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1.
Cienc. act. fís. (Talca, En línea) ; 24(1): 1-16, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513952

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la condición física, composición corporal y el somatotipo en deportistas colombianos. Participaron 618 deportistas (Mujeres 25,89%), con edad de 14 a 22 años. Se tomaron medidas cinantropométricas y se realizaron pruebas de resistencia cardiovascular en tapiz rodante, salto squat jump y contramovimiento, flexibilidad sit and reach y abdominales en 1min. Los deportistas del grupo de deportes de marca y precisión obtuvieron el porcentaje de grasa y porcentaje de masa ósea más altos, mientras el grupo de deportes de combate fue el índice de masa corporal, la capacidad aeróbica, la fuerza de resistencia abdominal y los saltos; en el grupo de deportes de pelota fue el porcentaje de recuperación, y en el grupo de tiempo y marca, sobresalió el porcentaje de masa muscular y la flexibilidad. El somatotipo predominante fue mesomórfico. Los resultados más altos en cada variable dependieron de la disciplina deportiva practicada.


The objective of this study was to determine the physical condition, body composition, and somatotype in Colombian athletes. 618 athletes participated (Women 25.89%), from 14 to 22 years old. Cynanthropometric measurements were taken, and cardiovascular endurance tests were performed on treadmill, as well as squat jumps and counter movements, the sit and reach flexibility test and the amount of sit ups in 1 min. The athletes in the brand and precision sports group had the highest percentage of fat and bone mass, while the combat sports group had the highest body mass index, aerobic capacity, abdominal resistance strength, and jumping; in the ball sports group the highest percentage was the recovery time; and in the time and brand group, the percentage of muscle mass and flexibility stood out. The predominant somatotype was mesomorphic. The highest results in each variable depended on the sports discipline they practiced.


O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a condição física, composição corporal e somatotipo em atletas colombianos. Participaram 618 atletas (Mulheres 25,89%), com idades entre 14 e 22 anos. Vinte medidas cineantropométricas foram realizadas e testes de resistência cardiovascular foram realizados em esteira, agachamento salto e contramovimento, sentar e alcançar flexibilidade e abdominais em 1 min. Atletas do grupo de esportes de marca e de precisão tiveram o maior percentual de gordura e massa óssea, enquanto o grupo de esportes de combate apresentou o maior índice de massa corporal, capacidade aeróbica, força de resistência abdominal e saltos; no grupo de esportes com bola foi o percentual de recuperação, e no grupo tempo e marca, o percentual de massa muscular e flexibilidade se destacaram. O somatotipo predominante foi o mesomórfico. Os maiores resultados em cada variável dependeram do esporte praticado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Body Composition/physiology , Physical Fitness/physiology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry/methods , Colombia
2.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 445-448, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986150

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia has attracted increasing attention with the study of nutrition in patients with liver disease. Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor for a poor prognosis of liver disease and is becoming increasingly common in patients with liver disease. Studies have shown that patients with liver disease and sarcopenic obesity have a worse prognosis than patients with liver disease and simple sarcopenia or obesity. In clinical practice, it is easy to recognize patients with malnutrition and decreased muscle mass, but we often ignore those patients with normal body weight or even obesity who will likewise experience muscle mass loss. Simply relying on the monitoring of body mass and body mass index to assess the nutritional and muscle status of patients with liver disease is not accurate. At present, our understanding of the relationship between chronic liver disease and sarcopenic obesity is still poorly understood. In this paper, the research progress on chronic liver disease, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity in recent years is reviewed so as to provide a theoretical basis for improving the clinical prognosis of patients with liver disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcopenia/complications , Body Composition/physiology , Obesity/complications , Risk Factors , Liver Diseases/complications , Muscle, Skeletal
3.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 508-515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985671

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the difference in blood uric acid levels between patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy women of childbearing age, and to investigate the correlation between body composition and blood uric acid levels. Methods: A total of 153 eligible childbearing age patients with PCOS treated at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from January 2018 to March 2022 were selected, and 153 healthy women with normal menstruation were selected as the control group. Fasting blood uric acid levels were measured by venous blood test, and body composition was measured by a body composition analyzer. Group comparisons were made to analyze the correlation between body composition and blood uric acid levels. Results: The incidence of hyperuricemia was higher in patients with PCOS than that in the control group [30.1% (46/153) vs 2.0% (3/153)], with a statistically significant difference (χ2=44.429, P<0.001). Blood uric acid level was also significantly higher in patients with PCOS than that in the control group [(371±98) vs (265±67) μmol/L; t=11.170, P<0.001]. Among PCOS patients, there were statistically significant differences in weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, percent body fat, lean body weight, fat mass/lean body weight, percent skeletal muscle, and visceral fat level between the hyperuricemia group and the normal blood uric acid group (all P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed in waist-hip ratio (P=0.348). The following body composition indicators: weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio, body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, percent body fat, visceral fat level, lean body weight, and fat mass/lean body weight in all subjects, the PCOS patients and the control group, were positively correlated with blood uric acid levels (all P<0.01). The blood uric acid level in PCOS obese patients was higher than that in non-obese PCOS patients, and the difference was statistically significant [(425±83) vs (336±91) μmol/L; t=6.133, P<0.001]. The blood uric acid level in central obesity PCOS patients was also higher than that in non-central obesity PCOS patients [(385±95) vs (299±79) μmol/L], the difference was statistically significant (t=4.261, P<0.001). The blood uric acid level in normal-weight obese PCOS patients was higher than that in normal-weight non-obese PCOS patients [(333±73) vs (277±54) μmol/L], and the difference was statistically significant (t=2.848, P=0.006). Blood uric acid levels in normal-weight [(315±74) vs (255±67) μmol/L], overweight [(362±102) vs (276±57) μmol/L], and obese PCOS patients [(425±83) vs (303±74) μmol/L] were all higher than those in the corresponding control groups, with statistically significant differences (all P<0.001). Conclusions: PCOS patients have a higher incidence of hyperuricemia than healthy women of childbearing age. Blood uric acid levels are closely correlated with body composition indicators, such as weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio, body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, percent body fat, and visceral fat level. Body composition analysis of women with PCOS could help identify potentially obese people more accurately and carry out individualized treatment, thereby reducing the risk of metabolic abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Uric Acid , Hyperuricemia/complications , Insulin , Body Composition/physiology , Obesity/complications , Body Mass Index
4.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(6): 792-795, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376765

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Aerobic gymnastics is an emerging sport. It develops mainly the aerobic body metabolism improving the cardiopulmonary function of the practitioner. Objective To analyze the influence of core strength training on the physical fitness of university athletes who practice aerobic gymnastics. Methods Using mathematical statistics, we studied the influence of aerobic exercise on the physical fitness of female college athletes. The fitness index test of female college aerobics athletes was performed with Excel 2007, and the obtained results were discussed. Results College female students showed significant improvement in somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, and other four factors after aerobic gymnastics exercise (P<0.05). After the practice period, female college students improved orthostatic performance, long jump, stretching in sitting forward position, 1 minute sitting, running four times round trip for 10 meters, and 800 meters. The increase was 11.16cm, 5.02cm, 8.34 times/min, 2.13s, and 9.42s. Conclusion Core training in aerobic gymnastics can strengthen the body, allowing awareness of physical training in college women. Evidence Level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the results.


