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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1310-1316, oct. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521015

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Although COVID-19 is primarily considered a respiratory pathology, it has been observed to impact other bodily systems, including the nervous system. While several studies have investigated anatomical changes in brain structures, such as volume or thickness post-COVID-19, there are no comprehensive reviews of these changes using imaging techniques for a holistic understanding. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the literature on brain changes observed through neuroimaging after COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines using Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect, and LitCOVID. We selected studies that included adult patients during or after COVID-19 development, a control group or pre-infection images, and morphometric measurements using neuroimaging. We used the MSQ scale to extract information on sample characteristics, measured anatomical structures, imaging technique, main results, and methodological quality for each study. Out of 1126 identified articles, we included 19 in the review, encompassing 1155 cases and 1284 controls. The results of these studies indicated a lower volume of the olfactory bulb and variable increases or decreases in cortical and limbic structures' volumes and thicknesses. Studies suggest that brain changes occur post-COVID-19, primarily characterized by a smaller olfactory bulb. Additionally, there may be variations in cortical and limbic volumes and thicknesses due to inflammation or neuroplasticity, but these findings are not definitive. These differences may be attributed to methodological, geographical, and temporal variations between studies. Thus, additional studies are required to provide a more comprehensive and quantitative view of the evidence.


Aunque el COVID-19 se considera principalmente una patología respiratoria, se ha observado que afecta otros sistemas corporales, incluido el sistema nervioso. Si bien varios estudios han investigado los cambios anatómicos en las estructuras cerebrales, como el volumen o el grosor posteriores a la COVID-19, no hay revisiones exhaustivas de estos cambios que utilicen técnicas de imágenes para una comprensión holística. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar sistemáticamente la literature sobre los cambios cerebrales observados a través de neuroimagen después de COVID-19. Realizamos una revisión sistemática de acuerdo con las pautas PRISMA utilizando Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect y LitCOVID. Seleccionamos estudios que incluyeron pacientes adultos durante o después del desarrollo de COVID-19, un grupo de control o imágenes previas a la infección y mediciones morfométricas mediante neuroimagen. Utilizamos la escala MSQ para extraer información sobre las características de la muestra, las estructuras anatómicas medidas, la técnica de imagen, los principales resultados y la calidad metodológica de cada estudio. De 1126 artículos identificados, incluimos 19 en la revisión, que abarca 1155 casos y 1284 controles. Los resultados de estos estudios indicaron un menor volumen del bulbo olfatorio y aumentos o disminuciones variables en los volúmenes y espesores de las estructuras corticales y límbicas. Los estudios sugieren que los cambios cerebrales ocurren después del COVID-19, caracterizados principalmente por un bulbo olfatorio más pequeño. Además, pueden haber variaciones en los volúmenes y grosores corticales y límbicos debido a la inflamación o la neuroplasticidad, pero estos hallazgos no son definitivos. Estas diferencias pueden atribuirse a variaciones metodológicas, geográficas y temporales entre estudios. Por lo tanto, se requieren estudios adicionales para proporcionar una visión más completa y cuantitativa de la evidencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1527-1536, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521022

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The 12C6+ heavy ion beam irradiation can cause bystander effects. The inflammatory cytokines, endocrine hormones and apoptotic proteins may be involved in 12C6+ irradiation-induced bystander effects. This study characterized the protective effects and mechanisms of Huangqi decoction (HQD) against 12C6+ radiation induced bystander effects. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation model, and high-dose/medium-dose/low-dose HQD groups. HE staining assessed the pathological changes of brain and kidney. Peripheral blood chemical indicators as well as inflammatory factors and endocrine hormones were detected. Apoptosis was measured with TUNEL. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was determined with real-time PCR and Western blot.Irradiation induced pathological damage to the brain and kidney tissues. After irradiation, the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and monocyte, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and PCNA decreased. The damage was accompanied by increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as well as increased neuronal apoptosis. These effects were indicative of radiation-induced bystander effects. Administration of HQD attenuated the pathological damage to brain and kidney tissues, and increased the numbers of WBC, neutrophils, lymphocyte and monocytes, as well as the expression of IL-2, CRH and PCNA. It also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CORT and ACTH as well as neuronal apoptosis. HQD exhibits protective effects against 12C6+ radiation-induced bystander effects. The underlying mechanism may involve the promotion of the production of peripheral blood cells, inhibition of inflammatory factors and apoptosis, and regulation of endocrine hormones.


