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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 938-948, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285274

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and genetic trends of different conformation and management traits regularly measured within the context of the National Dairy Gir Breeding Program (PNMGL). The estimation of genetic and residual variances for each trait was performed using average information restricted maximum likelihood (AI-REML) procedure in AIREMLF90 program software. The population was divided into three subpopulations constituted by measured females (with phenotype records), all females, and males. Linear regressions were applied for each trait, considering two periods of birth (1st period: 1938-1996; 2nd period: 1997-2012). The estimated heritability of conformation and management traits varied from 0.01 to 0.53, denoting a perspective of genetic improvement through selection and corrective matings for purebred Dairy Gir populations. The average genetic changes in conformation and management traits were, in general, variable and inexpressive, showing that the selection of Dairy Gir may have had been directed essentially to increase milk yield. The analysis of the two periods of birth indicated that some linear traits present progress (although inexpressive) in the 2nd period (more recent period).(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar os parâmetros genéticos e as tendências genéticas para diferentes características de conformação e manejo de animais puros da raça Gir Leiteiro, pertencentes ao Programa Nacional de Melhoramento do Gir Leiteiro (PNMGL). A estimativa das variâncias genéticas e residuais para cada característica foi realizada usando-se o procedimento de máxima verossimilhança restrita (AI-REML), por meio do programa AIREMLF90. A população foi dividida em três subpopulações, constituídas por fêmeas mensuradas (com registros de fenótipo), todas fêmeas e machos. As regressões lineares para cada característica foram ainda divididas em dois períodos de anos de nascimento (1º período: 1938 a 1996; 2º período: 1997 a 2012). As herdabilidades estimadas variaram de 0,01 a 0,53 para as características de conformação e manejo, possibilitando a perspectiva de melhoramento mediante seleção e acasalamentos corretivos na população pura da raça Gir Leiteiro. As mudanças genéticas nas características conformação e manejo foram, em geral, variáveis e inexpressivas, sugerindo que a seleção no Gir Leiteiro possa ter sido direcionada essencialmente para maior produção de leite. Ao serem observados os dois períodos distintos de anos de nascimento, infere-se que algumas características lineares apresentaram progresso (embora inexpressivo) no 2º período analisado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Phenotype , Breeding , Genetic Enhancement/methods , Linear Models , Reference Parameters
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190007, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153291

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Low genetic similarity in Paspalum notatum accessions. High genetic distance among diploid accessions. The accessions have good potential to breeding program.


Abstract Paspalum notatum is an important forage grass contributing significantly to the coverage of the natural fields of Southern Brazil. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate the genetic similarity of strains within a P. notatum collection. Genomic DNA was extracted in bulk from young leaves of five plants from each accession obtained from the USDA. In the molecular analysis, the eight SSR markers evaluated formed seven distinct groups, and two isolated genotypes, with an average similarity index of 0.29, ranging from zero to 0.83. All the loci were polymorphic and the polymorphism information content ranging from 0.41 to 0.69. The results evidenced a low genetic similarity, which can be explored via parental selection in a breeding program.


Subject(s)
Paspalum/genetics , Diploidy , Plant Breeding , Breeding , Genetic Markers , Hybrid Vigor
3.
Suma psicol ; 27(2): 98-106, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1145119

ABSTRACT

Resumo As relações existentes com as figuras parentais revelam-se importantes para os jovens adultos no que diz respeito ao desenvolvimento de estratégias de coping adequadas e de competências sociais. A presença de um estilo parental democrático parece minimizar o envolvimento dos filhos em comportamentos de risco, nomeadamente o consumo de álcool, tabaco e outras drogas. O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar o papel dos estilos parentais no risco de consumo de álcool e no desenvolvimento de outros comportamentos adictivos e autodestrutivos em estudantes universitários. A amostra foi constituída por 1044 jovens, dos quais 277 (26.5%) do sexo masculino e 767 (73.5%) do sexo feminino. Todos os participantes tinham idades compreendias entre os 18 e 25 anos (M=19.78; DP=1.68). Recorreu-se a um questionário sociodemográfico e a instrumentos de autorrelato, nomeadamente o Parenting Styles & Dimensions Questionnaire: Short Version (PSDQ), o Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) e a Escala de Comportamentos Desviantes (ECD). Os resultados apontam para um efeito preditor dos estilos parentais negativos (autoritário e permissivo) face ao comportamento adictivo e autodestrutivo dos jovens. Verificou-se ainda, o papel mediador do consumo de álcool na associação entre os estilos parentais negativos e o comportamento adictivo e autodestrutivo.