RESUMO Introdução A ginástica aeróbica é um esporte emergente. Ela desenvolve principalmente o metabolismo aeróbico corporal aprimorando a função cardiopulmonar do praticante. Objetivo Analisar a influência no treino de fortalecimento do core sobre a aptidão física em atletas universitárias praticantes de ginástica aeróbica. Métodos Utilizando estatísticas matemáticas, estuda-se a influência do exercício aeróbico sobre a aptidão física das atletas universitárias. O teste do índice de aptidão física de atletas de aeróbica feminina de faculdades foi executado com Excel 2007 e discutiu-se os resultados obtidos. Resultados As estudantes universitárias apresentaram melhora significativa na somatização, sensibilidade interpessoal, ansiedade, e outros quatro fatores após o exercício de ginastica aeróbica (P<0,05). Após o período de prática, as estudantes universitárias tiveram melhora no desempenho ortostático, salto à distância, no alongamento em posição sentadas para frente, 1 minuto sentadas, corrida 4 vezes de ida e volta por 10 metros, e 800 metros. O aumento foi respectivamente de 11,16cm, 5,02cm, 8,34 vezes/min, 2,13s, e 9,42s. Conclusão O treino do core na ginástica aeróbica pode fortalecer o corpo, permitindo a conscientização do treino físico nas universitárias. Nível de evidência II; Estudos Terapêuticos - Investigação de Resultados.


RESUMEN Introducción La gimnasia aeróbica es un deporte emergente. Desarrolla principalmente el metabolismo corporal aeróbico mejorando la función cardiopulmonar del practicante. Objetivo Analizar la influencia del entrenamiento del core en la aptitud física en atletas universitarias que practican gimnasia aeróbica. Métodos Utilizando la estadística matemática, se estudió la influencia del ejercicio aeróbico en la aptitud física de las atletas universitarias. La prueba del índice de aptitud física de las atletas universitarias de aerobismo se realizó con Excel 2007 y se discutieron los resultados obtenidos. Resultados Las estudiantes universitarias mostraron una mejora significativa en la somatización, la sensibilidad interpersonal, la ansiedad y otros cuatro factores después del ejercicio de gimnasia aeróbica (P<0,05). Después del periodo de práctica, las estudiantes universitarias tuvieron una mejora en el rendimiento ortostático, en el salto de longitud, en el estiramiento en posición sentada hacia delante, en la posición sentada de 1 minuto, en la carrera de 4 vueltas de 10 metros y en los 800 metros. El aumento fue, respectivamente, de 11,16 cm, 5,02 cm, 8,34 veces/min, 2,13 s y 9,42 s. Conclusión El entrenamiento del core en la gimnasia aeróbica puede fortalecer el cuerpo, permitiendo la concienciación del entrenamiento físico en las estudiantes universitarias. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Body Composition/physiology , Physical Fitness/physiology , Gymnastics/physiology , Students , Universities , Exercise/physiology , Models, Theoretical
5.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 33: e3356, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421872

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a satisfação e distorção da imagem corporal em crianças de 7 a 10 anos de idade e verificar quais fatores antropométricos e socioeconômicos estão associados a elas. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, realizado com 307 crianças de escolas públicas de Goiânia. A saúde da criança e os aspectos socioeconômicos da família foram avaliados por meio de um questionário semiestruturado; a imagem corporal foi avaliada por meio da Escala de Silhuetas Brasileiras Para Crianças; e também foram coletados dados antropométricos de peso, estatura, dobras cutâneas e circunferência da cintura. Observou-se homogeneidade do gênero neste estudo, predomínio de meninos (52%) eutróficos (73%). Apesar de se tratar de uma amostra com peso saudável, a insatisfação e a distorção da imagem corporal prevaleceram sobre a maior parte da amostra: a insatisfação esteve presente em 92% das crianças, prevalecendo o desejo por uma menor silhueta, enquanto a distorção esteve presente em 75% da amostra, com predomínio da subestimação da silhueta. No entanto, este estudo encontrou associação da insatisfação com a imagem corporal apenas com IMC (aferido, atual e desejado) e circunferência da cintura; e associação da distorção da imagem corporal apenas com os IMC (aferido e atual).


ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to analyze the satisfaction and distortion of body image in children from 7 to 10 years old and to verify which anthropometric and socioeconomic factors are associated with them. This is a cross-sectional study, carried out with 307 children from public schools in Goiânia. The child's health and the socioeconomic aspects of the family were assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire; body image was assessed using the Brazilian Silhouettes Scale for Children; and anthropometric data on weight, height, skinfolds and waist circumference were also collected. Gender homogeneity was observed in this study, with a predominance of eutrophic(73%) boys (52%). Despite being a sample with a healthy weight, dissatisfaction and distortion of body image prevailed over most of the sample: dissatisfaction was present in 92% of children, the desire for a smaller silhouette prevailing, while distortion was present in 75% of the sample, with a predominance of underestimation of the silhouette. However, this study found dissatisfaction association with body image only with BMI (measured, current and desired) and waist circumference; and association of the distortion of the body image only with the BMI (measured and current).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Body Image/psychology , Child , Nutritional Status/physiology , Schools/organization & administration , Socioeconomic Factors , Body Composition/physiology , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry/instrumentation , Child Health , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Waist Circumference/physiology
6.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e200323, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406919

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the association between children and adolescents' body composition with family income. Methods Cross-sectional study, participants between 5 and 19 years were included. A standardized questionnaire assessed socioeconomic variables. The outcome variables were z-score of Body Mass Index and bioimpedance parameters (skeletal muscle mass, fat-free mass, and fat percentage) and predictor variables (age, sex, race, place of residence, father's education, birth weight and breastfeeding) were analyzed using the quantile regression model and data from the 50th percentile are presented. The tests were bidirectional and the differences were considered significant with p<0.05. Results Among the 529 participants included, 284 (53.6%) were female and the mean age was 11.41±3.9 years. The Body Mass Index z-score was the only outcome that did not show differences between sexes (p=0.158). In the crude model, lower family income was associated with lower skeletal muscle mass (Difference=-7.70; 95% CI -9.32 to -5.89), p<0.001), lower fat-free mass (Difference= -13.40; 95% CI -16.40 to -10.39, p<0.001) and the lowest percentage of fat was associated with lower family income (Difference= -5.01, 95% CI -9.91 to -0.11, p=0.027). The z-score of BMI was not associated with family income. Conclusion Family income is directly associated with lower fat-free mass, fat percentage, and skeletal muscle mass in children and adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a associação entre a composição corporal de crianças e adolescentes com a renda familiar. Métodos Estudo transversal, foram incluídos participantes entre 5 e 19 anos. As variáveis socioeconômicas foram avaliadas por meio de questionário padronizado. As variáveis de desfecho foram escore Z do índice de massa corporal e parâmetros de bioimpedância (massa muscular esquelética, massa livre de gordura e percentual de gordura) e variáveis preditoras (idade, sexo, raça, local de residência, escolaridade do pai, peso ao nascer e aleitamento materno) foram analisados pelo modelo de regressão quantílica e são apresentados os dados do percentil 50. Os testes foram bidirecionais, e as diferenças foram consideradas significativas com p<0,05. Resultados Entre os 529 participantes incluídos, 284 (53,6%) eram do sexo feminino e a média de idade foi de 11,41±3,9 anos. O escore Z do índice de massa corporal foi o único desfecho que não apresentou diferenças entre os sexos (p=0,158). No modelo bruto, uma menor renda familiar foi associada a menor massa muscular esquelética (Diferença= -7,70; IC 95% -9,32 a -5,89), p<0,001), menor massa livre de gordura (Diferença= -13,40; IC 95% -16,40 a -10,39, p<0,001) e o menor percentual de gordura associou-se à menor renda familiar (Diferença= -5,01, IC 95% -9,91 a -0,11, p=0,027). O escore Z do IMC não foi associado à renda familiar. Conclusão A renda familiar está diretamente associada à menor massa magra, ao percentual de gordura e à massa muscular esquelética em crianças e adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Body Composition/physiology , Income , Body Mass Index , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adolescent , Sociodemographic Factors
7.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373323

