Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 660
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1310-1316, oct. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521015


SUMMARY: Although COVID-19 is primarily considered a respiratory pathology, it has been observed to impact other bodily systems, including the nervous system. While several studies have investigated anatomical changes in brain structures, such as volume or thickness post-COVID-19, there are no comprehensive reviews of these changes using imaging techniques for a holistic understanding. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the literature on brain changes observed through neuroimaging after COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines using Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect, and LitCOVID. We selected studies that included adult patients during or after COVID-19 development, a control group or pre-infection images, and morphometric measurements using neuroimaging. We used the MSQ scale to extract information on sample characteristics, measured anatomical structures, imaging technique, main results, and methodological quality for each study. Out of 1126 identified articles, we included 19 in the review, encompassing 1155 cases and 1284 controls. The results of these studies indicated a lower volume of the olfactory bulb and variable increases or decreases in cortical and limbic structures' volumes and thicknesses. Studies suggest that brain changes occur post-COVID-19, primarily characterized by a smaller olfactory bulb. Additionally, there may be variations in cortical and limbic volumes and thicknesses due to inflammation or neuroplasticity, but these findings are not definitive. These differences may be attributed to methodological, geographical, and temporal variations between studies. Thus, additional studies are required to provide a more comprehensive and quantitative view of the evidence.

Aunque el COVID-19 se considera principalmente una patología respiratoria, se ha observado que afecta otros sistemas corporales, incluido el sistema nervioso. Si bien varios estudios han investigado los cambios anatómicos en las estructuras cerebrales, como el volumen o el grosor posteriores a la COVID-19, no hay revisiones exhaustivas de estos cambios que utilicen técnicas de imágenes para una comprensión holística. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar sistemáticamente la literature sobre los cambios cerebrales observados a través de neuroimagen después de COVID-19. Realizamos una revisión sistemática de acuerdo con las pautas PRISMA utilizando Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect y LitCOVID. Seleccionamos estudios que incluyeron pacientes adultos durante o después del desarrollo de COVID-19, un grupo de control o imágenes previas a la infección y mediciones morfométricas mediante neuroimagen. Utilizamos la escala MSQ para extraer información sobre las características de la muestra, las estructuras anatómicas medidas, la técnica de imagen, los principales resultados y la calidad metodológica de cada estudio. De 1126 artículos identificados, incluimos 19 en la revisión, que abarca 1155 casos y 1284 controles. Los resultados de estos estudios indicaron un menor volumen del bulbo olfatorio y aumentos o disminuciones variables en los volúmenes y espesores de las estructuras corticales y límbicas. Los estudios sugieren que los cambios cerebrales ocurren después del COVID-19, caracterizados principalmente por un bulbo olfatorio más pequeño. Además, pueden haber variaciones en los volúmenes y grosores corticales y límbicos debido a la inflamación o la neuroplasticidad, pero estos hallazgos no son definitivos. Estas diferencias pueden atribuirse a variaciones metodológicas, geográficas y temporales entre estudios. Por lo tanto, se requieren estudios adicionales para proporcionar una visión más completa y cuantitativa de la evidencia.

Humans , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 466-478, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971586


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to demyelination and eventually to neurodegeneration. Activation of innate immune cells and other inflammatory cells in the brain and spinal cord of people with MS has been well described. However, with the innovation of technology in glial cell research, we have a deep understanding of the mechanisms of glial cells connecting inflammation and neurodegeneration in MS. In this review, we focus on the role of glial cells, including microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, in the pathogenesis of MS. We mainly focus on the connection between glial cells and immune cells in the process of axonal damage and demyelinating neuron loss.

Humans , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuroglia , Inflammation/pathology , Brain/pathology , Spinal Cord/pathology
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 99-112, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971538


Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have become a significant threat to an aging human society. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past decades to clarify their pathologic mechanisms and search for reliable biomarkers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for investigating structural and functional brain alterations in NDs. With the advantages of being non-invasive and non-radioactive, it has been frequently used in both animal research and large-scale clinical investigations. MRI may serve as a bridge connecting micro- and macro-level analysis and promoting bench-to-bed translational research. Nevertheless, due to the abundance and complexity of MRI techniques, exploiting their potential is not always straightforward. This review aims to briefly introduce research progress in clinical imaging studies and discuss possible strategies for applying MRI in translational ND research.

