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Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 26-31, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248982


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) and gastric cancer (GC) are the third and the fifth most prevalent, respectively. Diarrhea is a common symptom in patients on chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment and can reduce treatment tolerance. Surgical resections and chemotherapy change the intestinal microbiota that can lead to lactose intolerance, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of diarrhea in patients with CRC and GC on chemotherapy with SIBO or intolerance of lactose. METHODS: This is a descriptive and observational study with patients of both sexes, over 18 years old, in treatment in the Gastro-Oncology outpatient clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CRC or GC during chemotherapy treatment were included. To detect bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance, breath hydrogen test with lactulose and lactose was done. Number and aspects of the evacuations and toxicity degree were collected. For the nutritional assessment, weight and height were performed to calculate the BMI. and the Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). RESULTS: A total of 33 patients were included, 29 with CRC and 3 with GC. Most of them were male (57.57%), mean age of 60.03±10.01 years and in chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin (54.5%). Diarrhea was present in 57.6% and 30.3% had toxicity grade 2. According to the BMI, 78.9% were eutrophics, obese or overweight, but according to PG-SGA, 84.9% had moderate or severe nutritional risk grade. Between patients, 45% had lactose intolerance and 9% SIBO. Diarrhea grade 2-3 was observed in 66.6% of patients with SIBO and 66.7% of that with lactose intolerance. No statistical difference was observed between patients with SIBO or lactose intolerance and grade of diarrhea. CONCLUSION: Diarrhea was a frequent symptom in chemotherapy patients with gastric or colorectal cancer independent of the presence of SIBO or lactose intolerance. Surgery and chemotherapy treatment impacted in the intestinal habit of patients. Diagnosis of other causes of diarrhea may contribute to a better tolerance to treatment and quality of life.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Mundialmente, o câncer colorretal (CCR) e gástrico (CG) são a terceira e a quinta causa de câncer mais prevalente, respectivamente. A diarreia é um sintoma comum entre os pacientes em quimioterapia ou radioterapia e pode reduzir a tolerância ao tratamento. Quimioterapia e ressecções cirúrgicas causam alterações da microbiota intestinal que podem levar a intolerância à lactose e ao supercrescimento bacteriano do intestino delgado (SBID). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de diarreia nos pacientes com câncer colorretal e gástrico em quimioterapia e a presença de SBID ou intolerância à lactose. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, observacional com pacientes ambulatoriais de ambos os sexos, maiores de 18 anos, em tratamento no ambulatório de gastro-oncologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Foram incluídos pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de CCR ou CG durante tratamento quimioterápico. Para detectar supercrescimento bacteriano e intolerância à lactose, foram realizados testes respiratórios com lactulose e lactose respectivamente. Número, aspecto das evacuações e grau de toxicidade foram coletados. Para a avaliação nutricional foram aferidos peso e altura para cálculo do IMC e para avaliação do risco nutricional foi realizada a avaliação subjetiva global produzida pelo próprio paciente (ASG-PPP). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 33 pacientes, 29 com CCR e 3 com CG. A maioria era do sexo masculino (57,5%) com média de idade 60,03±10,01 anos e em tratamento quimioterápico com fluoropirimidina e oxaliplatina (54,5%). Diarreia foi relatada por 57,6% dos pacientes sendo em 30% grau 2. Pelo IMC, 78,9% apresentavam eutrofia, sobrepeso ou obesidade grau 1, mas pela ASG-PPP 84,9 apresentavam risco nutricional moderado ou severo. Entre os pacientes 9% apresentavam SBID e 45% intolerância à lactose. Diarreia grau 2-3 foi observada em 66,6% daqueles pacientes com SBID e 66,7% dos com intolerância à lactose. Não encontramos diferenças estatísticas entre os pacientes com SBID ou intolerância à lactose e intensidade de diarreia. CONCLUSÃO: Diarreia foi um sintoma frequente entre os pacientes com câncer gástrico ou colorretal em quimioterapia independente da presença de SBID ou intolerância à lactose. Cirurgia e quimioterapia impactaram no hábito intestinal dos pacientes. O diagnóstico de outras causas de diarreia pode contribuir para a melhor tolerância do tratamento e qualidade de vida.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lactose Intolerance/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Breath Tests , Hydrogen , Intestine, Small , Lactose , Middle Aged
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922378


OBJECTIVES@#To study the association between milk consumption and lactose malabsorption in Indonesian children aged 3-12 years.@*METHODS@#This cross sectional study was conducted in randomly selected presumed healthy children with good nutritional status aged 3-12 years in Central Jakarta, Indonesia (@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of lactose malabsorption in children aged 3-5 years and children aged 6-12 years was 20.8% (15/72) and 35.3% (36/102), respectively. There was no association between milk or milk product consumption and lactose malabsorption (@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is no association between milk consumption and lactose malabsorption in Indonesian children aged 3-12 years, suggesting that genetic predisposition may be more important than adaptive mechanisms to lactose consumption.