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the effects of order of resistance training (RT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on functional capacity, blood pressure, and body composition in middle-aged and older women. Methods: Twenty-two participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: RT followed by HIIT (RT-HIIT, n = 10, mean age 64.5 ± 7.9 years) or HIIT followed by RT (HIIT-RT, n = 10, mean age 59.32 ± 4.44 years). Both groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks. RT was composed of 7 exercises for the upper and lower body. HIIT was composed of alternate pairings of high-intensity (> 85% of maximum heart rate [MHR]) and moderate-intensity (60% MHR) running. Results: A time effect was found for upper-body muscle endurance (HIIT-RT = +9.43%; RT-HIIT = +6.16%), agility and dynamic balance (HIIT-RT = -5.96%; RT-HIIT = -8.57%), and cardiorespiratory fitness (HIIT-RT = +5.14%; RT-HIIT = +6.13%), with no difference between groups. Body composition and blood pressure did not change throughout the investigation for either group. Conclusion: Eight weeks of a combined HIIT and RT exercise program improved functional capacity of middle-aged and older women without altering blood pressure and body composition, regardless of the order of exercises.


Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da ordem do treinamento resistido (TR) e do treinamento intervalado de alta intensidade (HIIT) sobre a capacidade funcional, pressão arterial e composição corporal em mulheres de meia-idade e idosas. Metodologia: Vinte e duas mulheres foram aleatoriamente designadas em dois grupos: um grupo realizou TR seguido por HIIT (TR-HIIT, n = 10, 64,5 ± 7,94 anos) e outro grupo realizou HIIT seguido por TR (HIIT-TR, n = 10, 59,32 ± 4,44 anos). Ambos os grupos treinaram duas vezes por semana durante oito semanas. O TR foi composto por sete exercícios para a parte superior e inferior do corpo. O HIIT foi composto de pares alternados de corrida de alta intensidade (> 85% da frequência cardíaca máxima [FCM]) e intensidade moderada (60% FCM). Resultados: Foi encontrado um efeito dos programas de exercício para a resistência muscular de membros superiores do corpo (HIIT-TR = +9.43%; TR-HIIT = +6.16%), agilidade e equilíbrio dinâmico (HIIT-TR = -5,96%; TR-HIIT = -8.57%) e aptidão cardiorrespiratória (HIIT-TR = +5.14%; TR-HIIT = +6.13%), sem diferença entre os grupos. A composição corporal e a pressão arterial não se alteraram ao longo da investigação em nenhum dos grupos. Conclusão: Oito semanas de um programa combinado de exercícios de HIIT e de TR proporcionaram melhora na capacidade funcional de mulheres de meia-idade e idosas, sem alterar a pressão arterial e a composição corporal, independente da ordem de execução.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Body Composition/physiology , Arterial Pressure/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training , Physical Functional Performance , Endurance Training
8.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 19(2): 39-54, mayo-ago. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1347309

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: alteraciones en el cronotipo y la calidad del sueño se han asociado con la desincronización del reloj circadiano, estudiadas como posible causa de la aparición de enfermedades crónicas. El objetivo fue identificar la asociación entre indicadores antropométricos, porcentaje de grasa corporal y consumo alimentario con el turno laboral, cronotipo y calidad del sueño en el personal de salud de un hospital de segundo nivel de atención. Materiales y métodos: se tomaron medidas antropométricas para determinar el índice de masa corporal y el porcentaje de grasa corporal total. Se aplicó el Cuestionario de Cronotipo de Munich y el Índice de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburg. Resultados: participaron 60 trabajadores, y el cronotipo nocturno fue el predominante (53 %). El 80 % de los participantes tiene una moderada calidad del sueño. Un 55 % de los participantes tenía sobrepeso y obesidad, y solo el 8.3 % presentaba un porcen taje de grasa corporal normal. En el turno nocturno destacó la mala calidad de dormición (p = 0.03) y adaptación de los cronotipos vespertino y nocturno (p = 0.03). Los participantes de cronotipo vespertino mostraron los mayores valores de peso corporal (p = 0.04). La calidad del sueño no mostró asociación sig nificativa con los cambios en el peso o el porcentaje de grasa corporal. Discusión: los ritmos circadianos alterados incrementan el riesgo de obesidad y otros problemas de salud. Se observa una adaptación del cronotipo al turno en que laboran, moderada calidad del sueño y hábitos de alimentación inadecuada, considerados sincronizadores de los ciclos circadianos, ubicándolos como factores para evitar enferme dades futuras.


Abstract Introduction: Chronotype and sleep-quality changes have been associated with the desynchronization of the circadian clock, which has been studied as the possible cause of the appearance of chronic dis eases, such as obesity. The objective of the present study was to identify the association between anthro pometric indicators, such as body fat percentage and food consumption, in sync with the work shift, chronotype, and sleep quality of the health personnels of a hospital providing secondary level of care. Materials and methods: Anthropometric measurements (i.e., weight, height, waist circumference, and skinfolds) were recorded to determine the body mass index and total body fat percentage using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Results: A total of 60 workers participated in the survey, who predominantly recorded night chronotype (53%), 80% of the participants had a moderate quality of sleep, 55% were overweight and obese, and only 8.3% presented with normal body fat. In the night shift, poor sleep quality (p = 0.03) and adaptation to the evening and night chronotypes (p = 0.03) were prominent. Evening-chronotype participants showed the highest body weight values (p = 0.04). Sleep quality showed no significant association with the weight or body fat percentage changes. Discussion: Altered circadian rhythms increase the risk of obesity and other health issues. There was an adaptation of the chronotype to the shift in which the patients worked, moderate quality of sleep, and inappropriate eating habits, which are consid ered as the synchronizers of the circadian cycles, placing them as factors to be taken into account to avoid future diseases.


