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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e9237, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132520

ABSTRACT

We investigated changes in oxidative biomarkers in brain regions such as brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex of 3-, 6-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month-old rats. We also assessed the effects of low-intensity exercise on these biomarkers in these regions of 6-, 18-, and 24-month-old rats that started exercise on a treadmill at 3, 15, and 21 months of age, respectively. Radiographic images of the femur were taken for all rats. A total of 25 rats (age: twelve 6-, ten 18-, ten 24-, and three 30-month-old rats) were used. Lipid hydroperoxide levels increased in cerebellum at 18 months. Total antioxidant activity exhibited lowest values in brainstem at 3 months. Superoxide dismutase activity did not exhibit significant changes during aging. Total thiol content exhibited lowest values in brain regions of 24- and 30-month-old rats. Exercise reduced total thiol content in brainstem at 6 months, but no change occurred in other regions and other ages. Femur increased its length and width and cortical thickness with advancing age. No change occurred in medullary width. Radiolucency increased and sclerosis was found in cortical and medullary bone with advancing age. Exercise reduced radiolucency and medullary sclerosis. Therefore, aging differentially changed oxidative biomarkers in different brain regions and radiographic measures of the femur. Low-intensity exercise only ameliorated some radiographic measurements of femur. Since the present study possessed limitations (small number of rats per group), a beneficial effect of regular low-intensity exercise on oxidative markers in brain cannot be ruled out.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Brain/metabolism , Aging/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Femur/diagnostic imaging , Lipid Peroxides/analysis , Oxidation-Reduction , Aging/metabolism , Biomarkers/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation , Rats, Wistar , Femur/chemistry
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of microglial pyroptosis in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.@*METHODS@#An oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model of rat microglial cells were cultured in vitro. Western blot was used to measure the expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins caspase-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and N-terminal gasdermin D (GSDMD-N) at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after OGD/R. After the microglial cells were transfected with lentivirus-mediated silenced gasdermin D (GSDMD), immunofluorescence assay and Western blot were used to measure the transfection rate of GSDMD. Microglial cell lines were divided into three groups: normal control, negative control, and LV-sh_GSDMD (lentivirus-mediated GSDMD silencing). CCK-8 assay and LDH kit were used to observe the effect of GSDMD silencing on the viability and toxicity of microglial cells at 24 hours after OGD/R. Western blot was used to observe the effect of GSDMD silencing on the levels of caspase-1, GSDMD-N, and IL-1β in the microglial cells at 24 hours after OGD/R.@*RESULTS@#The expression levels of the pyroptosis-related proteins caspase-1, GSDMD-N, and IL-1β in microglial cells were upregulated since 0 hour after OGD/R and reached the peak levels at 24 hours. A microglial cell model of lentivirus-mediated GSDMD silencing was successfully constructed. At 24 hours after OGD/R, compared with the normal control group, the GSDMD silencing group had a significant increase in the cell viability and a significant reduction in the cytotoxicity (P<0.05), as well as significant reductions in the protein expression levels of caspase-1, GSDMD-N, and IL-1β in microglial cells (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Lentivirus silencing of the key substrate protein for pyroptosis GSDMD can alleviate hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, suggesting that microglial pyroptosis aggravates hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Microglia/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Rats
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 549-556, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055020

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Growth hormone (GH) is best known for its effect stimulating tissue and somatic growth through the regulation of cell division, regeneration and proliferation. However, GH-responsive neurons are spread over the entire central nervous system, suggesting that they have important roles in the brain. The objective of the present review is to summarize and discuss the potential physiological importance of GH action in the central nervous system. We provide evidence that GH signaling in the brain regulates the physiology of numerous functions such as cognition, behavior, neuroendocrine changes and metabolism. Data obtained from experimental animal models have shown that disruptions in GH signaling in specific neuronal populations can affect the reproductive axis and impair food intake during glucoprivic conditions, neuroendocrine adaptions during food restriction, and counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, and they can modify gestational metabolic adaptions. Therefore, the brain is an important target tissue of GH, and changes in GH action in the central nervous system can explain some dysfunctions presented by individuals with excessive or deficient GH secretion. Furthermore, GH acts in specific neuronal populations during situations of metabolic stress to promote appropriate physiological adjustments that restore homeostasis. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):549-56


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents/metabolism , Human Growth Hormone/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/physiology , Signal Transduction , Nerve Regeneration/physiology
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e8150, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974270