Animals , Breath Tests , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Lactose Intolerance/epidemiology , Milk
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 796-803, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922149


Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality globally, which is the biggest menace to the health and life of the population. Screening and early detection of lung cancer are effective in reducing its mortality, and the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has become a promising clinical means for early detection, course detection and prognosis management of lung cancer, with advantages of rapid speed, non-invasiveness and convenience. Now, a variety of VOCs collection ways and analysis methods have emerged at home and abroad. This report summarized three aspects, including VOCs collection, multiple methods of analysis and progress in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. At last, we discussed the limitations and prospects of VOCs analysis.

Breath Tests , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Volatile Organic Compounds
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(2): 62-68, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293286


El asma es la enfermedad respiratoria crónica pediátrica más frecuente. En la mayoría de los niños se caracteriza por inflamación de la vía aérea de tipo eosinofílica alérgica. La fracción espirada de óxido nítrico (FENO) es un biomarcador de inflamación eosinofílica de vía aérea, su medición es no invasiva y fácil de realizar y ha sido evaluado en los últimos años para su aplicación clínica en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del asma en niños y adultos. Esta revisión abordará el origen anatómico y bioquímico del FENO, aspectos prácticos de su medición, valores de referencia y su aplicación clínica en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del asma pediátrico.

Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease characterized in most children by allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. The exhaled fraction of nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, constituting a non-invasive and easy-to-perform test that has been evaluated in recent years for its clinical application in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma in children and adults. This review will address the anatomical and biochemical origin of FENO, practical aspects of its measurement, reference values and its clinical application in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric asthma.

Humans , Asthma/diagnosis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Asthma/metabolism , Breath Tests , Biomarkers , Exhalation , Eosinophilia , Inflammation , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 283-288, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131671


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) appears to be common in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The rate of SIBO has been estimated at 25%-88% in this setting. However, different demographic, socioeconomic, and disease-related factors may exist between South American and North American or European populations that may limit the generalization of these findings, as the data are mainly derived from North American or European studies. OBJECTIVE: We studied the prevalence and predictors of SIBO in CD outpatients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, between June 2011 and June 2016, the medical records of 110 CD patients were assessed for presence of SIBO using the H2/CH4 glucose breath test. Univariate analysis was performed to investigate the potential association between SIBO and demographic, disease-related data, systemic markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). RESULTS: The SIBO rate was high in CD patients (30%). Patients with and without SIBO were comparable according to demographics, systemic inflammatory biomarkers, and disease characteristics, except to the stricturing phenotype more common in the SIBO-positive CD patients (48.5% vs 19.5%, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: In Brazilian CD patients, SIBO is a highly prevalent condition. Stricturing phenotype demonstrated association with SIBO. An individualized screening plan followed by the timely treatment for SIBO should be carried out as part of quality of care improvement in CD individuals.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O supercrescimento bacteriano de intestino delgado (SBID) parece ser comum em pacientes com doença de Crohn (DC). A taxa de SBID tem sido estimada entre 25-88% neste cenário. Entretanto, diferenças demográficas, socioeconômicas e dos fatores relacionados à doença podem existir entre as populações da América do Sul e da América do Norte ou europeias que podem limitar a generalização destes achados, uma vez que os dados são derivados principalmente de estudos norte-americanos ou europeus. OBJETIVO: Estudar a prevalência e os preditores de SBID em pacientes ambulatoriais com DC. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo retrospectivo os registros médicos de 110 pacientes com DC que haviam sido submetidos ao teste respiratório do hidrogênio e metano expirados para o diagnóstico de SBID, entre junho de 2011 e junho de 2016, foram avaliados. Análise univariada foi realizada para investigar a potencial associação entre SBID com os dados demográficos, relacionados à DC e marcadores sistêmicos de inflamação (proteína C-reativa e velocidade de hemossedimentação). RESULTADOS: A prevalência de SBID foi elevada em pacientes com DC (30%). Os pacientes com e sem SBID foram comparáveis de acordo com os dados demográficos e de biomarcadores de inflamação sistêmica, bem como das características da DC, exceto pelo fenótipo estenosante, mais comum nos pacientes com DC e SBID (48,5% vs 19,5%, P=0,001). CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes brasileiros com DC, SBID é uma condição altamente prevalente. O fenótipo estenosante demonstrou associação com o SBID. O planejamento de um screening individualizado seguido por tratamento apropriado para SBID deve ser incluído como parte da melhoria na qualidade de cuidados a ser oferecida para os pacientes com DC.