Resumo Introdução: Alterações no cronótipo e na qualidade do sono têm sido associadas à dessincronização do relógio circadiano; estudada como possível causa do aparecimento de doenças crônicas como a obesi dade. O objetivo foi identificar a associação entre os indicadores antropométricos, percentual de gordura corporal e consumo alimentar com o turno de trabalho, cronótipo e qualidade do sono de profissionais de saúde de um Hospital de segundo nível de atenção. Materiais e métodos: As medidas antropométricas (peso, altura, circunferência da cintura e dobras cutâneas) foram realizadas para determinar o IMC e o percentual de gordura corporal total. Foram aplicados o questionário de cronótipo de Munich e o índice de qualidade de sono de Pittsburg. Resultados: Participaram 60 trabalhadores, sendo o cronótipo noturno o predominante (53%). 80% dos participantes têm uma qualidade de sono moderada. 55% dos participantes estavam com sobrepeso e obesidade e apenas 8,3% tinham um percentual de gordura corporal normal. No plantão noturno, destacaram-se a má qualidade do sono (p = 0.03) e a adaptação dos cronótipos vespertino e noturno (p = 0.03). Os participantes do cronótipo vespertino apresentaram os maiores valores de peso corporal (p = 0.04). A qualidade do sono não mostrou associação significativa com mudanças no peso ou percentual de gordura corporal. Discussão: Ritmos circadianos alterados aumentam o risco de obesidade e outros problemas de saúde. Observa-se uma adaptação do cronótipo ao turno em que trabalham, qualidade de sono moderada e hábitos alimentares inadequados, conside rados sincronizadores dos ciclos circadianos, colocando-os como fatores a serem levados em considera ção para evitar doenças futuras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Body Mass Index , Circadian Rhythm , Body Composition/physiology
9.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 156-160, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280058

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The assessment of body composition in female athletes of different sports is important for health monitoring. Objective: To compare body composition in university athletes of different team sports (indoor soccer, flag football and volleyball). Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out with 45 female athletes, aged 18 to 35 years (22.8 ± 3.55). The dependent variables were body fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) measured by air displacement plethysmography. Bone mineral content, adjusted for height (BMC/height) and bone mineral density (BMD), were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The independent variable was sport [flag football (n = 12); indoor soccer (n = 20); volleyball (n = 13)] and the covariates were age (complete years), training volume (minutes per week) and length of time playing the sport (complete years). Analysis of covariance was used. Results: Adjusting the model for covariates, volleyball athletes (19.27 kg ± 2.20) presented higher FM values compared to the flag football (16.00 kg ± 1.70) and indoor soccer players (12.20 kg ± 1.30). There was no significant difference in FFM, BMC/height and total BMD between sports, even after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion: Volleyball athletes presented higher FM compared to flag football and indoor soccer athletes. There were no differences in FFM, BMC/height and BMD among the players of the different team sports. This study can help coaches and other sports professionals to prevent injuries to athletes in sports such as higher FM (volleyball), or to prevent diseases such as menstrual irregularities, which are common in athletes who may have low levels of body fat (indoor soccer players), this being one of the risk factors for the female athlete triad (eating disorders, menstrual irregularities and low BMD). Level of evidence III; Retrospective comparative study .


RESUMEN Introducción: La evaluación de la composición corporal en atletas del sexo femenino de diferentes modalidades deportivas es importante para la monitorización de la salud. Objetivos: Comparar la composición corporal de atletas universitarias, de diferentes modalidades colectivas (fútbol de salón, flag football y vóleibol). Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado con 45 atletas del sexo femenino, con edades entre 18 y 35 años (22,8 ± 3,55). Las variables dependientes fueron la masa grasa (MG) y masa magra (MM) medida por pletismografía por desplazamiento de aire. El contenido mineral óseo ajustado para estatura (CMO/estatura) y densidad mineral ósea (DMO) fueron medidos por absorciometría por doble emisión de rayos X. Las variables independientes fueron los deportes [flag football (n = 12); fútbol de salón (n = 20); vóleibol (n = 13)] y las covariables fueron edad (años completos), volumen de entrenamiento (minutos por semana) y tiempo de práctica (años completos). Fue utilizado el análisis de covariancia. Resultados: Al ajustar el modelo por las covariables, las atletas de vóleibol (19,27 kg ± 2,20) presentaron valores mayores de MG con relación a las de flag football (16,00 kg ± 1,70) y de fútbol de salón (12,20 kg ± 1,30). No hubo diferencia significativa en la MM, CMO/estatura y DMO total entre los deportes, incluso después del ajuste para las covariables. Conclusiones: Las atletas de vóleibol presentaron mayor MG en comparación con los atletas de flag football y fútbol de salón. No hubo diferencias en MM, CMO/estatura y DMO entre las jugadoras de diferentes modalidades colectivas. Este estudio puede ayudar a entrenadores y otros profesionales del deporte a prevenir lesiones en atletas con mayor MG (vóleibol) o prevenir enfermedades como irregularidades menstruales, comunes en atletas con bajos niveles de grasa corporal (fútbol de salón), que es uno de los factores de riesgo para el síndrome de la tríada de la atleta femenina (disturbios alimentarios, irregularidades menstruales y baja DMO). Nivel de evidencia III; Estudio retrospectivo comparativo .


RESUMO Introdução: A avaliação da composição corporal em atletas do sexo feminino de diferentes modalidades esportivas é importante para o monitoramento da saúde. Objetivos: Comparar a composição corporal de atletas universitárias, de diferentes modalidades coletivas (futebol de salão, flag football e voleibol). Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com 45 atletas do sexo feminino, com idades entre 18 e 35 anos (22,8 ± 3,55). As variáveis dependentes foram a massa gorda corporal (MG) e a massa magra (MM) medida por pletismografia por deslocamento de ar. O conteúdo mineral ósseo ajustado para estatura (CMO/estatura) e densidade mineral óssea (DMO) foram medidos por absorciometria por dupla emissão de raios X. As variáveis independentes foram os esportes [flag football (n = 12); futebol de salão (n = 20); voleibol (n = 13)] e as covariáveis foram idade (anos completos), volume de treinamento (minutos por semana) e tempo de prática (anos completos). A análise de covariância foi utilizada. Resultados: Ao ajustar o modelo pelas covariáveis, as atletas de voleibol (19,27 kg ± 2,20) apresentaram valores maiores de MG com relação às de flag football (16,00 kg ± 1,70) e de futebol de salão (12,20 kg ± 1,30). Não houve diferença significativa na MM, CMO/estatura e DMO total entre os esportes, mesmo depois do ajuste para as covariáveis. Conclusões: As atletas de voleibol apresentaram maior MG em comparação com as atletas de flag football e futebol de salão. Não houve diferenças em MM, CMO/estatura e DMO entre os jogadoras de diferentes modalidades coletivas. Este estudo pode ajudar treinadores e outros profissionais do esporte a prevenir lesões em atletas com maior MG (voleibol) ou prevenir doenças como irregularidades menstruais, comuns em atletas com baixos níveis de gordura corporal (futebol de salão), que é um dos fatores de risco para a síndrome da tríade da atleta feminina (distúrbios alimentares, irregularidades menstruais e baixa DMO). Nível de evidência III; Estudo retrospectivo comparativo .


