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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 349-354, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440319

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The purpose of this study is to evaluate changes in the trachea and bronchi using 3-dimensional reconstruction images obtained from the initial and follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of COVID-19 patients. A hundred COVID-19 patients over the age of 18 were included in our study. CT images were transferred to Mimics software, and a 3-dimensional reconstruction of the trachea and bronchi was performed. The initial and follow-up CT images of COVID-19 patients were graded as none (grade 0), mild (grade 1), moderate (grade 2), and severe (grade 3) according to the total lung severity score. The patients were divided into progression and regression groups according to the grade increase/decrease between the initial and follow-up CTs. Moreover, the patients were divided into groups as 0-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 4-12 weeks, and over 12 weeks according to the duration between the initial and follow-up CTs. The mean cross-sectional area, circumference, and diameter measurements of the right upper lobar bronchus, intermediate bronchus, middle lobar bronchus, and left lower lobar bronchus decreased in the follow-up CTs of the progression group. This decrease was not found to be statistically significant. In the follow-up CTs of the regression group, the left upper lobar bronchus and left lower lobar bronchus measurements increased but not statistically significant. Upon comparing the onset of the disease and the follow-up period, statistically significant changes did not occur in the trachea, main bronchus, and lobar bronchus of COVID-19 patients.


El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los cambios en la tráquea y los bronquios utilizando imágenes de reconstrucción tridimensionales obtenidas de las tomografías computarizadas (TC) iniciales y de seguimiento de pacientes con COVID-19. En nuestro estudio se incluyeron 100 pacientes con COVID-19 mayores de 18 años. Las imágenes de TC se transfirieron al software Mimics y se realizó una reconstrucción tridimensional de la tráquea y los bronquios. Las imágenes de TC iniciales y de seguimiento de los pacientes con COVID-19 se calificaron como ninguna (grado 0), leve (grado 1), moderada (grado 2) y grave (grado 3) según la puntuación total de gravedad pulmonar. Los pacientes se dividieron en grupos de progresión y regresión según el aumento/disminución del grado entre las TC iniciales y de seguimiento. Además, los pacientes se dividieron en grupos de 0 a 2 semanas, de 2 a 4 semanas, de 4 a 12 semanas y de más de 12 semanas según la duración entre la TC inicial y la de seguimiento. Las mediciones medias del área transversal, la circunferencia y el diámetro del bronquio lobar superior derecho, el bronquio intermedio, el bronquio lobar medio y el bronquio lobar inferior izquierdo disminuyeron en las TC de seguimiento del grupo de progresión. No se encontró que esta disminución fuera estadísticamente significativa. En las TC de seguimiento del grupo de regresión, las mediciones del bronquio lobar superior izquierdo y del bronquio lobar inferior izquierdo aumentaron pero no fueron estadísticamente significativas. Al comparar el inicio de la enfermedad y el período de seguimiento, no ocurrieron cambios estadísticamente significativos en la tráquea, el bronquio principal y el bronquio lobar de los pacientes con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Trachea/pathology , Bronchi/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Follow-Up Studies , Printing, Three-Dimensional
2.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 94-102, 30 Diciembre 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368417

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 es una patología fibroinflamatoria multiorgánica, de origen desconocido, que simula trastornos malignos, infecciosos e inflamatorios. Los criterios del American College of Rheumatology y la European League against Rheumatism 2019, son útiles para el diagnóstico diferencial de ésta enfermedad cuando se no se cuenta con evidencia de inmunoglobulina G4 en sangre. CASO CLÍNICO. Paciente hombre de 45 años de edad, nacido en Ambato-Ecuador, con ingreso en noviembre del 2017, en emergencias del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, con presencia de tos con hemoptisis leve, febrícula, astenia, pérdida de peso e hiporexia de dos semanas de evolución. Se realizó múltiples exámenes, tras observar infiltrados pulmonares intersticiales, con elevación de inmunoglobulina G en suero, negativas para malignidad; se sospechó de enfermedad relacionada a inmunoglobulina G4. Se ampliaron los estudios para descartar otras patologías más prevalentes y cuyo diferencial es primordial. Se inició tratamiento con prednisona y micofenolato con buena respuesta clínica; durante dos años. DISCUSIÓN. La evidencia científica registró que el hallazgo más importante en la enfermedad relacionada con inmunoglobulina G4 fue un aumento de sus niveles séricos. La recurrencia de la enfermedad en un órgano afectado o la aparición de un nuevo órgano involucrado pudo conducir al diagnóstico en el caso presentado. CONCLUSIÓN. La enfermedad relacionada con inmunoglobulina G4 al ser una patología heterogénea, inmunomediada, al simular otras afecciones puede retrasar el diagnóstico; se debe tener una alta sospecha clínica, si al excluir otros procesos infecciosos, autoinmunes y/o eoplásicos, hay evidencia de patología fibroesclerosante multiorgánica sin causa establecida.