ABSTRACT

High caloric intake promotes chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes, which may be prevented by food restriction (FR). The effect of FR on expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes in adipose tissue, liver, muscle, and brain was compared. Male Swiss mice were submitted to FR (FR group) or had free access to food (control group) during 56 days. The liver, gastrocnemius muscle, brain, and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) were collected for analysis of gene expressions. FR attenuated inflammation in the liver, brain, and gastrocnemius muscle but did not markedly change inflammatory gene expression in epididymal WAT. We concluded that adipose tissue was less responsive to FR in terms of gene expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Liver/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Gene Expression , Cholesterol/blood
5.
Clinics ; 74: e1273, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate several methods to estimate glucose consumption in the male Wister rat brain as measured by PET. METHODS: Fourteen male Wistar normoglycemic rats were studied. The input function consisted of seventeen blood samples drawn manually from the femoral artery. Glucose uptake values were calculated using the input function resulting from the arterial blood samples and the tissue time-activity curve derived from the PET images. The estimated glucose consumption rate (Ki) based on the 2-tissue compartment model (2TCM) served as the standard for comparisons with the values calculated by the Patlak analysis and with the fractional uptake rate (FUR), standardized uptake value (SUV) and glucose corrected SUV (SUVglu). RESULTS: No significant difference between the standard Ki and the Patlak Ki was observed. The standard Ki was also found to have strong correlations and concordance with the Ki value estimated by the Patlak analysis. The FUR method presented an excellent correlation with the Ki value obtained by the 2TCM/Patlak analyses, in contrast to the SUV or SUVglu. CONCLUSIONS: From a methodological point of view, the present findings confirm the theoretical limitations of the cerebral SUV and SUVglu as a substitute for Ki in the estimation of glucose consumption in the brain. Our data suggest that the FUR is the surrogate to Ki.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain/metabolism , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/administration & dosage , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Glucose/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(2): 142-148, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897828

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is common after cardiac surgery. Adequate cerebral perfusion is essential and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can measure cerebral oxygenation. Aim of this study is to compare incidence of early and late postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients treated with conventional or near infrared spectroscopy monitoring. Methods: Patients undergoing coronary surgery above 60 years, were included and randomized to 2 groups; control and NIRS groups. Peroperative management was NIRS guided in GN; and with conventional approach in control group. Test battery was performed before surgery, at first week and 3rd month postoperatively. The battery comprised clock drawing, memory, word list generation, digit spam and visuospatial skills subtests. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was defined as drop of 1 SD (standard deviation) from baseline on two or more tests. Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of quantitative measurements; Chi-square exact test to compare quantitative data. Results: Twenty-one patients in control group and 19 in NIRS group completed study. Demographic and operative data were similar. At first week postoperative cognitive dysfunction were present in 9 (45%) and 7 (41%) of patients in control group and NIRS group respectively. At third month 10 patients (50%) were assessed as postoperative cognitive dysfunction; incidence was 4 (24%) in NIRS group (p:0.055). Early and late postoperative cognitive dysfunction group had significantly longer ICU stay (1.74 + 0.56 vs. 2.94 + 0.95; p < 0.001; 1.91 + 0.7 vs. 2.79 + 1.05; p < 0.01) and longer hospital stay (9.19 + 2.8 vs. 11.88 + 1.7; p < 0.01; 9.48 + 2.6 vs. 11.36 + 2.4; p < 0.05). Conclusion: In this pilot study conventional monitoring and near infrared spectroscopy resulted in similar rates of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Late cognitive dysfunction tended to ameliorate with near infrared spectroscopy. Early and late cognitive declines were associated with prolonged ICU and hospital stays.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório é comum após cirurgia cardíaca. A perfusão cerebral adequada é essencial e a espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo (NIRS) pode medir a oxigenação cerebral. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a incidência de disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório, precoce e tardio, em pacientes idosos tratados com monitoração convencional ou espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo. Métodos: Os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia coronariana, acima de 60 anos, foram incluídos e randomicamente alocados em dois grupos: grupo controle e grupo NIRS. O manejo dos pacientes no período perioperatório foi feito com NIRS no grupo NH e com abordagem convencional no grupo controle A bateria de testes foi feita antes da cirurgia, na primeira semana e no terceiro mês de pós-operatório. A bateria incluiu o desenho do relógio, a memória, a geração de uma lista de palavras, a sequência de dígitos e subtestes que exigem habilidades visuoespaciais.Disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório foi definida como queda de um DP (desvio-padrão) da fase basal em dois ou mais testes. O teste U de Mann Whitney foi usado para comparação de medidas quantitativa e o teste exato do qui-quadrado para comparar dados quantitativos. Resultados: Vinte e um pacientes do grupo controle e 19 do grupo NIRS concluíram o estudo. Os dados demográficos e operacionais foram semelhantes. Na primeira semana, nove pacientes (45%) do GC e sete pacientes (41%) do grupo NIRS apresentaram disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório. No terceiro mês, 10 pacientes (50%) foram avaliados como disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório; a incidência foi de quatro (24%) no grupo NIRS (p = 0,055). O grupo que apresentou disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório precoce e tardio teve uma permanência significativamente maior na UTI (1,74 + 0,56 vs. 2,94 + 0,95; p < 0,001; 1,91 + 0,7 vs. 2,79 + 1,05; p < 0,01) e permanência hospitalar mais longa (9,19 + 2,8 vs. 11,88 + 1,7; p < 0,01; 9,48 + 2,6 vs. 11,36 + 2,4; p < 0,05). Conclusão: Neste estudo piloto, a monitoração convencional e a espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo resultaram em taxas semelhantes de disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório precoce. A disfunção cognitiva tardia tende a melhorar com espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo. Os declínios cognitivos precoces e tardios foram associados a internações prolongadas tanto em UTI quanto hospitalares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Brain/metabolism , Coronary Artery Bypass , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Time Factors , Pilot Projects , Incidence , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Middle Aged
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(2): 67-70, Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888349

