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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6030-6038, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008801

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the correlation between rhizosphere soil microorganisms of wild Arnebia euchroma and the content of medicinal components to provide guidance for the selection of the ecological planting base. The total DNA of rhizosphere soil microorganisms of wild A. euchroma was extracted, and the microbial community structure of rhizosphere soil microorganisms was analyzed by IlluminaMiseq high-throughput sequencing technology. The content of total hydroxynaphthoquinone pigment and β,β'-dimethylacrylalkannin in medicinal materials was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The physicochemical pro-perties of rhizosphere soil of wild A. euchroma in main producing areas were determined, and the correlation of soil microbial abundance with index component content and soil physicochemical properties was analyzed by SPSS software. The results showed that the species composition of rhizosphere fungi and bacteria in A. euchroma from different habitats was similar at the phylum and genus levels, but their relative abundance, richness index(Chao1), and community diversity(Simpson) index were different. Correlation analysis showed that the content of available phosphorus in soil was positively correlated with the content of total hydroxynaphthoquinone pigment and β,β'-dimethylacrylalkannin, and the abundance of five fungal genera such as Solicoccozyma and six bacterial genera such as Pseudo-nocardia and Bradyrhizobium was positively correlated with the content of medicinal components in medicinal materials. The abundance of Bradyrhizobium was significantly positively correlated with the content of β,β'-dimethylacrylalkanin. The abundance of fungi such as Archaeorhizomyces was significantly positively correlated with the content of available phosphorus in rhizosphere soil, and Bradyrhizobium was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH. Therefore, the abundance of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere of A. euchroma has a certain correlation with the medicinal components and the physicochemical properties of the rhizosphere soil, which can provide a scientific basis for the selection of ecological planting bases in the later stage.


Subject(s)
Rhizosphere , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , Phosphorus , Soil , Boraginaceae
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5049-5055, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008675

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effect and mechanism of acetylalkannin from Arnebia euchroma on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human melanoma A375 cells. A375 cells were divided into a blank group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose acetylalkannin groups(0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μmol·L~(-1)). The MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation. Cell scratch and transwell migration assays were used to detect cell migration ability, and the transwell invasion assay was used to detect cell invasion ability. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of migration and invasion-related N-cadherin, vimentin, matrix metalloproteina-se-9(MMP-9), and Wnt/β-catenin pathway-related Wnt1, Axin2, glycogen synthase kinase-3β(GSK-3β), phosphorylated GSK-3β(p-GSK-3β), β-catenin, cell cycle protein D_1(cyclin D_1), and p21. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction(real-time PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2), N-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, snail-1, and CD44. MTT results showed that the cell inhibition rates in the acetylalkannin groups significantly increased as compared with that in the blank group(P<0.01). The results of cell scratch and transwell assays showed that compared with the blank group, the acetylalkannin groups showed reduced cell migration and invasion, and migration and invasion rates(P<0.05, P<0.01) and weakened horizontal and vertical migration and invasion abilities. Western blot results showed that compared with the blank group, the high-dose acetylalkannin group showed increased expression of Axin2 protein(P<0.05), and decreased expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, MMP-9, Wnt1, p-GSK-3β, β-catenin, cyclin D_1, and p21 proteins(P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression of GSK-3β protein did not change significantly. PCR results showed that the overall trend of MMP-2, N-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, snail-1, and CD44 mRNA expression was down-regulated(P<0.01), and the expression of E-cadherin mRNA increased(P<0.01). Acetylalkannin can inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human melanoma A375 cells, and its mechanism of action may be related to the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , beta Catenin/metabolism , Vimentin/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Cadherins/genetics , Melanoma/genetics , Cyclin D/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Boraginaceae/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Cell Movement
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(6): 771-785, nov. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554693