INTRODUCTION. IgG4-related disease is a multiorgan fibroinflammatory pathology of unknown origin that mimics malignant, infectious, and inflammatory disorders. The criteria of the American College of Rheumatology and the European League against Rheumatism 2019 are useful for the differential diagnosis of this disease when there is no evidence of immunoglobulin G4 in blood. CLINICAL CASE. 45-year-old male patient, born in Ambato-Ecuador, with admission in November 2017, in the emergency room of the Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, with the presence of cough with mild hemoptysis, fever, asthenia, weight loss and hyporexia of two weeks of evolution. Multiple tests were performed, after observing interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, with elevated serum immunoglobulin G, negative for malignancy; immunoglobulin G4-related disease was suspected. Studies were extended to rule out other more prevalent pathologies whose differential is paramount. Treatment with prednisone and mycophenolate was started with good clinical response; for two years. DISCUSSION. The scientific evidence recorded that the most important finding in immunoglobulin G4-related disease was an increase in its serum levels. Recurrence of the disease in an affected organ or the appearance of a new involved organ could have led to the diagnosis in the presented case. CONCLUSION. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease, being a heterogeneous, immune-mediated pathology, by simulating other conditions may delay diagnosis; a high clinical suspicion should be maintained if, when other infectious, autoimmune and/or neoplastic processes are excluded, there is evidence of multiorgan fibrosclerosing pathology without established cause.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/blood , Orbit/pathology , Parotid Gland/pathology , Bronchi/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Edema , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/pathology , Hypertrophy , Lung/pathology
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 371-377, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385372

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The small bronchiole is a prominent site of airflow obstruction that causes increased airway resistance in patients with the COPD. Therefore, the histological and ultrastructural changes in small bronchioles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic diabetes were determined. Twenty-four weeks after STZ induction, rats were sacrificed, and the right and left lungs were collected for examination by light and electron microscopy. The alterations to the small bronchioles were the same in both lungs of these diabetic rats. The bronchiolar epithelial cells, both ciliated and secretory club cells, showed pyknotic nuclei and damaged cytoplasmic organelles. Increased thickening of the bronchiolar wall occurred in diabetic rats due to smooth muscle layer thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increased numbers of myofibroblasts with collagen deposition.These results indicated that chronic diabetes caused extreme damage to small bronchioles, which may lead to chronic small airway obstruction and ultimately increase the likelihood of COPD progression. This basic knowledge provides a better understanding of the progression of pathogenesis in the small airways of patients with prolonged diabetes.


RESUMEN: La diabetes mellitus aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC). El bronquiolo es un sitio prominente de obstrucción del flujo de aire que causa una mayor resistencia de las vías respiratorias en pacientes con EPOC. Por lo tanto, se determinaron los cambios histológicos y ultraestructurales en los bronquiolos en la diabetes crónica inducida por estreptozotocina (STZ). 24 semanas después de la inducción de STZ, se sacrificaron las ratas y se analizaron los pulmones derecho e izquierdo por microscopía óptica y electrónica. Las alteraciones de los pequeños bronquiolos fueron las mismas en ambos pulmones de estas ratas diabéticas. Las células epiteliales bronquiolares, tanto ciliadas como secretoras, mostraban núcleos picnóticos y orgánelos citoplasmáticos dañados. Se produjo un aumento del engrosamiento de la pared bronquiolar en ratas diabéticas debido al engrosamiento de la capa de músculo liso, infiltración de células inflamatorias y un mayor número de miofibroblastos con colágeno. Estos resultados indicaron que la diabetes crónica causaba daño extremo a los pequeños bronquiolos, lo que puede conducir a una obstrucción crónica de las vías respiratorias pequeñas y además aumentar la probabilidad de progresión de la EPOC. Esta información proporcionará un mejor conocimiento de la patogénesis en las vías respiratorias pequeñas de los pacientes con diabetes prolongada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bronchi/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Bronchi/ultrastructure , Chronic Disease , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
4.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180183, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134861

