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Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 147-152, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970149


Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pediatric myofibroma/myofibromatosis of the soft tissue and bone. Methods: All cases of pediatric myofibroma/myofibromatosis of the soft tissue and bone diagnosed between January 2011 and December 2018 were retrieved from the surgical pathology records in the Department of Pathology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China. Clinical and radiological data were collected. H&E and immunohistochemistry were used to examine histological and immunophenotypic features and to make the diagnosis and differential diagnosis. The relevant literature was also reviewed. Results: Twenty-eight cases of pediatric myofibroma/myofibromatosis of the soft tissue and bone were respectively collected. The patients' ages ranged from 2 months to 14 years, with a mean age of 7 years. There were 7 females and 21 males. There were 12 cases located in soft tissue, including the finger (n=9), upper arm (n=1) and foot (n=2). There were 14 cases located in the bone of limb, including the femur (n=8), tibia (n=4), clavicle (n=2), fibula (n=2) and radius (n=1). There were 2 cases of myofibromatosis involving multiple bones. Radiology showed lytic lesions in the bone. The proliferation of spindle-shaped myofibroblasts arranged in fascicles with indistinct eosinophilic cytoplasm and bland nuclei, with no pleomorphism and cytological atypia. The characteristic histologic structure was the biphasic nodular growth pattern with cellular and paucicellular regions. The tumors might arrange in a hemangiopericytoma-like pattern. The stroma varied between dense fibrosis and myxoid changes. The reactive new bone formation and inflammatory cell infiltration also existed. Immunohistochemical study showed that the SMA was positive. The surgical resections were performed. One of the patients had tumor recurrence as a result of 11-month follow-up. Conclusions: The pediatric myofibroma/myofibromatosis of the soft tissue and bone is a very rare benign tumor and has a good prognosis. It has a characteristic morphology and its differential diagnosis from other spindle cell tumors could be made with the immunohistochemical analysis.

Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Bone and Bones/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Leiomyoma , Myofibroma/diagnosis , Myofibromatosis/diagnosis
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1642-1652, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980931


Cellular immune responses as well as generalized and periarticular bone loss are the key pathogenic features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Under the pathological conditions of RA, dysregulated inflammation and immune processes tightly interact with skeletal system, resulting in pathological bone damage via inhibition of bone formation or induction of bone resorption. Single-cell omics technologies are revolutionary tools in the field of modern biological research.They enable the display of the state and function of cells in various environments from a single-cell resolution, thus making it conducive to identify the dysregulated molecular mechanisms of bone destruction in RA as well as the discovery of potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers. Here, we summarize the latest findings of single-cell omics technologies in osteoimmunology research in RA. These results suggest that single-cell omics have made significant contributions to transcriptomics and dynamics of specific cells involved in bone remodeling, providing a new direction for our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in the study of osteoimmunology in RA.

Humans , Osteoclasts/physiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone Resorption/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 838-844, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124863


La Tafonomía, concepto reconocido en paleontología y antropología, permite estimar tiempo y circunstancias de muerte mediante el estudio de condiciones post-mortem y factores relativos a la supervivencia de restos óseos. Entre las diferentes variables tafonómicas, Binford (1981) propuso una categorización de marcas de mordedura, hoy reconocido estándar para estos estudios. Sin embargo, su diseño original en inglés podría llevar a malinterpretaciones o informes erróneos por no poseer una traducción validada. Se realizó una revisión con búsqueda sistemática de artículos en español, sin límite temporal, que citaran a Binford ("Bones: Ancient Men and Modern Myths") en Google Scholar. Fueron incluidos aquellos que mencionaran esta metodología para categorizar marcas de mordedura como agente tafonómico. Se excluyeron tesis, libros, pósters y resúmenes de congresos. Se identificaron 349 documentos y se seleccionaron 83 según criterios. El 65,12 % refirió sólo a huellas de mordedura animal sin especificar categorías; el 26,51 % mostró traducciones libres o categorizaciones parciales, y el 8,43 % realizó categorizaciones sin traducción. La mayor cantidad de citas fueron realizadas por autores de Argentina y España (54,22 % y 24,10 % respectivamente, como única filiación). Las categorías con más traducciones libres fueron "pitting" y "puncture" (11 y 8 términos diferentes respectivamente). Si bien la categorización de Binford es citada profusamente en países de habla hispana para definir las marcas de mordedura animal en hueso, la ausencia de transculturización conlleva falta de consenso para la comunidad científica. Más allá de una traducción literal, la adaptación y estandarización de estos términos es necesaria para validar esta metodología.