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Current understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease suggests a key role of the accumulation of alpha-synuclein in the pathogenesis. This critical review highlights major landmarks, hypotheses and controversies about the origin and progression of synucleinopathy in Parkinson's disease, leading to an updated review of evidence suggesting the enteric nervous system might be the starting point for the whole process. Although accumulating and compelling evidence favors this theory, the remaining knowledge gaps are important points for future studies.


RESUMO O atual entendimento sobre a fisiopatologia da doença de Parkinson (DP) sugere um papel central do acúmulo de alfa-sinucleína na patogenia da DP Esta revisão crítica revisita marcos, teorias e controvérsias a respeito da origem e progressão da sinucleinopatia, apresentando uma atualização das principais evidências sugerindo que o sistema nervoso entérico seria o local inicial deste processo. Apesar das evidências a favor desta teoria serem crescentes e instigantes, as lacunas de conhecimento a este respeito são importantes pontos para estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Enteric Nervous System/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Enteric Nervous System/pathology , Disease Progression
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(12): 1013-1025, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886199

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the fatty acid content of different fat sources and evaluate the effect of them on plasma and hepatic lipids and on the fatty acid profile of the brain tissue of Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty male albino Wistar rats received for 59 days, the following diets: diet added of margarine with low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); diet added of margarine with high content of PUFA; diet added of butter; diet added of hydrogenated vegetable fat; diet added of soybean oil. Fatty acid profile of the lipid sources, blood and hepatic lipids fractions and fatty acid profile of the brain tissue were determined. Results: Margarine consumption of provided different responses as to concentrations of blood and hepatic lipid fractions. Intake of butter and hydrogenated increased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, being the steepest increase promoted by hydrogenated vegetable fat, which also raised LDL-c levels expressively. All fats used in the treatments reduced the cerebral concentration of docosahexaenoic acid when compared to soybean oil (control). Conclusion: The different fat sources commonly consumed by population provided different responses in vivo. This is particularly relevant considering the role of these lipids in the incidence and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain/metabolism , Butter/analysis , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Liver/metabolism , Margarine/analysis , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol/blood , Rats, Wistar , Diet , Lipid Metabolism , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/chemistry , Growth , Hydrogenation , Liver/chemistry
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(4): 355-361, July-aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897736

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Despite new improvements on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), brain damage is very often after resuscitation. Objective: To assess the prognostic value of cerebral oxygen saturation measurement (rSO2) for assessing prognosis on patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Design: Retrospective analysis. Measurements and results: We analyzed 25 post-CPR patients (12 female and 13 male). All the patients were cooled to a target temperature of 33-34 °C. The Glascow Coma Scale (GCS), Corneal Reflexes (CR), Pupillary Reflexes (PR), arterial Base Excess (BE) and rSO2 measurements were taken on admission. The rewarming GCS, CR, PR, BE and rSO2 measurements were made after the patient's temperature reached 36 °C. Results: In survivors, the baseline rSO2 value was 67.5 (46-70) and the percent difference between baseline and rewarming rSO2 value was 0.03 (0.014-0.435). In non-survivors, the baseline rSO2 value was 30 (25-65) and the percent difference between baseline and rewarming rSO2 value was 0.031 (-0.08 to -20). No statistical difference was detected on percent changes between baseline and rewarming values of rSO2. Statistically significant difference was detected between baseline and rewarming GCS groups (p = 0.004). No statistical difference was detected between GCS, CR, PR, BE and rSO2 to determine the prognosis. Conclusion: Despite higher values of rSO2 on survivors than non-survivors, we found no statistically considerable difference between groups on baseline and the rewarming rSO2 values. Since the measurement is simple, and not affected by hypotension and hypothermia, the rSO2 may be a useful predictor for determining the prognosis after CPR.