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in non-neoplastic patients with isolated intrathoracic lymphadenopathy (IL). Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with isolated IL referred for EBUS-TBNA. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of granulomatous, reactive, and neoplastic lymphadenopathy. In cases of nonspecific granulomas, reactive lymphadenopathy, or inconclusive results, a definitive diagnosis was established by other diagnostic procedures or during a follow-up period of at least 18 months. Results: Among the 58 patients included in the study, EBUS-TBNA established a diagnosis of granulomatous disease in 22 (38%), reactive lymphadenopathy in 15 (26%), cancer in 8 (14%), and other diseases in 3 (5%). Results were inconclusive in 10 (17%), the diagnosis being established by other bronchoscopic procedures in 2 (20%) and by surgical procedures in 8 (80%). A final diagnosis of reactive lymphadenopathy was established in 12. Of those, 11 (92%) had their diagnosis confirmed during follow-up and 1 (8%) had their diagnosis confirmed by mediastinoscopy. In another 3, a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis or neoplasm was established. For the diagnosis of granulomatous disease, neoplasms, and reactive lymphadenopathy, EBUS-TBNA was found to have a sensitivity of 73%, 68%, and 92%, respectively; a specificity of 100%, 100%, and 93%, respectively; an accuracy of 86%, 93%, and 93%, respectively; a PPV of 100%, 100%, and 80%, respectively; and an NPV of 78%, 92%, and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: In non-neoplastic patients, granulomatous disease and reactive lymphadenopathy appear to be common causes of isolated IL. EBUS-TBNA shows promising results as a first-line minimally invasive diagnostic procedure. The results obtained by EBUS-TBNA can be optimized by examining clinical and radiological findings during follow-up or by comparison with the results obtained with other bronchoscopic methods.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o rendimento diagnóstico da endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA, aspiração transbrônquica com agulha guiada por ultrassonografia endobrônquica) em pacientes não neoplásicos com linfonodomegalia intratorácica (LI) isolada. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com pacientes com LI isolada encaminhados para EBUS-TBNA. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, precisão, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) e valor preditivo negativo (VPN) da EBUS-TBNA no diagnóstico de linfadenopatia granulomatosa, reacional e neoplásica. Em casos de granulomas inespecíficos, linfadenopatia reacional ou resultados inconclusivos, o diagnóstico definitivo foi estabelecido por meio de outros procedimentos diagnósticos ou ao longo de pelo menos 18 meses de acompanhamento. Resultados: Nos 58 pacientes incluídos, a EBUS-TBNA permitiu que se estabelecesse o diagnóstico de doença granulomatosa em 22 (38%), linfadenopatia reacional em 15 (26%), câncer em 8 (14%) e outras doenças em 3 (5%). Os resultados foram inconclusivos em 10 (17%), nos quais o diagnóstico foi feito por meio de outros procedimentos broncoscópicos, em 2 (20%), ou de procedimentos cirúrgicos, em 8 (80%). O diagnóstico final de linfadenopatia reacional foi feito em 12. Destes, 11 (92%) receberam confirmação diagnóstica durante o acompanhamento e 1 (8%), por meio de mediastinoscopia. Em outros 3, o diagnóstico final foi sarcoidose ou neoplasia. Para o diagnóstico de doença granulomatosa, câncer e linfadenopatia reacional, a EBUS-TBNA apresentou sensibilidade de 73%, 68% e 92%, respectivamente; especificidade de 100%, 100% e 93%, respectivamente; precisão de 86%, 93% e 93%, respectivamente; VPP de 100%, 100% e 80%, respectivamente; VPN de 78%, 92% e 98%, respectivamente. Conclusões: Em pacientes não neoplásicos, doenças granulomatosas e linfadenopatia reacional parecem ser causas comuns de LI isolada. A EBUS-TBNA apresenta resultados promissores como procedimento diagnóstico minimamente invasivo de primeira linha. Os resultados obtidos pela EBUS-TBNA podem ser otimizados pelos achados clínicos e radiológicos durante o acompanhamento ou pela comparação com os resultados de outros métodos broncoscópicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Bronchoscopy , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinum/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy, Needle/methods , Bronchi/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 42(3): 191-195, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787492