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light on anatomy, physiology and essential oil content and composition of Varronia curassavica. They were analysed two light conditions (full sunlight and protected environment with 50% shade screen) and five accessions (VCUR-101, VCUR-102, VCUR-201, VCUR-302, VCUR-802). V. curassavica cultivated in full sun presented a greater development of the leaf blade and palisade parenchyma thickness for all accessions. Chlorophyll levels did not differ according to the two light environments. The leaf area was larger in the protected environment. The essential oil yield of the accessions ranged from 0.26 to 0.87 mL/plant in full sun and from 0.34 to 0.53 mL/plant in the protected environment. The composition of the essential oil was influenced by the light and the accession. All accessions presented (E)-caryophyllene and α-humulene. The influence of light on the evaluated variables is genotype dependent.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la luz sobre la anatomía, fisiología, el contenido y composición de aceites esenciales de Varronia curassavica. Se analizaron dos condiciones de luz (pleno sol y ambiente protegido con 50% de pantalla de sombra) y cinco accesiones (VCUR-101, VCUR-102, VCUR-201, VCUR-302, VCUR-802). V. curassavica cultivada a pleno sol presentó mayor desarrollo del limbo foliar y espesor del parénquima en empalizada para todas las accesiones. Los niveles de clorofila no difirieron según los dos entornos de luz. El área foliar fue mayor en el ambiente protegido. El rendimiento de aceite esencial de las accesiones varió de 0,26 a 0,87 mL/planta a pleno sol y de 0,34 a0,53 mL/planta en el ambiente protegido. La composición del aceite esencial fue influenciada por la luz y la accesión. Todas las accesiones presentaron (E)-cariofileno y α-humuleno. La influencia de la luz sobre las variables evaluadas depende del genotipo.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Lighting , Boraginaceae/growth & development , Boraginaceae/physiology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Chlorophyll/analysis
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 672-686, nov. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369988

ABSTRACT

Varronia curassavica has anti-inflammatory properties because of the terpenes, α-humulene and ß-caryophyllene, present in the essential oil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of seasonality on the essential oil of V. curassavica accessions. Leaves from six accessions were collected from the Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Minas Gerais over 12 months. Correlations between the essential oil content and meteorological factors were determined. Gas chromatography analysis coupled with mass spectrometry was conducted to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. The content and chemical composition of the oil varied throughout the year. Relative humidity was correlated with accessions ICA-VC2 (-0.64) and ICA-VC4 (0.68). ß-bourbonene, ß-elemene, spathulenol, germacrene, caryophyllene oxide, α-humulene, and ß-caryophyllene occurred in all accessions. Accession ICA-VC3 exhibited lower variation (22.17%), higher average (0.97%) essential oil, and maintained an average abundance of α-humulene greater than 2.6%, which is the amount necessary for phytotherapeutics.


Varronia curassavica tiene propiedades antiinflamatorias debido a los terpenos, α-humuleno y ß-cariofileno, presentes en el aceite esencial. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de la estacionalidad en el aceite esencial de las accesiones de V. curassavica. Se recolectaron hojas de seis accesiones del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais durante 12 meses. Se determinaron las correlaciones entre el contenido de aceite esencial y los factores meteorológicos. Se realizó un análisis de cromatografía de gases junto con espectrometría de masas para determinar la composición química del aceite esencial. El contenido y la composición química del aceite varió a lo largo del año. La humedad relativa se correlacionó con las accesiones ICA-VC2 (-0,64) e ICA-VC4 (0,68). En todas las accesiones aparecieron ß-bourboneno, ß-elemeno, espatulenol, germacreno, óxido de cariofileno, α-humuleno y ß-cariofileno. La accesión ICA-VC3 mostró una menor variación (22,17%), un promedio más alto (0,97%) de aceite esencial y mantuvo una abundancia media de α-humuleno superior al 2,6%, que es la cantidad necesaria para los fitoterápicos.


Subject(s)
Seasons , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Boraginaceae/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Temperature , Seed Bank , Monocyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Humidity
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 650-656, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153376

ABSTRACT

Abstract Light is considered a factor that influences the seed germination of many weed species, and it can signal whether the environmental conditions are favorable or are not favorable for germination. We aimed to study if there is an influence of light quality and dormancy overcoming in seed germination of Echium plantagineum L. We carried out a 2 x 6 factorial experiment, with and without dormancy overcoming with potassium nitrate followed by immersion in gibberellic acid; six light qualities, obtained through the light filters: blue, green, red, far-red, white light and absence of light. The evaluations performed were germination speed index (GSI), average germination time (AGT), germination at the four and 14 days after seeding (DAS), accumulated germination and relative frequency of germination. We observed significant interaction among the light qualities and seed dormancy overcoming or not for the studied variables. There was no significant effect of light qualities, in the evaluated variables, when performing dormancy overcoming, presenting germination above 90% in all the light qualities. However, without dormancy overcoming, we observed greater GSI, germination at four and 14 DAS for the red light filter with 5, 4, 29 and 45%, respectively. When the seeds were submitted to the absence of light, and without dormancy overcoming, there was only 7% of germination at 14 DAS. The seeds of E. plantagineum presented greater germination under incidence of red light, without dormancy overcoming, being classified as preferably positively photoblastics, provided that the dormancy is not overcome.