Resumo Justificativa: Apesar dos novos avanços em reanimação cardiopulmonar (RCP), o dano cerebral muitas vezes ocorre após a reanimação. Objetivo: Avaliar o valor prognóstico de medir a saturação de oxigênio cerebral (rSO2) para estimar o prognóstico em pacientes após a reanimação cardiopulmonar. Projeto: Análise retrospectiva. Medidas e resultados: Foram avaliados após RCP 25 pacientes (12 do sexo feminino e 13 do masculino). Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à hipotermia (temperatura alvo de 33-34 °C). As mensurações da Escala de Coma de Glascow (GCS), dos reflexos corneanos (RC), dos reflexos pupilares (RP) e do excesso de base (EB) e rSO2 foram feitas na admissão. Na hipertermia, as mensurações de GCS, RC, RP, EB e rSO2 foram feitas depois que a temperatura atingiu 36 °C. Resultados: Em sobreviventes, o valor basal de rSO2 foi de 67,5 (46-70) e a diferença percentual entre o valor basal e a hipertermia de rSO2 foi de 0,03 (0,014-0,435). Em não sobreviventes, o valor basal de rSO2 foi de 30 (25-65) e a diferença percentual entre o valor basal de hipotermia de rSO2 foi de 0,031 (-0,08-20). Não houve diferença estatística nas variações percentuais entre os valores da rSO2 na fase basal e de reaquecimento. Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi observada entre os valores da GCS na fase basal e de reaquecimento dos grupos (p = 0,004). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre GCS, RC, RP, EB e rSO2 para determinar o prognóstico. Conclusão: Embora os valores da rSO2 tenham sido mais elevados em sobreviventes do que em não sobreviventes, não observamos uma diferença estatisticamente significativa dos valores da rSO2 entre os grupos na fase basal e de reaquecimento. Como a mensuração é simples, e não afetada por hipotensão e hipotermia, a rSO2 pode ser um indicador útil para determinar o prognóstico após a RCP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Oxygen Consumption , Brain/metabolism , Oximetry , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 273-283, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886645

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tryptophan is the only precursor of serotonin and mediates serotonergic activity in the brain. Previous studies have shown that the administration of tryptophan or tryptophan depletion significantly alters cognition, mood and anxiety. Nevertheless, the neurobiological alterations that follow these changes have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a tryptophan-enriched diet on immunoreactivity to Fos-protein in the rat brain. Sixteen male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups that either received standard chow diet or a tryptophan-enriched diet for a period of thirty days. On the morning of the 31st day, animals were euthanized and subsequently analyzed for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and in regions that receive serotonin innervation from these two brain areas. Treatment with a tryptophan-enriched diet increased Fos-ir in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, paraventricular hypothalamus, arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsolateral and dorsomedial periaqueductal grey and dorsal and median raphe nucleus. These observations suggest that the physiological and behavioral alterations that follow the administration of tryptophan are associated with the activation of brain regions that regulate cognition and mood/anxiety-related responses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anxiety/drug therapy , Brain/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/drug effects , Cognition/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation/administration & dosage , Affect/drug effects , Anxiety/metabolism , Time Factors , Tryptophan/administration & dosage , Brain/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Serotonin/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Supplements , Diet Therapy/methods
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(6): e6049, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839314