Taphonomy, a concept recognized in paleontology and anthropology, allows the estimation of time and circumstances of death by studying post-mortem conditions and factors related to the survival of bone remains. Among the different taphonomic variables, Binford (1981) proposed a categorization of bite marks, now recognized as standard for these studies. However, its original design in English could lead to misinterpretations or erroneous reports for not having a validated translation. A scoping review was conducted for articles in Spanish, without a time limit, that cited Binford ("Bones: Ancient Men and Modern Myths") in Google Scholar. Those who mentioned this methodology to categorize bite marks as taphonomic agent were included. Theses, books, posters and conference proceedings were excluded. We identified 349 documents, and 83 were selected according to criteria. 65.12 % referred only to animal bite marks without specifying categories; 26.51 % showed free translations or partial categorizations, and 8.43 % made categorizations without translation. The largest number of citations were made by authors from Argentina and Spain (54.22 % and 24.10 % respectively, as the only affiliation). The categories with the most free translations were "pitting" and "puncture" (11 and 8 different terms respectively). While Binford's categorization is widely cited in Spanish-speaking countries to define animal bite marks in bone, the absence of transculturation implies a lack of consensus for the scientific community. Beyond a literal translation, the adaptation and standardization of these terms is necessary to validate this methodology.

Animals , Paleontology , Bites and Stings/classification , Bone and Bones/pathology , Terminology as Topic , Forensic Anthropology , Cultural Diffusion
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2): 138-146, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134824


ABSTRACT Introduction: Mineral and bone disorders (MBD) are major complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related adverse outcomes. The Brazilian Registry of Bone Biopsy (REBRABO) is an electronic database that includes renal osteodystrophy (RO) data. We aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of RO in a sample of CKD-MBD Brazilian patients and understand its relationship with outcomes. Methods: Between August 2015 and March 2018, 260 CKD-MBD stage 3-5D patients who underwent bone biopsy were followed for 12 to 30 months. Clinical-demographic, laboratory, and histological data were analyzed. Bone fractures, hospitalizations, and death were considered the primary outcomes. Results: Osteitis fibrosa, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, adynamic bone disease, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and aluminum (Al) accumulation were detected in 85, 43, 27, 10, 77, and 65 patients, respectively. The logistic regression showed that dialysis vintage was an independent predictor of osteoporosis (OR: 1.005; CI: 1.001-1.010; p = 0.01). The multivariate logistic regression revealed that hemodialysis treatment (OR: 11.24; CI: 1.227-100; p = 0.03), previous parathyroidectomy (OR: 4.97; CI: 1.422-17.241; p = 0.01), and female gender (OR: 2.88; CI: 1.080-7.679; p = 0.03) were independent predictors of Al accumulation; 115 patients were followed for 21 ± 5 months. There were 56 hospitalizations, 14 deaths, and 7 fractures during follow-up. The COX regression revealed that none of the variable related to the RO/turnover, mineralization and volume (TMV) classification was an independent predictor of the outcomes. Conclusion: Hospitalization or death was not influenced by the type of RO, Al accumulation, or TMV classification. An elevated prevalence of osteoporosis and Al accumulation was detected.

RESUMO Introdução: Os distúrbios minerais e ósseos (DMO) são importantes complicações da doença renal crônica (DRC) associadas à desfechos adversos. O Registro Brasileiro de Biópsia Óssea (REBRABO) é um banco de dados eletrônico que inclui dados sobre osteodistrofia renal (OR). Nosso objetivo foi descrever o perfil epidemiológico da OR em uma amostra de pacientes brasileiros com DMO-DRC e entender sua associação com os desfechos. Métodos: Entre agosto de 2015 e março de 2018, 260 pacientes com DMO-DRC estágio 3-5D submetidos à biópsia óssea foram acompanhados por 12 a 30 meses. Dados clínico-demográficos, laboratoriais e histológicos foram analisados. Fraturas ósseas, hospitalizações e óbito foram considerados como desfechos primários. Resultados: Osteíte fibrosa, osteodistrofia urêmica mista, doença óssea adinâmica, osteomalácia, osteoporose e acúmulo de alumínio (Al) foram detectados em 85, 43, 27, 10, 77 e 65 pacientes, respectivamente. A regressão logística mostrou que o tempo em diálise foi um preditor independente de osteoporose (OR: 1.005; IC: 1.001-1.010; p = 0,01). A regressão logística multivariada revelou que o tratamento hemodialítico (OR: 11,24; IC: 1,227-100; p = 0,03), paratireoidectomia prévia (OR: 4,97; IC: 1,422-17,241; p = 0,01) e sexo feminino (OR: 2,88; IC: 1,080-7,679; p = 0,03) foram preditores independentes de acúmulo de Al; 115 pacientes foram acompanhados por 21 ± 5 meses. Houve 56 internações, 14 óbitos e 7 fraturas durante o seguimento. A regressão COX revelou que nenhuma das variáveis relacionadas ao tipo de OR/remodelação-mineralização-volume (classificação TMV) foi um preditor independente de desfechos. Conclusão: A hospitalização ou óbito não foram influenciadas pelo tipo de OR, acúmulo de Al ou classificação de TMV. Foi detectada uma prevalência elevada de osteoporose e acúmulo de Al.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/complications , Biopsy/methods , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/therapy , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Registries , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Parathyroidectomy/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Aluminum/blood , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 647-659, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010471