Abstract The relationships w ith p arental fi gures are important for young adults in t he d eveloping of appropriated coping strategies and social skills. The presence of a democratic parenting style seems to minimize the involvement of the children in risk behaviors, namely the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The present study aims to analyze the role of parenting styles in the risk of alcohol consumption, as also the development of additive and self-destructive behavior in university students. The sample consisted of 1044 young people, of whom 277 (26.5%) were male and 767 (73.5%) were female. All participants were between 18 and 25 years of old (M=19.78; SD=1.68). Were used a sociodemographic questionnaire and self-report instruments, namely the Parenting Styles & Dimensions Questionnaire: Short Version (PSDQ), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Deviant Behavior Scale (ECD). The results point to a predictive effect of negative parenting styles (authoritarian and permissive) in relation to the additive and self-destructive behavior of the university students. The mediating role of alcohol consumption in the association between negative parenting styles and additive and self-destructive behavior was also verified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Breeding , Alcohol Drinking , Students , Behavior , Adolescent
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 25-32, Mar. 2020. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea. L) represents one of the most important oil crops in the world. Although much effort has been expended to characterize microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) in peanut, the quantity and quality of the markers in breeding applications remain limited. Here, genome-wide SSR characterization and marker development were performed using the recently assembled genome of the cultivar Tifrunner. RESULTS: In total, 512,900 microsatellites were identified from 2556.9-Mb genomic sequences. Based on the flanking sequences of the identified microsatellites, 7757 primer pairs (markers) were designed, and further evaluated in the assembled genomic sequences of the tetraploid Arachis cultivars, Tifrunner and Shitouqi, and the diploid ancestral species, A. duranensis and A. ipaensis. In silico PCR analysis showed that the SSR markers had high amplification efficiency and polymorphism in four Arachis genotypes. Notably, nearly 60% of these markers were single-locus SSRs in tetraploid Arachis species, indicating they are more specific in distinguishing the alleles of the A and B sub-genomes of peanut. In addition, two markers closely related with purple testa color and 27 markers near to FAD2 genes were identified, which could be used for breeding varieties with purple testa and high-oleic acid content, respectively. Moreover, the potential application of these SSR markers in tracking introgressions from Arachis wild relatives was discussed. CONCLUSIONS: This study reported the development of genomic SSRs from assembled genomic sequences of the tetraploid Arachis Tifrunner, which will be useful for diversity analysis, genetic mapping and functional genomics studies in peanut


Subject(s)
Arachis/genetics , Breeding/methods , Microsatellite Repeats , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Markers , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genome , Crops, Agricultural
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 81-86, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089303

ABSTRACT

Abstract Wilson's Plover, Charadrius wilsonia, is widely distributed in coastal areas of the Americas. This report presents the first record of breeding in this species on Coroa do Avião Island, on the coast of Pernambuco, and in the estuary of the Cardoso and Camurupim rivers, on the coast of Piauí, in northeastern Brazil, extending the known area of reproduction of this species in this region. One breeding pair was observed on October 29th 2014 on Coroa do Avião Island, and a second pair was recorded on April 6th 2016 in the Cardoso/Camurupim estuary on the Piauí coast. Both the male and the female contributed to the incubation of the eggs. The nest on Coroa do Avião island was camouflaged by the local vegetation, but despite this, the eggs were attacked by a predator. Possible predators observed on the island included Caracara plancus and domestic cats and dogs.


Resumo Charadrius wilsonia (Wilson's Plover) está amplamente distribuído pela costa das Américas. Este é o primeiro registro de reprodução no litoral de Pernambuco, Coroa do Avião, e no estuário dos rios Cardoso e Camurupim, litoral do Piauí, Brasil, ampliando a área de reprodução no Nordeste do Brasil. Foi encontrado um casal em período reprodutivo em 23 de outubro de 2014 na ilha Coroa do Avião, litoral de Pernambuco e outro registro em 06 de abril de 2016 nos estuários Cardoso e Camurupim, litoral do Piauí. Foi observado que o macho e a fêmea contribuem na incubação dos ovos. A vegetação na ilha contribui para a camuflagem do ninho, bem como na proteção dos ovos pelos predadores. Apesar da proteção ocorreu a predação do ninho na ilha Coroa do Avião. Alguns possíveis predadores foram registrados na ilha, como Caracara plancus que diariamente frequentam a área e animais domésticos como cães e gatos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Dogs , Breeding , Charadriiformes , Reproduction , Brazil
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828026

ABSTRACT

To breed new varieties of medicinal plants with high resistance is the premise to ensure the production of high-quality medicinal materials. Molecular breeding using modern molecular biology and genetic technology can save time and effort and realize rapid and accurate breeding. Here we are trying to summarize the difference of breeding characteristics between medicinal plants and crops such as genetic background and breeding purpose. The strategy of molecular breeding of medicinal plants was summarized, and the four-phases breeding based on high-throughput sequencing and target gene mining was emphasized. We put forward the current molecular breeding of medicinal plants in the condition of four phases breeding is the optimal technological way of breeding, and gene editing breeding is the direction of medicinal plants breeding.