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. Results: The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both). Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%). Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%). Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF) was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%). Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%). Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%); bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%); fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%); and BAL, in 2 (11.1%). Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7%) of the 18 cases evaluated. Conclusions: In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Determinar a distribuição proporcional dos subtipos de tuberculose endobrônquica (TBEB) e avaliar os tipos de procedimentos diagnósticos broncoscópicos que podem revelar inflamação granulomatosa. Métodos: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo com 18 pacientes HIV negativos com TBEB comprovada por biópsia tratados entre 2010 e 2014. Resultados: Os subtipos mais comuns de TBEB, classificados pelas características na broncoscopia, foram tumoral e granular (em 22,2% para ambas) A baciloscopia de escarro foi realizada em 11 pacientes e foi positiva para BAAR em 4 (36,3%). A cultura de escarro também foi realizada em 11 pacientes e foi positiva para Mycobacterium tuberculosis em 10 (90,9%). A baciloscopia do LBA foi realizada em 16 pacientes e foi positiva para BAAR em 10 (62,5%). A cultura do LBA foi também realizada em 16 pacientes e foi positiva para o M. tuberculosis em 15 (93,7%). A cultura do LBA foi positiva para M. tuberculosis em 93,7% dos 16 pacientes testados. Nos 18 pacientes com TBEB, a presença de inflamação granulomatosa foi comprovada pelos seguintes procedimentos diagnósticos broncoscópicos: biópsia da mucosa brônquica, em 8 (44,4%); escovação brônquica, em 7 (38,8%); punção aspirativa por agulha fina, em 2 (11,1%); e LBA, em 2 (11,1%). Antracose/fibrose brônquica foi observada em 5 (27,7%) dos 18 casos avaliados. Conclusões: Em nossa amostra de pacientes com TBEB, os subtipos mais comuns foram o tumoral e o granular. Recomendamos que amostras de escarro e do LBA sejam avaliadas por baciloscopia para BAAR e cultura de M. tuberculosis, o que poderia aumentar as taxas de diagnóstico precoce de TBEB. Também recomendamos que a escovação brônquica seja empregada em conjunto com outros procedimentos diagnósticos broncoscópicos em pacientes com suspeita de TBEB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bronchial Diseases/pathology , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchoscopy/methods , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Bronchial Diseases/microbiology , Bronchi/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology
6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 302-305, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44144

ABSTRACT

We presented a rare case of a 64-year-old man with a combined anomaly of the bronchus and pulmonary artery that was detected incidentally. Computed tomography showed a hyperlucent, aerated sequestered segment of the right lower lung with an independent ectopic bronchus, which had no connection to the other airway. The affected segment was supplied by its own aberrant pulmonary artery branch from the right pulmonary trunk. This anomaly cannot be classified with any of the previously reported anomalies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 84-91, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86937