In maxillofacial surgery, there is a significant need for the design and fabrication of porous scaffolds with customizable bionic structures and mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering. In this paper, we characterize the porous Ti6Al4V implant, which is one of the most promising and attractive biomedical applications due to the similarity of its modulus to human bones. We describe the mechanical properties of this implant, which we suggest is capable of providing important biological functions for bone tissue regeneration. We characterize a novel bionic design and fabrication process for porous implants. A design concept of "reducing dimensions and designing layer by layer" was used to construct layered slice and rod-connected mesh structure (LSRCMS) implants. Porous LSRCMS implants with different parameters and porosities were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). Printed samples were evaluated by microstructure characterization, specific mechanical properties were analyzed by mechanical tests, and finite element analysis was used to digitally calculate the stress characteristics of the LSRCMS under loading forces. Our results show that the samples fabricated by SLM had good structure printing quality with reasonable pore sizes. The porosity, pore size, and strut thickness of manufactured samples ranged from (60.95± 0.27)% to (81.23±0.32)%, (480±28) to (685±31) μm, and (263±28) to (265±28) μm, respectively. The compression results show that the Young's modulus and the yield strength ranged from (2.23±0.03) to (6.36±0.06) GPa and (21.36±0.42) to (122.85±3.85) MPa, respectively. We also show that the Young's modulus and yield strength of the LSRCMS samples can be predicted by the Gibson-Ashby model. Further, we prove the structural stability of our novel design by finite element analysis. Our results illustrate that our novel SLM-fabricated porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds based on an LSRCMS are a promising material for bone implants, and are potentially applicable to the field of bone defect repair.

Humans , Alloys , Bionics , Bone Substitutes/chemistry , Bone and Bones/pathology , Compressive Strength , Elastic Modulus , Finite Element Analysis , Lasers , Materials Testing , Maxillofacial Prosthesis Implantation , Porosity , Pressure , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Prostheses and Implants , Prosthesis Design , Stress, Mechanical , Surgery, Oral/instrumentation , Tissue Engineering/methods , Titanium/chemistry
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(4): 366-374, Out.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984582


Abstract Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), a group of metabolic bone diseases secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD), still represents a great challenge to nephrologists. Its management is tailored by the type of bone lesion - of high or low turnover - that cannot be accurately predicted by serum biomarkers of bone remodeling available in daily clinical practice, mainly parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). In view of this limitation, bone biopsy followed by bone quantitative histomorphometry, the gold-standard method for the diagnosis of ROD, is still considered of paramount importance. Bone biopsy has also been recommended for evaluation of osteoporosis in the CKD setting to help physicians choose the best anti-osteoporotic drug. Importantly, bone biopsy is the sole diagnostic method capable of providing dynamic information on bone metabolism. Trabecular and cortical bones may be analyzed separately by evaluating their structural and dynamic parameters, thickness and porosity, respectively. Deposition of metals, such as aluminum and iron, on bone may also be detected. Despite of these unique characteristics, the interest on bone biopsy has declined over the last years and there are currently few centers around the world specialized on bone histomorphometry. In this review, we will discuss the bone biopsy technique, its indications, and the main information it can provide. The interest on bone biopsy should be renewed and nephrologists should be capacitated to perform it as part of their training during medical residency.

Resumo A osteodistrofia renal (OR), um grupo de doenças ósseas metabólicas secundárias à doença renal crônica (DRC), ainda representa um grande desafio para os nefrologistas. Seu manejo é individualizado de acordo com o tipo de lesão óssea - de alto ou baixo remodelamento - cujo diagnóstico não pode ser prevista com precisão pelos biomarcadores séricos de remodelação óssea disponíveis na prática clínica diária, principalmente o paratormônio (PTH) e a fosfatase alcalina (FA). Em vista dessa limitação, biópsia óssea seguida de histomorfometria óssea quantitativa, método padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico de OR, ainda é considerado um procedimento de grande importância. A biópsia óssea também é recomendada na avaliação da osteoporose em indivíduos com DRC, a fim de auxiliar na escolha do melhor medicamento anti-osteoporótico. É importante observar que a biópsia óssea é o único método diagnóstico capaz de proporcionar informações dinâmicas sobre o metabolismo ósseo. Os ossos trabecular e cortical podem ser analisados separadamente por meio da avaliação de seus parâmetros estruturais e dinâmicos, espessura e porosidade, respectivamente. A deposição óssea de metais como alumínio e ferro também pode ser detectada. Apesar de suas características singulares, o interesse pela biópsia óssea diminuiu nos últimos anos. Poucos centros em todo o mundo são especializados em histomorfometria óssea. A presente revisão discute a técnica de biópsia óssea, suas indicações e as principais informações que ela pode oferecer. O interesse pela biópsia óssea deve ser renovado e os nefrologistas devem ser capacitados a realizá-la durante o período de residência médica.