Resumo A luz é considerada um fator que influencia a germinação das sementes de muitas espécies de plantas daninhas, podendo sinalizar se as condições ambientais são favoráveis ou não para a germinação. Objetivou-se estudar se há influência da qualidade da luz e superação de dormência na germinação de sementes de Echium plantagineum L. Realizou-se um experimento fatorial 2 x 6, com e sem superação de dormência com nitrato de potássio seguido pela imersão em ácido giberélico; seis qualidades de luz, obtidas através de filtros de luz: azul, verde, vermelho, vermelho-distante, luz branca e ausência de luz. As avaliações realizadas foram índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG), tempo médio de germinação (TMG), germinação aos quatro e 14 dias após a semeadura (DAS), germinação acumulada e frequência relativa de germinação. Observou-se interação significativa entre as qualidades de luz e a superação ou não de dormência das sementes para as variáveis estudadas. Não houve efeito significativo das qualidades de luz, nas variáveis avaliadas, ao realizar superação de dormência, apresentando germinação acima de 90% em todas as qualidades de luz. Todavia, sem superação de dormência, observou-se maior IVG, germinação aos quatro e 14 DAS para o filtro de luz vermelha com 5,4, 29 e 45%, respectivamente. Quando as sementes foram submetidas à ausência de luz, e sem superação de dormência, houve apenas 7% de germinação aos 14 DAS. As sementes de E. plantagineum apresentam maior germinação sob incidência de luz vermelha, sem superação de dormência, sendo classificadas como fotoblásticas positivas preferenciais, desde que não seja superada a dormência.


Subject(s)
Boraginaceae , Echium , Seeds , Germination , Plant Dormancy
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2182-2189, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879176

ABSTRACT

Carboxyl CoA ligases(CCLs) is an important branch of adenylate synthetase gene family, which mainly has two-step catalytic reactions. Firstly, in the presence of adenosine triphosphate, it can catalyze the pyrophosphorylation of carboxylateswith diffe-rent structures to form corresponding acyl adenosine monophosphate intermediates. Secondly, adenosine monophosphate was replaced by free electrons in the mercaptan group of enzyme A or other acyl receptors by nucleophilic attack to form thioesters. In this study, on the basis of the transcriptome database of Arnebia euchroma, two genes were selected, named AeCCL5(XP_019237476.1) and AeCCL7(XP_019237476.1). Bioinformatics analysis showed that their relative molecular weights were 60.569 kDa and 60.928 kDa, theoretical PI were 8.59 and 8.92, respectively. They both have transmembrane domains but without signal peptide. By multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis, we found that the similarity between AeCCLs and other plant homologous proteins was not high, and the substrate binding sites of AeCCLs were not highly conserved. The reasons might be that the sequence and structure need to adapt to the changes of new substrates in the process of evolution. In this study, the full-length of AeCCL5 and AecCCL7 were cloned into the expression vector pCDFDuet-1. The proteins of AeCCL5 and AeCCL7 with His-tag were expressed in Escherichia coli. The proteins of AeCCL5 and AeCCL7 were purified by nickel column. In vitro enzymatic reactions proved that both AeCCL5 and AeCCL7 can participate in the upstream phenylpropane pathway of shikonin biosynthesisby catalyzing 4-coumaric acid to produce 4-coumarin-CoA, and then to synthesis p-hydroxybenzoic acid, which is an important precursor of shikonin biosynthesis in A. euchroma.


Subject(s)
Boraginaceae/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Coenzyme A , Coenzyme A Ligases/genetics , Ligases , Phylogeny
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 86-93, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878915

ABSTRACT

Caffeic acid and its oligomers are the main water-soluble active constituents of the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) Arnebiae Radix. These compounds possess multiple biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardiovascular protective, liver protective, anti-liver fibrosis, antiviral and anticancer activities. The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is responsible for the biosynthesis of caffeic acid and its oligomers. Glycosylation can change phenylpropanoid solubility, stability and toxic potential, as well as influencing compartmentalization and biological activity. In view of the important role played by de-glycosylation in the regulation of phenylpropanoid homeostasis, the biosynthesis of caffeic acid and its oligomers are supposed to be under the control of relative UDP-glycosyltransferases(UGTs). Through the data mining of Arnebia euchroma transcriptome, we cloned 15 full-length putative UGT genes. After recombinant expression using the prokaryotic system, the crude enzyme solution of the putative UGTs was examined for the glycosylation activities towards caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid in vitro. AeUGT_01, AeUGT_02, AeUGT_03, AeUGT_04 and AeUGT_10 were able to glycosylate caffeic acid and/or rosmarinic acid resulting in different mono-and/or di-glycosylated products in the UPLC-MS analyses. The characterized UGTs were distantly related to each other and divided into different clades of the phylogenetic tree. Based on the observation that each characterized UGT exhibited substrate or catalytic similarity with the members in their own clade, we supposed the glycosylation abilities towards caffeic acid and/or rosmarinic acid were evolved independently in different clades. The identification of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid UGTs from A. euchroma could lead to deeper understanding of the caffeic acid oligomers biosynthesis and its regulation. Furthermore, these UGTs might be used for regiospecific glycosylation of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Boraginaceae/genetics , Caffeic Acids , Chromatography, Liquid , Cinnamates , Cloning, Molecular , Depsides , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Phylogeny , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3422-3431, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828429