Humans , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Brazil , Breath Tests , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Intestine, Small
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787237


BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to identify the demographic and clinical factors associated with positive breath-test results and to assess the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in patients with suspected irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).METHODS: The demographic and clinical factors of 268 patients with suspected IBS, who had undergone a lactulose breath test, were analyzed.RESULTS: Of 268 patients included in this study, 143 (53.4%) were females. The median age and BMI of the patients was 58.0 years (range, 18.0–80.0 years) and 22.5 kg/m² (range, 14.4–34.3 kg/m²), respectively. A weak positive correlation was observed between the BMI and baseline hydrogen level (rho=0.134, p=0.031). Women were significantly more likely to show a ≥20 ppm increase in hydrogen within 90 min (early hydrogen increase, p=0.049), a ≥10 ppm increase in methane within 90 min (early methane increase, p=0.001), and a ≥10 ppm increase in methane between 90 min and 180 min (late methane increase, p=0.002) compared to men. The baseline hydrogen level was related to the baseline methane level (rho=0.592, p<0.001) and the maximal hydrogen level within 90 min was related to maximal methane level within 90 min (rho=0.721, p<0.001). Patients with an early hydrogen increase (43.8%) were more likely to show a positive result for an early methane increase compared to patients without an early increase in hydrogen (0%, p<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Women were associated with high rates of positive lactulose breath-test results. In addition, methane production was correlated with hydrogen production.

Breath Tests , Female , Humans , Hydrogen , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lactulose , Male , Methane , Sex Characteristics
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(3): e20190102, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090811


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a concordância entre as medidas de controle da asma e a capacidade de exercício funcional em crianças e adolescentes com asma não controlada e controlada. Métodos Selecionamos crianças e adolescentes com asma de 7 a 17 anos, que foram atendidos no Ambulatório de Pneumologia Pediátrica da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Todos os pacientes tiveram nível de controle da asma avaliado pelo questionário da Global Initiative for Asthma (GINAq), Teste de Controle da Asma (TCA), espirometria e teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6M). Os pacientes foram classificados como asma não controlada ou controlada em cada teste e a concordância entre as medidas foi avaliada pelas estatísticas do Kappa. A curva ROC foi calculada para o TC6M. O índice espirométrico da espirometria foi composto por FEV1, FEV1/FVC e FEF25-75%. Os resultados da espirometria e do TC6M foram comparados entre o grupo de asma não controlada e controlada pela GINAq. Resultados Dos 138 sujeitos incluídos, 78 (56,5%) eram do sexo masculino com idade média de 11,00 (7-17) anos. O GINAq detectou 68,8% dos pacientes com asma não controlada. Foi observada concordância moderada (p<0,001; k=0,56) e alta especificidade (100%) entre o GINAq e o TCA. No TC6M, o ponto de corte de 82,03% da distância prevista possibilitou a distinção de pacientes com asma controlada e não controlada. O índice espirométrico apresentou 73,4% de sensibilidade com o GINAq. Foram observados resultados piores no TC6M em pacientes com asma não controlada. Conclusões Este estudo destaca a importância de avaliar mais de uma medida para diferenciar o nível de controle da asma. O GINAq identificou mais pacientes com asma não controlada e apresentou concordância moderada com o TCA. O índice espirométrico foi associado à asma não controlada de acordo com o GINAq. O TC6M foi uma boa medida para distinguir pacientes com asma controlada e não controlada.

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the agreement among asthma control measures and functional exercise capacity in children and adolescents with uncontrolled and controlled asthma. Methods Children and adolescents with asthma from 7-17 years old were selected, and they were attended in the "Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of State University of Campinas", in Brazil. All patients had asthma control level assessed by Global Initiative for Asthma questionnaire (GINAq), Asthma Control Test (ACT), spirometry and six-minute-walk-test (6MWT). Patients were classified as uncontrolled or controlled asthma in each test and agreement among measures was assessed by kappa statistics. The ROC curve was calculated for the 6MWT. The spirometric index obtained from spirometry was composed by FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75%. Spirometry and 6MWT results were compared between uncontrolled and controlled asthma group by GINAq. Results Of the 138 subjects included, 78 (56.5%) were male with median age of 11 (7-17) years old. GINAq detected 68.8% of patients with uncontrolled asthma. Moderate agreement (p < 0.001; k = 0.56) and high specificity (100%) was observed between GINAq and ACT. In 6MWT, the cut-off point of 82.03% of predicted distance was able to distinguish patients with controlled and uncontrolled asthma. Spirometric index presented 73.4% of sensitivity according to GINAq. The results for 6MWT in patients with uncontrolled asthma were the worst of all. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of assessing more than one measure to differentiate asthma control level. GINAq identified more patients with uncontrolled asthma and presented moderate agreement with ACT. Spirometric index was associated with uncontrolled asthma according to GINAq. 6MWT was a suitable measure to distinguish patients with controlled and uncontrolled asthma.

Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/physiopathology , Exercise Tolerance , Exercise Test/methods , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/drug therapy , Spirometry , Brazil , Breath Tests , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(4): e-091051, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140553


Introdução: Nos últimos anos, o tratamento do câncer evoluiu, possibilitando uma maior sobrevida ao paciente, porém os efeitos colaterais, como a diminuição da imunidade e a fadiga, influenciam o sistema respiratório e muscular. Objetivo: Analisar a fadiga e as forças musculares respiratória e periférica em voluntários com câncer em tratamento e em indivíduos saudáveis. Método: Trata-se de um estudo analítico, observacional, transversal e controlado. Os indivíduos foram distribuídos em dois grupos: um grupo de câncer em quimioterapia e/ou em radioterapia (GCA: n=98; homens=35,72%; mulheres=64,28%; idade=58,13±13,26 anos; índice de massa corporal (IMC=26,23±4,04 kg/m2; tempo de diagnóstico de câncer=27,54±9,61 meses) e um grupo controle (GC: n=86; homens=30,23%; mulheres=69,77; idade=59,24±12,87 anos; IMC=26,76±4,04 kg/m2). Para todos os indivíduos, a fadiga relatada foi avaliada, usando-se a subescala de fadiga do questionário The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F). A avaliação das pressões respiratórias máximas foi realizada por meio da manovacuometria e da força de preensão palmar por intermédio da dinamometria manual. Resultados: O GCA apresentou maior índice de fadiga relatada (p<0,001; f2=0,382), valores inferiores para as variáveis respiratórias (PImax: p<0,001; f2=0,441; PEmax: p<0,001; f2=0,361), força de preensão palmar esquerda (p=0,024 f2=0,182), se comparado ao GC. Conclusão: Voluntários com câncer em quimioterapia e/ou em radioterapia apresentaram maiores níveis de fadiga relatada, com reduções da força muscular respiratória e da força de preensão palmar.

Introduction: In recent years, cancer treatment has evolved, allowing longer survival for the patient, but, side effects such as a decreased immunity and fatigue influence the respiratory and muscular systems. Objective: Analyze fatigue, the respiratory and peripheral muscle strength in individuals with cancer undergoing treatment and in healthy individuals. Method: Analytical, observational, cross-sectional, and controlled study. The individuals were divided into two groups: a cancer group in chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (GCA: n = 98; men = 35.72%; women = 64.28%; age = 58.13 ± 13.26 years; body mass index (BMI) = 26.23 ± 4.04 kg/m2; time of cancer diagnosis = 27.54 ± 9.61 months) and a control group (CG: n = 86; men = 30.23%; women = 69.77; age = 59.24 ± 12.87 years; BMI= 26.76 ± 4.04 kg/m2). For all the individuals, the reported fatigue was assessed using the fatigue subscale of The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) questionnaire. The evaluation of maximal respiratory pressures was performed by manovacuometry and the palmar grip strength by manual dynamometry. Results: The GCA showed the highest reported fatigue index (p<0.001; f2=0.382), lower values for respiratory variables (PImax: p<0.001; f2=0.441; PEmax: p<0.001; f2=0.361), left palmar grip strength (p=0.024; f2=0.182), when compared to the CG. Conclusion: Volunteers with cancer in chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy presented higher levels of reported fatigue, with reductions in respiratory muscle strength and palmar grip strength.

Introducción: En los últimos años, el tratamiento oncológico ha evolucionado, permitiendo una supervivencia más larga para el paciente, pero los efectos secundarios como la disminución de la inmunidad y la fatiga influyen en los sistemas respiratorios y musculares. Objetivo: Analizar la fatiga e las fuerzas musculares respiratoria y periférica en individuos con cáncer sometidos a tratamiento y en individuos sanos. Método: Se trata de un estudio analítico, observacional, transversal y controlado. Los individuos fueran divididos en dos grupos: un grupo de cáncer bajo quimioterapia y/o radioterapia (GCA: no 98; hombres 35,72%; mujeres 64,28%; edad 58,13±13,26 años; indice de masa corporal (IMC) a 26,23±4,04 kg/m2; diagnóstico de cáncer 27,54±9,61 meses) y un grupo de control (CG: no 86; hombres 30,23%; mujeres 69,77; edad de 59,24±12,87 años; IMC 26,76±4,04 kg/m2). Para todos los voluntarios, la fatiga notificada se evaluó utilizando la subescala de fatiga del cuestionario The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue(FACT-F). La evaluación de las presiones respiratorias máximas se realizó mediante manovacuometría y fuerza de agarre palmar mediante dinamometría manual. Resultados:El GCA tuvo el índice de fatiga notificado más alto (p<0,001; f2=0,382), valores más bajos para las variables respiratorias (PImax: p<0,001; f2= 0,441; PEmax: p<0,001; f2=0,361), fuerza de agarre palmar izquierda (p=0,024; f2=0,182), en comparación con el GC. Conclusión: Voluntarios con cáncer en quimioterapia y/o radioterapia presentaron mayores niveles de fatiga reportados, con reducciones en la fuerza muscular respiratoria y fuerza de agarre palmar.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Muscle Fatigue , Muscle Strength , Breath Tests , Neoplasms/rehabilitation
Clinics ; 75: e1764, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133445