Humans , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/pathology , Bone and Bones/pathology , Biopsy/instrumentation , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Equipment Design , Nephrology
Clinics ; 73: e562, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974903


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a new histological scoring system for use in a partial-thickness cartilage repair animal model. Although previous papers have investigated the regeneration of articular cartilage, the good results achieved in small animals have not been replicated in large animal models or humans, possibly because of the frequent use of models with perforation of the subchondral bone plates. Partial-thickness lesions spare the subchondral bone, and this pattern is the most frequent in humans; therefore, new therapies should be tested using this model. However, no specific histological score exists to evaluate partial-thickness model results. METHODS: Histological sections from 30 ovine knees were reviewed to develop a new scoring system. The sections were subjected to H&E, Safranin O, and Masson's trichrome staining. RESULTS: This paper describes a new scoring tool that is divided into sections in detail: repair of tissue inside the lesion, cartilage around the lesion and degenerative changes at the base of the lesion. Scores range from 0 to 21; a higher score indicates better cartilage repair. DISCUSSION: Unlike existing tools, this new scale does not assign points for the positioning of a tidemark; we propose evaluation of the degenerative changes to the subchondral bone and calcified cartilage layer. It is necessary to remove the whole joint to access and study the evolution of the lesion as well as the surrounding tissue. CONCLUSION: This article emphasizes the importance of a partial-thickness animal model of cartilage repair and presents a new histological scoring system.

Animals , Regeneration/physiology , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Tissue Engineering/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Reference Standards , Time Factors , Biopsy , Bone and Bones/physiology , Bone and Bones/pathology , Sheep , Cartilage Diseases/physiopathology , Cartilage Diseases/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Chondrocytes/physiology , Chondrocytes/pathology , Hindlimb
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 818-828, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010423


OBJECTIVES@#The study was done to evaluate the efficacy of optical coherence tomography (OCT), to detect and analyze the microdamage occurring around the microimplant immediately following its placement, and to compare the findings with micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of the samples to validate the result of the present study.@*METHODS@#Microimplants were inserted into bovine bone samples. Images of the samples were obtained using OCT and μCT. Visual comparisons of the images were made to evaluate whether anatomical details and microdamage induced by microimplant insertion were accurately revealed by OCT.@*RESULTS@#The surface of the cortical bone with its anatomical variations is visualized on the OCT images. Microdamage occurring on the surface of the cortical bone around the microimplant can be appreciated in OCT images. The resulting OCT images were compared with the μCT images. A high correlation regarding the visualization of individual microcracks was observed. The depth penetration of OCT is limited when compared to μCT.@*CONCLUSIONS@#OCT in the present study was able to generate high-resolution images of the microdamage occurring around the microimplant. Image quality at the surface of the cortical bone is above par when compared with μCT imaging, because of the inherent high contrast and high-resolution quality of OCT systems. Improvements in the imaging depth and development of intraoral sensors are vital for developing a real-time imaging system and integrating the system into orthodontic practice.

Animals , Cattle , Algorithms , Bone and Bones/pathology , Contrast Media , Cortical Bone/physiology , Equipment Design , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Orthodontic Appliances , Orthodontics , Prostheses and Implants , Software , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , X-Ray Microtomography/methods
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 34(1): 80-91, ene.-mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841429


ResumenLa osteomielitis es una infección progresiva del hueso, resultado de un proceso inflamatorio destructivo, seguido de la formación de hueso nuevo. Esta es resultado de la inoculación, ya sea de forma directa, por contigüidad, o por diseminación sanguínea (vía hematógena) de un microorganismo que puede evolucionar en días o semanas y puede progresar a una infección crónica con osteonecrosis, pérdida ósea y/o fístula.El presente estudio evidenciará los reportes bacteriológicos y prueba de sensibilidad antibiótica, de los patógenos más comunes de las muestras identificadas como hueso o médula ósea procesadas en el laboratorio de Bacteriología del Hospital México, obtenidas de pacientes con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis durante los años 2013 y 2014.Mediante este estudio se pretende instaurar un precedente epidemiológico y etiológico con datos costarricenses que sirva de base para futuras investigaciones y/o protocolos de tratamiento.

AbstractOsteomyelitis is a progressive bone infection resulting from a destructive inflammatory process followed by new bone formation. It's the result of direct or indirect inoculation of a microorganism, infection by adjacent tissues or hematogenous dissemination. This process can evolve in days or weeks and can progress to a chronic infection with osteonecrosis, bone loss and/or fistula formation.This study will show the bacteriological reports and antibiotic sensitivity test of the most common pathogens in samples identified as bone or bone marrow processed in the Bacteriology Laboratory of Hospital Mexico obtained from patients with diagnosis of osteomyelitis during 2013 and 2014.The objective with this study is to establish an epidemiological and etiological precedent with costarrican data that can be used as background for future investigations and/or treatment protocols.

