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Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 117-124, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364375


ABSTRACT Background: Stroke is a public health problem. For patients with ischemic stroke, venous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy are effective therapeutic options. However, even after the National Stroke Treatment Guidelines were published in 2012, the number of cases treated is still lower than expected. Objective: To identify the determining factors for obtaining access to acute-phase therapies in the state of Espírito Santo (ES) and investigate the profile of stroke patients treated at the Central State Hospital (HEC). Methods: Retrospective data from the medical records of 1078 patients from May 2018 to December 2019 were analyzed. Results: Among the 1,078 patients, 54.9% were men and the most prevalent age group was 60 to 79 years. Systemic arterial hypertension was the main single risk factor. Regarding treatment modality among the patients who arrived at the HEC within the therapeutic window, 47% received some type of acute-phase therapy. Waking up with the deficit was the main contraindication for venous thrombolysis in these cases. Conclusions: Application of the flowchart established by SESA-ES seemed to be effective for enabling responsiveness of care for stroke victims. Public emergency transport services had a fundamental role in this process. In addition, the care provided by the tertiary stroke center provided excellent access to acute-phase therapies. However, despite the efficiency of the service provided at the HEC, it only reached a maximum of 50% of the ES population. This service model therefore needs to be expanded throughout the state.

RESUMO Antecedentes: O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) é um problema de saúde pública. Nos casos de AVC isquêmico, a trombólise venosa e a trombectomia mecânica são efetivas opções terapêuticas de fase aguda. Entretanto, mesmo com a Diretriz Nacional de AVC publicada desde 2012, o número de casos tratados ainda é baixo. Objetivo: Apurar os fatores determinantes para o acesso às terapias de fase aguda na realidade espírito-santense e investigar o perfil dos pacientes de AVC atendidos no Hospital Estadual Central de Vitória (HEC). Métodos: O presente estudo analisou dados retrospectivos de prontuários de 1.078 pacientes no período de maio de 2018 a dezembro de 2019. Resultados: Dos 1.078 pacientes, 54,9% eram homens e a faixa etária mais prevalente foi a de 60 a 79 anos. A hipertensão arterial sistêmica foi o principal fator de risco isolado. Quanto ao tratamento, identificou-se que entre os pacientes que chegaram ao HEC na janela terapêutica 47% receberam terapia de fase aguda e que acordar com o déficit foi a principal contraindicação para trombólise venosa nesses casos. Conclusões: As análises demonstraram que a aplicação do fluxograma estabelecido pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Espírito Santo parece ser eficaz na agilidade de atendimento das vítimas de AVC e que o Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência tem um papel fundamental nesse processo. Além disso, a assistência de um centro terciário de AVC permite acesso às terapias de fase aguda com excelência. Todavia, mesmo que o modelo de serviço prestado no HEC seja eficiente, ele atinge no máximo 50% da população do ES, sendo necessária a sua ampliação.

Humans , Male , Aged , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Stroke , Thrombolytic Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Middle Aged
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936292


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic mechanism of gastrodin injection for alleviating lung injury caused by focal cerebral ischemia in rats and the role of the NGF-TrkA pathway in mediating this effect.@*METHODS@#Forty SD rats were equally randomized into normal group, sham-operated group, model group and gastrodin group, and in the latter two groups, rat models of focal cerebral ischemia were established by embolization of the right middle cerebral artery. After successful modeling, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of gastrodin injection at the daily dose of 10 mg/kg for 14 days. After the treatment, the wet/dry weight ratio of the lung tissue was determined, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were observed using HE staining, and the levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in the arterial blood were detected with ELISA. The expressions of NF-κB p65 and TNF-α in the lung tissue were detected with Western blotting, and the expressions of NGF and TrkA were detected using immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal control and sham-operated groups, the rats in the model group showed obvious inflammatory lung injury, significantly increased wet/ dry weight ratio of the lungs (P < 0.01), increased TNF-α level in arterial blood (P < 0.01), and significantly up-regulated protein expressions of NF-κB p65 (P < 0.01), TNF-α (P < 0.01), NGF (P < 0.05) and TrkA(P < 0.05) in the lung tissue. Treatment with gastrodin injection obviously alleviated lung inflammation, decreased the wet/dry weight ratio of the lungs (P < 0.05), and significantly lowered TNF-α level (P < 0.01) and increased IL-10 level in the arterial blood in the rat models (P < 0.01); gastrodin injection also significantly decreased the protein expressions of NF-κB p65 and TNF-α (P < 0.05) and up-regulated the expressions of NGF and TrkA in the lung tissue of the rats (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The NGF/TrkA pathway may participate in cerebral ischemia-induced inflammatory lung injury, which can be obviously alleviated by gastrodin through the activation of the anti-inflammatory pathway mediated by the NGF/TrkA pathway.

Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Benzyl Alcohols , Brain Ischemia , Glucosides , Lung/metabolism , Lung Injury , NF-kappa B , Nerve Growth Factor , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928942


OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of a mixture of the main components of Panax notoginseng saponins (TSPN) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cultured cortical neurons.@*METHODS@#The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays. The morphology of dendrites was detected by immunofluorescence. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was developed in rats as a model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by neurological scoring, tail suspension test, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl stainings. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the changes in the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#MTT showed that TSPN (50, 25 and 12.5 µ g/mL) protected cortical neurons after OGD/R treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays indicated that 25 µ g/mL TSPN decreased neuronal apoptosis (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that 25 µ g/mL TSPN restored the dendritic morphology of damaged neurons (P<0.05). Moreover, 12.5 µ g/mL TSPN downregulated the expression of Beclin-1, Cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-mTOR (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the MCAO model, 50 µ g/mL TSPN improved defective neurological behavior and reduced infarct volume (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B in cerebral ischemic penumbra was downregulated after 50 µ g/mL TSPN treatment, whereas the p-mTOR level was upregulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSPN promoted neuronal survival and protected dendrite integrity after OGD/R and had a potential therapeutic effect by alleviating neurological deficits and reversing neuronal loss. TSPN promoted p-mTOR and inhibited Beclin-1 to alleviate ischemic damage, which may be the mechanism that underlies the neuroprotective activity of TSPN.

Animals , Beclin-1 , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Glucose , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Mammals/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Panax notoginseng , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Saponins/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939794


OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the effect of echinacoside (ECH) on cognitive dysfunction in post cerebral stroke model rats.@*METHODS@#The post stroke cognitive impairment rat model was created by occlusion of the transient middle cerebral artery (MCAO). The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups by a random number table: the sham group (sham operation), the MCAO group (received operation for focal cerebral ischemia), and the ECH group (received operation for focal cerebral ischemia and ECH 50 mg/kg per day), with 6 rats in each group. The infarct volume and spatial learning were evaluated by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining and Morris water maze. The expression of α7nAChR in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry. The contents of acetylcholine (ACh), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and catalase (CAT) were evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The neural apoptosis and autophagy were determined by TUNEL staining and LC3 staining, respectively.@*RESULTS@#ECH significantly lessened the brain infarct volume and ameliorated neurological deficit in infarct volume and water content (both P<0.01). Compared with MCAO rats, administration of ECH revealed shorter escape latency and long retention time at 7, 14 and 28 days (all P<0.01), increased the α7nAChR protein expression, ACh content, and ChAT activity, and decreased AChE activity in MCAO rats (all P<0.01). ECH significantly decreased MDA content and increased the GSH content, SOD, and CAT activities compared with MCAO rats (all P<0.05). ECH suppressed neuronal apoptosis by reducing TUNEL-positive cells and also enhanced autophagy in MCAO rats (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#ECH treatment helped improve cognitive impairment by attenuating neurological damage and enhancing autophagy in MCAO rats.

Acetylcholinesterase , Animals , Autophagy , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Glutathione/metabolism , Glycosides , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928023


This study aims to explore the pharmacodynamic effect of baicalin on rat brain edema induced by cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and discuss the mechanism from the perspective of inhibiting astrocyte swelling, which is expected to serve as a refe-rence for the treatment of cerebral ischemia with Chinese medicine. To be specific, middle cerebral artery occlusion(suture method) was used to induce cerebral ischemia in rats. Rats were randomized into normal group, model group, high-dose baicalin(20 mg·kg~(-1)) group, and low-dose baicalin(10 mg·kg~(-1)) group. The neurobehavior, brain index, brain water content, and cerebral infarction area of rats were measured 6 h and 24 h after cerebral ischemia. Brain slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE) for the observation of pathological morphology of cerebral cortex after baicalin treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to determine the content of total L-glutathione(GSH) and glutamic acid(Glu) in brain tissue, Western blot to measure the content of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP), aquaporin-4(AQP4), and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4(TRPV4), and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expression of GFAP. The low-dose baicalin was used for exploring the mechanism. The experimental results showed that the neurobehavioral scores(6 h and 24 h of cerebral ischemia), brain water content, and cerebral infarction area of the model group were increased, and both high-dose and low-dose baicalin can lower the above three indexes. The content of GSH dropped but the content of Glu raised in brain tissue of rats in the model group. Low-dose baicalin can elevate the content of GSH and lower the content of Glu. According to the immunohistochemical staining result, the model group demonstrated the increase in GFAP expression, and swelling and proliferation of astrocytes, and the low-dose baicalin can significantly improve this situation. The results of Western blot showed that the expression of GFAP, TRPV4, and AQP4 in the cerebral cortex of the model group increased, and the low-dose baicalin reduce their expression. The cerebral cortex of rats in the model group was severely damaged, and the low-dose baicalin can significantly alleviate the damage. The above results indicate that baicalin can effectively relieve the brain edema caused by cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats, possibly by suppressing astrocyte swelling and TRPV4 and AQP4.