Subject(s)
Breeding , DNA Shuffling , Gene Editing , Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828013

ABSTRACT

The systematic breeding method was adopted to breed a new good cultivar of Curcuma longa, named "Chuanjianghuang 1". From 2014 to 2015, two consecutive years of multi-point test were carried out in Shuangliu, Chongzhou and Wenjiang. The biological characters, phenology, agronomic characters, yield and quality indexes of "Chuanjianghuang 1" were comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that compared with local traditional species, the rhizome yield of the new cultivar "Chuanjianghuang 1" increased by 20.61%.The average content of volatile oil was higher than 24.17% and the average content of curcumin in root tuber was higher than 26.62%. The yield of root tuber increased by 54.59%.The average content of volatile oil is higher than 36.28% and the average content of curcuminoids is higher than 25.31%. Compared with "Huangsi Yujin 1", "Chuanjianghuang 1" increased the average yield of rhizome by 123.68%,the volatile oil increased by an average of 7.69%and the curcumin content increased by an average of 58.23%. The average content of volatile oil is higher than 52.82% and the average content of curcuminoids in root tuber was higher than 38.34%. The new variety "Chuanjianghuang 1" has better yield than the local traditional species, and the internal quality of rhizome and root tuber is better. Compared with "Huangsi Yujin 1", the yield of rhizome is significantly increased, and the internal quality of rhizome and root tuber is better, especially the content of curcumin in rhizome and curcuminoids in root tuber is significantly higher than that of "Huangsi Yujin 1". "Chuanjianghuang 1" is high yield, good quality, good stability and strong adaptability, which is suitable for cultivation and promotion in Chengdu Jinma River Basin, such as Shuangliu, Chongzhou, Wenjiang.


Subject(s)
Breeding , Curcuma , Diarylheptanoids , Oils, Volatile , Rhizome
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 643-651, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827004

ABSTRACT

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is an important vegetable crop in the world. Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic technology is an important way to study plant gene functions and improve varieties. In order to further accelerate the transgenic research and breeding process of cucumber, we described the progress and problems of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transgenic cucumber, from the influencing factors of cucumber regeneration ability, genetic transformation conditions and various additives in the process. We prospected for improving the genetic transformation efficiency and safety selection markers of cucumber, and hoped to provide reference for the research of cucumber resistance breeding and quality improvement.


Subject(s)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Metabolism , Breeding , Cucumis sativus , Genetics , Microbiology , Plants, Genetically Modified , Microbiology , Research , Transformation, Genetic
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1249-1256, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826852

ABSTRACT

Microbial genetics and breeding is a compulsory course for "Bioengineering Excellence Talents Experimental Class" and "Bioengineering International Student Class". However, the traditional teaching model has many deficiencies in terms of content selection, teaching methods and examination forms. At Tianjin University of Science and Technology, to improve the quality and effectiveness of teaching, especially in the field of microbiology, innovative leaders who meet the needs of national and international communities are highly needed. This article describes the reformed teaching content, teaching methods, and curriculum assessment methods of microbial genetics and breeding. With the help of the latest scientific research progress, pre-class preview system, video display, and diversified assessment methods, teaching mode has been innovatively reformed. As such, students not only mastered the relevant professional knowledge of microbial genetics and breeding, but also exercised their subjective initiative, teamwork consciousness, professional foreign language expression level, and cultivated their interest in scientific knowledge related to microbial genetics.


Subject(s)
Bioengineering , Education , Breeding , Curriculum , Reference Standards , Genetics, Microbial , Education , Humans , Students
10.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(3): e164061, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122193