Humans , Male , Female , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Costa Rica
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 178-183, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840951


The aim of this study is evaluate the efficacy of 904 nm laser diode in bone regeneration in the bone defect in diabetic rats. Six groups of 10 male Wistar rats and 2 mm bone defects drilled on the left and right tibia were used. The diabetic animals were treated with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, i.v.). We compared the diode laser doses of treatment of bone defects 50 w ­ 4 J/cm and 100 w ­ 4J/. The right tibia was used for immunohistochemical analysis with the apoptosis markers XIAP and Caspase-3 and the left tibia was submitted to computer tomography (CT). Caspase-3 marker showed greater amount of apoptosis in all the untreated groups compared to both laser treatments. There was no statistical significance for XIAP marker. CT scan showed improvement of bone defect area and volume in both laser treated groups, control and diabetic. Therefore the low intensity laser therapy was effective in accelerating bone repair in both, control and diabetic groups. It was evidenced in our study that diabetes influences bone repair negatively.

Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar la eficacia del láser diodo de 904 nm en la regeneración ósea del defecto óseo en ratas diabéticas. Se utilizaron seis grupos de 10 ratas Wistar macho y se generó un defecto óseo de 2 mm en las tibias izquierda y derecha de los animales. El animal diabético fue generado con estreptozotocina (40 mg / kg, i.v.). Se compararon las dosis de tratamiento de los defectos óseos con láser de diodo de 50 w - 4 J / cm y 100w - 4 J /. La tibia derecha fue utilizada para el análisis inmunohistoquímico con los marcadores de apoptosis XIAP y Caspasa-3 y la tibia izquierda fue sometida a tomografía computarizada. El marcador caspasa-3 mostró mayor cantidad de apoptosis en todos los grupos no tratados en comparación con ambos tratamientos con láser. No hubo significación estadística para el marcador XIAP. La tomografía computarizada mostró una mejoría del área y el volumen de los defectos óseos en ambos grupos tratados con láser, control y diabéticos. Por lo tanto, la terapia con láser de baja intensidad fue eficaz en la aceleración de la reparación ósea tanto en los grupos control como en los diabéticos. Se evidenció en nuestro estudio que la diabetes afecta negativamente la reparación ósea.

Animals , Male , Rats , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone and Bones/radiation effects , Diabetes Mellitus , Low-Level Light Therapy , Apoptosis , Bone Regeneration/radiation effects , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Tibia/pathology , Tibia/radiation effects
Acta cir. bras ; 31(6): 364-370, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785015


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To compare bone healing in mandibular vertical body osteotomies (MVBO) after fixation with a resorbable 2.0mm-profile fixation system in the first and third postoperative months in rabbits. METHODS: Twenty hemimandibles of ten rabbits were divided into two groups according to duration of resorbable fixation-one or three months. The MVBOs were performed and one four-hole, resorbable, 2.0mm mini-plate fixation system was used on each side. The computed tomography (CT) scans, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and histomorphometric outcomes of groups I and II were compared. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between the one- and three- month assessments in terms of newly formed bone ratio values (p<0.05). There was more new bone formation at the third month on both the CT and histomorphometric examinations. A better adaptation of the bone tissues to the resorbable mini-plate and screws was observed on SEM at three months. CONCLUSION: The resorbable mini-plates provided a fixation stable enough to allow immediate oral alimentation and callus formation in both groups.

Animals , Female , Rabbits , Wound Healing/physiology , Internal Fixators , Absorbable Implants , Mandibular Osteotomy/rehabilitation , Osteogenesis/physiology , Postoperative Period , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone and Bones/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Models, Animal , Mandibular Osteotomy/instrumentation
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(2): 130-137, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782160


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate, in rat offspring, bone changes induced by excess maternal thyroxin during pregnancy and lactation, and to assess the reversibility of these changes after weaning. Material and methods Twenty Wistar rats were distributed in two groups, hyperthyroid and control, that were treated daily with L-thyroxin (50 mcg/animal) and placebo, respectively. The treatment was initiated seven days before mating and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. From every female of each of the two groups, two offspring were euthanized after birth, two at 21 days of age (weaning), and two at 42 days of age (21 days after weaning). In newborns, the length of pelvic and thoracic limbs were measured, and in the other animals, the length and width of the femur and humerus were measured. Bones were dissected, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, and analyzed histomorphometrically. Results Excess maternal thyroxin significantly reduced the length of the pelvic limb in neonates. In 21-day-old individuals, excess maternal thyroxine reduced the length and the width of the femur and the humerus. It also increased thickness of the epiphyseal plate and the percentage of trabecular bone tissue. In 42-day-old individuals, there were no significant differences between groups in relation to the parameters evaluated in the previous periods. Conclusion Excess maternal thyroxine reduced growth in suckling rats both at birth and at weaning, and it also increased the percentage of trabecular bone tissue in 21-day-old animals. These changes, however, were reversible at 42 days, i.e., 21 days after weaning. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2016;60(2):130-7.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Thyroxine/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone and Bones/pathology , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Thyroxine/metabolism , Time Factors , Weaning , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Lactation/drug effects , Age Factors , Rats, Wistar , Animals, Newborn/growth & development
Int. j. morphol ; 34(1): 291-297, Mar. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780508