Animals , Aquaporin 4/genetics , Astrocytes , Brain Edema/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Flavonoids , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion , TRPV Cation Channels/therapeutic use
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927892


Objective: To investigate the effects of Zhongfeng capsule on the autophagy-related proteins expression in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/ RI), and to explore its neural protection mechanisms of the decoction. Methods: Rat middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion injury model (ischemia for 2 h, reperfusion for 24 h) was prepared by the improved line plug method. Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, butylphthalide group(0.054 g/kg), Zhongfeng capsule high-dose groups (1.08 g/kg), Zhongfeng capsule middle-dose groups (0.54 g/kg), Zhongfeng capsule low-dose groups (0.27 g/kg), with 10 rats in each group. Rats were treated with Zhongfeng capsule by gavage once a day for 10 days. The rats were sacrificed and the brain tissue was obtained after the experiment in each group. Score neurological deficit was evaluated after 24 h of the last intervention in rat of each group. The pathological changes of brain tissue were observed by HE staining. The serum levels of estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were determined by ELISA. The expressions of key genes and proteins of PI3K/Akt/Beclin1 signaling pathway in brain tissue were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Results: Compared with the sham operation group, the body weight and protein expressions of p-PI3k and p-Akt in brain tissue of rats were decreased significantly in the model group, while the brain index, neurological deficit score, gene and protein expressions of Beclin1 and LC3 were increased markedly in the model group(P<0.05 or P<0.01). In the model group, nerve cells of brain tissue were loosely packed, interstitial edema, triangular in shape, nuclear pyknosis and dark-blue staining were observed. Compared with the model group, the body weight of rats was increased obviously, the neurological deficit score was decreased significantly and the pathological injury of brain tissue was alleviated evidently in high-dose of Zhongfeng capsule group (P<0.05). The brain index, the gene and protein expressions of Beclin1 and LC3 were decreased apparently in Zhongfeng capsule treatment groups(P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the expressions of p-PI3k and p-Akt in brain tissue were increased evidently in Zhongfeng capsule treatment groups(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: Zhongfeng capsule can inhibit autophagy and improve brain neurons lesion of CIRI rats, the mechanism may be related to regulate the expression of Beclin1 and LC3 in PI3K/Akt/Beclin1 signaling pathway.

Animals , Autophagy-Related Proteins/pharmacology , Beclin-1/metabolism , Body Weight , Brain , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Male , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 181-199, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922672


The glymphatic system plays a pivotal role in maintaining cerebral homeostasis. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, arising from small vessel disease or carotid stenosis, results in cerebrometabolic disturbances ultimately manifesting in white matter injury and cognitive dysfunction. However, whether the glymphatic system serves as a potential therapeutic target for white matter injury and cognitive decline during hypoperfusion remains unknown. Here, we established a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via bilateral common carotid artery stenosis. We found that the hypoperfusion model was associated with significant white matter injury and initial cognitive impairment in conjunction with impaired glymphatic system function. The glymphatic dysfunction was associated with altered cerebral perfusion and loss of aquaporin 4 polarization. Treatment of digoxin rescued changes in glymphatic transport, white matter structure, and cognitive function. Suppression of glymphatic functions by treatment with the AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020 abolished this protective effect of digoxin from hypoperfusion injury. Our research yields new insight into the relationship between hemodynamics, glymphatic transport, white matter injury, and cognitive changes after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

Animals , Brain Ischemia , Carotid Stenosis/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Digoxin , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , White Matter
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922577


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on vasomotor symptoms in rats with acute cerebral infarction, by observing the changes in the expression of factors related to the phosphatidylinositol (PI) system.@*METHODS@#Forty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups by a random number table: the control group (n=6), the model group (n=18) and the EA group (n=18). The EA group was given EA treatment at Shuigou (GV 26) instantly after modeling with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method, while the model and control groups were not given any treatment. The degrees of neurological deficiency were evaluated using neurological severity scores (NSS) and the brain blood flow was evaluated by a laser scanning confocal microscope. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the expression levels of G-protein subtype (Gq) and calmodulin (CaM). Competition for protein binding was conducted to detect the expression level of inositol triphosphate (IP3). Thin layer quantitative analysis was conducted to detect the expression level of diacylglycerol (DAG). The expression level of intracellular concentration of free calcium ion ([Ca@*RESULTS@#The NSS of the model group was significantly higher than the control group at 3 and 6 h after MCAO (P<0.01), while the EA group was significantly lower than the model group at 6 h (P<0.01). The cerebral blood flow in the model group was significantly lower than the control group at 1, 3 and 6 h after MCAO (P<0.01), while for the EA group it was remarkably higher than the model group at the same time points (P<0.01). The expressions of Gq, CaM, IP3, DAG and [Ca@*CONCLUSION@#EA treatment at GV 26 can effectively decrease the over-expression of related factors of PI system in rats with acute cerebral infarction, improve cerebral autonomy movement, and alleviate cerebral vascular spasm.

Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Brain Ischemia , Cerebral Infarction/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Phosphatidylinositols , Rats , Rats, Wistar
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1070-1075, Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355707


ABSTRACT Background: Ischemic stroke (IS) is a multifactorial disease that presents high rates of morbimortality in Brazil. Several studies proved that there is a link between the ABO blood group system and the occurrence of thrombotic events. Nonetheless, its association with IS is not well established. Objective: For that reason, the purpose hereof was to investigate the relation between the ABO blood groups and the occurrence of IS in a Brazilian cohort of cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: Five hundred and twenty-nine subjects were included over 12 months, from which 275 presented an IS episode and 254 composed the control group. Blood samples were drawn for direct and reverse serotyping. The control and IS groups were compared regarding the traditional risk factors and the distribution of the ABO blood groups. Results: The IS group presented a higher prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, smoking habits, family history, cardiopathy, and sedentary lifestyle in comparison with the control group. The AB blood type prevailed among the patients (5.1 vs. 1.6%; p<0.05) and this group had more SAH cases in comparison with the O type group (92.9 vs. 67.3%; p<0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the occurrence of IS is more frequent among patients of the AB blood type.

RESUMO Antecedentes: O acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) é uma doença multifatorial que apresenta altas taxas de morbimortalidade no Brasil. Vários estudos provaram que existe uma ligação entre o sistema ABO de grupos sanguíneos e a ocorrência de eventos trombóticos. No entanto, sua associação com AVCI não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Por essa razão, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a relação entre os grupos sanguíneos ABO e a ocorrência de AVCI em uma coorte brasileira de doenças cerebrovasculares. Métodos: Ao longo de 12 meses foram incluídos 529 indivíduos, dos quais 275 apresentaram um episódio de AVCI e 254 compuseram o grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para sorotipagem direta e reversa. Os grupos controle e AVCI foram comparados em relação aos fatores de risco tradicionais e à distribuição dos grupos sanguíneos ABO. Resultados: O grupo AVCI apresentou maior prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), diabetes mellitus, tabagismo, história familiar, cardiopatia e estilo de vida sedentário em comparação ao grupo controle. O tipo sanguíneo AB prevaleceu entre os pacientes (5,1 vs. 1,6%; p<0,05) e apresentou mais casos de HAS em comparação ao tipo O (92,9 vs. 67,3%; p<0,05). Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que a ocorrência de AVCI é mais frequente entre os pacientes do tipo sanguíneo AB.

Humans , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke , ABO Blood-Group System , Risk Factors
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(11): 943-949, Nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350129


ABSTRACT Background: Among patients with acute ischemic stroke with a mismatch between deficit severity and infarct volume, thrombectomy performed within a 6-24 hours time window has efficacy and safety similar to treatment within 6 hours. However, whether magnetic resonance imaging with T2 diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is feasible remains to be validated. Objective: To investigate prognosis among stroke patients receiving endovascular treatment (EVT) within 6 hours and 6-24 hours using non-contrasted computed tomography (NCCT) and DWI. Methods: Overall, 209 anterior-circulation ischemic stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion who underwent EVT were divided into ≤ 6 hours and 6-24 hours groups. Patients presenting symptoms within 6 hours were treated if their NIHSS score was ≥ 7 and ASPECTS score was ≥ 5, whereas those with wake-up stroke (WUS) or presenting symptoms 6-24 hours after last seen well (WUS/late-presenting stroke, LPS) were managed if their NIHSS score was ≥ 7 and ASPECTS score was ≥ 5. Results: The percentages of patients undergoing intracranial stenting and intracranial ballooning without stenting significantly differed between two groups (p < 0.001). Grades 0, 1, 2a and 2b recanalization rates did not differ between the 6 hours and 6-24 hours groups (all p > 0.05). Grade 3 recanalization rate in the 6 hours group was significantly lower than in the 6-24 hours group (p = 0.043). The 3-month Rankin Scale score did not significantly differ between the two groups (p = 0.629). Conclusions: EVT is a safe and effective treatment for patients with WUS and LPS selected through NCCT and DWI-based simple imaging.