ABSTRACT

The most used reproduction method in beef cattle in Brazil is natural breeding, which corresponds to 84% of calves born. Breeders adopt the bull:cow ratio of 1:25, which results in a sub utilization of bulls, making natural breeding antieconomic and underestimating the reproductive ability of competent bulls. The bull:cow ratio is determined by several factors, such as climate and nutrition, but the most determining factor is the fertility of the bull, estimated with more precision through breeding soundness examination of bulls. The aim of this study was to develop a simulation model as an aid to choose the best bull:cow ratio according to the combination of the many factors that determine this ratio. It is a conceptual, empiric, static, and determinist model which, through the processing of the input data, simulates the best BCR. Developed on the Vensim PLE 6.1 software, the model describes variables related to bulls and cows. Two equations were generated to predict the mating potential of males. In the same way, according to the reproductive status of females, equations were generated to predict the cyclicity rate of the cows. The sum of these equations originated the one that determines BCR according to the reproductive status of females. This model might serve as a tool to support decisions as to the best BCR and could be used with several combinations of models ́ characteristics.(AU)


O método de reprodução mais utilizado em bovinos de corte no Brasil é a monta natural, que corresponde a 84% dos bezerros nascidos. Os criadores adotam a relação touro:vaca de 1:25, o que resulta em uma subutilização de touros, tornando a reprodução natural antieconômica e subestimando a capacidade reprodutiva de touros competentes. A proporção touro:vaca é determinada por alguns fatores, como clima e nutrição, mas o principal fator determinante é a fertilidade do touro, estimada de forma mais precisa por meio do exame andrológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi construir um modelo de simulação como auxílio para a escolha da melhor relação touro:vaca de acordo com a combinação dos diversos fatores que determinam essa relação. É um modelo conceitual, empírico, estático e determinista que, por meio do processamento dos dados de entrada, simula a melhor relação touro:vaca. O modelo foi desenvolvido no software Vensim PLE 6.1. e descreve variáveis relacionadas a touros e vacas. Duas equações foram geradas para prever o potencial de acasalamento dos machos. Da mesma forma, de acordo com a condição reprodutiva das fêmeas, foram geradas equações para prever a taxa de ciclicidade delas. A soma dessas equações originou o que determina a relação touro:vaca de acordo com a condição reprodutiva das fêmeas. Esse modelo pode servir como um recurso para apoiar a decisão sobre a melhor relação touro:vaca e pode ser usado com várias combinações de características dos modelos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Reproduction , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Breeding , Sex Ratio , Simulation Technique , Mating Preference, Animal
11.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(3): e200028, 2020. tab, graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135392

ABSTRACT

Due to the ecological importance of Lophiosilurus alexandri, the present work evaluated its genetic representativeness by comparing wild stocks to broodstocks that were kept at three restocking hatcheries along the São Francisco River. A total of 97 samples were genotyped for newly developed microsatellite markers. Low levels of genetic diversity (average alleles number of 4.2 alleles) were detected in all cases, being more severe in captive groups. Significant pairwise FST and DEST values, Structure, and DAPC analyses showed that wild animals were structured in two groups, and a third group was formed by captive animals, evidencing the need to adopt genetic criteria to retain genetic diversity in the hatcheries. For this reason, three full-sib families were constructed to select the best relatedness estimator for L. alexandri and establish a cut-off value aimed to avoid full-sibling matings in the hatcheries. Two estimators, Wang (RW) and Lynch & Li (RLL), were accurate in reflecting the relatedness level for full-sibs in this species. According to them, less than 50% of the potential breeding matings in the three hatcheries are advisable. The innate low diversity of L. alexandri highlights the importance of minimizing inbreeding and retaining genetic diversity towards the species recovery.(AU)


Devido à importância ecológica de Lophiosilurus alexandri, o presente trabalho avaliou sua representatividade genética, comparando estoques selvagens com plantéis de reprodutores de três larviculturas ao longo do Rio São Francisco. Noventa e sete amostras foram genotipadas com marcadores microssatélites recém-desenvolvidos. Baixos níveis de diversidade genética (número médio de alelos de 4,2) foram detectados em todos os casos, sendo mais severo no cativeiro. Os valores de FST e DEST par a par, as análises do Structure e DAPC mostraram a estruturação dos animais selvagens em dois grupos, e um terceiro formado pelas larviculturas, evidenciando a necessidade de adoção de critérios genéticos para retenção da diversidade genética no cativeiro. Por essa razão, três famílias de irmãos completos foram construídas para selecionar o melhor estimador de parentesco para a espécie e estabelecer os valores mínimos de corte para evitar cruzamentos indesejados. Dois estimadores, Wang (RW) e Lynch & Li (RLL), foram eficientes em refletir as relações de parentesco para irmãos completos nessa espécie. Segundo eles, menos de 50% dos potenciais cruzamentos são recomendáveis nas três larviculturas. A baixa diversidade genética inerente ao L. alexandri destaca a importância de minimizar a consanguinidade e evitar perda de diversidade genética, visando a recuperação da espécie.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Catfishes/genetics , Aquaculture , Breeding
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 11-17, Jan. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wheat is one of the most important crops cultivated all over the world. New high-yielding cultivars that are more resistant to fungal diseases have been permanently developed. The present study aimed at the possibility of accelerating the process of breeding new cultivars, resistant to eyespot, by using doubled haploids (DH) system supported by marker-assisted selection. RESULTS: Two highly resistant breeding lines (KBP 0916 and KBH 4942/05) carrying Pch1 gene were crossed with the elite wheat genotypes. Hybrid plants of early generations were analyzed using endopeptidase EpD1 and two SSR markers linked to the Pch1 locus. Selected homozygous and heterozygous genotypes for the Pch1-linked EpD1b allele were used to produce haploid plants. Molecular analyses were performed on haploids to identify plants possessing Pch1 gene. Chromosome doubling was performed only on haploid plants with Pch1 gene. Finally, 65 DH lines carrying eyespot resistance gene Pch1 and 30 lines without this gene were chosen for the eyespot resistance phenotyping in a field experiment. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the experiment confirmed higher resistance to eyespot of the genotypes with Pch1 in comparison to those without this gene. This indicates the efficiency of selection at the haploid level.