Animals , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Translational Research, Biomedical , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Brain/pathology , Head/pathology
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 807-814, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980820


BACKGROUND@#Significant brain volume deviation is an essential phenotype in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD), but its genetic basis has not been fully characterized. This study attempted to analyze the genetic factors associated with significant whole-brain deviation volume (WBDV).@*METHODS@#We established a reference curve based on 4222 subjects ranging in age from the first postnatal day to 18 years. We recruited only NDD patients without acquired etiologies or positive genetic results. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical exome sequencing (2742 genes) data were acquired. A genetic burden test was performed, and the results were compared between patients with and without significant WBDV. Literature review analyses and BrainSpan analysis based on the human brain developmental transcriptome were performed to detect the potential role of genetic risk factors in human brain development.@*RESULTS@#We recruited a total of 253 NDD patients. Among them, 26 had significantly decreased WBDV (<-2 standard deviations [SDs]), and 14 had significantly increased WBDV (>+2 SDs). NDD patients with significant WBDV had higher rates of motor development delay (49.8% [106/213] vs . 75.0% [30/40], P  = 0.003) than patients without significant WBDV. Genetic burden analyses found 30 genes with an increased allele frequency of rare variants in patients with significant WBDV. Analyses of the literature further demonstrated that these genes were not randomly identified: burden genes were more related to the brain development than background genes ( P  = 1.656e -9 ). In seven human brain regions related to motor development, we observed burden genes had higher expression before 37-week gestational age than postnatal stages. Functional analyses found that burden genes were enriched in embryonic brain development, with positive regulation of synaptic growth at the neuromuscular junction, positive regulation of deoxyribonucleic acid templated transcription, and response to hormone, and these genes were shown to be expressed in neural progenitors. Based on single cell sequencing analyses, we found TUBB2B gene had elevated expression levels in neural progenitor cells, interneuron, and excitatory neuron and SOX15 had high expression in interneuron and excitatory neuron.@*CONCLUSION@#Idiopathic NDD patients with significant brain volume changes detected by MRI had an increased prevalence of motor development delay, which could be explained by the genetic differences characterized herein.

Child , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Genetic Testing , Phenotype , Brain/pathology , Genetic Background , SOX Transcription Factors/genetics
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1309-1326, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982471


Machine learning approaches are increasingly being applied to neuroimaging data from patients with psychiatric disorders to extract brain-based features for diagnosis and prognosis. The goal of this review is to discuss recent practices for evaluating machine learning applications to obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and to advance a novel strategy of building machine learning models based on a set of core brain regions for better performance, interpretability, and generalizability. Specifically, we argue that a core set of co-altered brain regions (namely 'core regions') comprising areas central to the underlying psychopathology enables the efficient construction of a predictive model to identify distinct symptom dimensions/clusters in individual patients. Hypothesis-driven and data-driven approaches are further introduced showing how core regions are identified from the entire brain. We demonstrate a broadly applicable roadmap for leveraging this core set-based strategy to accelerate the pursuit of neuroimaging-based markers for diagnosis and prognosis in a variety of psychiatric disorders.

Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Brain/pathology , Neuroimaging/methods , Machine Learning , Comorbidity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 659-674, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982427


Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by progressive calcium deposition bilaterally in the brain, accompanied by various symptoms, such as dystonia, ataxia, parkinsonism, dementia, depression, headaches, and epilepsy. Currently, the etiology of PFBC is largely unknown, and no specific prevention or treatment is available. During the past 10 years, six causative genes (SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGFB, XPR1, MYORG, and JAM2) have been identified in PFBC. In this review, considering mechanistic studies of these genes at the cellular level and in animals, we summarize the pathogenesis and potential preventive and therapeutic strategies for PFBC patients. Our systematic analysis suggests a classification for PFBC genetic etiology based on several characteristics, provides a summary of the known composition of brain calcification, and identifies some potential therapeutic targets for PFBC.