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Body Composition/physiology , Athletes , Team Sports , Soccer/physiology , Students , Universities , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Volleyball/physiology , Football/physiology
10.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 161-164, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280059

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze whether fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) should be evaluated by chronological age and/or biological age and propose curves to classify the body composition of young Chilean soccer players. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was developed. Six hundred and forty-two soccer players between 13.0 and 18.9 years of age were recruited. Body mass, height, trunk-cephalic height, and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were evaluated. Biological maturation was determined using peak height velocity age (PHV) and the percentage of fat mass was estimated by regression equations. The reference percentiles were calculated using the LMS method. Results: The values of R2 were lower for chronological age (FM = 0.07% and FFM = 0.13%) than for biological age (FM = 0.31% and FFM = 0.50%). Eleven percentiles (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 and p97) were calculated for FFM and FM. Conclusion: Biological age (PHV) is a better predictor of FFM and FM than chronological age. The references proposed can be used to monitor the body composition of young Chilean soccer players. Level of Evidence II; Diagnostic Study .


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar si la masa grasa (MG) y la masa libre de grasa (MLG) deben ser evaluadas por la edad cronológica y/o por la edad biológica, y proponer curvas para clasificar la composición corporal de jóvenes futbolistas chilenos. Métodos: Se elaboró un estudio descriptivo transversal. Fueron reclutados 642 futbolistas entre 13,0 y 18,9 años. Fueron medidas masa corporal, estatura, altura tronco-cefálica, pliegues cutáneos tricipital y subescapular. La madurez biológica fue determinada por la edad de pico de velocidad de crecimiento (EPVC) y el porcentual de masa grasa fue estimado por ecuaciones de regresión. Los percentiles de referencia fueron calculados por el método LMS. Resultados: Los valores de R2 para edad cronológica fueron menores (MG=0,07% y MLG=0,13%) en comparación con los valores para la edad biológica (MG=0,31% y MLG=0,50%). Fueron calculados 11 percentiles (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 y p97) para la MLG y MG. Conclusión: La edad biológica (EPVC) es un predictor mejor de la MLG y de la MG que la edad cronológica. Las referencias propuestas pueden servir para monitorizar la composición corporal de jóvenes futbolistas chilenos. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio de diagnóstico .


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar se a massa gorda (MG) e a massa livre de gordura (MLG) devem ser avaliadas pela idade cronológica e/ou pela idade biológica, e propor curvas para classificar a composição corporal de jovens futebolistas chilenos. Métodos: Elaborou-se um estudo descritivo transversal. Foram recrutados 642 futebolistas entre 13,0 e 18,9 anos. Massa corporal, estatura, altura tronco-cefálica, dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular foram medidas. A maturação biológica foi determinada pela idade de pico de velocidade de crescimento (IPVC) e o percentual de massa gorda foi estimado por equações de regressão. Os percentis de referência foram calculados pelo método LMS. Resultados: Os valores de R2para idade cronológica foram menores (MG = 0,07% e MLG=0,13%) em comparação com os valores para a idade biológica (MG = 0,31% e MLG = 0,50%). Foram calculados 11 percentis (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 e p97) para a MLG e MG. Conclusão: A idade biológica (IPVC) é um preditor melhor da MLG e da MG do que a idade cronológica. As referências propostas podem servir para monitorar a composição corporal de jovens futebolistas chilenos. Nível de evidência II; Estudo de diagnóstico .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Soccer/physiology , Body Composition/physiology , Reference Values , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anthropology
11.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 25-30, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151401

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a composição corporal com utilização do DXA e correlacioná-la com a idade cronológica em adolescentes pós-púberes, de ambos os sexos. Participaram da pesquisa 46 adolescentes em fase pós-puberal, sendo 27 meninas (17,23±0,98) e 19 meninos (17,65±0,74) de ensino médio de uma escola estadual da Zona Sul da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizadas uma anamnese, avaliação antropométrica e o DXA para avaliações. O teste U de Mann Whitney e o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman foram utilizados, adotando P<0,05 para significância. Verificou-se que as meninas apresentam composição corporal diferentedos meninos (P<0,05) e que com o aumento da idade elas tendem a diminuir o percentual de gordura, embora tenha sido observado um quantitativo alto de meninas com percentual de gordura elevado. Os meninos apresentaram uma tendência de aumento do percentual de gordura e da massa magra com o aumento da idade. As medidas de conteúdo e densidade mineral ósseo dentro da normalidade, com tendência de aumento com o avanço da idade cronológica. Conclui-se que os grupos masculino e feminino apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados quanto à composição corporal e os valores apresentados trazem mais um complemento à literatura a respeito de referências para a composição corporal, obtida com o DXA, em adolescentes pós-púberes.


The purpose of this study was to analyze body composition using DXA and correlate it with chronological age in post-pubertal adolescents of both genders. A total of 46 adolescents participated in the study, of which 27 were girls (17.23±0.98) and 19 boys (17.65±0.74) from a state school in the South District in the city of Rio de Janeiro. An anamnesis, anthropometric evaluation and DXA were performed for evaluations. The Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman correlation coefficient were used, adopting P <0.05 for significance. Girls were found to have a different body composition than boys (P <0.05) and that, with increasing age, they tended to present a decrease in fat percentage, although in general a high number of girls presented a high fat level. The boys presented a tendency to increase the percentage of fat and lean mass with the increase of the age. Measurements of bone mineral content and density were considered as being within normality, with a tendency to increase with the advancing of the chronological age. Girls and boys present a different behavior regarding body composition and the values presented in this study bring an addition to the literature regarding body composition references through DXA in post-pubertal adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Body Composition/physiology , Body Weights and Measures , Puberty/physiology , Weight by Height/physiology , Bone Density/physiology , Nutritional Status , Adolescent/physiology , Fats/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
12.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e48747, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368155

ABSTRACT

Although malnutrition and risk of falls in the elderly have increased in recent years, uncertainties exist as to whether these conditions are associated after controlling for sociodemographic variables, body composition, metabolic condition, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to analyze the association between nutritional status and risk of fall in the elderly population. Participants were matched by gender and age, after they had been grouped on the basis of diagnosis of AD. The risk of falls, nutritional status, and mental status were assessed using the Downton Fall Risk Score (FRS), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE), respectively. Logistic regression modelsadjusted for the main confounders were used in the analyses. Among the 68 elderly individuals studied, participants who were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition were more likely to fall (odds ratio = 8.29; 95% confidence interval = 1.49-46.04) than those with normal nutritional status, regardless of gender, age, education, body composition, and metabolic condition. This association did not remain significant after adjustment for AD, a potential confounder in this association. Malnutrition or its risk was independently associated with high risk of fall; thus, malnutrition should be considered in the prevention of falls among the elderly population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Elderly Nutrition , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Body Composition/physiology , Aged/physiology , Aging/physiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Dementia/complications , Malnutrition/complications , Metabolism/physiology
13.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 32: e3211, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250177

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present study aimed to check if there is an association between fitness performance variables and to analyze the variation of fitness levels between playing positions university soccer players. Twenty university soccer players were selected (20.95 ± 1.84 years; 71.60 ± 11.65 kg; 176.85 ± 7.28 m) divided into defenders, midfielders and attackers. Body composition was assessed in a cross-sectional analysis that correlated fat mass, lean mass and fat-free mass by DXA with the physical capacity tests. The main results of the present study revealed that both 10-m and 20-m accelerations had moderate-to-large correlations with agility tests across the playing positions, however these accelerations were largely inversely correlated with YoYo intermittent recovery test in defenders and largely positively in midfielders. The agility test was moderately correlated with YoYo intermittent recovery test across the different playing positions. In conclusion, there the acceleration and the agility had a positive association with the different positions of the soccer players.


RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar se existe associção entre as variáveis de desempenho físico e analisar a variação dos níveis de aptidão física entre as posições de jogador de futebol universitário. Foram selecionados 20 jogadores de futebol universitário (20,95 ± 1,84 anos; 71,60 ± 11,65 kg; 176,85 ± 7,28 m) divididos em zagueiros, meio-campistas e atacantes. Mensurou-se a composição corporal em uma análise transversal e correlacionou-se a massa gorda, massa magra e massa livre de gordura por meio do DXA com os testes de capacidade física. As principais evidências do presente estudo revelaram que as acelerações de 10 e 20 m tiveram correlações de moderada a grande com o teste de agilidade nas posições de jogo, porém essas acelerações foram inversamente correlacionadas com o teste de recuperação intermitente nos defensores e amplamente positiva nos meio-campistas. O teste de agilidade foi moderadamente correlacionado com o teste de recuperação intermitente YoYo nas diferentes posições de jogo. Em conclusão, a aceleração e a agilidade tiveram uma associação positiva com as diferentes posições dos jogadores de futebol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soccer/physiology , Sports/education , Universities , Athletes/education , Body Composition/physiology , Outflow Velocity Measurement , Physical Fitness/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Mentoring/methods , Physical Functional Performance , Acceleration
14.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2020095, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155476

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize metabolic control and verify whether it has any relation with socioeconomic, demographic, and body composition variables in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria (PKU) diagnosed in the neonatal period. Methods: This cohort study collected retrospective data of 53 phenylketonuric children and adolescents. Data on family income, housing, and mother's age and schooling level were collected, and anthropometric measures of body composition and distribution were taken. All dosages of phenylalanine (Phe) from the last five years (2015-2019) were evaluated and classified regarding their adequacy (cutoffs: 0-12 years: 2-6 mg/dL; 12-19 years: 2-10 mg/dL). Adequate metabolic control was considered if ≥7%) of the dosages were within desired ranges. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age in the last year was 10.1±4.6 years. Most of them were under 12 years old (33/53; 62.3%) and had the classic form of the disease (39/53; 73.6%). Better metabolic control was observed among adolescents (68.4 versus 51.4%; p=0.019). Overweight was found in 9/53 (17%) and higher serum Phe levels (p<0.001) were found in this group of patients. Metabolic control with 70% or more Phe level adequacy decreased along with the arm muscle area (AMA) (ptendency=0.042), being 70.0% among those with low reserve (low AMA), and 18.5% among those with excessive reserve (high AMA). Conclusions: Adequate metabolic control was observed in most patients. The findings suggest that, in this sample, the levels of phenylalanine may be related to changes in body composition.


RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar o controle metabólico e verificar se existe relação entre ele, variáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas e composição corporal de crianças e adolescentes com fenilcetonúria (FNC) diagnosticada no período neonatal. Métodos: Coorte com coleta retrospectiva de dados de 53 crianças e adolescentes fenilcetonúricos. Foram coletados dados de renda familiar, moradia, idade e escolaridade materna e realizaram-se medidas antropométricas de composição e distribuição corporal. Todas as dosagens de fenilalanina (Fal) dos últimos cinco anos (2015-2019) foram avaliadas e classificadas quanto à adequação (cortes: 0-12 anos: 2-6 mg/dL; 12-19 anos: 2-10 mg/dL). A proporção de dosagens adequadas ≥70% foi considerada como controle metabólico adequado. Resultados: A média (±desvio padrão) de idade, no último ano, foi de 10,1±4,6 anos. A maioria tinha menos de 12 anos (33/53; 62,3%) e apresentava a forma clássica da doença (39/53; 73,6%). Observou-se melhor controle metabólico entre os adolescentes (68,4 vs. 51,4%; p=0,019). Excesso de peso foi encontrado em 9/53 (17%) e maiores níveis séricos de Fal foram descritos nesse grupo (p<0,001). O percentual de controle metabólico com 70% ou mais de adequação dos níveis de Fal foi decrescente de acordo com a área muscular do braço (AMB; ptendência=0,042), sendo de 70% entre os de baixa reserva (AMB reduzida) e de 18,5% entre os com excesso (AMB elevada). Conclusões: Observou-se controle metabólico adequado na maioria dos avaliados e os achados sugerem que, nesta amostra, os níveis de fenilalanina podem estar relacionados com alterações da composição corporal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Phenylalanine/blood , Phenylketonurias/diagnosis , Phenylketonurias/metabolism , Body Composition/physiology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Phenylketonurias/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry/methods , Demography , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/blood , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/epidemiology
15.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 34: e200263, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288029

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the impact of low to moderate aerobic exercise and ovariectomy on body composition and food consumption in female rats. Methods Forty adult Wistar female rats (age: 23 weeks; body weight: 275.2±3.6g; mean±SEM) were divided into 4 groups (n=10): laparotomy-sedentary; laparotomy-exercised; ovariectomy-sedentary; and ovariectomy-exercised. The exercised groups were submitted to a treadmill running program (16m/min; 30min/day, 5 days/week), for 8 weeks. Body weight and food consumption were monitored during the experiment. Visceral fat and carcass water, protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate fractions were analyzed. Two-way ANOVA plus the Tukey's post hoc test was used for comparisons and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The ovariectomized (ovariectomy-sedentary+ovariectomy-exercised) and sedentary (laparotomy-sedentary+ovariectomy-sedentary) animals showed higher (p<0.05) weight gain, food consumption, food efficiency ratio and weight gain/body weight ratio than laparotomy animals (laparotomy-sedentary+laparotomy-exercised) and exercised (exercised laparotomy+exercised ovariectomy), respectively. The ovariectomized and sedentary animals showed higher (p<0.05) carcass weight, fat percentage and visceral fat than laparotomy and exercised rats, respectively. Conclusion Ovariectomy and physical inactivity increase obesogenic indicators, whereas regular aerobic exercise of low to moderate intensity attenuates these unfavorable effects in female rats.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o impacto do exercício aeróbico de intensidade baixa a moderada e da ovariectomia na composição corporal e no consumo alimentar em ratas. Métodos Quarenta ratas Wistar adultas (idade: 23 semanas; peso corporal: 275, 2±3, 6g; média±EPM) foram divididas em 4 grupos (n=10): laparotomia-sedentária, laparotomia-exercitada, ovariectomia-sedentária e ovariectomia-exercitada. Os grupos laparotomia-exercitada e ovariectomia-exercitada foram submetidos a um programa de corrida em esteira (16m/mim; 30min/dia, 5 dias/semana) durante 8 semanas. Foram monitorados o peso corporal e o consumo alimentar das ratas durante o experimento. Analisaram-se as frações de água, proteínas, cinzas, gordura e carboidrato da carcaça, bem como a gordura visceral. Empregou-se ANOVA Two-Way, seguida do teste post hoc de Tukey para as análises estatísticas. Adotou-se o nível de significância de p<0,05. Resultados As ratas ovariectomizadas (ovariectomia-sedentária+ovariectomia-exercitada) e sedentárias (laparotomia-sedentária+ ovariectomia-sedentária) exibiram maior (p<0,05) ganho de peso, consumo alimentar, coeficiente de eficácia alimentar e taxa de ganho de peso/peso corporal do que as ratas laparotomizadas (laparotomia-sedentária+laparotomia-exercitada) e exercitadas (laparotomia-exercitada+ovariectomia-exercitada), respectivamente. A carcaça das ratas ovariectomizadas e sedentárias apresentaram maior (p<0,05) peso, percentual de gordura e gordura visceral do que as ratas laparotomizadas e exercitadas, respectivamente. Conclusão A ovariectomia e o sedentarismo elevam indicadores obesogênicos, enquanto que o exercício aeróbico regular de intensidade baixa a moderada atenua esses efeitos desfavoráveis em ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Body Composition/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Intra-Abdominal Fat/physiology
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200187, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249205