Subject(s)
Selection, Genetic , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/metabolism , Haploidy , Plant Diseases , Breeding/methods , Gene Expression , Microsatellite Repeats , Genotype
13.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 277-282, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118937

ABSTRACT

The search for alternatives to increase productivity and sustainability of livestock production in the Amazon region without increasing deforestation is challenging. Mixed pastures of grasses with forage peanut (Arachis pintoi) have shown positive economic impacts. However, gaps in the knowledge of the reproductive biology of A. pintoi have limited the development of new cultivars adapted to the environmental variations in the Brazilian Amazon. Pasture consortiums of Brachiaria humidicola with forage peanuts (cv. Mandobi) resulted in a 42% increase in weight gain productivity. New cultivars better adapted to the Amazon climate should bring even greater gains. We evaluated the mating system in twenty A. pintoi accessions, and approximately 40 offspring per accession genotyped with eight microsatellites (or markers). The parameters of genetic diversity and inbreeding, the outcrossing rate and coancestry were calculated. The observed heterozygosity was significantly higher and the fixation index was significantly lower in adults compared with the offspring. The crossing rate was variable among genotypes (2 to 80%), and the mean outcrossing rate was 36%. These results indicate that pollinator presence in pastures can influence gene flow in A. pintoi more than expected. Arachis pintoi presented a mixed mating system with a predominance of selfing, and families presented inbreeding and different levels of relatedness. New strategies of genotype conservation are needed to avoid pollinator-mediated crossing between accessions. (AU)


Subject(s)
Arachis , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Breeding , Amazonian Ecosystem , Genotype
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1712-1718, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038679

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate genetic aspects related to production and reproductive efficiency of Murrah and Mediterranean buffaloes and their crosses. A ranking of bulls from Embrapa Eastern Amazonia was also composed to guide assisted mating. Birth records of 2,322 Murrah, Mediterranean, and crossbred buffaloes from the Embrapa Eastern Amazon herd, from 1953 to 2013, as well as information on production and reproductive traits were used. Genetic analyzes were performed in the WOMBAT software using the animal model with two-trait analysis. While heritability (h2) for total milk production (TMP) and fat milk percentage (F) were generally high, for reproductive traits h2 tended to be low. Genetic correlations for TMP with the other traits were low and negative, except for TMP with calving interval (CI) and service period (SP) in the Mediterranean breed and with age at first calving (AFC) and SP in crossbred, which were positive and high. Bull 1001 had high predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for TMP, so it should transmit a greater volume of milk to his offspring, although it had a lower PTA for F. There was sufficient variability within the herd to work with genetic management for both production and reproductive efficiency.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os aspectos genéticos relacionados à produção e à eficiência reprodutiva de búfalas das raças Murrah, Mediterrâneo e suas cruzas. Uma classificação de touros da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental também foi composta para orientar os cruzamentos assistidos. Foram utilizados 2.322 registros de nascimento de búfalas das raças Murrah, Mediterrâneo e cruzadas do rebanho da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, de 1953 a 2013, bem como características produtivas e reprodutivas. As análises genéticas foram realizadas pelo software Wombat, utilizando-se o modelo animal com análise de duas características. Enquanto a herdabilidade (h 2 ) para a produção total de leite (PTL) e para a porcentagem de gordura (G) foi alta, para as características reprodutivas a h 2 tendeu a ser baixa. As correlações genéticas da PTL com as demais características foram baixas e negativas, exceto para a PTL com intervalo entre partos (IP) e período de serviço (PS) na raça Mediterrâneo e com idade ao primeiro parto (IPP) e PS nas cruzadas, que foram positivas e altas. O touro 1001 apresentou alta capacidade de transmissão predita (CTP) para a PTL, então deve transmitir um maior volume de leite para seus descendentes, embora com um menor conteúdo transmissível de CTP para G. Portanto, existe variabilidade suficiente dentro do rebanho para trabalhar com o manejo genético para a produção e a eficiência reprodutiva.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Breeding/statistics & numerical data , Buffaloes/genetics , Reproductive Techniques/veterinary
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 88-94, sept. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087247