Animals , Brain Diseases/therapy , Xenotropic and Polytropic Retrovirus Receptor , Brain/pathology
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 499-506, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982407


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze recurrence and progression patterns of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in patients without whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and assess the value of WBRT in PCNSL treatment.@*METHODS@#This retrospective single-center study included 27 patients with PCNSL, who experienced recurrence/progression after achieving complete remission (CR), partial remission, or stable disease following initial treatments with chemotherapy but without WBRT. The patients were followed up regularly after the treatment for treatment efficacy assessment. By comparing the anatomical location of the lesions on magnetic resonance images (MRI) at the initial diagnosis and at recurrence/progression, we analyzed the patterns of relapse/progression in patients with different treatment responses and different initial status of the lesions.@*RESULTS@#MRI data showed that in 16 (59.26%) of the 27 patients, recurrence/progression occurred in out-field area (outside the simulated clinical target volume [CTV]) but within the simulated WBRT target area in 16 (59.26%) patients, and within the CTV (in-field) in 11 (40.74%) patients. None of the patients had extracranial recurrence of the tumor. Of the 11 patients who achieved CR after the initial treatments, 9 (81.82%) had PCNSL recurrences in the out-field area but within WBRT target area; of the 13 patients with a single lesion at the initial treatment, 11 (84.62%) experienced PCNSL recurrence in the out-field area but within WBRT target area.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Systemic therapy combined with WBRT still remains the standard treatment for PCNSL patients, especially those who achieve CR after treatment or have a single initial lesion. Future prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further explore the role of low-dose WBRT in PCNSL treatment.

Humans , Lymphoma/radiotherapy , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Brain/pathology , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Methotrexate
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 186-191, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971341


Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a senile brain lesion caused by the abnormal structure and function of arterioles, venules and capillaries in the aging brain. The etiology of CSVD is complex, and disease is often asymptomatic in its early stages. However, as CSVD develops, brain disorders may occur, such as stroke, cognitive dysfunction, dyskinesia and mood disorders, and heart, kidney, eye and systemic disorders. As the population continues to age, the burden of CSVD is increasing. Moreover, there is an urgent need for better screening methods and diagnostic markers for CSVD, in addition to preventive and asymptomatic- and mild-stage treatments. Integrative medicine (IM), which combines the holistic concepts and syndrome differentiations of Chinese medicine with modern medical perspectives, has unique advantages for the prevention and treatment of CSVD. In this review, we summarize the biological markers, ultrasound and imaging features, disease-related genes and risk factors relevant to CSVD diagnosis and screening. Furthermore, we discuss IM-based CSVD prevention and treatment strategies to stimulate further research in this field.

Humans , Integrative Medicine , Brain/pathology , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/pathology , Stroke/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1134-1146, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405239


SUMMARY: The postmortem diagnosis of death by drowning is one of the most difficult issues in forensic pathology. We investigated possible evidence differentiating saltwater drowning from freshwater drowning by histopathological changes in brain, heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys tissues. A cross section descriptive study was carried out on eighteen 12-week-old male Wistar rats; they were divided equally into 3 groups. Group 1: control group; Group 2: death by drowning in freshwater; Group 3: death by drowning in saltwater. Immediately after death, all tested organs were removed and fixed for histopathological examination. The brain of freshwater group depicted degenerated neurocytes with dystrophic changes in the form of shrunken cell, pyknotic nuclei and deeply eosinophilic cytoplasm. The heart showed clear evidence of myocyte injuries in saltwater drowning compared to the control and freshwater groups. The kidneys of rats drown in saltwater revealed more glomerular destruction with no differences in tubulo-interstitial changes in comparison with those drown in freshwater. In the lungs, the changes in freshwater were restricted to the alveoli, and the bronchial changes were more distinctive in saltwater. No disturbed liver architecture was seen in both test groups, however hydropic degeneration, congested vessels, and sinusoids were more distinct in saltwater group. In conclusion, diagnostic differentiation between fresh and saltwater drowning was reliable in rats' lungs and heart with minimal differentiation in liver, kidneys, and brain. Further studies of drowning with different staining techniques will help to clarify the potential role of histopathological changes in body organs as indicator of drowning.