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the accuracy of the Breath-Alert™ portable breath meter (BA) for the detection of halitosis in children and adolescents, considering the organoleptic test (OT) as the gold standard in this assessment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 children (aged 6-12 years). OT was performed by three independent examiners on a single occasion, obtaining three scores of 0-5 points on the Rosenberg's organoleptic scale. The median of the three evaluations for each child was used for analysis. BA was used according to the manufacturer's instructions, with breath odor scored from 0-5 points. Scores ≥2 on both tests were considered indicative of halitosis. RESULTS: A total of 26 (17.3%) and 23 (15.3%) children were detected with halitosis on the OT and BA tests, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BA scores for the detection of halitosis were 80.76% and 98.38%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for BA were 91.3% and 96.06%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In the present study involving children, who require fast, practical examinations, BA proved to be an auxiliary tool to OT for the detection of halitosis in the practice of pediatric dentistry, demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Breath Tests/methods , Halitosis/diagnosis , Sulfur Compounds/analysis , Breath Tests/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Halitosis/metabolism
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(3): 304-311, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038709


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome is a clinical condition presenting pain, distension and abdominal fullness, diarrhea, constipation, and other symptoms. It generates significant impacts on the quality of life of those affected. The pathophysiology is uncertain, but the role of various food types has been established in bowel sensitivity and its clinical manifestations. Carbohydrate intolerance, particularly to lactose, generates similar and sometimes indistinguishable symptoms from irritable bowel syndrome, and in clinical practice is both a frequent and underdiagnosed condition. Carbohydrate intolerance is related to enzymatic deficiencies, alterations of intestinal microbiota and even genetic change. The principal test for a diagnosis of lactose intolerance is the breath test, which measures hydrogen emission (produced only by bacteria), after ingestion of the corresponding substrate. OBJECTIVE: The present work aims to verify the prevalence of lactose intolerance in university students, presenting gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS: In a transversal study, to screen for those with suggestive symptoms, 124 medicine students participated by responding to a form. Those with abdominal pain were referred for anti-parasite treatment in order to exclude intestinal parasites as a secondary cause. Subsequently, using the hydrogen breath test, bacterial overgrowth was investigated, and if negative, lactose intolerance testing would be performed. Patients presenting high hydrogen concentrations of ≥20 ppm above the basal level were considered lactose intolerant. RESULTS: Of the total of students researched (n=124), 7 were excluded because they did not completing all study phases. From those 117 individuals effectively included in the survey; 8 (6.8%) were diagnosed with lactose intolerance and 2 (1.7%) with bacterial overgrowth. Intolerance was more frequent in; female individuals (75%), age range 18 to 25 years (62.5%), being colored (50%), and in their 5th semester of studies (37.5%). The presence of at least one gastrointestinal symptom among those presenting intolerance (100%), and those not presenting intolerance (42.2%) was found (P=0.002). In addition to abdominal pain (100%) (P<0.001), the most recurrent gastrointestinal symptom in the lactose intolerant students was the distension/flatulence (62.5%) (P=0.026). In relation to life habits and food patterns, there was no statistical difference between lactose tolerant and intolerant individuals, or for symptom frequencies. The more advanced students, completing more periods towards graduation, demonstrated more occurrences of gastrointestinal symptoms, yet without presenting significant statistical discrepancies. CONCLUSION: In view of the test sample quantity (n=21), a high prevalence of lactose intolerance (6.8%) in the academic environment, with epidemiological characteristics compatible to those found the literature is demonstrated, generating knowledge with understanding to prevent, diagnose, alleviate and treat lactose intolerant university students, and generate positive impacts towards well-being, improving the quality of life of these individuals.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A síndrome do intestino irritável é uma condição clínica que cursa com dor, distensão e plenitude abdominal, diarreia, constipação, entre outros sintomas. Gera impacto significativo na qualidade de vida das pessoas acometidas. Sua fisiopatologia é incerta, mas o papel de vários tipos de alimentos está estabelecido na sensibilização intestinal e nas manifestações clínicas. A intolerância aos carboidratos, particularmente a lactose, gera sintomas similares e por vezes indistinguíveis da síndrome do intestino irritável e é uma condição frequente e subdiagnosticada na prática clínica. Está relacionada a deficiências enzimáticas, alterações da microbiota intestinal e mesmo alterações genéticas. O principal exame para o diagnóstico da intolerância à lactose é o teste respiratório, que mede a emissão de hidrogênio produzido apenas por bactérias, após a ingestão do substrato correspondente. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a prevalência de intolerância à lactose em universitários que apresentem sintomas gastrointestinais sugestivos da síndrome do intestino irritável. MÉTODOS: O estudo, caracterizado como do tipo transversal, teve a participação de 124 discentes de medicina que responderam um formulário, a fim de realizar a triagem daqueles com sintomatologia sugestiva. Aqueles com dor abdominal foram encaminhados para o tratamento antiparasitário, a fim de excluir parasitose intestinal como causa secundária. Posteriormente, através do teste respiratório com hidrogênio expirado, foi feito primeiro a pesquisa de supercrescimento bacteriano e caso fosse negativo seria realizado o da intolerância à lactose. Foram considerados com intolerância aqueles que obtiveram uma elevação na concentração de hidrogênio ≥20 ppm acima do nível basal. RESULTADOS: Do total de alunos pesquisados (n=124), 7 foram excluídos por não cumprirem todas as etapas do estudo. A partir dos 117 indivíduos efetivamente incluídos na pesquisa, verificou-se que 8 (6,8%) foram diagnosticados com intolerância a lactose e 2 (1,7%) com supercrescimento bacteriano. A intolerância foi mais frequente nos indivíduos do sexo feminino (75%), faixa etária de 18 a 25 anos (62,5%), cor parda (50%) e do 5º semestre (37,5%). Verificou-se que a presença de pelo menos um sintoma gastrointestinal entre aqueles que possuem intolerância (100%) e os que não possuem (42,2%) foi estatisticamente significativa (P=0,002). Além da própria dor abdominal (100%) (P<0,001), o sintoma gastrointestinal mais recorrente nos discentes intolerantes foi a distensão/flatulência (62,5%) (P=0,026). Em relação aos hábitos de vida e padrão alimentar, não houve diferença estatística entre os indivíduos intolerantes e tolerantes, bem como na frequência de sintomas. Os discentes dos períodos mais avançados da graduação se destacaram por manifestarem com maior constância os sintomas gastrointestinais, porém sem apresentar discrepâncias estatísticas significativas. CONCLUSÃO: Tendo em vista a quantidade da amostra que realizou o teste (n=21), pode-se provar a alta prevalência da intolerância à lactose (6,8%) no meio acadêmico, com as características epidemiológicas compatíveis com a literatura. Assim, foi possível gerar conhecimento para entender, prevenir, diagnosticar, aliviar e tratar os universitários intolerantes, gerando impactos positivos para o bem-estar, melhorando a qualidade de vida desses indivíduos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Lactose Intolerance/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Students , Breath Tests , Lactose Intolerance/etiology , Middle Aged
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 197-201, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019459