ABSTRACT

Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) is located within the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21. DSCAM is a broadly expressed neurodevelopmental protein involved in synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and axon guidance. We previously demonstrated DSCAM overexpression in the cortex of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, suggesting possible regulatory interactions between APP and DSCAM. APP mice exhibit deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In this preliminary study, we examined age-related changes in DSCAM expression within the hippocampus in 16 APP transgenic mice (1, 3, 6 and 12 months old). Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory was assessed in APP mice and age-matched wild type littermates (WTs) using the Morris water maze (MWM). The cellular distribution of hippocampal DSCAM and total expression at both mRNA and protein levels were measured by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and western blotting, respectively. APP mice exhibited spatial memory deficits in the MWM. Intense DSCAM immunoreactivity was observed in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer and hippocampal stratum pyramidale. Total hippocampal DSCAM mRNA and protein expression levels were substantially higher in APP mice than WTs at 1 and 3 months of age. Expression decreased with age in both groups but remained higher in APP mice. DSCAM is overexpressed in the hippocampus over the first 12 months of life in APP mice, but especially during maturation to adulthood. In conclusion, these results suggest an association between DSCAM and APP mice, which is characterized by neuropathology and behavioral deficits. These results provide some clues for future studies on the role of DSCAM overexpression in the precocious cognitive decline observed in APP transgenic mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Age Factors , Brain/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Down Syndrome/metabolism , Genotype , Learning Disabilities/metabolism , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6432, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888964

ABSTRACT

Brain serotonin and dopamine are neurotransmitters related to fatigue, a feeling that leads to reduced intensity or interruption of physical exercises, thereby regulating performance. The present review aims to present advances on the understanding of fatigue, which has recently been proposed as a defense mechanism instead of a "physiological failure" in the context of prolonged (aerobic) exercises. We also present recent advances on the association between serotonin, dopamine and fatigue. Experiments with rodents, which allow direct manipulation of brain serotonin and dopamine during exercise, clearly indicate that increased serotoninergic activity reduces performance, while increased dopaminergic activity is associated with increased performance. Nevertheless, experiments with humans, particularly those involving nutritional supplementation or pharmacological manipulations, have yielded conflicting results on the relationship between serotonin, dopamine and fatigue. The only clear and reproducible effect observed in humans is increased performance in hot environments after treatment with inhibitors of dopamine reuptake. Because the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems interact with each other, the serotonin-to-dopamine ratio seems to be more relevant for determining fatigue than analyzing or manipulating only one of the two transmitters. Finally, physical training protocols induce neuroplasticity, thus modulating the action of these neurotransmitters in order to improve physical performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Exercise/physiology , Dopamine/physiology , Serotonin/physiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/metabolism , Time Factors , Brain/metabolism , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Athletic Performance/physiology
13.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(3): 249-253, May.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782880

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic surgery has become a popular surgical tool when compared to traditional open surgery. There are limited data on pediatric patients regarding whether pneumoperitoneum affects cerebral oxygenation although end-tidal CO2 concentration remains normal. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the changes of cerebral oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscope during laparoscopic surgery in children. METHODS: The study comprised forty children who were scheduled for laparoscopic (Group L, n = 20) or open (Group O, n = 20) appendectomy. Hemodynamic variables, right and left regional cerebral oxygen saturation (RrSO2 and LrSO2), fraction of inspired oxygen, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2), peak inspiratory pressure (Ppeak), respiratory minute volume, inspiratory and end-tidal concentrations of sevoflurane and body temperature were recorded. All parameters were recorded after anesthesia induction and before start of surgery (T0, baseline), 15 min after start of surgery (T1), 30 min after start of surgery (T2), 45 min after start of surgery (T3), 60 min after start of surgery (T4) and end of the surgery (T5). RESULTS: There were progressive decreases in both RrSO2 and LrSO2 levels in both groups, which were not statistically significant at T1, T2, T3, T4. The RrSO2 levels of Group L at T5 were significantly lower than that of Group O. One patient in Group L had an rSO2 value <80% of the baseline value. CONCLUSIONS: Carbon dioxide insufflation during pneumoperitoneum in pediatric patients may not affect cerebral oxygenation under laparoscopic surgery.


RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A cirurgia laparoscópica se tornou uma ferramenta cirúrgica popular em comparação com a cirurgia aberta tradicional. Há poucos dados sobre pacientes pediátricos no que se refere ao pneumoperitônio afetar a oxigenação cerebral enquanto a concentração de CO2 no fim da expiração continua normal. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações da saturação de oxigênio cerebral com espectroscopia de infravermelho próximo durante cirurgia laparoscópica em crianças. MÉTODOS: O estudo recrutou 40 crianças programadas para apendicectomia laparoscópica (Grupo L, n = 20) ou aberta (Grupo A, n = 20). Variáveis hemodinâmicas, saturação de oxigênio cerebral regional direita e esquerda (RrSO2 e LrSO2), fração inspirada de oxigênio, pressão expiratória final de dióxido de carbono (PETCO2), pico de pressão inspiratória (Ppico), volume minuto respiratório, concentrações de sevoflurano inspirado e expirado e temperatura corporal foram registrados. Todos os parâmetros foram registrados após a indução da anestesia e antes do início da cirurgia (T0, basal), 15 minutos após o início da cirurgia (T1), 30 minutos após o início da cirurgia (T2), 45 minutos após o início da cirurgia (T3), 60 minutos após o início da cirurgia (T4) e no fim da cirurgia (T5). RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição progressiva em ambos os níveis de RrSO2 e LrSO2 nos dois grupos, mas não foi estatisticamente significativa em T1, T2, T3, T4. Os níveis de RrSO2 do Grupo L em T5 foram significativamente menores do que os do Grupo A. Um paciente do Grupo L apresentou um valor rSO2 < 80% do valor basal. CONCLUSÕES: A insuflação de dióxido de carbono durante o pneumoperitônio em pacientes pediátricos pode não afetar a oxigenação cerebral em cirurgia laparoscópica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Oxygen/metabolism , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial/methods , Brain/metabolism , Carbon Dioxide/administration & dosage , Insufflation/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Prospective Studies , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(3): 198-205, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777088