RESUMEN: El diagnóstico post mortem de muerte por ahogamiento es uno de los temas más difíciles de la patología forense. Investigamos la posible evidencia que diferencia el ahogamiento en agua salada del ahogamiento en agua dulce por cambios histopatológicos en los tejidos del cerebro, el corazón, los pulmones, el hígado y los riñones. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en dieciocho ratas Wistar macho de 12 semanas de edad; se dividieron por igual en 3 grupos. Grupo 1: grupo control; Grupo 2: muerte por ahogamiento en agua dulce; Grupo 3: muerte por ahogamiento en agua salada. Inmediatamente después de la muerte, se extirparon todos los órganos analizados y se fijaron para el examen histopatológico. El cerebro del grupo de agua dulce mostró neurocitos degenerados con cambios distróficos en forma de células encogidas, núcleos picnóticos y citoplasma profundamente eosinofílico. El corazón mostró una clara evidencia de lesiones de miocitos en los ahogamientos en agua salada en comparación con los grupos de control y de agua dulce. Los riñones de ratas ahogadas en agua salada revelaron una mayor destrucción glomerular sin diferencias en los cambios túbulo-intersticiales en comparación con las ahogadas en agua dulce. En los pulmones, los cambios en agua dulce se restringieron a los alvéolos y los cambios bronquiales fueron más distintivos en agua salada. No se observó una arquitectura hepática alterada en ambos grupos de prueba, sin embargo, la degeneración hidrópica, los vasos congestionados y los sinusoides fueron más distintos en el grupo de agua salada. En conclusión, la diferenciación diagnóstica entre ahogamiento en agua dulce y salada fue confiable en los pulmones y el corazón de las ratas con una diferenciación mínima en el hígado, los riñones y el cerebro. Estudios adicionales de ahogamiento con diferentes técnicas de tinción ayudarán a aclarar el papel potencial de los cambios histopatológicos en los órganos del cuerpo como indicador de ahogamiento.

Animals , Male , Rats , Saline Waters , Drowning/pathology , Fresh Water , Brain/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Rats, Wistar , Forensic Medicine , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1019-1025, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941035


OBJECTIVE@#To propose a multi-modality-based super-resolution synthesis model for reconstruction of routine brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) with a low resolution and a high thickness into high-resolution images.@*METHODS@#Based on real paired low-high resolution MRI data (2D T1, 2D T2 FLAIR and 3D T1), a structure-constrained image mapping network was used to extract important features from the images with different modalities including the whole T1 and subcortical regions of T2 FLAIR to reconstruct T1 images with higher resolutions. The gray scale intensity and structural similarities between the super-resolution images and high-resolution images were used to enhance the reconstruction performance. We used the anatomical information acquired from segment maps of the super-resolution T1 image and the ground truth by a segmentation tool as a significant constraint for adaptive learning of the intrinsic tissue structure characteristics of the brain to improve the reconstruction performance of the model.@*RESULTS@#Our method showed the performance on the testing dataset than other methods with an average PSNR of 33.11 and SSIM of 0.996. The anatomical structure of the brain including the sulcus, gyrus, and subcortex were all reconstructed clearly using the proposed method, which also greatly enhanced the precision of MSCSR for brain volume measurement.@*CONCLUSION@#The proposed MSCSR model shows excellent performance for reconstructing super-resolution brain MR images based on the information of brain tissue structure and multimodality MR images.

Brain/pathology , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 594-602, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939784


OBJECTIVE@#To determine whether Schisandrin B (Sch B) attenuates early brain injury (EBI) in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham (sham operation), SAH, SAH+vehicle, and SAH+Sch B groups using a random number table. Rats underwent SAH by endovascular perforation and received Sch B (100 mg/kg) or normal saline after 2 and 12 h of SAH. SAH grading, neurological scores, brain water content, Evan's blue extravasation, and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining were carried out 24 h after SAH. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to detect the expressions of ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the rat brain, while the expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax, Caspase-3, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated specklike protein containing the caspase-1 activator domain (ASC), Caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-18 in the rat brains were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the SAH group, Sch B significantly improved the neurological function, reduced brain water content, Evan's blue content, and apoptotic cells number in the brain of rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, Sch B decreased SAH-induced expressions of Iba-1 and MPO (P<0.01). SAH caused the elevated expressions of Bax, Caspase-3, NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 in the rat brain (P<0.01), all of which were inhibited by Sch B (P<0.01). In addition, Sch B increased the Bcl-2 expression (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Sch B attenuated SAH-induced EBI, which might be associated with the inhibition of neuroinflammation, neuronal apoptosis, and the NLRP3 inflammatory signaling pathway.

Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Brain/pathology , Brain Injuries/pathology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cyclooctanes , Evans Blue , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Lignans , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Polycyclic Compounds , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Water , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 14-25, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928561


In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used in evaluating neonatal brain development, diagnosing neonatal brain injury, and predicting neurodevelopmental prognosis. Based on current research evidence and clinical experience in China and overseas, the Neonatologist Society of Chinese Medical Doctor Association has developed a consensus on the indications and standardized clinical process of neonatal brain MRI. The consensus has the following main points. (1) Brain MRI should be performed for neonates suspected of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, intracranial infection, stroke and unexplained convulsions; brain MRI is not considered a routine in the management of preterm infants, but it should be performed for further evaluation when cranial ultrasound finds evidence of brain injury; as for extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight infants without abnormal ultrasound findings, it is recommended that they should undergo MRI examination at term equivalent age once. (2) Neonates should undergo MRI examination in a non-sedated state if possible. (3) During MRI examination, vital signs should be closely monitored to ensure safety; the necessity of MRI examination should be strictly evaluated for critically ill neonates, and magnetic resonance compatible incubator and ventilator can be used. (4) At present, 1.5 T or 3.0 T equipment can be used for neonatal brain MRI examination, and the special coil for the neonatal head should be used to improve signal-to-noise ratio; routine neonatal brain MRI sequences should at least include axial T1 weighted image (T1WI), axial T2 weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging, and sagittal T1WI or T2WI. (5) It is recommended to use a structured and graded reporting system, and reports by at least two reviewers and multi-center collaboration are recommended to increase the reliability of the report.

Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Brain/pathology , Consensus , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Infant, Premature , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Reproducibility of Results
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1673-1682, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971350


OBJECTIVES@#Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a rare clinical imaging syndrome. The causes of RPLS are complex and diverse, the pathogenesis is not yet clear. The onset is urgent and the onset age span is large, ranging from children to the elderly. The clinical symptoms of RPLS have no significant specificity, which can be manifested as headache, blurred vision, disturbance of consciousness or seizures. Clinicians have little knowledge on the disease, which may lead to misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis. This study aims to analyze and summarize the MRI changes and clinical characteristics regarding RPLS patients, so as to provide basis for rapid diagnosis and timely intervention for this disease.@*METHODS@#The clinical data and complete imaging data of 77 patients with RPLS diagnosed in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2012 to March 2021 were retrospectively collected. The main image data include T1 weighted imaging (T1WI), T2 weighted imaging (T2WI), T2 liquid attenuation inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) (b value=1 000×10-6 mm2/s), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The case group included 63 patients who underwent DWI examination, and 71 normal controls matched in age and sex. The characteristics of patients' magnetic resonance signals and the ADC value of 19 regions of interest (ROI) were analyzed. The differences in bilateral ADC value in the case group, the difference of ADC value between the case group and the normal control group, and the difference of ADC value in the case group before and after treatment were compared.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal control group, the ADC value of the right frontal lobe, bilateral parietal lobe, bilateral thalamus, bilateral head of caudate nucleus, left lenticular nucleus, right internal capsule, bilateral temporal lobe and pons in the case group were significantly higher (all P<0.01). There was no significant difference in ADC value of bilateral sides of the case group and before and after treatment in the case group (all P>0.01). The lesions of RPLS were widely distributed and multiple, usually high signal in the posterior parieto temporo occipital lobe or pons of the brain, and involved the cortex and subcortical white matter. Most of them were bilateral, but not completely symmetrical.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The imaging manifestations of RPLS and the occurrence and development of clinical symptoms are basically synchronous. The imaging manifestations are specific. Magnetic resonance imaging can show the range of involvement of RPLS. ADC value can provide information on the severity of the disease and predict the prognosis. There are few reversible diseases. It is very important to fully understand and timely diagnose the disease.