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: 13C-urea breath test (UBT) is the gold-standard, noninvasive method for H. pylori diagnosis. However, there is no uniform standardization of the test. This situation can be unpractical for laboratories running with two or more devices. OBJECTIVE: To perform a prospective comparison validation study of UBT employing one validated protocol for two different devices: BreathID Hp Lab System® (Exalenz Bioscience Ltd, Israel), here called device A and IRIS-Doc2® (Wagner Analysen-Technik, Germany, now Mayoly Spindler Group, France), here called device B, in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. METHODS: A total of 518 consecutive patients (365 females, 153 males, mean age 53 years) referred for UBT were included. All patients received device A protocol as follow: after at least one hour fasting, patients filled two bags prior to the test, then ingested an aqueous solution containing 75 mg of 13C-urea with a 4.0 g citric acid powder and filled another two bags 15 min after ingesting the test solution. One pair of breath sample bags (before and after ingestion) was analyzed by the two different devices. A delta over baseline (DOB) ≥5‰ indicated H. pylori infection. Statistics: Wilcoxon test, kappa coefficient with 95% CI, Wilson's method. RESULTS: Considering the device A protocol as the gold standard, its comparison with device B showed a sensitivity of 99.3% (95% CI: 96.3-99.9) and a specificity of 98.9% (95% CI: 97.3-99.6). Kappa coefficient was 0.976 (95% IC: 0.956-0.997). CONCLUSION: Correlation between the two devices was excellent and supports a uniform standardization of UBT.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O teste respiratório com ureia-marcada com carbono-13 (TR-13C) é o método padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico não invasivo da infecção por H. pylori. Apesar disto, não existe uma uniformização de protocolos para a sua realização, trazendo dificuldades operacionais para laboratórios ou clínicas que operam com equipamentos de fabricantes diferentes. OBJETIVO: Estudo prospectivo e comparativo para validação do TR-13C para o diagnóstico de infecção por H. pylori, com emprego de protocolo único para dois equipamentos diferentes, a saber: BreathID Hp Lab System® (Exalenz Bioscience Ltd, Israel), aqui denominado equipamento A e IRIS-Doc2® (Wagner Analysen-Technik, Alemanha, agora Mayoly Spindler Group, França), aqui denominado equipamento B. MÉTODOS: Um total de 518 pacientes (365 mulheres e 153 homens, idade média de 53 anos) consecutivamente encaminhados para a realização do TR-13C foram incluídos no estudo. Todos os participantes realizaram TR-13C, que foi processado e analisado simultaneamente pelos dois equipamentos. Embora os dois equipamentos possuam protocolos independentes previamente validados, foi optado, por sua maior praticidade, pela utilização de um único protocolo, conforme recomendado pelo fabricante do equipamento A, e assim resumido: após jejum mínimo de 1h, foram amostras de ar expirado coletadas em dois pequenos sacos coletores (120 mL), correspondendo ao tempo-zero (amostra-1, controle). Em seguida, os pacientes ingeriram, em até 2 min, uma solução aquosa (200 mL) contendo 75 mg de 13C-ureia e 4,0 gramas de ácido cítrico em pó, adicionado com edulcorante. Uma segunda coleta de ar expirado era realizada 15 min após a ingestão do substrato em dois novos pequenos sacos coletores, correspondendo à amostra-2. Foram considerados positivos para a presença da infecção por H. pylori quando apresentavam um delta over baseline (DOB) igual ou maior que 5‰. Análise estatística foi realizada com o teste de Wilcoxon, coeficiente kappa com IC 95% e método de Wilson. RESULTADOS: Considerando o protocolo do equipamento A como o padrão-ouro, sua comparação com o equipamento B mostrou sensibilidade de 99,3% (IC 95%: 96,3-99,9) e especificidade de 98,9% (IC 95%: 97,3-99,6). O coeficiente kappa observado foi de 0,976 (IC 95%: 0,956-0,997). CONCLUSÃO: A correlação entre os dois equipamentos foi excelente e contribui para uma uniformização de protocolos para TR-13C.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Urea/analysis , Breath Tests/instrumentation , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Prospective Payment System , Breath Tests/methods , Clinical Protocols , Sensitivity and Specificity , Middle Aged
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765970