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the characteristics of and treatment outcomes in patients with benign tracheobronchial tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of patients with benign tracheobronchial tumors who underwent bronchoscopic intervention with mechanical removal and Nd: YAG laser cauterization, and evaluated the characteristics and treatment outcomes of 55 patients with hamartomas, leiomyomas, papillomas, typical carcinoids, or schwannomas seen between April 1999 and July 2012. RESULTS: The most common tumors were hamartoma (n=24), leiomyoma (n=16), papilloma (n=7), typical carcinoid (n=5), and schwannoma (n=3). Forty-one patients (75%) had symptoms. On chest computed tomography, 35 patients (64%) had round or ovoid lesions, accompanied by atelectasis (n=26, 47%) or obstructive pneumonia (n=17, 31%). Fatty components (n=9, 16%) and calcifications (n=7, 13%) were observed only in hamartomas, leiomyomas, and typical carcinoids. At bronchoscopy, the typical findings were categorized according to tumor shape, surface, color, and visible vessels. Fifty (91%) patients underwent complete resection. Forty patients (73%) achieved successful bronchoscopic removal defined as complete resection without complications or recurrence. Recurrences occurred in four papillomas, one leiomyoma, and one typical carcinoid. The proportions of tumor types (p=0.029) differed between the successful and unsuccessful removal groups, and a pedunculated base (p<0.001) and no spontaneous bleeding (p=0.037) were more frequent in the successful removal group. CONCLUSION: We described clinical, radiological, and typical bronchoscopic findings in patients with benign tracheobronchial tumors; these findings might help to differentiate such tumors. Bronchoscopic intervention was a useful treatment modality, and tumor type, pedunculated base, and vascularity may influence successful tumor removal.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchoscopy , Carcinoid Tumor/pathology , Hamartoma/pathology , Leiomyoma/pathology , Neurilemmoma/pathology , Papilloma/pathology
9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1577-1582, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161108

ABSTRACT

This study assessed main pulmonary artery diameter of patients with anthracofibrosis. Patients with anthracofibrosis and CT scans were evaluated after exclusion of patients with co-existing disease. We measured the diameter of the main pulmonary artery (PAD) and ascending aorta (AD) and calculated the pulmonary artery to aorta ratio (APR). The upper reference limit for comparison of PAD was 29 mm. Cut-off values for PAD and APR indicating pulmonary hypertension were 33 mm and 1. We correlated the CT parameters with echocardiographic results. Total 51 patients were included in the analysis. The mean PAD, AD, and APR were 33 mm, 38 mm, and 0.87 respectively. The PAD was larger than the upper reference limit, 29 mm (P33 mm in 30 (65%) and the APR was >1 in 9 patients (18%). Of 21 patients with echocardiography, 11 (52%) were found to have pulmonary hypertension. There was no statistical difference in the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension between echocardiography and CT (P=1.000). In conclusion, main pulmonary artery is dilated in patients with anthracofibrosis more than in the healthy population.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchoscopy , Dilatation , Fibrosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(2): 226-237, mar.-abr. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-673314

ABSTRACT

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA, punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico) tem desempenhado um papel fundamental no diagnóstico de lesões mediastinais, paratraqueais e peribrônquicas, assim como no estadiamento linfonodal da neoplasia pulmonar. Por se tratar de exame endoscópico minimamente invasivo cujo rendimento diagnóstico tem se mostrado comparável aos métodos cirúrgicos estabelecidos, o procedimento de EBUS-TBNA ganhou espaço rapidamente e já se encontra integrado à rotina de investigação em serviços de referência. Para a realização de EBUSTBNA, é importante o planejamento prévio ao procedimento, que deve incluir uma análise minuciosa dos exames radiológicos e cuidado especial com a coleta e preparo do material, além do domínio da técnica e conhecimento de eventuais complicações inerentes ao procedimento. As principais indicações para a realização de EBUS-TBNA são o estadiamento linfonodal da neoplasia pulmonar e a investigação diagnóstica de massas e linfonodomegalias mediastinais ou hilares. Recentemente, iniciou-se a identificação de biomarcadores tumorais em amostras neoplásicas; essa análise molecular no material coletado durante o procedimento de EBUS-TBNA provou ser totalmente possível. Até o momento, o procedimento de EBUS-TBNA não consta nas tabelas de procedimentos médicos da Associação Médica Brasileira. O procedimento de EBUS-TBNA tem se mostrado seguro e eficaz no estadiamento e reestadiamento de neoplasia de pulmão e no esclarecimento diagnóstico de lesões ou linfonodomegalias mediastinais, paratraqueais e peribrônquicas.


Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has played a key role in the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions, as well as in lymph node staging for lung cancer. Despite its minimally invasive character, EBUS-TBNA has demonstrated a diagnostic yield comparable with that of established surgical methods. It has therefore gained credibility and has become a routine procedure at various referral centers. A successful EBUS-TBNA procedure requires careful planning, which includes a thorough review of the radiological imaging and special care during specimen collection and preparation, as well as technical expertise, experience with the procedure itself, and knowledge of the potential complications inherent to the procedure. The most common indications for EBUS-TBNA include lymph node staging for lung cancer and the diagnostic investigation of mediastinal/hilar masses and lymph node enlargement. Recently, tumor biomarkers in malignant samples collected during the EBUS-TBNA procedure have begun to be identified, and this molecular analysis has proven to be absolutely feasible. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has yet to be included on the Brazilian Medical Association list of medical procedures approved for reimbursement. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has shown to be a safe and accurate tool for lung cancer staging/restaging, as well as for the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions/lymph node enlargement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchoscopy/standards , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/standards , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Bronchoscopy/methods , Bronchoscopy/trends , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/trends , Neoplasm Staging
12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 383-387, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98489

ABSTRACT

The identification of mediastinal lymph nodes (LNs) in lung cancer is an important step of treatment decision and prognosis prediction. The endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is widely used to assess the mediastinal LNs and tissue confirmation in lung cancer. As use of bronchoscopy or EBUS-TBNA has been increased, bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF) has been detected frequently. Moreover, BAF is often accompanied by mediastinal lymphadenopathy and showed false-positive positron emission tomography uptake, which mimics metastatic lymphadenopathy in lung cancer patients. However, clinical implication of BAF during bronchoscopy is not well understood in lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 536 lung cancer patients who performed EBUS-TBNA and observed BAF in 55 patients. A total of 790 LNs were analyzed and macroscopic tissue pigmentation was observed in 228 patients. The adjusted odds ratio for predicting malignant LN was 0.46 for BAF, and 0.22 for macroscopic tissue pigmentation. The specificity of BAF and macroscopic tissue pigmentation for predicting a malignant LN was 75.7% and 42.2%, respectively, which was higher than the specificity of using LN size or standard uptake value on PET. In conclusion, BAF and macroscopic tissue pigmentation during EBUS-TBNA are less commonly found in malignant LNs than reactive LNs in Korean lung cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Asian People , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchoscopy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Constriction, Pathologic , Logistic Models , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Diseases/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Odds Ratio , Pigmentation , Positron-Emission Tomography , Predictive Value of Tests , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Ultrasonography, Interventional
13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 366-374, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate CT and 18F-flurodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission tomography/CT findings of primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 2006 through April 2012, seven patients (six female, one male; age range, 21-61 years; mean age, 49 years) were examined who were pathologically diagnosed with the primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of BALT. We evaluated the locations and characteristics of the lesions on CT and 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans. The lesions were classified into the following three patterns: 1) solitary intraluminal nodule; 2) several tiny nodular protrusions; and 3) diffuse wall thickening. RESULTS: A solitary intraluminal nodule was observed in four patients (57.1%), several tiny nodular protrusion in two patients (28.6%), and diffuse wall thickening in one patient (14.3%). The lesions were categorized into 3 major locations: confined to the trachea (n = 3), confined to the lobar bronchus (n = 2), and diffuse involvement of the trachea and both main bronchi (n = 2). All lesions demonstrated homogeneous iso-attenuation as compared with muscle on pre- and post-enhancement scans. Secondary findings in the lungs (n = 3; 42.9%) included postobstructive lobar atelectasis (n = 1), air trapping (n = 1), and pneumonia (n = 1). On 18F-FDG-PET/CT (n = 5), 4 lesions showed homogeneous uptake with maximum standardized uptake values (mSUV), ranging 2.3-5.7 (mean mSUV: 3.3). One lesion showed little FDG uptake. CONCLUSION: Primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the BALT manifests as three distinct patterns on CT, with the solitary intraluminal nodule presenting as the main pattern. Most lesions demonstrate homogeneous but weak FDG uptake on 18F-FDG-PET/CT.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Biopsy , Bronchi/pathology , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/pathology , Radiopharmaceuticals , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 915-923, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159646