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plant based protein sources are one of the best, cost effective and easily available protein sources being used in fish feed. But due to a lower number of micro-biota in fish gut plant meal based diets cannot be digested and absorbed well in fish body. Probiotics were supplemented at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 gkg-1 levels in fish feed for formulating one control and five test diets. In this study, three replicates of each treatment were used and number of fingerlings was 15 in each replicate. The C. carpio (common carp) fingerlings were fed at 5% of live wet weight on their prescribed diet twice daily. The results revealed that supplementation of probiotics in corn gluten meal based diets significantly (p<0.05) improved growth performance, carcass composition and hematological parameters. Most optimum values of growth performance parameters were noted at 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics supplemented diet. C. carpio fingerlings fed corn gluten meal based diet supplemented with 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics indicated significant (p<0.05) improvements in crude protein (17g) crude fat (9g) and gross energy (3 kcalg-1) whereas higher red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) was also recorded in fish blood when fed 2 gkg-1 probiotics level diet. From these results, it was concluded that 2 gkg-1 probiotics supplementation in corn gluten meal based diet is optimum for improving growth performance, body composition and hematology of C. carpio fingerlings.


Subject(s)
Body Composition/physiology , Carps , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Hematology , Zea mays
17.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(6): 924-929, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1508048

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La etapa prepuberal es un periodo crítico del desarrollo de la grasa corporal, en el cual la leptina y la resistencia a la insulina han sido asociados, sin embargo, hay pocos estudios en prepúberes normo- peso. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación de leptina con composición corporal y resistencia a la insulina en un grupo de prepúberes normopeso. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio transversal analítico en 128 pre púberes saludables, normopeso, entre 6 y 10 años. Se midieron, talla, peso, índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de grasa corporal (PGC), perímetro abdominal (PA) y perímetro de cadera (PC). Se determinó leptina (ng/ml) e Insulina (μU/L) en plasma por inmunoensayo y glicemia (mmol/L) por método enzimático. Se calculó HOMA-IR. Se hizo análisis de comparación y de correlación por sexo. RESULTADOS: Se confirmó en niñas un mayor nivel de leptina (6,8 ± 5 vs 3,3 ± 3,7; p = 0,000), insulina (7,1 ± 4,5 vs 5,2 ± 2,5; p = 0,016), PGC (22,4 ± 4,3 vs 18,6 ± 3,9; p = 0,000) y PC (67 ± 5,7 vs 65,0 ± 4,5; p = 0,019), y un menor índice cintura/cadera (0,84 ± 0,04 vs 0,88 ± 0,04; p = 0,000) comparado con varones. Las correlaciones de leptina con variables antropométricas fueron signifi cantes en ambos sexos, con mayor asociación en sexo femenino. La asociación del HOMA-IR con la leptina fue similar en ambos sexos. CONCLUSIONES: En prepúberes normopeso de 6 a 10 años, hay diferencias por sexo en adiposidad y en niveles de leptina, no asociadas con diferencias en el IMC ni en la resistencia a la insulina. La mayor asociación de leptina con adiposidad en las niñas podría estar relacionada con una elevada tasa de adipogénesis inducida por esta hormona.


INTRODUCTION: The prepubertal stage is a critical period of body fat development, in which leptin and insulin re sistance has been associated, however, there are few studies in normal-weight prepubescents. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between leptin and body composition and insulin resistance in a group of normal-weight prepubescents. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Analytical cross-sectional study with 128 healthy prepubescents of normal weight, aged between 6 and 10 years. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) were measured. Plasma leptin (ng/mL) and insulin (mU/L) were evaluated by immunoassay and glycemia (mmol/L) by enzymatic method. HOMA-IR was calculated. A comparison study and correlation analysis by sex were performed. RESULTS: Females presented higher values than males of leptin (6.8 ± 5 vs 3.3 ± 3.7; p = 0.000), insulin (7.1 ± 4.5 vs 5.2 ± 2.5; p = 0.016), BFP (22.4 ± 4.3 vs 18.6 ± 3.9; p = 0.000), and HC (67 ± 5.7 vs 65.0 ± 4.5; p = 0.019), and a lower waist/hip ratio (0.84 ± 0.04 vs 0.88 ± 0.04; p = 0.000). Leptin correlations with anthropometric variables were significant in both sexes, with greater association in females. The association of HOMA-IR with leptin was similar in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: in normal-weight prepubescents aged between 6-10 years, there are sex differences in adiposity and leptin levels not associated with differences in BMI or insulin resistance. The greater association of leptin with adiposity in girls could be related to a high rate of adipogenesis induced by this hormone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Body Composition/physiology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Sex Characteristics , Leptin/blood , Blood Glucose/physiology , Body Height , Body Weight/physiology , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adiposity/physiology , Ideal Body Weight , Insulin/blood
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 314-320, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136214