ABSTRACT

In this study, based on the transcriptome database of suspension cells of Arnebia euchroma, we explored two candidate cytochrome P450 enzyme genes that might relate to the shikonin biosynthesis downstream pathway when CYP76B74 sequence was referenced. We constructed interference-type hairy roots of candidate genes and cultured them. We measured the fresh weight, dry weight, total naphthoquinone content, shikonin and its derivatives content and expression levels of key enzyme genes involved in shikonin biosynthesis pathway. The effects of candidate genes on the growth and shikonin production of A. euchroma hairy roots were discussed, and the possible regulatory mechanisms that candidate genes affected shikonin synthesis were discussed. Through local Blast and phylogenetic analysis, two candidate CYP450 genes(CYP76B75 and CYP76B100) with high homology to CYP76B74 in A. euchroma were screened, and corresponding interference hairy roots were constructed. Compared with the control(RNAi-control), the fresh weight of CYP76B75 interfered hairy root(RNAi-CYP76B75) and CYP76B100 interfered hairy root(RNAi-CYP76B100) were significantly reduced, while dry weight were not affected, so the dry rate increased significantly. Except for β-acetoxyisovalerylalkannin, which is high in three groups of hairy roots, the contents of shikonin, deoxyshikonin, acetylshikonin, β,β'-dimethacrylicalkannin, β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin,β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin, isobutyrylshikonin and total naphthoquinones showed a consistent pattern: RNAi-CYP76B75>RNAi-CYP76B100>RNAi-control. Among them, the synthesis of β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin was most significantly promoted by interfering with the expression of CYP76B75. The content of β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin in RNAi-CYP76B75 was 11.7 times that of RNAi-control. RESULTS:: of real-time qPCR analysis showed that compared to RNAi-control, the expression levels of AePGT gene in RNAi-CYP76B75 and RNAi-CYP76B100 were not changed significantly, and the expression levels of CYP76B74 and AeHMGR were up-regulated. In addition, the expression level of CYP76B100 in RNAi-CYP76B75 was down-regulated, whereas in RNAi-CYP76B100, the expression of CYP76B75 was significantly up-regulated. Therefore, this study confirmed that when the expression of CYP76B75 and CYP76B100 were interrupted, the growth of hairy roots were suppressed, but the synthesis of shikonin were promoted. They might increase the shikonin biosynthesis by up-regulating the expression of CYP76B74 in the hairy roots of A. euchroma.


Subject(s)
Boraginaceae , Genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Naphthoquinones , Phylogeny , Plant Roots , RNA , RNA Interference
9.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 501-508, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761813

ABSTRACT

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural polyphenolic compound that exists in many medicinal species of Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae. The previous studies have revealed that RA had therapeutic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the H22-xenograft models by inhibiting the inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB p65 pathway in the tumor microenvironment. However, its molecular mechanisms of immunoregulation and pro-apoptotic effect in HCC have not been fully explored. In the present study, RA at 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg was given to H22 tumor-bearing mice via gavage once a day for 10 days. The results showed that RA can effectively inhibit the tumor growth through regulating the ratio of CD4⁺/CD8⁺ and the secretion of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon-γ, inhibiting the expressions of IL-6, IL-10 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, thereby up-regulating Bax and Caspase-3 and down-regulating Bcl-2. The underlying mechanisms involved regulation of immune response and induction of HCC cell apoptosis. These results may provide a more comprehensive perspective to clarify the anti-tumor mechanism of RA in HCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apoptosis , Boraginaceae , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Caspase 3 , Cytokines , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Lamiaceae , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Therapeutic Uses , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 59-71, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886898

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Varronia curassavica, a subshrubby medicinal species associated with restinga in the Atlantic Forest, has been exploited by local people and the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, restingas have experienced a continuous process of degradation, and thus, with species and ecosystem both at risk, efforts to support conservation actions are required. The present study aimed to evaluate aspects of V. curassavica reproductive biology. To accomplish this, morphological characterization was performed by monitoring flowering events. The availability of nectar and pollen, as well as the frequency and behavior of floral visitors and dispersers, was also evaluated. This species exhibits both heterostyly and protogyny. Anthesis is diurnal, and flowers last less than a day. The high number of flower and fruit abortions suggests that mechanisms, such as self-incompatibility intra-morphs and easily detached flowers, contribute to reduced fruit production. The high diversity of floral visitors indicate a generalist pollination syndrome. Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera were the main pollinators, and nectar was the main resource sought by these insects. Fruits were dispersed by birds and ants. It can be concluded that the interaction of V. curassavica with several species is a key factor in its own survival and for maintaining the biological diversity of restinga.