RESUMO Antecedentes: Entre pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) agudo com divergência entre gravidade do déficit e volume do infarto, a trombectomia em 6 a 24 horas tem eficácia e segurança semelhantes ao tratamento em até 6 horas. Entretanto, a viabilidade da imagem ponderada em T2 com difusão (DWI) da ressonância magnética necessita validação. Objetivo: Investigar o prognóstico de pacientes com AVCI que recebem tratamento endovascular (EVT) em até 6 horas e de 6-24 horas usando tomografia computadorizada sem contraste (NCCT) e DWI. Métodos: Duzentos e nove pacientes com AVCI de circulação anterior submetidos a EVT foram divididos em ≤ 6 horas e 6-24 horas. Pacientes com sintomas até 6 horas foram tratados se NIHSS ≥ 7 e ASPECTS ≥ 5; aqueles com AVCI ao despertar (WUS) ou com sintomas entre 6-24 horas da última vez em que foram vistos bem (WUS/AVC de fase tardia, LPS) foram tratados se NIHSS ≥ 7 e ASPECTS ≥ 5. Resultados: As porcentagens de pacientes submetidos a implante de stent intracraniano e angioplastia intracraniana sem stent diferiram entre os dois grupos (p <0,001). As taxas de recanalização 0, 1, 2a e 2b não diferiram entre 6 horas e 6-24 horas (p> 0,05). A taxa de recanalização de grau 3 no grupo 6 horas foi menor do que 6-24 horas (p = 0,043). Pontuação na Escala Rankin (3 meses) não foi diferente (p = 0,629). Conclusões: EVT é um tratamento seguro e eficaz para pacientes com WUS e LPS selecionados por meio de imagens baseadas em NCCT e DWI.

Brain Ischemia , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke , Treatment Outcome , Thrombectomy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(10): 859-863, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345320


Abstract Background: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been considered a potential mechanism of embolic stroke of undetermined origin. Objective: The aim of the present study was to identify the features of the right-to-left shunt (RLS) in patients with undetermined embolic ischemic stroke and compare them with those of patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with 168 patients with stroke and RLS separated into the following two groups: the undetermined embolic stroke group (UES group) and non-cardioembolic stroke group (NCES group). All patients were assessed by transcranial Doppler to evaluate the presence and quantification of microembolic signals (MES) at rest and under Valsalva maneuver. Results: Of all patients evaluated in the current study, 96 were included in the UES group and 72 in the NCES group. In the UES group, 65 patients had RLS with ≥10 MES (67.7%), which was higher than that observed in the NCES group (51.4%, p=0.038). According to the moment of the cardiac cycle, 75 patients (78.1%) in the UES group had a positive test at rest compared to 42 (58.3%) in the NCES group (p=0.007). Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that almost 70% of patients with undetermined embolic stroke and PFO presented a large RLS and more than 75% had RLS at rest. These findings suggest that the size of the shunt should be taken into account when evaluating whether PFO could be a possible mechanism underlying cryptogenic stroke.

RESUMO Antecedentes: Uma das potenciais fontes embólicas no acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) de origem indeterminada é o forame oval patente (FOP). Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar as características do shunt direita-esquerda em paciente com AVC de etiologia indeterminada, presumidamente embólica, e comparar tais características com pacientes apresentando AVC por outras causas não embólicas. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo com 168 pacientes com AVC e forame oval patente, separados em dois grupos: AVC embólico de etiologia indeterminada e AVC por outras causas não embólicas. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a Doppler transcraniano, para avaliar a presença de shunt direita-esquerda por meio do teste de embolia paradoxal. Além da quantificação de microbolhas, também foi avaliada a presença de shunt em repouso e sob manobra de Valsalva. Resultado: Do total, 96 pacientes foram incluídos no primeiro grupo (AVC indeterminado) e 72, no segundo grupo (AVC não embólico). No primeiro grupo, 65 pacientes exibiram shunt com passagem de mais de 10 microbolhas (67,5%), enquanto no segundo grupo isso aconteceu em 51,4% (p=0,038) dos casos. Além disso, 75 pacientes (78,1%) do primeiro grupo tiveram teste positivo ao repouso, comparados com 42 pacientes (58,3%) no segundo grupo (p=0,007). Conclusão: O presente estudo demonstrou que até 70% dos pacientes com AVC de etiologia indeterminada e forame oval apresentaram shunts maiores; em mais de 75%, houve passagem de microbolhas ao repouso. Esses achados sugerem que as características do shunt, como quantidade de microbolhas e passagem ao repouso, devem ser levadas em consideração na avaliação do FOP como possível mecanismo subjacente ao AVC.

Humans , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
Medisan ; 25(5)2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1346548


Los accidentes cerebrovasculares se han mantenido, a nivel mundial, como la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad. Para disminuir la incidencia de casos de isquemia o hemorragia cerebral, así como sus consecuencias, se deben poseer los conocimientos sobre dichas entidades clínicas, los factores de riesgo asociados y las alternativas preventivas y terapéuticas como estrategias neuroprotectoras. Muchas de las intervenciones médicas realizadas hasta la fecha en modelos animales han resultado insatisfactorias en la fase clínica. Por ello, se realizó una revisión de las publicaciones más recientes donde se abordan los modelos experimentales para la isquemia cerebral más utilizados en las evaluaciones de las terapias neuroprotectoras, y se pudo concluir que si se analizan los protocolos empleados en la fase preclínica podrán optimizarse las investigaciones para lograr resultados más acertados en este campo.