ABSTRACT

Background: In industrial yeasts, selection and breeding for resistance to multiple stresses is a focus of current research. The objective of this study was to investigate the tolerance to multiple stresses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained through an adaptive laboratory evolution strategy involving a repeated liquid nitrogen freeze­thaw process coupled with multi-stress shock selection. We also assessed the related resistance mechanisms and very high-gravity (VHG) bioethanol production of this strain. Results: Elite S. cerevisiae strain YF10-5, exhibiting improved VHG fermentation capacity and stress resistance to osmotic pressure and ethanol, was isolated following ten consecutive rounds of liquid nitrogen freeze­thaw treatment followed by plate screening under osmotic and ethanol stress. The ethanol yield of YF10-5 was 16% higher than that of the parent strain during 35% (w/v) glucose fermentation. Furthermore, there was upregulation of three genes (HSP26, HSP30, and HSP104) encoding heat-shock proteins involved in the stress response, one gene (TPS1) involved in the synthesis of trehalose, and three genes (ADH1, HXK1, and PFK1) involved in ethanol metabolism and intracellular trehalose accumulation in YF10-5 yeast cells, indicating increased stress tolerance and fermentative capacity. YF10-5 also showed excellent fermentation performance during the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of VHG sweet potato mash, producing 13.40% (w/ v) ethanol, which corresponded to 93.95% of the theoretical ethanol yield. Conclusions: A multiple-stress-tolerant yeast clone was obtained using adaptive evolution by a freeze­thaw method coupled with stress shock selection. The selected robust yeast strain exhibits potential for bioethanol production through VHG fermentation.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/physiology , Ethanol/chemical synthesis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Selection, Genetic , Stress, Physiological , Trehalose , Yeasts , Breeding , Adaptation, Physiological , Hypergravity , Fermentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Freezing , Heat-Shock Proteins
16.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 51(3): 228-238, Jul-Set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041632

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La familia, a partir de la crianza, juega un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de habilidades sociales y de autocuidado de las personas. Objetivo: Describir los estilos de crianza, la autoeficacia parental y la percepción de problemas de la conducta infantil por parte de padres y cuidadores de niños, además, explorar diferencias por sexo y zona de residencia en tres municipios de Santander. Materiales y método: Estudio cuantitativo, observacional, descriptivo de corte transversal. Se incluyeron padres y cuidadores adultos de niños menores de 12 años residentes en los municipios de Girón, Lebrija y Matanza. Se aplicaron el cuestionario de capacidades y dificultades, la escala de estilo parental y la lista de verificación de las tareas parentales. Se realizaron comparaciones por sexo, municipio y zona (urbana/rural). Resultados: Participaron 1.425 adultos cuidadores de niños menores de 12 años. La mayoría de los participantes fueron mujeres (80%) y su rol era madre (70%). Se identificó una prevalencia alta de estilos de crianza disfuncionales caracterizados por la sobrerreactividad (36%), la laxitud (23%) y la hostilidad (22%). En la zona rural se encontró una mayor proporción de falta de autoeficacia contextual (p<0,001). Conclusiones: Se evidencia la presencia de estilos de crianza disfuncionales y alteraciones comportamentales de los niños que sugieren la necesidad de intervenciones poblacionales intersectoriales a padres y cuidadores. Se propone posicionar la crianza como un proceso de interés en salud pública.