La irradiación con haz de iones pesados 12C6+ puede provocar efectos secundarios. Las citoquinas inflamatorias, las hormonas endocrinas y las proteínas apoptóticas pueden estar involucradas en los efectos secundarios inducidos por la irradiación 12C6+. Este estudio caracterizó los efectos y mecanismos protectores de la decocción de Huangqi (HQD) contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. Las ratas Wistar se dividieron aleatoriamente en grupos control, modelo de irradiación de iones pesados 12C6+ y grupos de dosis alta/media/baja de HQD. La tinción con HE evaluó los cambios patológicos del cerebro y el riñón. Se detectaron indicadores químicos de sangre periférica, así como factores inflamatorios y hormonas endocrinas. La apoptosis se midió con TUNEL. La expresión del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) se determinó mediante PCR en tiempo real y transferencia Western blot. La irradiación indujo daños patológicos en los tejidos cerebrales y renales. Después de la irradiación, disminuyó el número de glóbulos blancos (WBC) y monocitos, y la expresión de interleucina (IL)-2, hormona liberadora de corticotropina (CRH) y PCNA. El daño estuvo acompañado por una mayor expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterona (CORT) y hormona adrenocorticotrópica (ACTH), así como un aumento de la apoptosis neuronal. Estas alteraciones fueron indicativas de efectos inducidos por la radiación. La administración de HQD atenuó el daño patológico a los tejidos cerebrales y renales, y aumentó el número de leucocitos y monocitos, así como la expresión de IL-2, CRH y PCNA. También disminuyó la expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, CORT y ACTH, así como la apoptosis neuronal. HQD exhibe mecanismos protectores contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. El mecanismo subyacente puede implicar la promoción de la producción de células sanguíneas periféricas, la inhibición de factores inflamatorios y la apoptosis y la regulación de hormonas endocrinas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Heavy Ions/adverse effects , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Brain/drug effects , Brain/radiation effects , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Endocrine System/drug effects , Endocrine System/radiation effects , Immunologic Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/radiation effects
3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 86(1): 68-70, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403470

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This case report describes the clinical characteristics and ophthalmic management of a patient who developed corneal perforation due to severe enophthalmos consistent with "silent brain syndrome." A 27-year-old man with a history of congenital hydrocephalus and ventriculoperitoneal shunt was referred with complaints of "sinking of the eyeballs" and progressively decreasing vision in the left eye. Examination revealed severe bilateral enophthalmos in addition to superonasal corneal perforation with iris prolapse in the left eye. The patient underwent therapeutic keratoplasty the next day. Orbital reconstruction with costochondral graft and shunt revision of the intracranial hypotension were performed the next month to prevent further progression.


RESUMO Este relato de caso descreve as características clínicas e o manejo cirúrgico de um paciente que teve perfuração da córnea devido à enoftalmia grave consistente com a "síndrome do cérebro silencioso". Um homem de 27 anos com história de hidrocefalia congênita e derivação ventrículo-peritoneal foi encaminhado com queixas de "afundamento dos globos oculares" e diminuição progressiva da visão no olho esquerdo. O exame revelou enoftalmo bilateral importante, além de perfuração superonasal da córnea com prolapso iriano no olho esquerdo. A paciente foi submetida à ceratoplastia terapêutica no dia seguinte. Foi realizado no mês seguinte a reconstrução da órbita com enxerto costocondral e revisão do shunt para evitar progressão e piora do caso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Corneal Perforation , Brain , Corneal Perforation/surgery , Corneal Perforation/etiology
4.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 291-312, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414871