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Association between symptoms, quality of life and gastric emptying in dyspepsia is inconsistent in the literature. The aim of our study is to investigate if gastric emptying is associated with specific symptoms and quality of life in dyspeptic patients. METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively gastric emptying measured by ¹³C-labelled octanoate breath testing for more than 6 hours in 198 consecutive patients with dyspepsia complaints. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed using a 5-points Likert scale and by a symptomatic composite score, whereas quality of life was measured by the GIQLI. RESULTS: In our cohort, 90 patients (45%) had a delayed gastric emptying (half emptying time above 166 minutes when assessed over 6–8 hours). There was no difference in symptoms or quality of life between patients with or without delayed gastric emptying. However, patients with severely delayed gastric emptying (half emptying time above 200 minutes) had increased postprandial fullness (P = 0.012), abdominal pain (P = 0.026), bloating (P = 0.044), early satiety (P = 0.018), symptomatic composite score (P = 0.005), and a lower quality of life (P = 0.018). This association was no longer observed if the calculation of gastric emptying was limited to the first 4-hour samples. CONCLUSIONS: There is no association between symptoms, quality of life and gastric emptying in an overall dyspeptic population. However, there is an association between symptoms, quality of life of delayed gastric emptying in the subgroup of patients with severely delayed gastric emptying. An 8-hour measurement of gastric emptying should be recommended.

Abdominal Pain , Breath Tests , Cohort Studies , Dyspepsia , Gastric Emptying , Gastroparesis , Humans , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719438


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Both bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy have been suggested as second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 14-day moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy (14-EAM) in second-line H. pylori eradication in comparison to 7-day bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (7-RBMT). METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2015, a total of 569 patients who failed to respond to first-line triple therapy and who subsequently received second-line 7-RBMT or 14-EAM were retrospectively enrolled. The eradication rates were identified using per-protocol (PP) analysis. H. pylori eradication was confirmed by a 13C-urea breath test (UBiT-IR300®; Otsuka Electronics, Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) or a rapid urease test (CLOtest®; Delta West, Bentley, Australia) at least 4 weeks after completion of eradication therapy. RESULTS: A total of 487 and 82 patients received 7-RBMT and 14-EAM, respectively. PP eradication rates were 93.6% (366/391; 95% CI, 91.0–95.9%) with 7-RBMT and 73.8% (48/65; 95% CI, 63.1–84.6%) with14-EAM (p < 0.001). Therefore, the eradication rates with 7-RBMT were significantly higher than with 14-EAM according to the PP analysis. The adverse event rate was 17.1% (67/391) with 7-RBMT and 7.7% (5/65) with 14-EAM (p=0.065). In terms of risk factors, multivariate analysis revealed that 14-EAM (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 2.74–10.93) was related to H. pylori eradication failure. CONCLUSIONS: 7-RBMT may be an effective second-line therapy in patients who failed to respond to first-line triple therapy in Korea, where there is a high prevalence of H. pylori infection.

Bismuth , Breath Tests , Disease Eradication , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Urease
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774059


OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical value of combined measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FnNO) and its correlation with the level of asthma control.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 children who were diagnosed with asthma from January to June, 2018 and were in the chronic persistent stage were enrolled as subjects. The childhood asthma control test (C-ACT) was performed for all the 120 children. According to the C-ACT score, these children were divided into 4 groups: complete control group with a C-ACT score of >23, partial control group with a C-ACT score of 20-23, and uncontrolled group with a C-ACT score of ≤19 (n=40 each). According to the presence or absence of allergic rhinitis, they were divided into 2 groups: non-rhinitis group with 55 children and rhinitis group with 65 children. A total of 40 children who underwent physical examination during the same period of time were enrolled as the control group. FeNO and FnNO levels were measured for all the 120 children.@*RESULTS@#The uncontrolled group had the highest level of FeNO, followed by the partial control group and the complete control group (P<0.05). The uncontrolled and partial control groups had a significantly higher level of FeNO than the control group (P<0.05). The uncontrolled and partial control groups had a significantly higher level of FnNO than the complete control and control groups (P<0.05). The rhinitis group had significantly higher FeNO and FnNO levels than the non-rhinitis group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#FeNO can be used to assess the level of asthma control in children, and its combination with FnNO may be useful for the evaluation of the degree of inflammation in the upper and lower airways and provide a basis for the combined treatment of the upper and lower airways.