Child , Humans , Aged , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Brain/pathology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 666-675, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339239


ABSTRACT Background: Multiple sclerosis exhibits specific neuropathological phenomena driving to both global and regional brain atrophy. At the clinical level, the disease is related to functional decline in cognitive domains as the working memory, processing speed, and verbal fluency. However, the compromise of social-cognitive abilities has concentrated some interest in recent years despite the available evidence suggesting the risk of disorganization in social life. Recent studies have used the MiniSEA test to assess the compromise of social cognition and have found relevant relationships with memory and executive functions, as well as with the level of global and regional brain atrophy. Objective: The present article aimed to identify structural changes related to socio-cognitive performance in a sample of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods: 68 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis Chilean patients and 50 healthy control subjects underwent MRI scans and neuropsychological evaluation including social-cognition tasks. Total brain, white matter, and gray matter volumes were estimated. Also, voxel-based morphometry was applied to evaluate regional structural changes. Results: Patients exhibited lower scores in all neuropsychological tests. Social cognition exhibited a significant decrease in this group mostly related to the declining social perception. Normalized brain volume and white matter volume were significantly decreased when compared to healthy subjects. The regional brain atrophy analysis showed that changes in the insular cortex and medial frontal cortices are significantly related to the variability of social-cognitive performance among patients. Conclusions: In the present study, social cognition was only correlated with the deterioration of verbal fluency, despite the fact that previous studies have reported its link with memory and executive functions. The identification of specific structural correlates supports the comprehension of this phenomenon as an independent source of cognitive disability in these patients.

RESUMEN Antecedentes: La esclerosis múltiple presenta fenómenos neuropatológicos específicos que conducen a la atrofia cerebral global y regional. A nivel clínico, la enfermedad está relacionada con el deterioro funcional de los dominios cognitivos como la memoria de trabajo, la velocidad de procesamiento y la fluidez verbal. Sin embargo, el compromiso de las habilidades socio-cognitivas ha concentrado cierto interés en los últimos años debido a la evidencia disponible que sugiere el riesgo de desorganización en la vida social. Estudios recientes han utilizado la prueba MiniSEA para evaluar el compromiso de la cognición social y han encontrado relaciones relevantes con la memoria y funciones ejecutiva, así como con el nivel de atrofia cerebral global y regional. Objetivo: El presente artículo tiene como objetivo identificar cambios estructurales relacionados con el rendimiento sociocognitivo en una muestra de pacientes con esclerosis múltiple recurrente-remitente. Métodos: 68 pacientes Chilenos con esclerosis múltiple recurrente-remitente y 50 sujetos de control sanos se sometieron a resonancias magnéticas y evaluación neuropsicológica, incluidas las tareas de cognición social. Se estimaron los volúmenes cerebrales totales, de materia blanca y materia gris. Además, se aplicó la morfometría basada en vóxel para evaluar los cambios estructurales regionales. Resultados: Los pacientes muestran puntuaciones más bajas en todas las pruebas neuropsicológicas. La cognición social exhibe una disminución significativa en este grupo principalmente relacionada con la disminución de la percepción social. El volumen normalizado del cerebro y el volumen de la materia blanca disminuyeron significativamente en comparación con los sujetos sanos. El análisis regional de atrofia cerebral mostró que los cambios en la corteza insular y la corteza frontal medial están significativamente relacionados con la variabilidad del rendimiento sociocognitivo entre los pacientes. Conclusiones: En el presente estudio, la cognición social sólo se correlacionó con el deterioro de la fluencia verbal, a pesar de que estudios previos han reportado su vinculación con la memoria y funciones ejecutivas. La identificación de correlatos estructurales específicos apoya la comprensión de este fenómeno como una fuente independiente de discapacidad cognitiva en estos pacientes.

