se realizaron medidas antropométricas (peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura-cadera y presión arterial), medidas bioquímicas (glucosa y colesterol) y se analizó la ingesta alimentaria a través de recordatorio de 24 horas. Los resultados demostraron reducción de Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) en edades de 44- 65 años, en niveles de glucosa en edades de 45-65 y > 65 años, en niveles de colesterol total en edades de 45-65 años y no existió reducción en presión arterial ni en el Índice de Cintura- Cadera (ICC) para ambos sexos. Se determinó una mayor ingesta alimentaria de hidratos de carbono y grasas en la población de diabéticos. Para evaluar modificaciones en medidas antropométricas y bioquímicas se necesita de al menos tres meses de consumo del té.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , beta-Glucans , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Camellia sinensis , Rubus , Data Collection , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Plants, Medicinal
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