The strokes have been considered, worldwide, as the third cause of death and the first cause of disability. To diminish the incidence of ischemia cases or cerebral hemorrhage, as well as their consequences, one should have the knowledge on this clinical entities, the associated risk factors and preventive and therapeutic alternatives as neuroprotector strategies. Many of the medical interventions carried out so far in animal models have been unsatisfactory in the clinical phase. Reason why, a review of the most recent publications was carried out, where the most used experimental models for the cerebral ischemia in the evaluations of the neuroprotector therapies are approached, and it was concluded that if protocols used in the preclinic phase are analyzed, the investigations could be optimize to achieve more relevant results in this field.

Brain Ischemia , Neuroprotective Agents , Stroke , Risk Factors , Models, Animal
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(9): 1377-1381, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389600


Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, with a mortality rate of 35%. Among patients who survive the initial bleeding, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality is delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Electroencephalography (EEG) can detect cerebral ischemia in the early stages. We report a 66-year-old female patient who consulted for ictal headache and impaired consciousness. On admission, she was confused, dysarthric, and with meningeal signs. Brain angio-CT showed SAH FISHER IV and an aneurysm of the left posterior cerebral artery. After excluding the aneurysm (by coiling), the patient recovered the altered consciousness. Continuous EEG monitoring was initiated. On the sixth day of follow up, she had a transient headache and apathy. The brain MRI showed low cerebral blood flow in the left frontotemporal area, without ischemic lesions. On the seventh day, she presented expression aphasia and right facial-brachial paresis. Angiography confirmed severe vasospasm in M1 and M2 segments bilaterally. Pharmacological angioplasty with nimodipine was performed, with an excellent radiological response, although not clinical. A second MRI was carried out on the eighth day, which showed a left insular infarction and generalized vasospasm. A second therapeutic angiography was performed; the patient persisted with aphasia and left central facial paresis. The quantitative EEG analysis performed retrospectively showed a generalized reduction in the spectral edge frequency 95 (SEF95; meaning slowing in the EEG signal) at the fourth day of follow up, three days earlier than the clinical and imaging diagnosis of DCI was established.

Humans , Female , Aged , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Infarction , Retrospective Studies , Electroencephalography/adverse effects , Electroencephalography/methods
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 660-665, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339227


ABSTRACT Background: The optimal blood pressure (BP) during mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke is currently unclear. Objective: To investigate BP behavior during mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke and its relationship with drugs used for sedation or general anesthesia. Additionally, we investigated the association between BP oscillation during mechanical thrombectomy and recanalization status, and with functional outcome at discharge. Methods: Consecutive patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke were evaluated in a tertiary hospital from December/2009 to December/2015. Maximum, minimum, and mean systolic and diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressures were collected during the procedure. Sedative drugs were also reviewed. Results: Fifty-three patients with a mean age of 71.9 years (60.4% men) were treated with mechanical thrombectomy. The mean reduction in systolic BP and mean arterial pressure from hospital admission to mechanical thrombectomy were respectively 42 and 36 mmHg. During the procedure, oscillations were 50.4 mmHg for systolic, and 33.2 mmHg for diastolic BP. Patients treated with neuromuscular blocking drugs had more oscillation in systolic BP from hospital admission to procedure (51.1 versus 26.2 mmHg, P=0.06). The use of cisatracurium (43.9 versus 29.6 mmHg, P=0.02) and succinylcholine (44.7 versus 29.3 mmHg, P=0.01) were associated with a significant drop in BP during the procedure. Conclusions: Significant BP oscillation occurs during mechanical thrombectomy. Drugs used for conscious sedation or general anesthesia, specifically neuromuscular blocking agents, might have an influence upon BP levels.

RESUMO Antecedentes: Atualmente, a pressão arterial ideal durante a trombectomia mecânica em pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo não é clara. Objetivo: Investigar o comportamento da pressão arterial durante a trombectomia mecânica em pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo e sua relação com os medicamentos utilizados para sedação ou anestesia geral. Adicionalmente, investigar a associação entre a oscilação da pressão arterial durante a trombectomia mecânica e a capacidade de recanalização, além do status funcional no momento da alta hospitalar. Métodos: Avaliação de pacientes tratados com trombectomia mecânica por acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo em um hospital terciário de dezembro/2009 a dezembro/2015. Valores máximos, mínimos e médios da pressão arterial sistólica, pressão diastólica e pressão arterial média foram coletados durante o procedimento. Drogas sedativas utilizadas também foram revisadas. Resultados: Um total de 53 pacientes com idade média de 71,9 anos (60,4% homens) foram tratados com trombectomia mecânica. A redução média da pressão arterial sistólica e da pressão arterial média desde a internação até a trombectomia mecânica foi respectivamente de 42 mmHg e 36 mmHg. Durante o procedimento, as oscilações da pressão arterial foram de 50,4 mmHg para pressão sistólica e 33,2 mmHg para pressão diastólica. Os pacientes tratados com bloqueadores neuromusculares apresentaram uma tendência a maior oscilação da pressão arterial sistólica desde a internação até o procedimento (51,1 mmHg versus 26,2 mmHg, P = 0,06). O uso de cisatracúrio (43,9 mmHg versus 29,6 mmHg, P = 0,02) e succinilcolina (44,7 mmHg versus 29,3 mmHg, P = 0,01) foram associados a uma queda significativa da pressão arterial durante o procedimento. Conclusões: Durante a trombectomia mecânica ocorre oscilação significativa da pressão arterial. Os medicamentos usados para sedação consciente ou anestesia geral, especificamente bloqueadores neuromusculares, podem ter influência nos níveis de pressão arterial.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Brain Ischemia , Stroke/drug therapy , Blood Pressure , Conscious Sedation , Treatment Outcome , Thrombectomy , Anesthesia, General
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 588-596, ago. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346511