This study aims to observe the 3-D structural changes in subchondral bone and the effects of bisphosphonate intervention in the early unsteady stage of the knee joint. Sixty healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into the model group (n= 24), the bisphosphonate (Bis) group (n= 24), and the control group (n= 12). The rabbits' right knees were used to evaluate the structural changes. The Bis group received subcutaneous injections of bisphosphonate, while the model and control groups received subcutaneous injections of isotonic saline solution. After surgical preparation, the knee joint was dissected for Micro-CT examination, and the Micro-CT results were compared using ANOVA. In the fourth postoperative week, the bone volume fraction (BVF), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the model group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the Bis and control groups. In the twelfth postoperative week, BVF, Tb.Th, and Tb.N of the model group were significantly higher than those of the control and Bis groups (P <0.05). Similarly, bone mineral density was higher in the model group (P <0.01), while the trabecular spacing was significantly lower (P <0.05). In the early unsteady stage of the knee joint, the subchondral bone had markedly decreased, while obvious bone formation was visible in the late stage. Bisphosphonates could protect the subchondral bone structure by inhibiting bone absorption.

El objetivo fue observar los cambios estructurales en 3-D del hueso subcondral y los efectos de la intervención con bifosfonatos en la etapa temprana de la inestabilidad de la articulación de la rodilla. Sesenta conejos blancos New Zealand machos sanos se dividieron en tres grupos: modelo (n= 24), bisfosfonato (Bis) (n= 24) y control (n= 12). Las rodillas derechas de los conejos se utilizaron para evaluar los cambios estructurales. El grupo Bis recibió inyecciones subcutáneas de bisfosfonato, mientras que los grupos modelo y control recibieron inyecciones subcutáneas de solución salina isotónica. Después de la preparación quirúrgica, la articulación de la rodilla fue disecada para su análisis mediante micro-TC, y los resultados se compararon mediante ANOVA. En la cuarta semana postoperatoria, la fracción del volumen óseo (GVF), el número trabecular (Tb.N) y el espesor trabecular (Tb.Th) del grupo modelo fueron significativamente más bajos que los del grupo control (P <0,01). No hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos control y Bis. En la semana 12 postoperatoria, BVF, Tb.Th, y Tb.N del grupo modelo fueron significativamente mayores que los del grupo control y Bis (P <0,05). Del mismo modo, la densidad mineral ósea fue mayor en el grupo modelo (P <0,01), mientras que la separación trabecular fue significativamente menor (<0,05 P). En la etapa inestable temprana de la articulación de la rodilla, el hueso subcondral disminuyó notablemente, mientras que la formación ósea obvia fue visible en la etapa tardía. Los bisfosfonatos podrían proteger la estructura ósea subcondral mediante la inhibición de la absorción ósea.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Diphosphonates/administration & dosage , Osteoarthritis/diagnostic imaging , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , X-Ray Microtomography/methods , Bone and Bones/pathology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Osteoarthritis/pathology
Actual. osteol ; 12(3): 215-220, 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1371450


La cirugía bariátrica es un recurso terapéutico cuyo uso para el manejo de la obesidad mórbida crece rápidamente. La intervención induce varios cambios en el perfil hormono-metabólico de los pacientes: disminuye la absorción de calcio, caen los niveles de vitamina D, se produce un hiperparatiroidismo secundario que acelera el recambio óseo, aumentan algunas citoquinas como la adiponectina, el GLP-1 y la esclerostina, y disminuyen otras como la leptina, la ghrelina, el GIP y la amilina. El estradiol cae por disminución de la aromatización periférica de la testosterona. Hay disminución de la carga mecánica en el esqueleto, especialmente en los miembros inferiores. Todo esto lleva a pérdida de la masa ósea, que es variable y más marcada en el fémur proximal que en la columna. El riesgo de fractura aumenta, aunque no todas las series lo han demostrado. Los pacientes con marcada disminución del peso corporal poscirugía deberían ser controlados, procurandoun buen aporte de calcio y otros nutrientes, la suplementación con vitamina D y el monitoreo de la densitometría ósea. (AU)

Bariatric surgery is a therapeutic resource for the management of morbid obesity; its use is growing rapidly. The intervention induces several changes in the hormonal and metabolic profile of patients: decreased calcium absorption, falling levels of vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism which accelerates bone turnover; increased level of some cytokines such as adiponectin, GLP-1 and sclerostin, and decreased levels of others such as leptin, ghrelin, GIP and amylin. Estradiol falls due to decreased peripheral aromatization of testosterone. There is a decrease in the mechanical load on the skeleton, especially in the lower limbs. All this leads to loss of bone mass, which is variable and more marked in the proximal femur than in the spine. The risk of fracture increases, although it has not been shown in all series. Patients with marked decrease in body weight after bariatric surgery should be controlled carefully to insure a good supply of calcium and other nutrients, vitamin D supplementation, and the monitoring of bone mineral density. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone Resorption/physiopathology , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Vitamin D Deficiency , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/prevention & control , Bone Resorption/etiology , Bone Density , Risk Factors , Calcium Deficiency , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/physiopathology , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/etiology , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/physiopathology , Obesity/surgery
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 29(2): 168-177, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949699