Subject(s)
Boraginaceae/anatomy & histology , Boraginaceae/physiology , Flowers/anatomy & histology , Flowers/physiology , Plants, Medicinal/physiology , Reference Values , Reproduction/physiology , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Biodiversity , Pollination/physiology , Plant Dispersal
11.
Mycobiology ; : 192-204, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729779

ABSTRACT

The name Golovinomyces cynoglossi s. lat. is traditionally applied to a complex of morphologically similar powdery mildews on hosts of the plant family Boraginaceae. The current species-level taxonomy within this complex is ambiguous due to the lack of phylogenetic examinations. The present study applied phylogenetic methods to clarify the taxonomy of G. cynoglossi s. lat. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA ITS sequences retrieved from Asian, European and North American specimens revealed that G. cynoglossi s. lat. collections from different hosts involved several species in five clearly separated lineages. Clade I consists primarily of Golovinomyces cynoglossi s. str. on Cynoglossum. Clade III consists of Golovinomyces sequences retrieved from the host genera Symphytum and Pulmonaria. The taxa within clade III are now assigned to G. asperifoliorum comb. nov. Clade V encompasses G. cynoglossi s. lat. on the host genera Bothriospermum, Buglossoides, Echium, Myosotis, and Trigonotis. The taxa within clade V are now assigned to G. asperifolii comb. nov. The species concerned in this study were lecto- and epitypified to stabilize their nomenclature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Asian People , Boraginaceae , Classification , Comb and Wattles , DNA, Ribosomal , Echium , Plants , Pulmonaria
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): e17251, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951906

ABSTRACT

Abstract Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality and disability in industrial countries. Treatment with herbs with antioxidant properties has been reported to be an alternative to the conventional treatments. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Anchusa italica extract on hippocampal injury induced by transient global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in the rat. To do so, 50 rats were randomly assigned to five groups; control, sham, ischemia, and 50 or 100 mg/kg of Anchusa italica treated animals. Ischemia was induced by occlusion of carotid artery for 30 minutes. Afterward, behavioral tests and biochemical analyses were conducted. Induction of ischemia/reperfusion caused a decline in learning and passive avoidance memory in rats. Moreover, Anchusa italica caused an increase in learning and improved the passive avoidance memory. Induction of ischemia/reperfusion caused a decrease in the antioxidant capacity of the brain and serum as well as an increase in the malondialdehyde of the brain and serum. Anchusa italica led to an increase in the antioxidant capacity of the brain and serum and decrease in the malondialdehyde of the brain and serum. Overall, because of its protective effects on spatial memory, passive avoidance learning, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation during ischemia/reperfusion, Anchusa italica might be beneficial in ischemic patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Boraginaceae/adverse effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Spatial Memory/drug effects , Neuroprotection/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/pharmacology
13.
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 6-10, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine if Ehretia microphylla (Tsaang Gubat) decoction tea and placebo can improve the symptoms of mild intermittent allergic rhinitis in comparison to loratadine and control tea.METHODS:Design: Double-Blind, Randomized ControlledTrial Setting: Tertiary-Government Training HospitalParticipants: Twenty-four patients diagnosed with mild intermittent allergic rhinitis from October 2015 to July 2016 were randomly divided into a treatment group given Ehretia microphylla (Tsaang Gubat) decoction tea and placebo, and a control group given control tea and loratadine, both taken for 7 days. Patients underwent pre- and post-intervention evaluation by anterior rhinoscopy, Sino-nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT 22) Questionnaire and 10-point Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Data were encoded and subjected to statistical analysis using Mann Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test.RESULTS: Age and gender of the treatment and control group participants were comparable. Prior to intervention, no differences in symptoms were noted between both groups on SNOT 22 and VAS scores. After intervention, no differences in symptoms were noted between the 2 groups on SNOT 22 and VAS scores either. Comparison of pre- (30.4 ± 17.3) and post- (7.2 ± 6.5) intervention mean SNOT 22 scores of the loratadine control group with pre- (32.5 ± 23.7) and post- (7.8 ± 10.4) intervention mean SNOT 22 scores of the Ehretia Microphylla treatment group showed significant improvement of symptoms in both groups. Likewise, comparison of pre- and post-intervention mean VAS scores of the loratadine control group and pre- and post-intervention mean VAS scores of the Ehretia Microphylla treatment group based on symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and pruritus showed significant improvement of symptoms in both groups (p-values of CONCLUSION: Ehretia microphylla (Tsaang Gubat) decoction tea may improve symptoms of allergic rhinitis (sneezing, rhinorrhea, pruritus and nasal congestion) and be taken as an alternative to loratadine in patients with mild intermittent allergic rhinitis. Further clinical trials with more participants may provide stronger evidence for this conclusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Loratadine , Sneezing , Statistics, Nonparametric , Rhinitis, Allergic , Nose , Benzenesulfonates , Pruritus , Boraginaceae
14.
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 6-10, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961019