ABSTRACT

Esse trabalho busca relatar o processo de confecção de peças anatômicas para o ensino da anatomia humana a partir de material cadavérico fetal. Os discentes do curso de medicina da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) ­ Campus Toledo participaram do programa de voluntariado acadêmico e deram atenção especial aos aspectos técnicos do processo de dissecação, bem como a experiência subjetiva desse procedimento como ferramenta de aprendizado ativo. O procedimento foi realizado na sala de preparação de cadáver da UFPR ­ Campus Toledo, utilizando instrumental de dissecação e cadáveres humanos fetais com 20, 17 e 14 semanas de idade gestacional, direcionado de modo a expor as partes constituintes do sistema neural. Foram confeccionadas peças de cérebro, cerebelo, tronco encefálico, medula espinal, nervos espinais e suas estruturas associadas. Os voluntários envolvidos foram capazes de produzir material de estudo de qualidade através da dissecação e fortalecer seu conhecimento em anatomia humana e aptidão manual. Também foi dada atenção à importância e às limitações do processo de dissecação como estratégia de aprendizado em cursos da área de saúde. pôde ser observado que a dissecação pode fazer parte de uma formação completa e bem estruturada dos discentes, que por sua vez irão integrar a sociedade e a academia. Além disso, a exposição da topografia neural fetal pode servir de referencial para posteriores estudos que venham a utilizar essas informações.


This work aims to report the confection process of anatomic pieces for teaching human anatomy from fetal cadaveric material. The students of the medicine course of Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) ­ Campus Toledo, took part in the academic volunteer program and paid special attention to the technical aspects of the dissection process, as well as the subjective experience of this procedure as an active learning tool. The procedure was performed at the cadaver preparation room of the UFPR ­ Campus Toledo, using dissection tools and human fetal corpses of 20, 17 and 14 weeks of gestational ages, directed so as to expose the constituent parts of the neural system. Pieces of the brain, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and its associated structures were made. The involved voluntaries were able to produce quality study material through dissection, and strengthen their knowledge in human anatomy and manual skill. Attention was also given to the importance and limitations of the dissection process as a learning strategy in health courses. it was observed that dissection can be part of a complete and well-structured training of students, who in turn will integrate society and academia. In addition, the exposure of fetal neural topography can serve as a reference for further studies that use this information


Este trabajo tiene como objetivo relatar el proceso de confección de piezas anatómicas para la enseñanza de la anatomía humana a partir de material cadavérico fetal. Los alumnos del curso de medicina de la Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) - Campus Toledo, participaron del programa de voluntariado académico y prestaron especial atención a los aspectos técnicos del proceso de disección, así como a la vivencia subjetiva de este procedimiento como herramienta de aprendizaje activo. El procedimiento fue realizado en la sala de preparación de cadáveres de la UFPR - Campus Toledo, utilizando herramientas de disección y cadáveres de fetos humanos de 20, 17 y 14 semanas de edad gestacional, dirigidos de forma a exponer las partes constitutivas del sistema neural. Se realizaron piezas del cerebro, cerebelo, tronco encefálico, médula espinal, nervios espinales y sus estructuras asociadas. Los voluntarios participantes pudieron elaborar material de estudio de calidad mediante la disección y reforzar sus conocimientos de anatomía humana y habilidad manual. También se prestó atención a la importancia y las limitaciones del proceso de disección como estrategia de aprendizaje en los cursos de salud. Se observó que la disección puede formar parte de una formación completa y bien estructurada de los estudiantes, que a su vez integrarán la sociedad y el mundo académico. Además, la exposición de la topografía neural fetal puede servir de referencia para estudios posteriores que utilicen esta información.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dissection/education , Fetus/anatomy & histology , Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Spinal Cord/anatomy & histology , Volunteers/education , Brain/anatomy & histology , Cerebellum/anatomy & histology , Dura Mater/anatomy & histology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Neuroanatomy
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1773-1788, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981169