Asthma , Breath Tests , Humans , Nitric Oxide , Rhinitis, Allergic
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772696


OBJECTIVE@#This work aimed to identify the risk factors of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in preschool children and provide effective measures for the prevention and reduction of the incidence of H. pylori infections.@*METHODS@#A total of 204 children from two kindergartens in Suzhou city were recruited through a questionnaire survey. Risk factors were selected through the single factor paired data χ² test and multiple factor Logistic regression analysis. Oral and gastric H. pylori infections were detected by using H. pylori saliva detection (HPS) and ¹³C-urea breath test (¹³C-UBT). Special toothpaste for H. pylori control was selected for oral cleaning. Oral H. pylori infection rates at 2 months after special toothpaste treatment were examined by using HPS.@*RESULTS@#The high-risk factors of H. pylori infections among preschool children included poor personal hygiene habits, such as the nibbling of fingers and the avoidance of hand-washing before meals, diet, and parent's history of stomach disease. Among the 204 subjects enrolled in this study, 158 (77.45%), 37 (18.14%), and 28 (13.73%) were HPS positive, ¹³C-UBT positive, and HPS and ¹³C-UBT positive, respectively. The incidence of oral H. pylori infections was significantly higher than that of gastric H. pylori infections (P<0.01). The positive rate of infections significantly decreased after special toothpaste treatment (P<0.01). This result indicates that the intervention was effective.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children must receive education on good eating habits. Individualized dining habits or the use of public chopsticks must be implemented. H. pylori infections must be detected as early as possible. Specific toothpaste for oral cleaning must be selected. These approaches could drastically prevent or reduce the incidence of H. pylori infections among preschool children.

Breath Tests , Child, Preschool , Helicobacter Infections , Epidemiology , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Risk Factors , Urea
Gut and Liver ; : 506-514, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763876


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The validity of ¹³C-urea breath test (¹³C-UBT) for Helicobacter pylori detection is influenced by atrophic gastritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of citric acid on the accuracy of ¹³C-Urea breath test after H. pylori eradication therapy in a region where atrophic gastritis is common. METHODS: In this prospective study, H. pylori-positive patients received ¹³C-UBT after H. pylori eradication regimen. They were classified into citric acid group and control group. To determine diagnostic accuracy of ¹³C-UBT, patients were offered invasive methods. RESULTS: A total of 1,207 who successfully took H. pylori-eradication regimen received UBT. They were assigned into the citric acid group (n=562) and the control group (n=645). The mean ¹³C-UBT value of the citric acid group was 10.3±26.4‰, which was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of that control group (5.1‰±12.6‰). Of these patients 122 patients were evaluated by endoscopic biopsy methods. Based on invasive tests, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ¹³C-UBT for the citric acid group were 83.3%, 91.7%, 81.3%, 55.0%, and 97.5%, respectively. Those of the control group were 87.7%, 90.9%, 88.2%, 62.5%, and 97.8%, respectively. They were not significantly different between the two groups. Although the presence of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (IM) decreased the accuracy, the decrease was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a country with high prevalence of atrophic gastritis or IM, false positivity remained common despite the use of citric acid in ¹³C-UBT.

Atrophy , Biopsy , Breath Tests , Citric Acid , Diagnosis , Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Metaplasia , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
Gut and Liver ; : 522-530, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763874


BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the ABC classification system, group A consists of seronegative subjects without gastric corpus atrophy. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pseudo group A subjects. METHODS: Group A subjects were identified among consecutive Korean adults who underwent a serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) test and pepsinogen (PG) assay on the day of endoscopy. Past infection was defined as the presence of either eradication history or endoscopic findings suggesting past infection (i.e., gastric xanthoma, metaplastic gastritis, or advanced atrophy >closed-type 1). RESULTS: Among 2,620 group A subjects, 448 (17.1%) had eradication history, and 133 (5.1%) showed endoscopic findings suggesting past infection. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.148; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.067 to 1.236) and earlier year of birth (OR, 1.086; 95% CI, 1.009 to 1.168) were independent risk factors for classification into pseudo group A, with cutoff points at 50.5 years and birth year of 1959.5, respectively. Positive H. pylori test findings were found in 22 subjects (3.1%) among the 715 subjects who underwent the urea breath test or Giemsa staining on the same day. Current infection was positively correlated with PG I and PG II levels (p<0.001) but not with age, anti-H. pylori IgG titer, or classification into pseudo group A. CONCLUSIONS: Among the group A subjects, 22.2% had past infection. The risk was higher in subjects older than 50 years, especially those born before 1960. Furthermore, current infection was found in 3.1% of the subjects and was correlated with increased gastric secretory ability.

Adult , Atrophy , Azure Stains , Breath Tests , Classification , Endoscopy , Gastritis , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Parturition , Pepsinogen A , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Urea , Xanthomatosis