ABSTRACT

@#<p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> To determine if Ehretia microphylla (Tsaang Gubat) decoction tea and placebo can improve the symptoms of mild intermittent allergic rhinitis in comparison to loratadine and control tea.<br /><strong>METHODS:</strong><br /><strong>Design:</strong> Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled<br /><strong>Trial Setting:</strong> Tertiary-Government Training Hospital<br /><strong>Participants:</strong> Twenty-four patients diagnosed with mild intermittent allergic rhinitis from October 2015 to July 2016 were randomly divided into a treatment group given Ehretia microphylla (Tsaang Gubat) decoction tea and placebo, and a control group given control tea and loratadine, both taken for 7 days. Patients underwent pre- and post-intervention evaluation by anterior rhinoscopy, Sino-nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT 22) Questionnaire and 10-point Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Data were encoded and subjected to statistical analysis using Mann Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test.<br /><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Age and gender of the treatment and control group participants were comparable. Prior to intervention, no differences in symptoms were noted between both groups on SNOT 22 and VAS scores. After intervention, no differences in symptoms were noted between the 2 groups on SNOT 22 and VAS scores either. Comparison of pre- (30.4 ± 17.3) and post- (7.2 ± 6.5) intervention mean SNOT 22 scores of the loratadine control group with pre- (32.5 ± 23.7) and post- (7.8 ± 10.4) intervention mean SNOT 22 scores of the Ehretia Microphylla treatment group showed significant improvement of symptoms in both groups. Likewise, comparison of pre- and post-intervention mean VAS scores of the loratadine control group and pre- and post-intervention mean VAS scores of the Ehretia Microphylla treatment group based on symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and pruritus showed significant improvement of symptoms in both groups (p-values of < .001).<br /><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Ehretia microphylla (Tsaang Gubat) decoction tea may improve symptoms of allergic rhinitis (sneezing, rhinorrhea, pruritus and nasal congestion) and be taken as an alternative to loratadine in patients with mild intermittent allergic rhinitis. Further clinical trials with more participants may provide stronger evidence for this conclusion.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Loratadine , Sneezing , Statistics, Nonparametric , Rhinitis, Allergic , Nose , Benzenesulfonates , Pruritus , Boraginaceae
15.
Quito; s.n; 2015. 160 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-881303

ABSTRACT

Las plantas contienen numerosos activos hidratantes, nutritivos, antioxidantes, suavizantes y estimulantes, ya sea en la corteza, en las hojas, en la raíz o en los granos. Los avances en materia de extracción y evaluación de los activos vegetales han sido realmente notables en la última década. El proyecto 'Agrocos', financiado con 2,9 millones de euros por la UE, está rastreando el mundo vegetal para encontrar sustitutivos naturales de los ingredientes sintéticos que se utilizan actualmente en los cosméticos. La especie Cordia lutea L. (Muyuyo, nombre originario de la zona litoral, peninsular de la Provincia del Guayas); está dentro de los arbustos que usualmente florecen en condiciones normales en zonas de clima cálido. Es decir, aquellas zonas con inviernos más o menos suaves, libres de frío y de vientos salinos. El muyuyo tiene muchas propiedades medicinales desde la flores, hojas, y frutos. Es conocido que la goma del fruto se la usa como goma arábiga, y para fijar el cabello. De acuerdo a las investigaciones realizadas sobre la composición química del fruto del muyuyo, nos encontramos que; es desconocida, de ahí que nace la importancia y se plantea en realizar su primer estudio fitoquímico, identificándose los metabolitos secundarios como: Lactonas, catequinas, azúcares reductores, saponinas, fenoles, taninos, aminoácidos y mucílagos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Boraginaceae/chemistry , Cosmetics , Hair Preparations , Plants, Medicinal
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4127-4135, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279274