ABSTRACT

A triple-transgenic (tyrosine hydroxylase/dopamine decarboxylase/GTP cyclohydrolase 1, TH/DDC/GCH1) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell line (BMSCs) capable of stably synthesizing dopamine (DA) transmitters were established to provide experimental evidence for the clinical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) by using this cell line. The DA-BMSCs cell line that could stably synthesize and secrete DA transmitters was established by using the triple transgenic recombinant lentivirus. The triple transgenes (TH/DDC/GCH1) expression in DA-BMSCs was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Moreover, the secretion of DA was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chromosome G-banding analysis was used to detect the genetic stability of DA-BMSCs. Subsequently, the DA-BMSCs were stereotactically transplanted into the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB) of Parkinson's rat models to detect their survival and differentiation in the intracerebral microenvironment of PD rats. Apomorphine (APO)-induced rotation test was used to detect the improvement of motor dysfunction in PD rat models with cell transplantation. The TH, DDC and GCH1 were expressed stably and efficiently in the DA-BMSCs cell line, but not expressed in the normal rat BMSCs. The concentration of DA in the cell culture supernatant of the triple transgenic group (DA-BMSCs) and the LV-TH group was extremely significantly higher than that of the standard BMSCs control group (P < 0.000 1). After passage, DA-BMSCs stably produced DA. Karyotype G-banding analysis showed that the vast majority of DA-BMSCs maintained normal diploid karyotypes (94.5%). Moreover, after 4 weeks of transplantation into the brain of PD rats, DA-BMSCs significantly improved the movement disorder of PD rat models, survived in a large amount in the brain microenvironment, differentiated into TH-positive and GFAP-positive cells, and upregulated the DA level in the injured area of the brain. The triple-transgenic DA-BMSCs cell line that stably produced DA, survived in large numbers, and differentiated in the rat brain was successfully established, laying a foundation for the treatment of PD using engineered culture and transplantation of DA-BMSCs.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Dopamine , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Cell Line , Brain/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 475-485, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981022

ABSTRACT

Pain is a multi-dimensional emotional experience, and pain sensation and pain emotion are the two main components. As for pain, previous studies only focused on a certain link of the pain transmission pathway or a certain key brain region, and there is a lack of evidence that connectivity of brain regions is involved in pain or pain regulation in the overall state. The establishment of new experimental tools and techniques has brought light to the study of neural pathways of pain sensation and pain emotion. In this paper, the structure and functional basis of the neural pathways involved in the formation of pain sensation and the regulation of pain emotion in the nervous system above the spinal cord level, including thalamus, amygdala, midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), parabrachial nucleus (PB) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), are reviewed in recent years, providing clues for the in-depth study of pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain , Neural Pathways/physiology , Periaqueductal Gray/physiology , Brain , Spinal Cord/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 231-240, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981000

ABSTRACT

Persistent neurogenesis exists in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the adult mammalian brain. Adult endogenous neurogenesis not only plays an important role in the normal brain function, but also has important significance in the repair and treatment of brain injury or brain diseases. This article reviews the process of adult endogenous neurogenesis and its application in the repair of traumatic brain injury (TBI) or ischemic stroke, and discusses the strategies of activating adult endogenous neurogenesis to repair brain injury and its practical significance in promoting functional recovery after brain injury.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Brain/physiopathology , Hippocampus/physiopathology , Mammals/physiology , Neurogenesis/physiology , Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Recovery of Function , Spinal Cord/physiopathology
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 197-204, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980997

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to establish a suitable method for extracting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from C57BL/6 mice. A patch clamp electrode puller was used to draw a glass micropipette, and a brain stereotaxic device was used to fix the mouse's head at an angle of 135° from the body. Under a stereoscopic microscope, the skin and muscle tissue on the back of the mouse's head were separated, and the dura mater at the cerebellomedullary cistern was exposed. The glass micropipette (with an angle of 20° to 30° from the dura mater) was used to puncture at a point 1 mm inboard of Y-shaped dorsal vertebral artery for CSF sampling. After the first extraction, the glass micropipette was connected with a 1 mL sterile syringe to form a negative pressure device for the second extraction. The results showed that the successful rate of CSF extraction was 83.33% (30/36). Average CSF extraction amount was (7.16 ± 0.43) μL per mouse. In addition, C57BL/6 mice were given intranasally ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) to establish a model of brain iron accumulation, and the CSF extraction technique established in the present study was used for sampling. The results showed that iron content in the CSF from the normal saline control group was not detected, while the iron content in the CSF from FAC-treated group was (76.24 ± 38.53) μmol/L, and the difference was significant. These results suggest that glass micropipette vacuum technique of CSF sampling established in the present study has the advantages of simplicity, high success rate, large extraction volume, and low bleeding rate, and is suitable for the research on C57BL/6 mouse neurological disease models.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Vacuum , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Cisterna Magna , Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 780-787, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980829