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of Bg on cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Twenty eight rats were randomly distributed into four groups. The first group was kept as a control. In the second group, CP was given at the single dose of 7 mg/kg intraperitoneally. In the third group, βg was orally administered at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 14 days. In the fourth group, CP and βg were given together at the same doses. RESULTS: CP treatment caused significant oxidative damage via induction of lipid peroxidation and reductions antioxidant defense system potency in the brain tissue. In addition, histopathological damage increased with CP treatment. On the other hand, βg treatment largely prevented oxidative and histopathological negative effects of CP. CONCLUSIONS: Cisplatin has severe neurotoxic effects in rats and βg supplementation has significant beneficial effects against CP toxicity depending on its antioxidant properties. Thus, it appears that βg might be useful against CP toxicity in patients with cancer in terms of nervous system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Brain/drug effects , Brain Diseases/prevention & control , Cisplatin/adverse effects , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Brain Diseases/chemically induced , Brain Diseases/pathology , Random Allocation , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Cisplatin/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(10): e5310, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951650

ABSTRACT

Although it is well known that physical training ameliorates brain oxidative function after injuries by enhancing the levels of neurotrophic factors and oxidative status, there is little evidence addressing the influence of exercise training itself on brain oxidative damage and data is conflicting. This study investigated the effect of well-established swimming training protocol on lipid peroxidation and components of antioxidant system in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were randomized into trained (5 days/week, 8 weeks, 30 min; n=8) and non-trained (n=7) groups. Forty-eight hours after the last session of exercise, animals were euthanized and the brain was collected for oxidative stress analysis. Swimming training decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels (P<0.05) and increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05) with no effect on brain non-enzymatic total antioxidant capacity, estimated by FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) assay (P>0.05). Moreover, the swimming training promoted metabolic adaptations, such as increased maximal workload capacity (P<0.05) and maintenance of body weight. In this context, the reduced TBARS content and increased SOD antioxidant activity induced by 8 weeks of swimming training are key factors in promoting brain resistance. In conclusion, swimming training attenuated oxidative damage and increased enzymatic antioxidant but not non-enzymatic status in the rat brain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Brain/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Antioxidants/metabolism , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors , Body Weight , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Antioxidants/analysis
16.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(supl.2): 109-122, Out.-Dez. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776706

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Descrever indicadores de cuidado em saúde em adultos com hipertensão arterial autorreferida no Brasil, segundo características sociodemográficas. Métodos: Foram utilizados dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2013, estudo transversal de base populacional, referentes ao cuidado em saúde com a hipertensão arterial autorreferida quanto ao uso de serviços de saúde. As prevalências e seus intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) foram calculados segundo sexo, idade, raça/cor e escolaridade, representativos para Brasil e grandes regiões. Resultados: A hipertensão arterial foi referida por 21,4% (IC95% 20,8 - 22,0) dos entrevistados, sendo maior em mulheres e em pessoas sem instrução e com ensino fundamental incompleto. Dentre estes, 45,9% (IC95% 44,0 - 47,7) referiram ter recebido assistência médica pela última vez em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde; 81,4% (IC95% 80,1 - 82,7) referiram tomar medicamentos para a hipertensão; e 92,0% (IC95% 91,2 - 92,8) referiram ter realizado todos os exames complementares que foram solicitados. Conclusão: É importante conhecer a cobertura e o acesso aos serviços de saúde para o cuidado aos indivíduos com hipertensão arterial, de modo a avançar na qualidade da assistência prestada e reduzir as desigualdades identificadas.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe health care indicators in adults with self-reported hypertension in Brazil, according to socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: Data from the National Health Survey 2013, a cross-sectional population-based study, about health care of self-reported hypertension and health services were used. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for sex, age, race/color skin and schooling levels, representing Brazil and major regions. Results: Hypertension was reported by 21.4% (95%CI 20.8 - 22.0) of respondents, being higher in women and in people without instruction and incomplete middle school. Among these, 45.9% (95%CI 44.0 - 47.7) reported having received medical care for the last time in a basic health unit; 81.4% (95%CI 80.1 - 82.7) reported taking medication for high blood pressure; and 92.0% (95%CI 91.2 - 92.8) reported having taken all requested complementary examinations. Conclusion: It is important to know the coverage and access to health services for the care of patients with hypertension, in order to improve care quality and reduce identified inequalities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain/metabolism , Nanotubes, Carbon , Coculture Techniques , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission , Nanotubes, Carbon/toxicity , Pentetic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Rats, Wistar , Swine
17.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 151-155, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747145