ABSTRACT

This article mainly summarise the results of the chemical compositions and their pharmacological activities of Arnebiae Radix since 1966. The chemistry components isolated from Arnebiae Radix are mainly naphthoquinone, monoterpene phenol and quinone, phenolic acids and their salts, alkaloids, aliphatic and esters. Pharmacological results showed that the chemical compositions and the extracts of Arnebiae Radix have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, hepatoprotection, antioxidant, anti-tumor and immune function and other activities. This article hopefully to provide a reference for further research, development and utilization of Arnebiae Radix.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Boraginaceae , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots , Chemistry
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4442-4445, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279219

ABSTRACT

A method for simultaneous determination of the shikonin, acetyl shikonin and β, β'-dimethylpropene shikonin in Onosma hookeri and the chromatographic fingerprint was estabished by HPLC-DAD on an Agilent Zorbax SB-column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at 0.8 mL x min(-1), 30 degrees C. The quality assessment was conducted by comparing the content difference of three naphthoquinone constituents, in combination with chromatographic fingerprint analysis and systems cluster analysis among 7 batches of radix O. hookeri. The content of the three naphthoquinone constituents showed wide variations in 7 bathces. The similarity value of the fingerprints of sample 5, 6 and 7 was above 0.99, sample 2 and 3 above 0.97, sample 3 and 4 above 0.90, and other samples larger than 0.8, which was in concert with the content of three naphthoquinone constituents. The 7 samples were roughly divided into 4 categories. The results above indicated that the using of this medicine is complex and rather spotty. The established HPLC fingerprints and the quantitative analysis method can be used efficiently for quality assessment of O. hookeri.


Subject(s)
Boraginaceae , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Naphthoquinones , Plant Roots , Chemistry
18.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4): 562-569, out.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-763217

ABSTRACT

RESUMOO conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo é fundamental para a conservação e manejo de uma espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a fenologia da floração, a antese, registrar os insetos visitantes no período de floração, determinar as características morfométricas das flores e o sistema reprodutivo da erva-baleeira, em um ambiente de Cerrado do Norte de Minas Gerais. Entre maio a dezembro de 2012 foi caracterizado o comportamento fenológico da floração. Na análise da fenologia floral foi determinado: o crescimento da inflorescência, o número de flores e frutos por inflorescências. Utilizou-se seis acessos que tiveram dez inflorescências marcadas em cada acesso, totalizando 60 inflorescências. A antese foi determinada utilizando quatro inflorescências em duas plantas. Os visitantes florais foram observados in loco e capturados em três dias consecutivos de coleta. As características morfométricas foram determinadas com paquímetro utilizando 20 flores, sendo cinco flores de quatro acessos. Para determinar o sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O), utilizando 50 flores, sendo 10 flores de cinco acessos em pré-antese. Nas condições de Montes Claros, o crescimento das inflorescências de erva-baleeira ocorreu entre meados de agosto e início de outubro, totalizando 45 dias. O florescimento foi observado entre meados de setembro e final de outubro, enquanto a frutificação ocorreu de meados de outubro a início de dezembro, sendo que ambos ocorreram de forma irregular. A antese floral de erva-baleeira, neste estudo, ocorre entre 7:00 e 11:00 horas. Os insetos visitantes pertencem as ordens Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera e Hymenoptera. As flores apresentaram o diâmetro de 2,13 ± 0,05 (mm), o comprimento de 3,29 ± 0,08 (mm), diâmetro do ovário de 0,70 ± 0,02 (mm), o comprimento do ovário de 2,48 ± 0,12 (mm), o diâmetro da antera de 0,67 ± 0,01(mm) e o comprimento da antera de 0,93 ±0,02 (mm), quatro óvulos e cinco anteras por flor. A razão P:O foi de 576,542, indicando que a espécie é alógama facultativa.