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a novel and minimally invasive technology. Since the US Food and Drug Administration approved unilateral ventral intermediate nucleus-MRgFUS for medication-refractory essential tremor in 2016, studies on new indications, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), psychiatric diseases, and brain tumors, have been on the rise, and MRgFUS has become a promising method to treat such neurological diseases. Currently, as the second most common degenerative disease, PD is a research hotspot in the field of MRgFUS. The actions of MRgFUS on the brain range from thermoablation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening, to neuromodulation. Intensity is a key determinant of ultrasound actions. Generally, high intensity can be used to precisely thermoablate brain targets, whereas low intensity can be used as molecular therapies to modulate neuronal activity and open the BBB in conjunction with injected microbubbles. Here, we aimed to summarize advances in the application of MRgFUS for the treatment of PD, with a focus on thermal ablation, BBB opening, and neuromodulation, in the hope of informing clinicians of current applications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Brain , Blood-Brain Barrier , Essential Tremor/surgery , Brain Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 807-814, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Significant brain volume deviation is an essential phenotype in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD), but its genetic basis has not been fully characterized. This study attempted to analyze the genetic factors associated with significant whole-brain deviation volume (WBDV).@*METHODS@#We established a reference curve based on 4222 subjects ranging in age from the first postnatal day to 18 years. We recruited only NDD patients without acquired etiologies or positive genetic results. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical exome sequencing (2742 genes) data were acquired. A genetic burden test was performed, and the results were compared between patients with and without significant WBDV. Literature review analyses and BrainSpan analysis based on the human brain developmental transcriptome were performed to detect the potential role of genetic risk factors in human brain development.@*RESULTS@#We recruited a total of 253 NDD patients. Among them, 26 had significantly decreased WBDV (<-2 standard deviations [SDs]), and 14 had significantly increased WBDV (>+2 SDs). NDD patients with significant WBDV had higher rates of motor development delay (49.8% [106/213] vs . 75.0% [30/40], P  = 0.003) than patients without significant WBDV. Genetic burden analyses found 30 genes with an increased allele frequency of rare variants in patients with significant WBDV. Analyses of the literature further demonstrated that these genes were not randomly identified: burden genes were more related to the brain development than background genes ( P  = 1.656e -9 ). In seven human brain regions related to motor development, we observed burden genes had higher expression before 37-week gestational age than postnatal stages. Functional analyses found that burden genes were enriched in embryonic brain development, with positive regulation of synaptic growth at the neuromuscular junction, positive regulation of deoxyribonucleic acid templated transcription, and response to hormone, and these genes were shown to be expressed in neural progenitors. Based on single cell sequencing analyses, we found TUBB2B gene had elevated expression levels in neural progenitor cells, interneuron, and excitatory neuron and SOX15 had high expression in interneuron and excitatory neuron.@*CONCLUSION@#Idiopathic NDD patients with significant brain volume changes detected by MRI had an increased prevalence of motor development delay, which could be explained by the genetic differences characterized herein.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Genetic Testing , Phenotype , Brain/pathology , Genetic Background , SOX Transcription Factors/genetics
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1261-1277, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980808

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, it has become increasingly recognized that a balanced gut microbiota plays an important role in maintaining the health of the host. Numerous clinical and preclinical studies have shown that changes in gut microbiota composition are associated with a variety of neurological diseases, e.g., Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and myasthenia gravis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are complex and remain unclear. Behavioral phenotypes can be transmitted from humans to animals through gut microbiota transplantation, indicating that the gut microbiota may be an important regulator of neurological diseases. However, further research is required to determine whether animal-based findings can be extended to humans and to elucidate the relevant potential mechanisms by which the gut microbiota regulates neurological diseases. Such investigations may aid in the development of new microbiota-based strategies for diagnosis and treatment and improve the clinical management of neurological disorders. In this review, we describe the dysbiosis of gut microbiota and the corresponding mechanisms in common neurological diseases, and discuss the potential roles that the intestinal microbiome may play in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Nervous System Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Microbiota , Brain
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980730