Bisphosphonates are the first choice therapy for the pharmaco logical treatment of osteoporosis. Following reports of cases of bisphosphonaterelated osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fracture, the safety of longterm use of bisphosphonates has been evaluated, resulting in the proposal of strontium as an alternative drug. No experimental study using a sequential administration design has been reported to date. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on bone tissue of ovariectomized rats of administration of alendronate followed by strontium ranelate. Fortyeight female Wistar rats were ovariectomized on day 1 of the experiment. Beginning on day 30, they were administered 0.3 mg/kg/week of alendronate (ALN) or vehicle (VEH) for 8 weeks. Two groups (ALN and corresponding control) were euthanized at this time, and the remaining animals were divided into 4 groups and given 290 mg/kg/day of strontium ranelate (SR) in their drinking water (TW) or only water for 4 months. Experimental groups were: ALN+SR, ALN+TW, VEH+SR, VEH+TW, ALN and VEH. The tibiae and hemimandibles were resected for histomorphometric evaluation, and the right femur was used to perform biomechanical studies. ANOVA and Bonferroni test were applied. Diaphyseal stiffness, maximum elastic load and fracture load increased in animals that received alendronate, regardless of whether or not they received subsequent SR treatment. Fracture load also increased in VEH+ SR versus control (VEH+TW). Subchondral and interradicular bone volumes were significantly higher in animals that received ALN than in those that received vehicle. No difference was observed in cortical area or thickness of the tibia among treatments. The results obtained with the model presented here, evaluating tibial and mandibular interradicular bone, showed that the combination of ALN and SR and administration of ALN alone are equally effective in preventing bone loss associated with ovariectomyinduced estrogen depletion.

Si bien la primera opción terapéutica para el tratamiento farmacológico de la osteoporosis son los bisfosfonatos (BPs), luego de los primeros reportes en 2003 de los casos de osteone crosis de mandíbula asociada al uso de dichas drogas y las fracturas atípicas de fémur, se ha evaluado su seguridad a largo plazo. Además, en aquellos pacientes que no responden al tratamiento con BPs y mantienen elevado el riesgo de fractura, es necesario suspender su administración y alternar con otras drogas. Una de las que se ha utilizado en la clínica luego del tratamiento con BPs es el ranelato de estroncio (SR). Existen varios trabajos clínicos que reportan los efectos de la administra ción secuencial de ambas drogas, aunque estudios experi men tales con un diseño secuencial aun no se han reportado. Por ello el objetivo de este trabajo ha sido evaluar el efecto de la administración secuencial de alendronato, seguido de ranelato de estroncio sobre el tejido óseo de ratas ovariectomizadas. Se utilizaron 48 ratas Wistar hembras de dos meses de edad divididas en 6 grupos de 8 animales cada uno. El día 1 de experiencia todas fueron ovariectomizadas. El día 30 se comenzó con la administración de alendronato (ALN) en una dosis de 0.3 mg/kg/semana o vehículo (VEH) durante 8 semanas. Luego de este período se sacrificaron dos grupos (uno que recibió ALN y su correspondiente control (sólo vehículo). Los cuatro grupos restantes continuaron con ranelato de estroncio (SR) en el agua de bebida durante 4 meses en una dosis de 290 mg/kg/día o sólo agua corriente( TW) Luego de ese período fueron eutanasiados. Así, los grupos experimentales conformados fueron: ALN+SR, ALN+TW, VEH+SR, VEH+TW, ALN y VEH. Para los estudios histomorfométricos se extrajeron ambas tibias y hemimandíbulas; para el estudio biomecánico se utilizó el fémur derecho. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante el test de ANOVA y el test de Bonferroni. Incrementaron significativamente la rigidez diafisaria, la carga elástica límite y la carga de fractura aquellos grupos que recibieron alendronato versus aquellos que no lo recibieron, independientemente del tratamiento posterior con SR. La carga de fractura además fue mayor en el grupo VEH+SR versus el control (VEH+TW). En cuanto al volumen óseo subcondral e interradicular evaluado histomorfométricamente fue significativamente mayor en aquellos animales que recibieron ALN versus aquellos que recibieron vehículo. No se detectaron diferencias entre aquellos grupos que recibieron SR y sus controles. El área y espesor cortical de la tibia no mostraron diferencias entre grupos. Los resultados obtenidos en el modelo estudiado tanto a nivel del volumen óseo subcondral y cortical de la tibia como a nivel del hueso interradicular del maxilar inferior, mostraron que la combinación de ALN con SR y la administración aislada de ALN son igualmente efectivas para prevenir la pérdida ósea causada por la depleción estrogénica de la ovariectomía.