ABSTRACT

Introduction Auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony (AN/AD) comprises a spectrum of pathology affecting the auditory pathways anywhere from the inner hair cells to the brainstem. It is characterized by an absent or atypical auditory brainstem response (ABR) with preservation of the cochlear microphonics and/or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Objective Retrospective analysis of patients with AN/AD. Methods Fifteen patients with AN/AD were included in this study and their records were retrospectively investigated. Results Possible etiology of AN/AD was neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in three patients, family history of hearing loss in three patients, consanguineous marriage in two patients, head trauma in two patients, mental motor retardation in one patient, cerebrovascular disease in one patient, and there was no apparent cause in three patients. Conclusion Otolaryngologists should keep in mind the diagnosis of AN/AD especially in patients complaining of difficulty in hearing and speech and audiological evidence of disassociation between pure tone and speech audiometry. ABR and OAE testing is recommended in these patients for AN/AD diagnosis. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Brain/metabolism , Epigenesis, Genetic , Klinefelter Syndrome/genetics , Transcriptome , Alu Elements , Case-Control Studies , Cerebellum/metabolism , DNA Methylation , Klinefelter Syndrome/complications , Klinefelter Syndrome/metabolism , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Schizophrenia/complications
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(6): 499-505, 06/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748186

ABSTRACT

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of trauma-related deaths. Systemic hypotension and intracranial hypertension causes cerebral ischemia by altering metabolism of prostanoids. We describe prostanoid, pupilar and pathological response during resuscitation with hypertonic saline solution (HSS) in TBI. Method Fifteen dogs were randomized in three groups according to resuscitation after TBI (control group; lactated Ringer’s (LR) group and HSS group), with measurement of thromboxane, prostaglandin, macroscopic and microscopic pathological evaluation and pupil evaluation.Result Concentration of prostaglandin is greater in the cerebral venous blood than in plasma and the opposite happens with concentration of thromboxane. Pathology revealed edema in groups with the exception of group treated with HSS.Discussion and conclusion There is a balance between the concentrations of prostaglandin and thromboxane. HSS prevented the formation of cerebral edema macroscopically detectable. Pupillary reversal occurred earlier in HSS group than in LR group.


O traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE) é a principal causa de morte relacionada ao trauma. O choque hemorrágico e hipertensão intracraniana causam isquemia cerebral alterando o metabolismo de prostanóides. Neste estudo, relatamos o comportamento dos prostanóides, resposta pupilar e patologia durante a reposição volêmica com solução salina hipertônica (SSH) no TCE. Método Quinze cachorros foram randomizados em três grupos (controle, grupo de Ringer lactato e grupo de SSH) e foram avaliados tromboxane, prostaglandina, avaliação patológica macroscópica e microscópica e status pupilar.Resultado A concentração de prostaglandina é maior no sangue cerebral em comparação ao plasma, e o inverso ocorre com o tromboxane. A patologia revelou edema em todos os grupos, com exceção do grupo tratado com SSH.Discussão e conclusão Existe um equilíbrio entre concentrações cerebrais e plasmáticas de prostaglandina e tromboxane. A SSH protegeu o cérebro da formação de edema pós traumático.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Male , Brain Injuries/drug therapy , Fluid Therapy/methods , Prostaglandins F/blood , Pupil/physiology , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Brain Edema/prevention & control , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Intracranial Pressure , Isotonic Solutions/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Shock, Hemorrhagic/metabolism , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , /blood
19.
Clinics ; 70(5): 313-317, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and to evaluate the association between IL-17 and clinical manifestations, disease activity, laboratory findings and treatment. METHODS: We included 67 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients [61 women; median age 18 years (range 11-31)], 55 first-degree relatives [50 women; median age 40 years (range 29-52)] and 47 age- and sex-matched healthy controls [42 women; median age 19 years (range 6-30)]. The childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were assessed for clinical and laboratory systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations, disease activity [Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)], cumulative damage [Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Damage Index] and current drug use. Serum IL-17 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using commercial kits. RESULTS: The median serum IL-17 level was 36.3 (range 17.36-105.92) pg/mL in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 29.47 (15.16-62.17) pg/mL in healthy controls (p=0.009). We observed an association between serum IL-17 levels and active nephritis (p=0.01) and migraines (p=0.03). Serum IL-17 levels were not associated with disease activity (p=0.32), cumulative damage (p=0.34), or medication use (p=0.63). CONCLUSION: IL-17 is increased in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric and renal manifestations. Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine the role of IL-17 in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Affect/physiology , Brain/physiology , Estrogens/physiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Menopause/psychology , Serotonin/physiology , Administration, Cutaneous , Administration, Oral , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , Amino Acids/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Cross-Over Studies , Double-Blind Method , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Estradiol/blood , Estradiol/pharmacology , Functional Neuroimaging/methods , Functional Neuroimaging/psychology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/psychology , Psychomotor Performance/physiology , Serotonin/metabolism , Tryptophan/administration & dosage , Tryptophan/blood , Tryptophan/pharmacology
20.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(2): 278-283, Mar-Apr/2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-752521

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a percepção dos graduandos de enfermagem sobre o próprio envelhecimento. Método: pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em agosto e setembro de 2011, com 18 graduandos de enfermagem de uma Universidade pública de Salvador (Bahia). Os depoimentos foram analisados por meio da Análise de Conteúdo. Resultados: apreendeu-se o núcleo temático: Percepção do graduando de enfermagem sobre o próprio envelhecimento e, a partir deste, emergiram duas subcategorias: A) O Não Pensar; B) O contexto influenciando no processo. Conclusão: os graduandos revelam que o envelhecimento está intrínseco ao desenvolvimento humano, e possui o vínculo familiar, a espiritualidade e atividade física como ferramentas fundamentais para um envelhecimento ativo. Entretanto, os mesmos relatam que, o modo de vida acelerado e estressante vivido na sociedade possibilita inserir hábitos considerados inadequados, como o consumo de “fast food” e álcool, que trazem influências negativas para o próprio processo de envelhecimento. .


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la percepción de los estudiantes de enfermería sobre su proprio envejecimiento. Método: estudio cualitativo, realizado en agosto y septiembre de 2011, con 18 estudiantes de enfermería de una universidad pública en Salvador/Bahia. Los datos fueron analizados através de análisis de contenido. Resultado: incautados el tema central: Percepción de alumnos de enfermería sobre su propio envejecimiento y de esto surgieron dos subcategorías: A) No creo; B) El contexto influye en el proceso. Conclusión: los estudiantes revelan que el envejecimiento es intrínseco al desarrollo humano, y tiene los vínculos familiares, la espiritualidad y la actividad física como herramienta clave para el envejecimiento activo. Sin embargo, el mismo informe que, debido a la forma de vida que se vive en la sociedad de ritmo rápido y estresante permite insertar hábitos considerados inadecuados, como el consumo de “comida rápida” y el alcohol y convertirse en influencias negativas para su propio proceso tuvo como objetivo analizar de los estudiantes de enfermería su propio envejecimiento. .


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the perceptions of nursing undergraduate students on their self-aging process. Method: qualitative study carried out between August and September, 2011 with 18 nursing undergraduate students of a public university in Salvador, Bahia. The interviews were analyzed by means of the Content Analysis method. Results: the following thematic concept was apprehended: Perceptions of nursing undergraduates on their self-aging, which generated two subcategories: A) The “don’t think about it” process; B) The context infl uencing the process. Conclusion: undergraduates reveal that the aging process is an intrinsic factor to human development. Family ties, spirituality and physical activity would be key mechanisms toward active aging. However, students also reported that their accelerated and stressed social lifestyles led to inadequate habits, such as the consumption of fast food and alcohol, which become negative infl uences in their aging process. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Brain/immunology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/pathogenicity , Encephalitis, Japanese/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Signal Transduction , /physiology , /physiology , Blotting, Western , Brain/metabolism , Brain/virology , /immunology , /metabolism , /virology , /immunology , /metabolism , /virology , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Encephalitis, Japanese/virology , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Knockout , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics
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