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the brain effect mechanism and the correlation between brain functional imaging and cognitive function in treatment of depressive disorder (DD) with transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) based on the resting-state functional magenetic reasonance imaging (rs-fMRI).@*METHODS@#Thirty-two DD patients were included in a depression group and 32 subjects of healthy condition were enrolled in a normal group. In the depression group, the taVNS was applied to bilateral Xin (CO15) and Shen (CO10), at disperse-dense wave, 4 Hz/20 Hz in frequency and current intensity ≤20 mA depending on patient's tolerance, 30 min each time, twice daily. The duration of treatment consisted of 8 weeks. The patients of two groups were undertaken rs-fMRI scanning. The scores of Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) were observed in the normal group at baseline and the depression group before and after treatment separately. The differential brain regions were observed before and after treatment in the two groups and the value of degree centrality (DC) of fMRI was obtained. Their correlation was analyzed in terms of HAMD, HAMA and WCST scores.@*RESULTS@#The scores of HAMD and HAMA in the depression group were all higher than those in the normal group (P<0.05). After treatment, the scores of HAMD and HAMA were lower than those before treatment in the depression group; the scores of total responses, response errors and perseverative errors of WCST were all lower than those before treatment (P<0.05). The brain regions with significant differences included the left inferior temporal gyrus, the left cerebellar peduncles region 1, the left insula, the right putamen, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the right middle frontal gyrus. After treatment, the value of DC in left supplementary motor area was negatively correlated to HAMD and HAMA scores respectively (r=-0.324, P=0.012; r=-0.310, P=0.015); the value of DC in left cerebellar peduncles region 1 was negatively correlated to the total responses of WCST (r=-0.322, P=0.013), and the left insula was positively correlated to the total responses of WCST (r=0.271, P=0.036).@*CONCLUSION@#The taVNS can modulate the intensity of the functional activities of some brain regions so as to relieve depressive symptoms and improve cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depression/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/methods , Vagus Nerve
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981550

ABSTRACT

The development and potential application of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is closely related to the human brain, so that the ethical regulation of BCI has become an important issue attracting the consideration of society. Existing literatures have discussed the ethical norms of BCI technology from the perspectives of non-BCI developers and scientific ethics, while few discussions have been launched from the perspective of BCI developers. Therefore, there is a great need to study and discuss the ethical norms of BCI technology from the perspective of BCI developers. In this paper, we present the user-centered and non-harmful BCI technology ethics, and then discuss and look forward on them. This paper argues that human beings can cope with the ethical issues arising from BCI technology, and as BCI technology develops, its ethical norms will be improved continuously. It is expected that this paper can provide thoughts and references for the formulation of ethical norms related to BCI technology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain-Computer Interfaces , Technology , Brain , User-Computer Interface , Electroencephalography
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981539

ABSTRACT

Accurate source localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is the primary condition of surgical removal of EZ. The traditional localization results based on three-dimensional ball model or standard head model may cause errors. This study intended to localize the EZ by using the patient-specific head model and multi-dipole algorithms using spikes during sleep. Then the current density distribution on the cortex was computed and used to construct the phase transfer entropy functional connectivity network between different brain areas to obtain the localization of EZ. The experiment result showed that our improved methods could reach the accuracy of 89.27% and the number of implanted electrodes could be reduced by (19.34 ± 7.15)%. This work can not only improve the accuracy of EZ localization, but also reduce the additional injury and potential risk caused by preoperative examination and surgical operation, and provide a more intuitive and effective reference for neurosurgeons to make surgical plans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Scalp , Brain Mapping/methods , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Electroencephalography/methods , Brain
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981294

ABSTRACT

The role of white matter of brain has always been neglected by scholars.With the development of neuroimaging technology,the role of white matter has attracted increasing attention.Perioperative neurocognitive disorders have been a hot issue in the research on anesthesia,and recent studies have suggested that white matter may be involved in the effects of general anesthetics on cognitive function.This paper reviews the progress in the relationship between white matter,general anesthesia,and cognitive function from clinical practice and research,aiming to provide new ideas for the research on the mechanism.