Abstract Up to 15% of all strokes affect young patients and the incidence of ischemic stroke in this population is rising. Nevertheless, there is limited information of cerebrovascular events in this population both in our country and in Latin America. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of young adults with stroke in Argentina. This is a prospective, multicenter study of stroke in young adults (18 - 55 years) in Argentina. Patients presenting with a cerebrovascular event within 180 days were included. Stroke subtypes were classified according to TOAST criteria. A total number of 311 patients were enrolled (men 53.9%, mean age: 43.3 years). Ischemic strokes occurred in 91.8% (brain infarcts 82.6%, transient ischemic attack 9.2%) and hemorrhagic strokes in 8.2%. The most frequent vascular risk factors (including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes) were: hypertension 120 (41%), smoking 92 (31.4%), dyslipidemia 81 (27.6%) and, over weight/obesity: 74 (25.3%). Stroke subtypes were: large artery disease 12.3%, cardioembolism 7.5, small artery occlusion 11.5%, other defined etiology 27.1%, and undetermined etiology 41.6%. Our study demonstrates that vascular risk factors are very frequent in young adults with stroke. Our findings underline that urgent strategies are required for primary and secondary stroke prevention in this group of patients.

Resumen Aproximadamente un 15% de todos los ataques cerebrovasculares afectan a pacientes jóvenes y su incidencia estaría en aumento. Existe escasa información sobre el ataque cerebral en esta población tanto en nuestro país como en Latinoamérica. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar las características clínicas y los factores de riesgo de los adultos jóvenes con ictus en Argentina. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo y multicéntrico en adultos jóvenes (18-55 años) en Argentina, que presentaron un evento cerebrovascular dentro de los 180 días previos. Los subtipos de ictus se clasificaron según los criterios de TOAST. Se incluyeron un total de 311 pacientes (hombres 53.9%, edad media: 43,3 años). Los ataques cerebrovasculares isquémicos ocurrieron en el 91.8% (infartos cerebrales 82.6%, ataque isquémico transitorio 9.2%) y los eventos hemorrágicos correspondieron al 8.2%. Los factores de riesgo vascular más frecuentes (incluyendo los eventos isquémicos y hemorrágicos) fueron: hipertensión 120 (41%), tabaquismo 92 (31.4%), dislipidemia 81 (27.6%) y sobrepeso/obesidad: 74 (25.3%). Los subtipos de ictus isquémicos fueron: arteriopatía de gran vaso 12.3%, cardioembolismo 7.5%, oclusión de pequeña arteria 11.5%, otra etiología definida 27.1% y etiología indeterminada 41.6%. Los factores de riesgo vascular son muy frecuentes en los adultos jóvenes con ictus. Nuestros hallazgos subrayan que se requieren estrategias urgentes para la prevención primaria y secundaria del ictus en este grupo particular de pacientes en nuestro país.

Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 581-587, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346510


Resumen El accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) es una urgencia tiempo dependiente, ya que las conductas de mayor impacto pronóstico dependen del tiempo trascurrido. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar nuestros tiempos puerta aguja (TPA), comienzo aguja (TCA) y el efecto que tiene sobre estos el sistema preaviso y la elección adecuada del centro asistencial. Se realizó un estudio observacional con datos obtenidos de histo rias clínicas de pacientes internados en la unidad de ACV. Analizamos el número de tratamientos trombolíticos endovenosos, entre agosto 2015 y diciembre 2019. Comparamos TPA según utilización de pre-aviso, llegada directa por sus propios medios vs. en ambulancia sin pre-aviso, y TCA según llegada directa al centro con unidad de ACV vs. llegada a otro centro para posterior derivación. De 265 pacientes en ventana terapéutica, se realizó tratamiento en 143. Llegaron 137 pacientes derivados de otro centro, 70 recibieron tratamiento trombolítico. El TPA con sistema preaviso y sin preaviso fue 41 ± 23 (media ± DE) y 81 ± 43 minutos, respectivamente (p = 0.001). El TPA con llegada directa por sus propios medios 79 ± 43 y en ambulancia sin preaviso 84 ± 44 minutos (p = 0.7) a unidad de ACV. El TCA en llegada directa a unidad de ACV fue 159 ± 59 y a otro centro para su derivación 199 ± 44 minutos (p = 0.001). La utilización de un sistema de preaviso y la elección directa de un centro con unidad de ACV son medidas clave para reducir los tiempos de tratamiento.