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE We investigated the associations between objectively assessed sedentary behavior (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and body composition variables among a representative sample of Brazilian adults. METHODS Using an accelerometer, SB and MVPA were monitored for at least 5 days in 524 participants (261 men; age, 18-65 years). Each minute epoch was classified as sedentary or spent in light, moderate, or vigorous physical activity (LPA, MPA, and VPA, respectively). The measured body composition variables included abdominal perimeter (AP) and neck circumference (NC). RESULTS Men accumulated significantly more min/day of MPA (37.82 versus 27.28), VPA (1.10 versus 0.31), MVPA (39.02 versus 27.61), and steps/day (14,978 versus 13,443) than women (p<.001). In men, MPA, VPA, MVPA, and steps/day were negatively associated with AP (p<.05) independently of SB. Only VPA was significantly associated with NC (β= 0.113; p=.002). In women, only SB was significantly associated with AP (β= 0.003; p=.031). There were no significant associations between physical activity intensities and body composition in women. CONCLUSIONS Our findings on the unequal association of physical activity with body composition variables between sexes can help inform future intervention strategies in Brasil.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar a associação do comportamento sedentário (CS) e da atividade física de moderada a vigorosa (AFMV), avaliados objetivamente, com variáveis de composição corporal em uma amostra de adultos brasileiros. MÉTODOS CS e AFMV foram monitorados por meio de acelerômetros no mínimo por cinco dias, em 524 participantes (231 homens; 18-65 anos). Cada período de epoch de um minuto foi classificado como sedentário, atividade física leve (AFL), moderada (AFM) ou vigorosa (AFV). As variáveis de composição corporal medidas foram: perímetro abdominal (PA) e circunferência do pescoço (CP). RESULTADOS Os homens acumularam significativamente (p<0,001) mais min/dia em AFM (37,82 versus 27,28), AFV (1,10 versus 0,31), AFMV (39,02 versus 27,61), e passos/dia (14.978 versus 13.443) do que as mulheres. Nos homens, AFM, AFV, AFMV e passos/dia associaram-se (p<0,05) negativamente com PA, independentemente do CS. Somente AFV associou-se significativamente (β= -0,113; p=0,002) com CP. Já nas mulheres, apenas CS associou-se significativamente com o PA (β= 0,003; p=0,031). Não houve associações significativas entre as intensidades de atividade física com a composição corporal nas mulheres. CONCLUSÕES Nossos achados sobre a associação desigual da atividade física com composição corporal entre os sexos aumentam a base de evidências e podem ajudar a informar futuras estratégias de intervenção no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Body Composition/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Sex Factors , Brazil , Anthropometry , Sedentary Behavior , Accelerometry , Middle Aged , Motor Activity
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 180-186, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136170

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The current study aimed to examine the body composition of adult male ultra-trail runners (UTR) according to their level of participation (regional UTR-R, vs. national UTR-N). METHODS The sample was composed of 44 adult male UTR (aged 36.5±7.2 years; UTR-R: n=25; UTR-N: n=19). Body composition was assessed by air displacement plethysmography, bioelectrical impedance, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In addition, the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was applied. A comparison between the groups was performed using independent samples t-test. RESULTS Significant differences between groups contrasting in the competitive level were found for chronological age (in years; UTR-R: 38.8±8.2 vs. UTR-N: 33.5±4.1); body density (in L.kg-1; UTR-R: 1.062±0.015 vs. UTR-N: 1.074±0.009); and fat mass (in kg; UTR-R: 12.7±6.8 vs. UTR-N: 7.6±2.7). CONCLUSION UTR-N were younger, presented higher values for body density, and had less fat mass, although no significant differences were found for fat-free mass. The current study evidenced the profile of long-distance runners and the need for weight management programs to regulate body composition.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O presente estudo objetivou examinar a composição corporal dos corredores de ultra-trail (UTR) e, adicionalmente, comparar dois grupos de acordo com o nível de participação (Regional vs. Nacional, respectivamente UTR-R e UTR-N). MÉTODOS A amostra foi composta por 44 corredores adultos masculinos (36,5±7,2 anos de idade; UTR-R: n=25; UTR-N: n=19). A composição corporal foi avaliada recorrendo à pletismografia de ar deslocado, bioimpedância elétrica e absorciometria de raios X de dupla energia. Adicionalmente, foi utilizado o Questionário de Frequência Alimentar. A comparação entre grupos foi realizada com base na prova t-student para amostras independentes. RESULTADOS Foram encontradas diferenças significativas por nível de competição para as seguintes variáveis dependentes: idade cronológica (em anos; UTR-R: 38,8±8,2 vs. UTR-N: 33,5±4,1); densidade corporal (em kg/L; UTR-R: 1,062±0,015 L/kg vs. UTR-N: 1,074±0,009); massa gorda (em kg; UTR-R: 12,7±6,8 kg vs. UTR-N: 7,6±2,7). CONCLUSÃO Os UTR-N tendem a ser mais jovens e apresentam valores superiores de densidade corporal e, consequentemente, valores menores de massa gorda, sendo a massa isenta de gordura semelhante entre os grupos. O presente estudo determinou o perfil dos corredores adultos masculinos de longa distância (ultra-trail), realçando a importância de uma cuidadosa regulação da massa corporal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Running/physiology , Body Composition/physiology , Plethysmography/methods , Reference Values , Time Factors , Absorptiometry, Photon , Anthropometry , Surveys and Questionnaires , Electric Impedance , Athletic Performance/physiology , Athletes
20.
Actual. osteol ; 16(3): 167-175, 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253831

ABSTRACT

Se denomina transgénero mujer (TM) a un varón biológico con identidad de género femenina. El tratamiento hormonal cruzado (THC) es una de las opciones para lograr caracteres sexuales del género autopercibido. Realizamos un estudio de diseño transversal, observacional y analítico para evaluar la densidad mineral ósea, composición corporal y fuerza muscular antes de iniciar la hormonización. Un total de 26 TM en condiciones de ingresar en el estudio fueron comparadas con hombres cisgénero de similar edad (mediana 23,5 vs. 25,5 años). Basalmente, las TM presentaron menor densidad ósea en columna lumbar (1,040 vs. 1,280 g/cm2; p=0,01), cadera total (0,970 vs. 1,070 g/cm2; p=0,01) y cuerpo entero (1,080 vs. 1,220 g/cm2; p<0,01). Observamos, además, menor masa muscular en brazos (5,033 vs. 6,212 kg; p<0,01) y piernas (16,343 vs. 18,404 kg; p=0,02), acompañada de menor fuerza muscular de puño (p<0,01). Concluimos que las TM presentaron características diferentes de la biología masculina aun sin haber iniciado el THC. Sugerimos incluir la evaluación de la densidad mineral ósea en la evaluación inicial de esta población, dados los hallazgos identificados. (AU)


A trans-woman (TW) is a biologically male person with female gender identity. Cisgender denotes a person whose sense of personal identity and gender corresponds with its birth sex. Cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT) is one of the options to achieve secondary characteristics of the self-perceived gender. We performed a cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and muscle strength before starting CSHT were assessed. Twenty-six TW (median age 23.5 years) and cisgender males (median age 25.5 years) were matched for age. TW had less BMD at the lumbar spine (1.040 vs 1.280 g/cm2; p=0.01), total hip (0.970 vs 1.070 g/cm2; p=0.01), and total body (1.080 vs 1.220 g/cm2; p<0.01). They also had less skeletal muscle mass in the arms (5.033 vs 6.212 kg; p<0.01) and legs (16.343 vs 18.404 kg; p=0.02), associated with lower grip strength (p<0.01). It appears that bone and muscle characteristics of TW before starting CSHT differ from cisgender men. Taking these findings into account, we suggest the inclusion of BMD in the initial evaluation of TW. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Bone Density/physiology , Transgender Persons/statistics & numerical data , Body Composition/physiology , Absorptiometry, Photon/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Muscle Strength/physiology , Sex Reassignment Procedures , Gender Identity , Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena
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