Subject(s)
White Matter , Cognition , Brain , Neuroimaging , Anesthesia, General
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971341

ABSTRACT

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a senile brain lesion caused by the abnormal structure and function of arterioles, venules and capillaries in the aging brain. The etiology of CSVD is complex, and disease is often asymptomatic in its early stages. However, as CSVD develops, brain disorders may occur, such as stroke, cognitive dysfunction, dyskinesia and mood disorders, and heart, kidney, eye and systemic disorders. As the population continues to age, the burden of CSVD is increasing. Moreover, there is an urgent need for better screening methods and diagnostic markers for CSVD, in addition to preventive and asymptomatic- and mild-stage treatments. Integrative medicine (IM), which combines the holistic concepts and syndrome differentiations of Chinese medicine with modern medical perspectives, has unique advantages for the prevention and treatment of CSVD. In this review, we summarize the biological markers, ultrasound and imaging features, disease-related genes and risk factors relevant to CSVD diagnosis and screening. Furthermore, we discuss IM-based CSVD prevention and treatment strategies to stimulate further research in this field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Integrative Medicine , Brain/pathology , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/pathology , Stroke/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Current mainstream PET scattering correction methods are introduced and evaluated horizontally, and finally, the existing problems and development direction of scattering correction are discussed.@*METHODS@#Based on NeuWise Pro PET/CT products of Neusoft Medical System Co. Ltd. , the simulation experiment is carried out to evaluate the influence of radionuclide distribution out of FOV (field of view) on the scattering estimation accuracy of each method.@*RESULTS@#The scattering events produced by radionuclide out of FOV have an obvious impact on the spatial distribution of scattering, which should be considered in the model. The scattering estimation accuracy of Monte Carlo method is higher than single scatter simulation (SSS).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Clinically, if the activity of the adjacent parts out of the FOV is high, such as brain, liver, kidney and bladder, it is likely to lead to the deviation of scattering estimation. Considering the Monte Carlo scattering estimation of the distribution of radionuclide out of FOV, it's helpful to improve the accuracy of scattering distribution estimation.


Subject(s)
Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Scattering, Radiation , Computer Simulation , Brain , Monte Carlo Method , Phantoms, Imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971044

ABSTRACT

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a common disease that affects brain function in neonates. At present, mild hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are the main methods for the treatment of neonatal HIE; however, they are independent of each other and cannot be combined for synchronous treatment, without monitoring of brain function-related physiological information. In addition, parameter setting of hyperbaric oxygen chamber and mild hypothermia mattress relies on the experience of the medical practitioner, and the parameters remain unchanged throughout the medical process. This article proposes a new device for the treatment of neonatal HIE, which has the modules of hyperbaric oxygen chamber and mild hypothermic mattress, so that neonates can receive the treatment of hyperbaric oxygen chamber and/or mild hypothermic mattress based on their conditions. Meanwhile, it can realize the real-time monitoring of various physiological information, including amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and near-infrared spectrum, which can monitor brain function, heart rate, rhythm, myocardial blood supply, hemoglobin concentration in brain tissue, and blood oxygen saturation. In combination with an intelligent control algorithm, the device can intelligently regulate parameters according to the physiological information of neonates and give recommendations for subsequent treatment.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Hypothermia/therapy , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Brain , Electroencephalography , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970907

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without autistic features and/or structural brain abnormalities (NEDASB).@*METHODS@#A child with NEDASB who presented at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University in July 2021 was selected as the subject. Peripheral blood samples of the child and her parents were collected and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to harbor a heterozygous c.820_828delinsCTTCA (p.Thr274Leufs*121) variant of the NOVA2 gene, for which both of her parents were of wild type. The variant was predicted as pathogenic based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.820_828delinsCTTCA (p.Thr274Leufs*121) variant of the NOVA2 gene probably underlay the disease in this child. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of NOVA2 gene variants and provided a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for this family.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Autistic Disorder/genetics , Brain , Computational Biology , Genetic Counseling , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Neuro-Oncological Ventral Antigen , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , RNA-Binding Proteins
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970687

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalogram (EEG) is characterized by high temporal resolution, and various EEG analysis methods have developed rapidly in recent years. The EEG microstate analysis method can be used to study the changes of the brain in the millisecond scale, and can also present the distribution of EEG signals in the topological level, thus reflecting the discontinuous and nonlinear characteristics of the whole brain. After more than 30 years of enrichment and improvement, EEG microstate analysis has penetrated into many research fields related to brain science. In this paper, the basic principles of EEG microstate analysis methods are summarized, and the changes of characteristic parameters of microstates, the relationship between microstates and brain functional networks as well as the main advances in the application of microstate feature extraction and classification in brain diseases and brain cognition are systematically described, hoping to provide some references for researchers in this field.


Subject(s)
Electroencephalography , Brain , Cognition
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