ABSTRACT

Interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) is a group of disorders characterized by lung inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. In the past recent years, we noted an outbreak of child in Korea, which is possibly associated with inhalation toxicity. Here, we report a series of cases involving toxic inhalational injury-associated chILD with bronchiolitis obliterans pattern in Korean children. This study included 16 pediatric patients confirmed by lung biopsy and chest computed tomography, between February 2006 and May 2011 at Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital. The most common presenting symptoms were cough and dyspnea. The median age at presentation was 26 months (range: 12-47 months), with high mortality (44%). Histopathological analysis showed bronchiolar destruction and centrilobular distribution of alveolar destruction by inflammatory and fibroproliferative process with subpleural sparing. Chest computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities and consolidation in the early phase and diffuse centrilobular nodular opacity in the late phase. Air leak with severe respiratory difficulty was associated with poor prognosis. Although respiratory chemicals such as humidifier disinfectants were strongly considered as a cause of this disease, further studies are needed to understand the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease to improve the prognosis and allow early diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , APACHE , Bronchi/pathology , Cough/etiology , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Disinfectants/toxicity , Dyspnea/etiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Inhalation , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Steroids/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(4): 1099-1103, dic. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626971

ABSTRACT

The morphometry of bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and its possible exploration as to the control of common viral and bacterial pneumonia and their co-infection in Sub-Saharan goats is scanty in literatures. This investigation utilizes archival tissues from study that involved 35 apparently healthy West Africa Dwarf goats which were divided into groups PPRV and PPRV+MH with 15 goats each while 5 goats served as control. PPRV goats were infected intratracheally with 1ml of pure cultured 106.5 TCID50 PPR Pestes des petit Ruminant virus (PPRV) grown in baby hamster kidney cell lines and PPRV+MH with 1 ml of PPRV and a week later 1ml of MH (Mannheimia hemolytica) A2. The BALT number, type and cellularity were determined using standard methods with the use of an image analyzer. Student t-test was used to test for significant differences. The results showed that the average number of BALT was significantly more in PPRV+MH infection than that of PPRV infection i.e. 6.20+/-3.63 for PPRV+MH and 4.11+/-2.92 for PPRV with more nodular types of BALT (8.01+/-1.83) than the aggregates type (4.3+/-1.50) while the average number of lymphocytes in the nodular, aggregate BALT significantly increased with 82.25+/-15.95, 56.00+/-7.28 in PPRV to 103.33+/-44.10, 66.00+/-7.93 in PPRV+MH respectively. There was an irregular pattern in the surface Area (SA) and Perimeter (P) of BALT following infections. The increase in average number of BALT and lymphocytes in PPRV+MH infection than that of PPRV infection showed that the development of BALT and the number of lymphocytes in BALT could be used to assess the mucosal immunity following intratracheal administration of PPRV and MH in goats. This is however the first study that described the morphometry of bronchial associated lymphoid tissue in experimental PPRV and PPRV+MH infection in Sub-Saharan goats.