Animals , Female , Rats , Thiophenes/administration & dosage , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Alendronate/administration & dosage , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone and Bones/physiopathology , Bone and Bones/pathology , Ovariectomy , Rats, Wistar
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757883


Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 28 años, con tratamiento ortodóncico activo, que acudió a consulta odontológica por motivos estéticos. Luego del examen intraoral se le diagnosticó agrandamiento gingival y exostosis maxilar. El plan de tratamiento consistió en cirugía estética periodontal y exéresis de la exostosis. Durante el tratamiento quirúrgico se tomaron muestras de encía, saliva y hueso alveolar, previo consentimiento informado. Una vez procesadas las muestras se midieron las concentraciones de níquel en ng/ml mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica; el promedio de dichas concentraciones en cada una de las muestras fueron: 986,4 ng/ml en saliva, 779,5 ng/ml en hueso y 620,5 ng/ml para el caso de la encía. La acumulación de níquel evidenciada en cada una de las muestras resulta de especial interés, pues la exposición a metales contenidos en la aparatología ortodóncica constituye actualmente un importante tema de investigación.

A case is reported of a 28-year-old female patient, with active orthodontic treatment, who was treated in the dental practice for aesthetic reasons. The diagnosis was gingival overgrowth, induced by orthodontic treatment, and maxillary exostosis. The treatment consisted of periodontal cosmetic surgery and removing the exostosis. During surgery, samples of gingiva, saliva and alveolar bone were obtained. Before take the samples, the patient signed an informed consent. Nickel concentrations in ng/mL were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean nickel concentration in the samples were: 986.4 ng/ml in saliva, 779.5 ng/ml in alveolar bone, and 620.5 ng/ml in the case of gingiva. The high accumulation of nickel observed in each sample type is of particular interest because exposure to metals contained in orthodontic appliances is currently an important public health problem in dentistry.

Humans , Adult , Female , Orthodontic Appliances/adverse effects , Nickel/analysis , Nickel/adverse effects , Bioaccumulation , Gingiva/pathology , Gingiva/chemistry , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone and Bones/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Saliva/chemistry
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(3): 352-359, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-725504


Introdução: Os distúrbios mineral e ósseo (DMO) são encontrados com frequência em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC) e são causa importante de morbidade e mortalidade nessa população. São escassos na literatura estudos que avaliam a prevalência dos tipos de alterações histológicas no tecido ósseo e suas associações com desfechos clínicos, como fraturas, hospitalização, doença cardiovascular e mortalidade. Os estudos epidemiológicos dos DMO-DRC podem ser facilitados pela criação de registros. O Registro Brasileiro de Biópsias Ósseas (REBRABO) será uma base de dados coordenada pelo Comitê DMO-DRC da Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia. Objetivo: Descrever o desenho, banco de dados e metodologia do REBRABO. Métodos: Será uma base de dados eletrônica online, envolvendo informações nacionais, observacionais, multicêntricas retrospectivas (1ª fase), e prospectivas (2ª fase), contendo dados demográficos, clínicos, laboratoriais e de histologia óssea, obtidos por meio da técnica de histomorfometria em pacientes com DMO-DRC; serão empregadas análises estatísticas de relação e comparação para identificar possíveis associações entre os DMODRC e desfechos clínicos, incluindo fraturas, hospitalizações e mortalidade. Resultados: A primeira fase do REBRABO revelará análise de informações demográficas, clínicas, laboratoriais e de histologia do tecido ósseo de janeiro/1986 até dezembro/2013, cujos Resultados são esperados no primeiro semestre de 2015. Conclusão: Existe a necessidade de estudos que avaliem a prevalência, associações entre variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas, laboratoriais ...

Introduction: Mineral bone disorder (MBD) is a common condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Data involving prevalence of alterations in bone histological patterns, impact of different treatments and its repercussion in outcomes, such as bone fractures, hospitalization, cardiovascular disease and mortality, are scarce. Data bank registry can be a valuable tool to understand epidemiological aspects of MBD CKD. The Brazilian Registry of Bone Biopsy (REBRABO) will be a national registry, coordinating by the Brazilian Society of Nephrology - Committee of MBD-CKD. Objective: To describe REBRABO's design, elements of data and methodology. Methods: Will be an online national observational and multicentric data registry divided in two phases (retrospective, 1st phase) and prospective (2nd phase), including information from bone tissue histomorphometric analysis and demographics, clinical and laboratorial data from CKD-MBD patients. Results: The REBRABO's first phase will explore data on demographics, clinical, laboratorial and bone histomorphometric analysis data from January/1986 to December/2013. The first Results are expected in early 2015. Conclusion: Studies in the field of CKD-MBD are needed, particularly those analyzing its prevalence, associations between demographic, clinical, histological parameters, and major outcomes. The REBRABO will be a unique retrospective and prospective research platform including bone biopsy data in CKD-MBD patients. .

Humans , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/pathology , Bone and Bones/pathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Registries , Biopsy , Brazil , Records , Research Design