Abstract Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a time-dependent emergency, since the greatest impact depends on the time elapsed to treatment. The objective of this work was to analyze door to needle (DTN) and start treatment (STT) times and the effect of pre-notification system (PNS) and the appropriate choice of the healthcare center on these variables. An observational study with data obtained from records of patients admitted to the Stroke Unit (SU) was conducted between August 2015 to December 2019. We analyzed the number of intravenous thrombolytic treatments (IVT), DTN and STT and compared them according to PNS use, direct arrival at the center with SU or arrival at another center for subsequent referral. An overall of 472 patients were hospitalized during the studied period and the treatment was performed in 143 out of 265 patients. One hundred thirty-seven patients arrived from another center, 70 received IVT. Average DNT with PNS and without PNS were 41 ± 23 and 81 ± 44 minutes, respectively (p = 0.001). STT on direct arrival to SU was 159 ± 59 minutes and to another center for referral was 199 ± 44 (p = 0.001). The use of a PNS and the direct choice of a center where IVT is performed significantly improve treatment

Humans , Brain Ischemia , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(2): 14-17, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280778


The white matter hyperintensities (WMH, leucoaraiosis) represent the most common kind of ischemic vascular lesion of the white matter due to small vessel diseases, and occurs frequently in the elderly. Consequent to the neuroimaging identification arouse the need for their assessment. The group of Fazekas proposed a systematized semi-quantitative visual scale to score such lesions where two parameters were considered, extent and localization. The original scale was further modified, to a simplified version. Although other more complex scales have appeared, researchers remarked that the relatively simple Fazekas scale, in comparison to the complex ones and to volumetric measures, appeared to be sufficient when analyzing relationships between clinical parameters and WMH load in a clinical setting.

As hiperintensidades da substância branca (HSB, leucoaraiose) representam o tipo de lesão isquêmica mais comum da substância branca decorrente de doenças de pequenos vasos e ocorre frequentemente em idosos. Consequente à identificação por neuroimagem surgiu a necessidade de sua avaliação. O grupo de Fazekas propos uma escala visual semiquantitativa sistematizada para pontuar tais lesões, onde foram considerados dois parâmetros, extensão e localização. A escala original foi modificada para constituir uma versão mais simplificada. Embora outras escalas mais complexas tenham aparecido, pesquisadores comentaram que a relativamente simples escala de Fazekas, em comparação às mais complexas e a método volumétrico, mostrou-se suficiente quando é analisada a relação entre parâmetros clínicos e a carga de HSB em um cenário clínico.

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leukoaraiosis/pathology , Leukoaraiosis/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Aging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods
Medisan ; 25(3)2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1287298


Introducción: El método clínico por sí solo no es definitivo para diagnosticar una enfermedad cerebrovascular, por lo que es importante el uso de medios de diagnóstico imagenológicos como la tomografía axial computarizada, que permite investigar los aspectos morfológicos y funcionales del cerebro. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y tomográficas de pacientes con infarto cerebral. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 269 pacientes con infarto cerebral, atendidos en el Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico Saturnino Lora Torres de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2019. Resultados: Predominaron el sexo masculino (54,6 %), el grupo etario de 70-79 años, las afectaciones motoras (76,5 %), la alteración de la conciencia (51,3 %) y el trastorno del lenguaje (50,5 %). En 38 pacientes los resultados de la tomografía fueron negativos antes de las 24 horas de evolución y 64,0 % se consideraron mejorados con secuelas. Conclusiones: La tomografía antes de las 24 horas demuestra una baja positividad y los hallazgos evolucionan con el tiempo, aunque es posible reconocer varios signos precoces de ictus agudo en menos de 4-6 horas.

Introduction: The clinical method by itself is not definitive to diagnose a cerebrovascular disease, reason why the use of imaging diagnostic means, as the computerized axial tomography is important, as it allows to investigate the morphological and functional aspects of the brain. Objective: To describe the clinical and tomographic characteristics of patients with complete stroke. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 269 patients with complete stroke, assisted in Saturnino Lora Torres Teaching Clinical Surgical Provincial Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2019. Results: There was a prevalence of the male sex (54.6 %), 70-79 age group, motor disorders (76.5 %), alteration of the conscience (51.3 %) and language disorder (50.5 %). In 38 patients the results of the tomography were negative before the 24 hours of clinical course and 64.0 % were better with aftereffects of the disease. Conclusions: Tomography before the 24 hours demonstrates a low positivity and findings have a favorable clinical course as time goes by, although it is possible to recognize several early signs of acute ictus in less than 4-6 hours.

Brain Diseases , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Spiral Computed