Humans , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Atrophy/pathology , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cognition , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Social Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests
Rev. argent. radiol ; 85(1): 11-20, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155708


Resumen La presencia de lesiones quísticas de etiología oncológica en el encéfalo es cada vez más frecuente. El rol del especialista en imágenes es describir sus características, morfología y comportamiento con el contraste endovenoso, para llegar a realizar un diagnóstico presuntivo y enumerar sus diagnósticos diferenciales, y así orientar al médico tratante. Haremos una revisión de las lesiones quísticas de etiología oncológica de presentación frecuente en el encéfalo.

Abstract The presence of an oncologic cystic formation in the brain is frequent. The imaging specialist's role is to describe its features, morphology, and image enhancement characteristics with endovenous contrast, to make a presumptive diagnosis, and enumerated differential diagnoses and thus orientate the practitioner. We will analyze the most common expansive cystic formations.

Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Neurocytoma , Hemangioblastoma , Ependymoma
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(4): 431-441, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132093


The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is expected to more than double by 2050. Studies on the pathophysiology of AD have been changing our understanding of this disorder and setting a new scenario for drug development and other therapies. Concepts like the "amyloid cascade" and the "continuum of AD," discussed in this article, are now well established. From updated classifications and recommendations to advances in biomarkers of AD, we aim to critically assess the literature on AD, addressing new definitions and challenges that emerged from recent studies on the subject. Updates on the status of major clinical trials are also given, and future perspectives are discussed.

Humans , Brain/pathology , Early Diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Biomarkers , Disease Progression
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 485-492, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011371


ABSTRACT Because of the need for a standardized and accurate method for detecting multiple sclerosis (MS) inflammatory activity, different magnetic resonance (MR) acquisitions should be compared in order to choose the most sensitive sequence for clinical routine. Objective To compare the sensitivity of a T1-weighted image to a single dose of gadolinium (Gd) administration both with and without magnetization transfer to detect contrast enhancement in active demyelinating focal lesions. Methods A sample of relapsing-remitting MS patients were prospectively examined separately by two neuroradiologists using a 1.5 Tesla scanner. The outcome parameters were focused on Gd-enhancement detection attributed to acute demyelination. All MR examinations with at least one Gd-enhancing lesion were considered positive (MR+) and each lesion was analyzed according to its size and contrast ratio. Results Thirty-six MR examinations were analyzed with a high inter-observer agreement for MR+ detection (k coefficient > 0.8), which was excellent for the number of Gd-enhancing lesions (0.91 T1 spin-echo (SE), 0.88 T1 magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) sequence and 0.99 magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient-echo (MPRAGE). Significantly more MR+ were reported on the T1 MTC scans, followed by the T1 SE, and MPRAGE scans. Confidently, the T1 MTC sequence demonstrated higher accuracy in the detection of Gd-enhancing lesions, followed by the T1 SE and MPRAGE sequences. Further comparisons showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the contrast ratio and area of Gd-enhancement on the T1 MTC images when compared with both the SE and MPRAGE images. Conclusion Single-dose Gd T1 MTC sequence was confirmed to be the most sensitive acquisition for predicting inflammatory active lesions using a 1.5 T magnet in this sample of MS patients.