ABSTRACTThe knowledge of the reproductive system is essential for the conservation and management of the species. This study aimed on several procedures, as follows: to describe the phenology of flowering, the anthesis; to record the visiting insects during flowering and to determine the morphometric characteristics of the flowers and the reproductive system of the "erva-baleeira", in an environment of Northern Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais. From May to December 2012, the flowering phenology of six access was characterized. In the analyzes of floral phenology it were determined the growth of the inflorescence and the number of flowers and fruits per inflorescence by using six access which had ten inflorescences marked in each access l, totalizing sixty inflorescences. The anthensis was assessed using four inflorescences in two plants. The flower`s visitors were observed live and captured in three consecutive days of sampling. The morphometric characteristics were determined with a caliper using 20 flowers, with five flowers from four access. In order to determine the reproductive system it was employed a ratiopollen: ovule (P: O) with 50 flowers and 10 of them belonging to five accesses in the pre-anthesis. Under the conditions of Montes Claros, the growth of inflorescences from Cordia occurred between mid-August and early October, totalizing 45 days. The flowering was observed between mid-September and late October, and the fruiting occurred from mid-October to early December. Both phases happened irregularly. The anthesis of the Cordia, in this study, occurred between 7:00 and 11:00 o`clock.. The visiting insects identified were from the orders of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. The flowers exhibited a diameter of 2.13 ± 0.05 (mm), length of 3.29 ± 0.08 (mm), diameter of 0.70 ± 0.02 Ovarian (mm), the length of the ovary was 2.48 ± 0.12 (mm), the diameter of the anther 0.67 ± 0.01 (mm) and the length anther was 0.93 ± 0.02 (mm), with five anthers and four ovules per flower. The reason P: O was 576.542, indicating that the species is facultative allogamous.


Subject(s)
Cordia/anatomy & histology , Flowers/anatomy & histology , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Boraginaceae/anatomy & histology , Insecta/classification
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(1): 100-108, ene. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726607

ABSTRACT

The people of San Rafael Coxcatlán use Cordia curassavica to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. The aim of this work was to investigate the temporal variation of chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of C. curassavica in two seasons of the year (dry and rainy). The essential oil of aerial parts was obtained by steam distillation, 12 and 17 compounds were identified for dry and rainy seasons respectively by GC-MS. The major component was for the dry season 1,7,7-trimethyl tricyclo (2.2.1.0(2,6)) heptane (20.3 percent), and for the rainy season was germacrene (24.41 percent). The antibacterial activity of essential oils varies temporarily because was active in nine strains in the dry season and four in the wet. The more sensitive strains were Stapahylococcus epidermidis and Vibrio cholera. The essential oil obtained in dry season presented a MIC of 0.75 and 0.125 mg/mL, and for the rainy season a MIC of 1.00 and 0.375 mg/mL respectively. Rhizoctonia solani was the more sensitive fungi strain (IC25 0.1300 mg/mL) in the rainy season. These results show that the chemical composition and biological properties of essential oil of the C. curassavica have temporal variation.


La población de San Rafael para tratar padecimientos gastrointestinales y respiratorios emplean Cordia curassavica. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar la variación temporal de la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial de C. curassavica colectada en dos épocas del año (sequía y lluvias). El aceite esencial se obtuvo mediante la técnica de arrastre de vapor y los componentes se identificaron por CG-MS. En la época de secas se detectaron 12 compuestos y 17 en la de lluvias. El principal componente para la época de secas fue el 1,7,7 trimetil triciclo (2.2.1.0(2,6)) heptano (20.3 por ciento) y para la temporada de lluvias fue el germacrano (24.41 por ciento). La actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial varía temporalmente porque fue activo sobre nueve cepas en la época seca y sobre cuatro cepas en la época lluviosa. Las cepas más sensibles para ambas estaciones fueron Stapahylococcus epidermidis y Vibrio cholerae. En la época de seca, el aceite esencial presentó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) de 0.75 y 0.125mg/mL, mientras que en la época de lluvias fueron de 1.00 y 0.375 mg/mL respectivamente. La cepa fúngica más sensible fue Rhizoctonia solani (IC25 0.130 mg/mL) en la época de lluvia. Estos resultados muestran que la composición química y las propiedades biológicas de los aceites esenciales de Cordia curassavica varian de acuerdo a la época del año.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Cordia/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Boraginaceae/chemistry , Dry Season , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Rainy Season , Seasons , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Terpenes/analysis
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2251-2257, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330311

ABSTRACT

A cDNA sequence of Arnebia euchroma AP2/ERF named AeAP2/ERF was cloned by in silico cloning in this study, using ACX71873 sequence from Lithospermum erythrorhizon as the probe sequence. Some characters of the AP2/ERF gene and encoded protein sequences were predicted and analyzed by the bioinformatics methods, including general physical and chemical properties, hydrophobieity, signal peptide, secondary structure, localization sites in cells. Results showed that the 876 bp long gene included a 1 077 bp ORF and encoding 205 amino acid. The AeAP2/ERF protein had no signal peptide, it was a hydrophilic proteins located in nucleus. The function of the AP2/ERF protein was mainly involved with metabolism controlling and signal transduction.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Boraginaceae , Classification , Genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Transcription Factors , Chemistry , Genetics
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