Es escaso en la literatuta el conocimiento de la morfometría del tejido linfoide asociado a bronquios (BALT) y su posible exploración para el control de la neumonía viral común, pneumonia bacteriana y su co-infección en el ganado caprino subsahariano. Esta investigación utilizó tejidos archivados pertenecientes a 35 cabras enanas del oeste africano aparentemente sanas, que fueron divididas en grupos PPRV y PPRV+MH con 15 cabras cada uno, mientras que 5 cabras sirvieron como control. Las cabras PPRV fueron infectadas por vía intratraqueal con 1 ml de cultivo puro 106,5 TCID50 PPR virus Peste de Pequeños Rumiantes (PPRV) cultivados en líneas celulares renales de hámsters recien nacidos y PPRV+MH con 1 ml de PPRV y una semana después de 1 ml de MH (Mannheimia haemolytica) A2. El número de BALT, tipo y la celularidad se determinaron utilizando métodos estándar con el uso de un analizador de imágenes. Se utilizó la prueba t de Student para probar las diferencias significativas. Los resultados mostraron que el número promedio de BALT fue significativamente mayor en la infección PPRV+MH que la infección PPRV, es decir, 6,20+/-3,63 para PPRV+MH y 4,11+/-2,92 para PPRV con un BALT principalmente de tipo nodular (8,01+/-1,83) que de tipo agregado (4,3+/-1,50), mientras que el número promedio de linfocitos en el BALT nodular y agregado aumentó significativamente con 82,25+/-15,95 y 56,00+/-7,28 en PPRV y, 103,33+/-44,10 y 66,00+/-7,93 en PPRV+MH respectivamente. No hubo un patrón irregular en el área de superficie y perímetro del BALT después de las infecciones. El aumento en el número promedio de BALT y linfocitos en la infección PPRV+MH comparado con la de infección PPRV mostró que el desarrollo de BALT y el número de linfocitos en BALT podría ser utilizado para evaluar la inmunidad de la mucosa después de la administración intratraqueal de PPRV+MH en cabras. Este es el primer estudio que describe la morfometría del tejido linfoide asociado a bronquios en la...


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchi/pathology , Goat Diseases/microbiology , Goat Diseases/pathology , Mannheimia haemolytica , Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Bronchi/microbiology , Coinfection , Disease Models, Animal , Lymphoid Tissue/microbiology
19.
IRCMJ-Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2011; 13 (9): 670-673
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-137391

ABSTRACT

Anthracosis is the black pigment discoloration of bronchi with an unknown cause which can cause bronchial destruction and deformity [anthracofibrosis]. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of tuberculosis in anthracosis and evaluate their association. One hundred and twenty subjects with bronchoscopy diagnosis of simple anthracosis, anthracofibrosis and non-anthracotic control groups entered this study. Demographic data and important clinical and radiological findings were recorded. Bronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed for further cytopathological, acid-fast bacilli staining and culture in all cases. Cough and dyspnea were significantly higher in anthracosis subjects. Radiological characteristic of tuberculosis such as upper lobe localization and cavity were not significantly higher in anthracosis subjects that suffer from tuberculosis. Laboratory test for tuberculosis showed positive acid fast bacilli in 17.5 and 25% and caseating granuloma in 20 and 17.5% of anthracosis and anthracofibrosis subjects. Adding the result of culture, the frequency of tuberculosis in both groups of anthracosis was 27.5% that was significantly more than non-anthracotic control group [Odd ratio= 6.15, CL=1.29

Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Bronchoscopy , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 787-792, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155382

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A retrospective investigation of the clinical and radiologic features as well as the bronchoscopic appearance was carried out in patients with endobronchial aspergilloma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with endobronchial aspergilloma diagnosed by bronchoscopy and histological examination were identified at the Gyeongsang University Hospital of Korea, from May 2003 to May 2009. RESULTS: The patients included 9 men and 1 woman, and the age of the patients ranged from 36 to 76 (median, 58 years). The associated diseases or conditions were: previous pulmonary tuberculosis in 7 patients, lung cancer in 2 patients, pulmonary resection in 1 patient, and foreign body of the bronchus in 1 patient. The chest radiologic finding showed fibrotic changes as a consequence of previous tuberculosis infection in 6 patients and a mass-like lesion in 2 patients. Two patients had a co-existing fungus ball, and an endobronchial lesion was suspected in only 2 patients on the CT scan. The bronchoscopic appearance was a whitish to yellow necrotic mass causing bronchial obstruction in 7 patients, foreign body with adjacent granulation tissue and whitish necrotic tissue in 1 patient, whitish necrotic tissue at an anastomosis site in 1 patient, and a protruding mass with whitish necrotic tissue in 1 patient. CONCLUSION: An endobronchial aspergilloma is a rare presentation of pulmonary aspergilosis and is usually incidentally found in immunocompetent patients with underlying lung disease. It usually appears as a necrotic mass causing bronchial obstruction on bronchoscopy and can be confirmed by biopsy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchography , Bronchoscopy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies
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