RESUMO No que se refere à necessidade de um método preciso e padronizado para a detecção de atividade inflamatória em esclerose múltipla (EM), diferentes aquisições de RM devem ser comparadas com objetivo de escolher a sequência mais sensível para a rotina clínica. Objetivo Comparar a sensibilidade das sequências ponderadas em T1 após a administração endovenosa de uma única dose de gadolínio, com e sem a adição da transferência de magnetização, para detectar a impregnação das lesões desmielinizantes focais agudas. Métodos Uma amostra de pacientes com EM-RR foi prospectivamente avaliada separadamente por dois neurorradiologistas em um equipamento de RM de 1,5 Tesla. Os parâmetros de desfecho foram direcionados para a avaliação da detecção de impregnação pelo Gd atribuída à desmielinização aguda. Todos os exames de RM que demonstraram ao menos uma lesão com impregnação pelo Gd foram considerados positivos (RM+) e cada lesão foi analisada de acordo com suas dimensões e contraste. Resultados Trinta e seis exames de RM foram analisados. Os avaliadores demonstraram elevada concordância para a detecção de RM+ (coeficiente> 0,8), sendo excelente quanto ao número de lesões com impregnação pelo Gd (0,91 SE, 0,88 T1 MTC e 0,99 MPRAGE). A sequência T1 MTC apresentou número significativamente maior de RM+, seguida pelas sequências T1 SE e MPRAGE. De forma análoga, a sequência T1 MTC demonstrou maior acurácia na detecção de lesões com impregnação pelo Gd, seguida pelas sequências T1 SE e MPRAGE. As demais comparações demonstraram aumento estatisticamente significativo na relação de contraste e na área de impregnação pelo Gd nas imagens T1 MTC quando comparadas às imagens SE e MPRAGE. Conclusão A sequência T1 MTC com uma única dose de Gd confirmou ser a sequência mais sensível em demonstrar lesões inflamatórias agudas em equipamento de 1,5 T nessa coorte de pacientes com EM.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Brain/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Demyelinating Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media/administration & dosage , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/diagnostic imaging , Gadolinium/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Demyelinating Diseases/etiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/complications , Multiple Sclerosis
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 111-114, abr. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002616


El objetivo de este estudio fue combinar dos métodos automatizados de análisis estructural de imágenes de resonancia magnética para identificar cambios estructurales en pacientes nacidos en Argentina con epilepsia generalizada idiopática (EGI) en comparación con un grupo control de adultos sanos. Fueron incluidos 28 pacientes con EGI y 26 controles sin diferencias demográficas significativas. El análisis de las estructuras cerebrales se realizó con dos métodos automatizados de análisis de imágenes de resonancia magnética: la morfometría basada en vóxel y con la herramienta de segmentación y registro integrada FSL (FSL-FIRST). FSL mostró una disminución del volumen en ambos tálamos en EGI en comparación con el grupo control (tálamo izquierdo: 8092 mm³ grupo control vs. 7424 mm³ EGI, p = 0.0015; tálamo derecho: 7951 mm³ grupo control vs. 7247 mm³ EGI, p = 0.0016). Se observó una reducción en el volumen de ambos núcleos caudados (izquierdo: 3612 mm³ grupo control vs. 3376 mm³ EGI, p = 0.01; derecho 3683 mm³ grupo control vs. 3459 mm³ EGI, p = 0.04). La morfometría basada en vóxel mostró una disminución del volumen en ambos núcleos caudados en EGI en comparación con el grupo control. Las otras estructuras cerebrales analizadas no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Este estudio muestra la reducción en el volumen en las estructuras subcortical, tálamos y núcleos caudados en pacientes con EGI comparado con un grupo control.

The purpose of this study was to combine two automated methods of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) structural analysis in order to identify structural changes in patients born in Argentina with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) compared to a healthy adult control group. Twenty-eight patients with IGE and 26 controls with no significant demographic differences were included. The analysis of the brain structures was conducted with two automated methods of magnetic resonance image analysis: voxel-based morphometry and FSL-integrated registration and segmentation toolbox (FSL-FIRST). FSL showed volume decrease in both thalamus in patients with IGE compared to the control group (left: 8092 mm³ control group vs. 7424 mm³ IGE, p = 0.0015; right: 7951 mm³ control group vs. 7247 mm³ IGE, p = 0.0016). A reduction in the volume of both caudate nuclei was also seen (left: 3612 mm³ control group vs. 3376 mm³ IGE, p = 0.01; right: 3683 mm³ control group vs. 3459 mm³ IGE, p = 0.04). Voxel-based-morphometry showed a volume decrease in both caudate nuclei in patients with IGE compared to the control group. The other cerebral structures analyzed did not show significant differences between the groups. In conclusion, this study shows the reduction in volume in the subcortical, thalamic, and caudate nuclei structures in patients with IGE in comparison to control group. This study conducted in our country delves into the analysis of brain structural changes in patients with EGI compared to healthy subjects.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Epilepsy, Generalized/pathology , Epilepsy, Generalized/diagnostic imaging , Organ Size , Argentina , Reference Values , Thalamus/pathology , Thalamus/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance