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Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 29-35, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970232


Objective: To analyze the prevalence and the risk factors of fungal sepsis in 25 neonatal intensive care units (NICU) among preterm infants in China, and to provide a basis for preventive strategies of fungal sepsis. Methods: This was a second-analysis of the data from the "reduction of infection in neonatal intensive care units using the evidence-based practice for improving quality" study. The current status of fungal sepsis of the 24 731 preterm infants with the gestational age of <34+0 weeks, who were admitted to 25 participating NICU within 7 days of birth between May 2015 and April 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. These preterm infants were divided into the fungal sepsis group and the without fungal sepsis group according to whether they developed fungal sepsis to analyze the incidences and the microbiology of fungal sepsis. Chi-square test was used to compare the incidences of fungal sepsis in preterm infants with different gestational ages and birth weights and in different NICU. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to study the outcomes of preterm infants with fungal sepsis, which were further compared with those of preterm infants without fungal sepsis. The 144 preterm infants in the fungal sepsis group were matched with 288 preterm infants in the non-fungal sepsis group by propensity score-matched method. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the risk factors of fungal sepsis. Results: In all, 166 (0.7%) of the 24 731 preterm infants developed fungal sepsis, with the gestational age of (29.7±2.0) weeks and the birth weight of (1 300±293) g. The incidence of fungal sepsis increased with decreasing gestational age and birth weight (both P<0.001). The preterm infants with gestational age of <32 weeks accounted for 87.3% (145/166). The incidence of fungal sepsis was 1.0% (117/11 438) in very preterm infants and 2.0% (28/1 401) in extremely preterm infants, and was 1.3% (103/8 060) in very low birth weight infants and 1.7% (21/1 211) in extremely low birth weight infants, respectively. There was no fungal sepsis in 3 NICU, and the incidences in the other 22 NICU ranged from 0.7% (10/1 397) to 2.9% (21/724), with significant statistical difference (P<0.001). The pathogens were mainly Candida (150/166, 90.4%), including 59 cases of Candida albicans and 91 cases of non-Candida albicans, of which Candida parapsilosis was the most common (41 cases). Fungal sepsis was independently associated with increased risk of moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (adjusted OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.04-2.22, P=0.030) and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (adjusted OR 2.55, 95%CI 1.12-5.80, P=0.025). Previous broad spectrum antibiotics exposure (adjusted OR=2.50, 95%CI 1.50-4.17, P<0.001), prolonged use of central line (adjusted OR=1.05, 95%CI 1.03-1.08, P<0.001) and previous total parenteral nutrition (TPN) duration (adjusted OR=1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.06, P<0.001) were all independently associated with increasing risk of fungal sepsis. Conclusions: Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis are the main pathogens of fungal sepsis among preterm infants in Chinese NICU. Preterm infants with fungal sepsis are at increased risk of moderate to severe BPD and severe ROP. Previous broad spectrum antibiotics exposure, prolonged use of central line and prolonged duration of TPN will increase the risk of fungal sepsis. Ongoing initiatives are needed to reduce fungal sepsis based on these risk factors.

Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Gestational Age , Infant, Extremely Premature , Sepsis/epidemiology , Retinopathy of Prematurity/epidemiology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 39(2): 144-151, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515114


Existen controversias en la definición de la displasia broncopulmonar, siendo las más utilizadas el requerimiento de O2 durante 28 días o a las 36 semanas de edad gestacional corregida (EGC). Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la incidencia y características clínicas de los prematuros nacidos antes de las 32 semanas (RNP≤ 32s) con requerimiento de O2 a los 28 días de vida (DBP28d) y a las 36 semanas de EGC (DBP36s) en una unidad neonatal de Santiago, Chile, entre los años 2012 y 2019. Es un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo con componente analítico. La población estudiada incluyó 535 RNP≤ 32s, vivos a las 36 semanas o dados de alta después de las 34 semanas de EGC. De los 242 prematuros DBP28d, 203 (83,88%) fueron DBP36s; 16 de los 242 (6%) requirió O2 durante menos de 28 días consecutivos, de los cuales 7, aún lo requerían a las 36 semanas. Los predictores de DBP36s fueron: sexo masculino (OR 2,42, IC del 95%: 1,24-4,69), peso al nacer (OR 1, IC del 95%: 0,99-1), edad gestacional (OR 0,75, IC del 95%: 0,57-0,97), APGAR a los 5 min, (OR 0,01, IC del 95%: 0,003-0,05), el requerimiento de presión positiva continua o cánula nasal de alto flujo (OR 1,1, IC del 95%: 1,04-1,17) y días de ventilación mecánica invasiva (OR 1,1,95% IC: 1-1,2). Conclusiones: No encontramos una diferencia significativa en la incidencia de DBP entre las definiciones de DBP28d y DBP36s; y la mayoría de los RNP< 32s con diagnóstico de DBP36s se pudieron identificar a los 28 días de vida.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in premature newborns. It is commonly defined as a need for supplemental O2 for 28 days or at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (BPD36w). Our objective was to determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of premature neonates born at less than 32 weeks (PNB< 32w) with O2 requirement at 28 days of life (DBP28d) and DBP36w in a neonatal unit of Santiago, Chile, between 2012 and 2019. This is a descriptive, retrospective study with an analytical component. The study population included 535 PNB< 32w, alive at 36 weeks or discharged after 34 PMA. Of the 242 premature BPD28d, 203 (83,88%) were BPD36w; 16 (6%) required O2 for less than 28 consecutive days, of which 7 still required it at 36 weeks. The predictors of BPD36w were: male (OR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.24-4.69), birth weight (OR 1, 95% CI: 0.99-1), gestational age (OR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57-0.97), APGAR at 5 min, (OR 0.01, 95% CI: 0.003-0.05), continuous positive pressure or high-flow nasal cannula requirement (OR 1.1, 95% CI: 1.04-1.17) and days of invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 1.1, 95% CI: 1-1.2). Conclusions: We did not find a significant difference in the incidence of BPD between the definitions of BPD28d and BPD36s; and the majority of PNB < 32w diagnosed with BPD36w can be identified at 28 days of life.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/therapy , Chile , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 902-909, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013195


Objective: To explore the risk factors of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and to establish a prediction model for early PH. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Data of 777 BPD preterm infants with the gestational age of <32 weeks were collected from 7 collaborative units of the Su Xinyun Neonatal Perinatal Collaboration Network platform in Jiangsu Province from January 2019 to December 2022. The subjects were randomly divided into a training cohort and a validation cohort at a ratio of 8∶2 by computer, and non-parametric test or χ2 test was used to examine the differences between the two retrospective cohorts. Univariate Logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used in the training cohort to screen the risk factors affecting the PH associated with BPD. A nomogram model was constructed based on the severity of BPD and its risk factors,which was internally validated by the Bootstrap method. Finally, the differential, calibration and clinical applicability of the prediction model were evaluated using the training and verification queues. Results: A total of 130 among the 777 preterm infants with BPD had PH, with an incidence of 16.7%, and the gestational age was 28.7 (27.7, 30.0) weeks, including 454 males (58.4%) and 323 females (41.6%). There were 622 preterm infants in the training cohort, including 105 preterm infants in the PH group. A total of 155 patients were enrolled in the verification cohort, including 25 patients in the PH group. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that low 5 min Apgar score (OR=0.87, 95%CI 0.76-0.99), cesarean section (OR=1.97, 95%CI 1.13-3.43), small for gestational age (OR=9.30, 95%CI 4.30-20.13), hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) (OR=4.49, 95%CI 2.58-7.80), late-onset sepsis (LOS) (OR=3.52, 95%CI 1.94-6.38), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (OR=8.67, 95%CI 3.98-18.91) were all independent risk factors for PH (all P<0.05). The independent risk factors and the severity of BPD were combined to construct a nomogram map model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the nomogram model in the training cohort and the validation cohort were 0.83 (95%CI 0.79-0.88) and 0.87 (95%CI 0.79-0.95), respectively, and the calibration curve was close to the ideal diagonal. Conclusions: Risk of PH with BPD increases in preterm infants with low 5 minute Apgar score, cesarean section, small for gestational age, hamodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus, late-onset sepsis, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. This nomogram model serves as a useful tool for predicting the risk of PH with BPD in premature infants, which may facilitate individualized early intervention.

Infant , Male , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Infant, Premature , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Nomograms , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/complications , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Gestational Age , Risk Factors , Sepsis
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 31-37, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971036


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate local cerebral blood perfusion in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) based on cerebral blood flow (CBF) values of arterial spin labeling (ASL).@*METHODS@#A prospective study was conducted on 90 preterm infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks and a birth weight of <1 500 g who were born in the Department of Obstetrics and admitted to the Department of Neonatology in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from August 2021 to June 2022. All of the infants underwent cranial MRI and ASL at the corrected gestational age of 35-40 weeks. According to the presence or absence of BPD, they were divided into a BPD group with 45 infants and a non-BPD group with 45 infants. The two groups were compared in terms of the CBF values of the same regions of interest (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, thalamus, and basal ganglia) on ASL image.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the non-BPD group, the BPD group had a significantly lower 1-minute Apgar score, a significantly longer duration of assisted ventilation, and a significantly higher incidence rate of fetal distress (P<0.05). After control for the confounding factors such as corrected age and age at the time of cranial MRI by multiple linear regression analysis, compared with the non-BPD group, the BPD group still had higher CBF values of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, basal ganglia, and thalamus at both sides (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#BPD can increase cerebral blood perfusion in preterm infants, which might be associated with hypoxia and a long duration of assisted ventilation in the early stage.

Infant , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant, Premature , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Gestational Age , Cerebrovascular Circulation
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 33-40, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928563


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical treatment outcomes and the changes of the outcomes over time in extremely preterm twins in Guangdong Province, China.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for 269 pairs of extremely preterm twins with a gestational age of <28 weeks who were admitted to the department of neonatology in 26 grade A tertiary hospitals in Guangdong Province from January 2008 to December 2017. According to the admission time, they were divided into two groups: 2008-2012 and 2013-2017. Besides, each pair of twins was divided into the heavier infant and the lighter infant subgroups according to birth weight. The perinatal data of mothers and hospitalization data of neonates were collected. The survival rate of twins and the incidence rate of complications were compared between the 2008-2012 and 2013-2017 groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the 2008-2012 group, the 2013-2017 group (both the heavier infant and lighter infant subgroups) had lower incidence rates of severe asphyxia and smaller head circumference at birth (P<0.05). The mortality rates of both of the twins, the heavier infant of the twins, and the lighter infant of the twins were lower in the 2013-2017 group compared with the 2008-2012 group (P<0.05). Compared with the 2008-2012 group, the 2013-2017 group (both the heavier infant and lighter infant subgroups) had lower incidence rates of pulmonary hemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (P-IVH), and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) and a higher incidence rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a significant increase in the survival rate over time in extremely preterm twins with a gestational age of <28 weeks in the 26 grade A tertiary hospitals in Guangdong Province. The incidences of severe asphyxia, pulmonary hemorrhage, PDA, P-IVH, and NRDS decrease in both the heavier and lighter infants of the twins, but the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia increases. With the improvement of diagnosis and treatment, the multidisciplinary collaboration between different fields of fetal medicine including prenatal diagnosis, obstetrics, and neonatology is needed in the future to jointly develop management strategies for twin pregnancy.

Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Gestational Age , Infant, Extremely Premature , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(5): e20210125, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340147


ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of preterm infants with different severities of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and disclose the high-risk factors of exacerbating BPD. Methods Collection of clinical data of 91 preterm infants admitted to the NICU and diagnosed with BPD, categorized in groups according to the disease severity: 41 mild cases,, 24 moderate cases, and 26 severe cases. Comparison and analysis of perinatal risk factors, treatment, complications and prognosis of the infants with different severity degrees. Results The severe group had a higher proportion of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) higher than the moderate group (P < 0.05), and a higher ratio of pneumonia and mechanical ventilation (MV) ≥ seven days than the mild group (P < 0.05). The severe group also presented higher reintubation incidence than both the mild and moderate groups (P < 0.05). The groups presented different (P < 0.05) incidence rates of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) . Ridit analysis suggested that the premature infants (PIs) with hsPDA, multiple microbial pulmonary infections, or Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia had more severe illness. Conclusion CHD, hsPDA, MV ≥ seven days, reintubation, pneumonia, especially multiple microbial pulmonary infections, and Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia are correlated with the severity of BPD and can be used as BPD progression predictor.

RESUMO Objetivo Investigar as características clínicas de prematuros com diferentes gravidades de displasia broncopulmonar (DBP) e divulgar os fatores de alto risco para a DBP. Métodos Coleta de dados clínicos de 91 prematuros internados em UTIN com diagnóstico de DBP, categorizados em grupos de acordo com a gravidade da doença: 41 casos leves, 24 casos moderados e 26 casos graves. Foram feitas a comparação e a análise de fatores de risco perinatais, tratamento, complicações e prognóstico de lactentes com diferentes graus de gravidade. Resultados O grupo grave teve uma proporção maior de bebês com doença cardíaca congênita (DCC) do que o grupo moderado (p < 0,05) e com pneumonia e ventilação mecânica (VM) ≥ 7 dias do que o grupo leve (p < 0,05). O grupo grave também apresentou maior incidência de reintubação do que os grupos leve e moderado (p < 0,05). Os grupos apresentaram diferentes (p < 0,05) taxas de incidência de persistência do canal arterial hemodinamicamente significativa (PCAhs). A análise de ridit sugeriu que os bebês prematuros (BPs) com PCAhs, infecções pulmonares microbianas múltiplas ou pneumonia por Klebsiella pneumoniae tinham doenças mais graves. Conclusão DCC, PCAhs, VM ≥ 7 dias, reintubação, pneumonia, principalmente infecções pulmonares microbianas múltiplas, e pneumonia por Klebsiella pneumoniae estão correlacionadas com a gravidade da DBP e podem ser usadas como preditoras de progressão da DBP.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.) , United States , Infant, Premature , Risk Factors , Gestational Age
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(5): 476-482, oct. 2017. graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887374


Introducción. La displasia broncopulmonar es la secuela pulmonar crónica más frecuente en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso. El objetivo fue estimar su incidencia en nuestra Unidad Neonatal durante los últimos 5 años y analizar los factores de riesgo asociados. Población y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional y analítico sobre una cohorte retrospectiva, utilizando datos extraídos de una base de recolección prospectiva de recién nacidos en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, con peso al nacer menor de 1500 gramos, entre enero de 2010 y diciembre de 2014. Se estudió la incidencia y la asociación de la displasia broncopulmonar con diversas variables de estudio secundarias. Resultados. Se incluyeron 245 pacientes. La incidencia de displasia broncopulmonar moderada/grave fue de 22% y se asoció a menor edad gestacional y peso al nacer. Se encontró una asociación significativa con requerimiento de surfactante, asistencia ventilatoria y su duración. Los pacientes con displasia broncopulmonar moderada/grave presentaron mayor incidencia de ductus y sepsis tardía. El menor peso al nacer (ORa 0,99; IC 95%: 0,991-0,997; p < 0,001) y la duración de la asistencia ventilatoria (ORa 1,08; IC 95%: 1,01-1,15; p < 0,01) mantuvieron la asociación luego de ajustar por otras variables. Además, se encontró una asociación en pacientes con restricción de crecimiento intrauterino menores de 32 semanas de edad gestacional (OR 4,71; IC 95%: 1,68-13,2). Conclusiones. Se estableció la incidencia de displasia broncopulmonar en nuestra Unidad y se encontró asociada al menor peso de nacimiento y duración de la ventilación. En menores de 32 semanas, la restricción de crecimiento intrauterino constituye un riesgo adicional.

Introduction. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common chronic pulmonary sequela among very low birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to estimate its incidence in our Neonatal Unit over the past 5 years and analyze associated risk factors. Population and methods. An observational and analytical study was conducted in a retrospective cohort, using data obtained from a prospective database of infants born at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires with a birth weight of less than 1500 grams between January 2010 and December 2014. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and its association with several secondary outcome measures were studied. Results. Two hundred and forty-five patients were included. The incidence of moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 22%, and it was associated with a younger gestational age and lower birth weight. A significant association was observed with surfactant use, mechanical ventilation requirement, and length of mechanical ventilation. Patients with moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia had a higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus and late-onset sepsis. A lower birth weight (adjusted odds ratio --[aOR--]: 0.99, 95% confidence interval --[CI--]: 0.991-0.997, p< 0.001) and the length of mechanical ventilation (aOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01-1.15, p < 0.01) remained associated following adjustment for other outcome measures. In addition, an association was observed among patients with intrauterine growth restriction born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age (OR: 4.71, 95% CI: 1.68-13.2). Conclusions. The incidence ofbronchopulmonary dysplasia in our unit was associated with a lower birth weight and the length of mechanical ventilation. Among infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth restriction accounted for an additional risk.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Time Factors , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 423-429, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85718


The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between survival and incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants, and identify clinical factors responsible for this association. Medical records of 350 infants at 23-26 weeks gestation from 2000 to 2005 (period I, n = 137) and 2006 to 2010 (period II, n = 213) were retrospectively reviewed. The infants were stratified into 23-24 and 25-26 weeks gestation, and the survival, BPD incidence, and clinical characteristics were analyzed. BPD was defined as oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The overall survival rate was significantly improved in period II compared to period I (80.3% vs. 70.0%, respectively; P = 0.028), especially in infants at 23-24 weeks gestation (73.9% vs. 47.4%, respectively; P = 0.001). The BPD incidence in survivors during period II (55.0%) was significantly decreased compared to period I (67.7%; P = 0.042), especially at 25-26 weeks gestation (41.7% vs. 62.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). Significantly improved survival at 23-24 weeks gestation was associated with a higher antenatal steroid use and an improved 5-minute Apgar score. A significant decrease in BPD incidence at 25-26 weeks gestation was associated with early extubation, prolonged use of less invasive continuous positive airway pressure, and reduced supplemental oxygen. Improved perinatal and neonatal care can simultaneously lead to improved survival and decreased BPD incidence in extremely premature infants.

Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Demography , Gestational Age , Incidence , Infant, Extremely Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate/trends
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : S81-S87, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218210


We investigated the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea using the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) data. In total, 2,386 VLBW infants born from January 2013 to June 2014 were prospectively registered. BPD was defined as supplemental oxygen or positive pressure support at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). The overall incidence of BPD was 28.9%, and the overall mortality rate in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) was 11.9%. To investigate recent changes in the incidence of BPD among VLBW infants, we compared the BPD rate in the present study with the latest nationwide retrospective survey conducted between 2007 and 2008. For comparison, we selected infants (23-31 weeks of gestation) (n=1,990) to adjust for the same conditions with the previous survey in 2007-2008 (n=3,841). Among the limited data on VLBW infants (23-31 weeks of gestation), the incidence of BPD increased by 85% (from 17.8% to 33.0%) and the mortality rate in the NICU decreased by 31.4% (from 18.8% to 12.9%) compared to those in the study conducted in 2007-2008. The current trend of increase in the incidence of BPD among infants can be attributed to the increase in the survival rate of VLBW infants.

Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Apgar Score , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Gestational Age , Incidence , Infant Mortality , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Odds Ratio , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 20(7): 730-737, Ago.2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-796499


La displasia broncopulmonar (enfermedad pulmonar crónica de la infancia) constituye un grupo heterogéneo de enfermedades de etiopatogenia multifactorial y fisiopatología multisistémica. Su frecuencia ha aumentado en los últimos años debido principalmente a la mayor supervivencia de los recién nacidos prematuros de muy bajo peso al nacer que presentan interrupción del desarrollo vascular y pulmonar unido a alteraciones funcionales generadas por el déficit de surfactante y relacionadas con la inmadurez. Sin embargo, se ha controlado la gravedad de estos cuadros gracias a los cambios realizados en la práctica clínica. Para un adecuado control y seguimiento multidisciplinario, abordamos esta afección con el objetivo de elaborar un plan de actuación cuando estos neonatos se encuentran en su hogar tras el alta hospitalaria...

Humans , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/complications , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/diagnosis , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Child , Patient Discharge , Lung Diseases , Infant, Premature , Primary Prevention , Infant, Newborn
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(1): 29-39, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708887


Introducción. Hay la percepción de que la frecuencia de displasia broncopulmonar en Bogotá ha aumentado notoriamente desde el año 2000. Este estudio estima su incidencia, la compara con datos históricos y describe factores asociados. Materiales y métodos. Se ensambló una cohorte analítica de 12 instituciones de Bogotá en 2004. Los participantes eran prematuros de menos de 34 semanas de edad gestacional al nacer, sin malformaciones mayores. Los desenlaces estudiados fueron la incidencia y la gravedad de la displasia broncopulmonar. Se hizo una comparación estandarizada de incidencias con cohorte histórica (1994 a 1999). Resultados. La mortalidad neonatal fue de 80/496 y la incidencia de displasia broncopulmonar, de 226/416 (54,3 %, IC 95% : 49,4-59,1). Los datos mostraron que nacer en una institución de baja mortalidad disminuía el riesgo de muerte (OR=0,308; IC 95% , 0,129-0,736), pero incrementaba el de displasia broncopulmonar moderada a grave (OR=1,797; IC 95% , 1,046-3,088). El riesgo de displasia broncopulmonar fue casi el doble del observado en la cohorte histórica (1994-1999) (RR=1,924; IC 95% 1,686 a 2,196). El incremento fue uniforme en todas las edades gestacionales. El peso y la edad gestacional al nacer, la respiración mecánica, el retardo en el crecimiento intrauterino y el tipo de institución se asociaron independientemente con el desenlace de displasia broncopulmonar grave o muerte. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de displasia broncopulmonar en Bogotá se ha incrementado por aumento en la supervivencia de niños más frágiles que si sobreviven, presentan secuelas respiratorias. Es probable que las prácticas de cuidado respiratorio agresivas y por debajo del nivel óptimo, asociadas con un reciente acceso irrestricto a la respiración mecánica en las unidades de recién nacidos en Bogotá, comprometan la calidad del cuidado respiratorio neonatal.

Introduction: There is a perception that bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence has increased in Bogotá since 2000. This study estimates its incidence, compares it with historical data and describes associated factors. Materials and methods: We carried out a prospective analytical cohort of preterm newborns =34 weeks of gestational age without major malformations from 12 health facilities from Bogotá in 2004. The main outcomes were incidence and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, which were compared with an historical cohort (1994-1999). Results: Neonatal mortality was 80/496, and the bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence was 54.3% (95% CI, 49.4-59.1). When controlling for type of institution (low and high mortality) it appeared that being born in an institution with low mortality decreased the risk for death (OR=0.308; 95% CI, 0.129-0.736) but increased the odds for moderate-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR=1.797; 95% CI, 1.046-3.088). The risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia was higher than for the historical control cohort (RR=1.924; 95% CI, 1.686-2.196). Weight and gestational age at birth, mechanical ventilation, intrauterine growth restriction and type of institution (low vs. intermediate-high mortality) were independently associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia of increasing severity or even death. Conclusions: The frequency of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in Bogotá has increased markedly, and this cannot be explained solely by better survival of more fragile infants. Survivors-irrespective from gestational age­- have more frequent and more severe respiratory sequels. Probably suboptimal aggressive respiratory care practices associated with a recent transition from restricted to almost universal access to mechanical ventilation in neonatal intensive care units in Bogota might be compromising the quality of neonatal respiratory care.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Incidence , Infant, Premature , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
Pulmäo RJ ; 22(3): 37-42, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-707435


Os avanços na sobrevivência de bebês cada vez mais prematuros aumentaram o número de casos de displasia bronco-pulmonar. Após cerca de 40 anos de sua descrição inicial, muitos conceitos foram modificados sobre a doença, evoluindo dos estágios clássicos descritos inicialmente para um agravo diretamente relacionado à inibição do desenvolvimento pulmonar. Esta revisão descreve as principais evidências relacionadas aos mecanismos fisiopatológicos e às intervenções disponíveis no acompanhamento dos pacientes com a doença instalada. Os fatores que contribuem para a patogênese da doença são conhecidos. Entretanto, recentes estudos têm demonstrado como esses fatores interferem no crescimento e no remodelamento pulmonar, além da existência de uma possível base genética, sinalizando a suscetibilidade individual no desenvolvimento de formas severas de doença. O manuseio da displasia broncopulmonar consiste em minimizar a agressão pulmonar, reduzir a inflamação e facilitar o crescimento pulmonar. Estratégias atuais e futuras para otimizar a evolução alongo prazo nesses bebês dependem da integração de pesquisasnos campos de melhor conhecimento dos mecanismos de resposta ao dano pulmonar e na redução da gravidade das sequelas cardiopulmonares.

The improved survival of extremely premature infants has contributed to an increase in the number of infants who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BDP). Nearly 40 years after its original description, BDP has evolved, from the classical stages initially described to a disease characterized largely by impaired lung development. This review describes the mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of BDP as well as current therapies for its treatment. The factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of BDP have been well described. However, recent studies have better defined how these factors modulate lung growth, as well as the possibility of a genetic basis, indicating that there is individual susceptibility to the more severe forms of the disease. Treatment of BDP is aimed at minimizing lung injury, reducing inflammation, and facilitating lung growth. Current and future strategies that improve long-term outcomes in infants with BDP will depend on successful integration ofbasic research on the fundamental mechanisms of lung development and response to injury. There is a need for studies ofnovel interventions to reduce the incidence and severity of the cardiopulmonary sequelae of BDP.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/physiopathology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/genetics , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/prevention & control , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/therapy
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 88(6): 471-478, nov.-dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662539


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de atraso e fatores associados aos escores de desenvolvimento em crianças nascidas prematuras. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal para avaliar o desenvolvimento por escalas Bayley III, incluindo-se prematuros de muito baixo peso de 18 a 24 meses de idade corrigida, acompanhados no Ambulatório de Prematuros da instituição. Excluíram-se: malformação congênita, síndrome genética, infecção congênita sintomática ao nascimento, surdez e cegueira. As variáveis numéricas foram comparadas por teste t de Student ou Mann-Whitney, e as categóricas, por qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher. Para análise dos fatores associados aos escores de desenvolvimento, utilizou-se a regressão linear, considerando-se significante p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Das 58 crianças avaliadas, quatro (6,9%) apresentaram alteração cognitiva; quatro (6,9%), motora; 17 (29,3%), de linguagem; 16 (27,6%), socioemocional; e 22 (37,9%), de comportamento adaptativo. À regressão linear múltipla, os fatores classe socioeconômica CDE (-13,27; IC95% -21,23 a -5,31) e dependência de oxigênio com 36 semanas de idade corrigida (-8,75; IC95% -17,10 a -0,39) diminuíram o escore cognitivo. A leucomalácia periventricular diminuiu o escore cognitivo (-15,21; IC95% -27,61 a -2,81), motor (-10,67; IC95% -19,74 a -1,59) e de comportamento adaptativo (-21,52; IC95% -35,60 a -7,44). O sexo feminino se associou ao maior escore motor (10,67; IC95% 2,77-12,97), de linguagem (15,74; IC95% 7,39-24,09) e socioemocional (10,27; IC95% 1,08-19,46). CONCLUSÕES: Prematuros de muito baixo peso apresentaram com maior frequência alterações na linguagem, comportamento adaptativo e socioemocional. As variáveis classe socioeconômica CDE, leucomalácia periventricular, displasia broncopulmonar e sexo masculino contribuíram para reduzir os escores de desenvolvimento.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of delay and factors associated with neurodevelopmental scores in premature infants. METHODS: Cross-sectional study to assess the development by Bayley Scales III, including very low birth weight preterm infants aged 18 to 24 months who were under follow-up at the outpatient clinic for preterm infants. Congenital malformation, genetic syndrome, symptomatic congenital infection at birth, deafness, and blindness were excluded. Numerical variables were compared by Mann-Whitney or Student t test and categorical variables by chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Factors associated with developmental scores were analyzed by linear regression, and statistical significance level was established at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the 58 children included, four (6.9%) presented cognitive delay, four (6.9%) motor, 17 (29.3%) language, 16 (27.6%) social-emotional and 22 (37.0%) adaptive-behavior delay. By multiple linear regression, the variables: social classes CDE (-13.27; 95%CI: -21.23 to -5.31), oxygen dependency at 36 weeks of corrected age (-8.75; 95%CI: -17.10 to -0.39) decreased the cognitive developmental score. Periventricular leukomalacia decreased the cognitive (-15.21; 95%CI: -27.61 to -2.81), motor (-10.67; 95%CI:-19.74 to -1.59) and adaptive-behavior scores (-21.52; 95%CI: -35.60 to -7.44). The female sex was associated with higher motor (10.67; 95%CI: 2.77 to 12.97), language (15.74; 95%CI: 7.39 to 24.09) and social-emotional developmental scores (10.27; 95%CI: 1.08 to 19.46). CONCLUSIONS: Very low birth weight preterm infants aged from 18 to 24 months of corrected age presented more frequently language, social-emotional and adaptive-behavior delays. The variables: social classes CDE, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and male sex reduced the neurodevelopmental scores.

Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Infant, Premature/growth & development , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight/growth & development , Brazil/epidemiology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Linear Models , Language Development Disorders/epidemiology , Leukomalacia, Periventricular/epidemiology , Motor Skills Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Psychomotor Performance , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Social Behavior Disorders/epidemiology
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 88(2): 137-142, mar.-abr. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-623459


OBJETIVO: Examinar a relação entre vacinação primária de recém-nascidos pré-termo e razões de prevalência de fatores associados a eventos cardiorrespiratórios indesejados, seguindo recomendações do Comitê Consultivo de Práticas de Imunização do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention para imunização de recém-nascidos pré-termo aos 2 meses de idade cronológica. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 2 anos de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso que receberam vacinação primária. Foram registrados eventos cardiorrespiratórios maiores, como apneia, bradicardia, dessaturação de SpO2, e eventos menores, como instabilidade de temperatura, comportamento inapropriado e reações locais. Foi calculada a razão de prevalência com intervalo de confiança de 95% para fatores associados entre recém-nascidos com e sem eventos cardiorrespiratórios. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 80 recém-nascidos (mediana de peso ao nascer [:intervalo]: de 970 g [:428-1.490]:), idade gestacional de 27,4 semanas (23,3-33). Ocorreram reações adversas em 35 (44%): eventos menores em 19 (24%) pacientes, eventos maiores em 28 (35%). Recém-nascidos com eventos maiores tiveram idade gestacional significativamente menor (p = 0,008) e incidência mais alta de displasia broncopulmonar (71% versus 48%; p < 0,05). Em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso com eventos maiores, o número de casos de dessaturação de O2 antes da vacinação foi 3,40 (1,41-8,23) vezes maior, e o tratamento com metilxantina para síndrome de apneia e bradicardia foi 8,05 (2,50-25,89) vezes maior em comparação com recém-nascidos sem eventos maiores. CONCLUSÃO: Eventos cardiorrespiratórios maiores ocorreram em mais de 1/3 de todos os recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso após a vacinação. Os fatores associados foram baixa idade gestacional, displasia broncopulmonar, tratamento com metilxantina e dessaturação de O2 persistente antes da vacinação. A vacinação primária de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso deve ser realizada sob monitoramento contínuo de parâmetros vitais.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between primary vaccination of preterm infants and prevalence ratios of associated factors for unwanted cardiorespiratory events, following the recommendation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for immunization of preterm infants at 2 months of chronological age. METHODS: Two-year retrospective study of very low birth weight infants receiving their primary vaccination. Major cardiorespiratory events, such as apnea, bradycardia, SpO2 desaturation, and minor adverse events, such as temperature instability, poor handling and local reactions, were recorded. Prevalence ratio with 95% confidence interval for associated factors between infants with and without cardiorespiratory events was calculated. RESULTS: Eighty neonates were studied (median [:range]: birth weight 970 g [:428-1,490]:), gestational age of 27.4 weeks (23.3-33). Adverse reactions occurred in 35 (44%): minor events in 19 (24%) patients, major events in 28 (35%). Infants with major events had significantly lower gestational age (p = 0.008) and a higher incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (71% vs. 48%; p < 0.05). In very low birth weight infants with major events, O2 desaturations before vaccination were 3.40 (1.41-8.23) times higher and treatment with methylxanthines for apnea and bradycardia syndrome was 8.05 (2.50-25.89) times higher compared to infants without major events. CONCLUSION: Major cardiorespiratory events occurred in over 1/3 of all very low birth weight infants after vaccination. Associated factors were low gestational age, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, methylxanthine treatment, and persisting O2 desaturations before vaccination. Primary vaccination of very low birth weight infants should be performed under continuous monitoring of vital parameters.

Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Apnea/epidemiology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Apnea/drug therapy , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/complications , Gestational Age , Infant, Premature , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Respiratory System Agents/therapeutic use , Xanthines/therapeutic use
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 57(4): 398-403, jul.-ago. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-597022


OBJETIVO: Analisar as características epidemiológicas da displasia broncopulmonar (DBP) e suas relações com condições maternas e neonatais em uma unidade neonatal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, descritivo e analítico, sendo os dados coletados através da análise de prontuários envolvendo recém-nascidos (RNs) pré-termo com peso ao nascimento inferior a 1.500 g e idade gestacional abaixo de 37 semanas internados em uma unidade neonatal. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 323 recém-nascidos com média do peso ao nascimento de 1.161 g (± 231 g), idade gestacional entre 24 e 36,5 semanas com incidência da DBP de 17,6 por cento. Entre os RNs que desenvolveram DBP, a média de dias de uso de assistência ventilatória mecânica invasiva (AVMI), ventilação não invasiva (VNI) e oxigênio foi, respectivamente, 17,6 dias, 16,2 dias e 46,1 dias, sendo significativamente maior naqueles RNs que desenvolveram a DBP (p < 0,001). A ocorrência da DBP foi significativamente maior nos RNs com diagnóstico de persistência do canal arterial (PCA). CONCLUSÃO: A incidência da DBP neste estudo foi semelhante à encontrada na literatura mundial. Não houve associação entre a presença de infecção materna e o uso de corticoide antenatal com a DBP. Os RNs que fizeram uso de surfactante tiveram maior incidência da DBP porque tinham menor PN e menor IG. A ocorrência da PCA e DBP simultaneamente está associada ao maior tempo de uso de AVMI, VNI e oxigênio.

OBJECTIVE: To review epidemiological features of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and its relationship with maternal and neonatal conditions in a neonatal unit. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study involving preterm newborns (NBs) with a birth weight lower than 1,500 g and gestational age under 37 weeks. Data was collected through a review of medical records of these newborns admitted to a neonatal unit. RESULTS: The study included 323 newborns with a mean birth weight of 1,161 g (± 231 g), gestational age between 24 and 36.5 weeks, with a BPD incidence of 17.6 percent. Among the NBs developing BPD, the mean of days using invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), non-invasive ventilation (NIMV), and supplemental oxygen was 17.6, 16.2, and 46.1 days, respectively, with a time significantly longer for those NBs developing BPD (p < 0.001). BPD occurred significantly more often in NBs with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). CONCLUSION: BPD incidence in this study was similar to that found in the literature. No BPD association with maternal infection and antenatal corticosteroid use was found. NBs receiving exogenous surfactant had a higher BPD incidence because they had lower BW and GA. Concomitant occurrence of PDA and BPD is associated with staying longer on IMV, NIMV and supplemental oxygen.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Birth Weight/physiology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Brazil/epidemiology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/etiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent/complications , Gestational Age , Incidence , Pulmonary Surfactants/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 32(10): 497-503, out. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-572631


OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores obstétricos e neonatais associados ao desfecho de displasia broncopulmonar em pacientes com amniorrexe prematura no pré-termo. MÉTODOS: foram analisados 213 prontuários do Instituto Fernandes Figueira, entre 1998 e 2002, cujas pacientes evoluíram com quadro de amniorrexe prematura <34 semanas de gestação. Foram excluídas gestações múltiplas. As variáveis de natureza clínico-obstétricas e neonatais foram cotejadas com o desfecho de displasia broncopulmonar. Os dados foram submetidos à análise bivariada, sendo os valores que exibiam significância estatística (p<0,05) submetidos à regressão logística. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de displasia broncopulmonar foi de 6.10 por cento. A análise univariada dos fatores associados ao desfecho de displasia broncopulmonar exibiu os seguintes resultados: tempo de ventilação mecânica neonatal >10 dias (OR: 54,00 [11,55-278,25] p=0,000); idade gestacional <30 semanas (OR: 6,33 [1,26-43,06] p=0,017) peso <1.000 g (OR: 4,82 [1,34-17,53] p=0,010); peso <1.500 g (OR: 14,09 [1,82-300,50] p=0,003; persistência do canal arterial (OR: 12,33 [3,07-50,10], p=0,000); doença da membrana hialina (OR: 8,46 [2,21-35,00] p=0,000); pneumonia congênita (OR: 7,48 [2,03-27,93] p=0,000); uso de surfactante neonatal (OR: 19,66 [4,54-97,76] p=0,000) e infecção neonatal (OR: 7,67 [0,99-163,79] p=0,049). No modelo multivariado final, somente as variáveis "ventilação mecânica">10 dias (p=0,001) e "uso de surfactante" (p=0,040) permaneceram independentemente associadas ao desfecho. CONCLUSÕES: observou-se que os fatores associados à displasia broncopulmonar são de natureza neonatal, sendo que a ventilação mecânica duradoura e o uso de surfactante neonatal influenciaram no desenvolvimento dessa doença.

PURPOSE: to analyze obstetric and neonatal factors associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia outcome in patients with preterm premature amniorrhexis. METHODS: we analyzed 213 medical records of patients of Fernandes Figueira Institute who suffered premature amniorrhexis (<34 weeks of gestation) in the period from 1998 to 2002. Multiple gestations were excluded. Clinical-obstetric and neonatal variables were considered in relation to the bronchopulmonary dysplasia outcome. Data were subjected to bivariate analysis, and the values showing statistical significance (p<0.05) were subjected to logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: the prevalence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 6.10 percent. Univariate analysis of the factors associated with the pulmonary dysplasia outcome were: neonatal mechanical ventilation for more than ten days(OR: 54.00 [11.55-278.25] p=0.000); birth gestational age of less than 30 weeks (OR: 6.33 [1.26- 43.06] p=0.017); birth weight <1,000 g (OR: 4.82 [1.34-17.53] p=0.010); birth weight <1.500 g (OR: 14.09 [1.82-300.50] p=0.003; patent ductus arteriosus (OR: 12.33 [3.07-50.10], p=0.000); hyaline membrane disease (OR: 8.46 [2.21-35.00] p=0.000); congenital pneumonia (OR: 7.48 [2.03-27.93] p=0.000); use of neonatal surfactant (OR: 19.66 [4.54-97.76] p=0.000), and neonatal infection (OR: 7.67 [0.99-163.79] p=0.049). In the final multivariate model, only the variables "neonatal mechanical ventilation">10 days (p=0.001) and "use of a surfactant" (p=0.040) remained independently associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CONCLUSIONS: the factors associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia are related to neonatal features, asprolonged mechanical ventilation and the use of a surfactant influencethe development of thedisease.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/etiology , Cohort Studies , Risk Factors