Abstract Introduction: The family, through child rearing, has a key role in the development of children's social skills and self-care. Objective: To describe parental styles, parental self-efficacy and perception of children behavior's problems among parents and caregivers, and explore differences by sex and place of residence in three municipalities of Santander. Material and Method: Quantitative, observational, descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants were parents and caregivers of children under 12 years old, living in the municipalities of Girón, Lebrija, and Matanza. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Parenting Scale and the Parenting Tasks Checklist were used. Comparisons were made by sex, municipality, and zone (urban/rural). Results: Participants were 1425 parents and caregivers of children under 12 years old. Most participants were female (80%) and mothers (70%). High prevalence of dysfunctional parental styles was identified with predominance of over reactivity (36%), laxness (23%) and hostility (22%). Higher percentage of difficulties with parent's contextual self-efficacy was identified in the rural area (p<0,001). Conclusions: This study found dysfunctional parental styles and perception of children's behavioral problems that suggest the need for population-based interventions focused on parental skills for parents and caregivers. Child rearing is proposed as a process of interest in public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child Rearing , Breeding , Child Behavior , Child Care , Parenting , Colombia , Self Efficacy
17.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 24(2): 7193-7197, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115238

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la diferencia esperada de la progenie (DEP) para el peso al destete ajustado a 205 días (PD) en hembras Brahman mestizas nacidas en el año 2016 como criterio de selección de futuras reproductoras. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 3467 registros generados entre 1983 y 2016 en la hacienda Napo (San Vicente, Manabí, Ecuador). El modelo estadístico y animal incluyó el efecto aleatorio del padre y como efectos fijos: composición racial, sexo y año de nacimiento. El análisis de la varianza fue realizado mediante el procedimiento GLM del paquete estadístico SAS. Los componentes de la varianza entre y dentro de padre para calcular la heredabilidad (h2) del PD y los valores de cría, se utilizó el software MTDFRELM, a través del sistema de evaluación del Mejor Predictor Lineal Insesgado (BLUP). Resultados. Para las 349 hembras nacidas en 2016 se encontró un promedio para PD de 173.67±34.23 kg. Se halló diferencia altamente significativa (p<0.01) para los efectos aleatorios y fijos, h2 para PD de 0.13 ± 0.04 y las DEP variaron entre -6.13 y +5.58 kg con rango entre los valores de cría de 11.71 kg y una exactitud entre 0.50 y 0.72. Conclusión. La baja h2 encontrada para PD manifiesta la alta influencia de los factores no genéticos, sin embargo las hembras con mayor valor DEP pueden mejorar el desempeno en este parámetro; se hace necesario identificar el mejor cruce racial que se adapte a la explotación con el fin de obtener crías con alto rendimiento en el PD.


ABSTRACT Objective. Determine the progeny difference expected (DEP) for the weaning weight adjusted to 205 days (PD) in crossbreed Brahman females born in 2016 as selection criteria for future breeders. Materials and methods. It is analyzed 3467 records generated between 1983 and 2016 in the Napo farm (San Vicente, Manabí, Ecuador). The statistical model included the random effect of the father and as fixed effects: breed composition, sex and year of birth. The variance analysis was performed using the GLM procedure of the SAS statistical package. The components of the variance between and within the father to calculate the heritability (h2) of the PD and the breeding values, the MTDFRELM software was used, applying the animal model, through the evaluation system of the Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (BLUP). Results. It was found that the PD average for the 349 females born in 2016 was 173.67±34.23 kg. A highly significant difference (p<0.01) was found for the random and fixed effects. The h2 for PD was 0.13±0.04. The DEP fluctuated between -6.13 and +5.58 kg with a range between the breeding values of 11.71 kg and an accuracy between 0.50 and 0.72. Conclusion. The low h2 found for PD shows the high influence of non-genetic factors; it is necessary to identify the best crossbreed that adapts to the livestock in order to obtain high performance products in the PD.


Subject(s)
Weaning , Breeding , Cattle
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 17-21, July. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053211

ABSTRACT

Background: Mastitis is one of the most serious diseases of dairy cattle, causing substantial financial losses. While predisposition to reduced somatic cell count in milk has been considered for in cattle breeding programs as the key indicator of udder health status, scientists are seeking genetic markers of innate immune response, which could be helpful in selecting cows with improved immunity to mastitis. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a protein involved in the response of the immune system by eliminating iron ions which are necessary for the growth of pathogenic bacteria, so LCN2 may be considered as a natural bacteriostatic agent and could become a marker of infection. Results: A total of five SNPs were identified in LCN2 gene (one in the promoter, three in exon 1, and one in intron 1). A single haplotype block was identified. The locus g.98793763GNC was found to have a significant impact on protein levels in milk, and alleles of this locus were identified to have a significant positive dominance effect on this trait. None of the four analysed loci had a statistically significant impact on the milk yield, fat levels in milk or the somatic cell score. LCN-2 gene had no significant impact on the incidence of mastitis in the cows. Conclusions: Although the identified SNPs were not found to have any impact on the somatic cell count or the incidence of mastitis in cows, it seems that further research is necessary, covering a larger population of cattle, to confirm the association between lipocalin-2 and milk production traits and mastitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Polymorphism, Genetic , Milk/immunology , Lipocalin-2/genetics , Mastitis, Bovine/genetics , Haplotypes , Breeding , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Lipocalin-2/chemistry , Mammary Glands, Animal , Mastitis, Bovine/immunology
19.
Rev. latinoam. psicol ; 51(1): 38-47, Jan.-June 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1043104

ABSTRACT

Resumen El uso intensivo de internet puede contribuir a desarrollar disfunciones psicosociales graves en la adolescencia. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar las relaciones de la percepción de eficacia académica con el uso de internet para ocio, los estilos de crianza y los problemas exteriorizados e interiorizados en la adolescencia (agresividad proactiva, reactiva, física y verbal, afiliación a pares rebeldes e inestabilidad emocional). Han participado 762 adolescentes de 12 a 17 años (M = 13.69; DT = 1.40; varones 52.8%). Utilizan internet en tiempo de ocio entre cero y 98 horas semanales, de ahí que la población se haya distribuido en cuartiles. Las variables se han obtenido a través de pruebas estandarizadas. Los análisis estadísticos se basan en metodología descriptiva y predictiva. Los resultados han permitido obtener tres conclusiones. Primera, el número de horas de internet para fines recreativos se relaciona con una peor eficacia académica percibida. Segunda, los adolescentes que usan Internet intensamente perciben más permisividad de los padres y menos apoyo y comunicación por parte de los padres. Estos adolescentes presentan más riesgo de conectarse con pares rebeldes y tienen índices más altos de inestabilidad emocional y agresividad (reactiva, proactiva, física y verbal). Tercera, la paternidad más punitiva, la agresividad y la afiliación a pares rebeldes aumentan el uso intensivo de Internet. Esta investigación corrobora la necesidad de una formación adecuada, dirigida a fomentar el apoyo y la comunicación paterno-filial para educar el uso racional y responsable de internet de ambos, padres y adolescentes.


Abstract The intensive use of the Internet can contribute to the development of serious psychosocial dysfunctions in adolescents. The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationships between achievement perceived with the leisure use of the internet, parenting, and externalized and internalized problems during adolescence (aggressiveness reactive, proactive, physical and verbal, affiliation with deviant peers and emotional instability). The sample is made of 762 adolescents from 12 to 17 years old (M = 13.69, SD = 1.40), with 52.8% of males and 47.2% of females. The use of internet in leisure time is between 0-98 hours per week. Hence the population has been distributed in quartiles. The variables have been obtained through standardized tests. Statistical analyzes are descriptive and predictive methodology. The analyses carried out have allowed us to obtain three conclusions. First, the number of hours of internet for recreational purposes is related to worse achievement perceived of the adolescent. Second, it has been found that adolescents who use Internet intensively greater perceived permissiveness of the parents and a lower support and communication with them. These adolescents present an increased risk of joining deviant peers and have higher rates of emotional instability and aggressiveness (reactive, proactive, and physical and verbal). Third, more punitive parenting, aggressiveness and affiliation with deviant peers boost the intensive use of the internet. This empirical research corroborates the need for adequate training aimed at fostering parental-child support and communication to educate the rational and responsible use of the Internet by both parents and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Efficacy , Adolescent Behavior , Internet Use , Breeding , Instability Indexes , Aggression
20.
Mycobiology ; : 200-206, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760539

ABSTRACT

Allelic differences in A and B mating-type loci are a prerequisite for the progression of mating in the genus Pleurotus eryngii; thus, the crossing is hampered by this biological barrier in inbreeding. Molecular markers linked to mating types of P. eryngii KNR2312 were investigated with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA to enhance crossing efficiency. An A4-linked sequence was identified and used to find the adjacent genomic region with the entire motif of the A locus from a contig sequenced by PacBio. The sequence-characterized amplified region marker 7-2299 distinguished A4 mating-type monokaryons from KNR2312 and other strains. A BLAST search of flanked sequences revealed that the A4 locus had a general feature consisting of the putative HD1 and HD2 genes. Both putative HD transcription factors contain a homeodomain sequence and a nuclear localization sequence; however, valid dimerization motifs were found only in the HD1 protein. The ACAAT motif, which was reported to have relevance to sex determination, was found in the intergenic region. The SCAR marker could be applicable in the classification of mating types in the P. eryngii breeding program, and the A4 locus could be the basis for a multi-allele detection marker.


Subject(s)
Breeding , Cicatrix , Classification , Dimerization , DNA , DNA, Intergenic , Inbreeding , Pleurotus , Transcription Factors
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