Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.789
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 736-743, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520386


Abstract Background: Brachial plexus block (BPB) has been accepted as a reliable alternative for general anesthesia in upper limb surgeries. Adding adjuvant drugs like dexmedetomidine and sufentanil has been shown to have clinical and pharmacologic advantages. In this randomized parallel clinical trial, we aim to compare the effects of these two adjuvants for bupivacaine in BPB. Methods: In this double-blinded study, by using computer-assisted block randomization, 40 patients ranged from 20 to 65 years old and scheduled for elective upper limb surgeries were assigned to two equal study groups (n = 20), receiving 1 mL of 5 μg.mL-1 sufentanil (group S) or 1 mL of 100 μg.mL-1 dexmedetomidine (group D) in adjunction to 30 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine for supraclavicular BPB under the guidance of ultrasonography. Characteristics of local anesthesia and postoperative analgesia were evaluated (n = 40). Results: The duration of blocks significantly improved in group S (sensory: estimated median difference (EMD) [95%CI] = 100.0 [70.0~130.0], p < 0.001; motor: EMD [95%CI] = 120.0 [100.0~130.0], p < 0.001). Group S also had significantly longer postoperative analgesia and lower opioid consumption within 24 hours after the surgery (EMD [95%CI] = 4.0 [3.0~7.0], p < 0.001; EMD [95%CI] = -5.0 [-5.0~-5.0], p < 0.001; respectively). None of the patients showed adverse effects concerning vital signs, nausea, or vomiting. Conclusion: Our study showed that during ultrasound-guided supraclavicular BPB, sufentanil is a fairly better choice than dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant for bupivacaine and can provide preferable sensory and motor blocks. No significant side effects were seen in either of the study groups.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Brachial Plexus Block , Bupivacaine , Sufentanil , Upper Extremity/surgery , Anesthetics, Local
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 804-810, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514282


SUMMARY: The preserved form of all components of the nerve fiber is a prerequisite for the proper conduction of the nerve impulse. various factors can change the shape of nerve fibers. In everyday practice, qualitative histological analysis is the gold standard for detecting changes in shape. Geometric morphometry is an innovative method that objectively enables the assessment of changes in nerve fibers' shape after local anesthetics action. A total of sixty sciatic nerves were used as material, which was intraneural injected with saline solution in the control group (n=30), and a solution of 1.33 % liposomal bupivacaine (n=30) in the test group. After the animals were sacrificed, nerve samples were taken and histological preparations were made. The preparations were first described and examined using a qualitative histological method, after which digital images were made. The images were entered into the MorphoJ program and processed using the method of geometric morphometry. Qualitative histological examination revealed no differences in nerve fibers after intraneurally applied physiological solution and liposomal bupivacaine. Using the method of geometric morphometry, a statistically significant change in the shape of axons was found after intraneurally applied saline solution and liposomal bupivacaine (p=0.0059). No significant differences in histological changes were found after the qualitative histological analysis of nerve fiber cross-section preparations. A statistically significant change in the shape of nerve fiber axons was observed after geometric morphometric analysis of digital images after intraneural application of saline and liposomal bupivacaine.

La forma conservada de todos los componentes de la fibra nerviosa es un requisito previo para la conducción correcta del impulso nervioso. Varios factores pueden cambiar la forma de las fibras nerviosas. En la práctica diaria, el análisis histológico cualitativo es el estándar de oro para detectar cambios de forma. La morfometría geométrica es un método innovador que permite evaluar objetivamente los cambios en la forma de las fibras nerviosas después de la acción de los anestésicos locales. Se utilizó como material un total de sesenta nervios ciáticos, que se inyectaron intraneuralmente con solución salina en el grupo control (n=30), y una solución de bupivacaína liposomal al 1,33 % (n=30) en el grupo de prueba. Después de sacrificados los animales, se tomaron muestras de nervios y se realizaron preparaciones histológicas. Primero se describieron y examinaron las preparaciones utilizando un método histológico cualitativo, después de lo cual se tomaron imágenes digitales. Las imágenes fueron ingresadas al programa MorphoJ y procesadas mediante el método de morfometría geométrica. El examen histológico cualitativo no reveló diferencias en las fibras nerviosas después de la aplicación intraneural de solución fisiológica y bupivacaína liposomal. Usando el método de morfometría geométrica, se encontró un cambio estadísticamente significativo en la forma de los axones después de la aplicación intraneural de solución salina y bupivacaína liposomal (p = 0,0059). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los cambios histológicos después del análisis histológico cualitativo de las preparaciones de secciones transversales de fibras nerviosas. Se observó un cambio estadísticamente significativo en la forma de los axones de las fibras nerviosas después del análisis de morfometría geométrica de imágenes digitales después de la aplicación intraneural de solución salina y bupivacaína liposomal.

Animals , Rats , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Histological Techniques/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Fibers/drug effects , Discriminant Analysis , Rats, Wistar , Principal Component Analysis , Saline Solution/administration & dosage , Injections , Liposomes/administration & dosage
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 595-602, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520355


Abstract Background: Modified thoracoabdominal nerve block through perichondrial approach is a novel fascial plane block and provides abdominal analgesia by blocking thoracoabdominal nerves. Our primary aim was to evaluate the efficacy of M-TAPA on quality of recovery and pain scores in patients who underwent laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair surgery (Trans Abdominal Pre-Peritoneal approach ‒ TAPP). Methods: Patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II aged between 18 and 65 years scheduled for elective TAPP under general anesthesia were enrolled in the study. After intubation, the patients were randomized into two groups: M: M-TAPA group (n = 30) and the control group (n = 30). M-TAPA was performed with total 40 ml 0.25% bupivacaine in the M group. Surgical infiltration was performed in the control group. The primary outcome of the study was the global quality of recovery score, the secondary outcomes were pain scores, rescue analgesic demands, and adverse effects during the 24-h postoperative period. Results: The global quality of recovery scores at 24 h were significantly higher in the M group (p < 0.001). There was a reduction in the median static and dynamic NRS for the first postoperative 8 h in the M group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The need for rescue analgesia was significantly lower in the M group compared to the control group (13 patients vs. 24 respectively, p < 0.001). The incidence of side effects was significantly higher in the control group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In our study, M-TAPA increased patient recovery scores, and provided pain relief in patients who underwent TAPP. Register Number: NCT05199922.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Laparoscopy , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Bupivacaine
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1415750


Objetivo: Describir la técnica de bloqueo supramaleolar de tobillo y nuestra experiencia con este bloqueo en la cirugía de tobillo y pie. materiales y métodos:Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional, retrospectivo de los últimos 5 años en pacientes con enfermedad de tobillo y pie, sometidos a un bloqueo supramaleolar de tobillo. Se excluyó a pacientes con cirugía previa, cirugías bilaterales, neuropatía periférica o enfermedad vascular, diabetes, infección activa o tabaquistas. Se realizó el bloqueo supramaleolar de tobillo con lidocaína al 2% y bupivacaína al 0,5%, teniendo en cuenta las referencias anatómicas. Se evaluaron la duración del bloqueo, la escala analógica visual de dolor a las 24 h de la cirugía, el tiempo hasta la toma del primer analgésico y el grado de satisfacción del paciente. Resultados:Se incluyó a 771 pacientes operados, todos tuvieron una analgesia completa por, al menos, 12 h (duración promedio 18 h). El puntaje promedio de la escala para dolor a las 24 h fue de 1,4. El tiempo promedio hasta la toma del primer analgésico fue de 16 h. El grado de satisfacción del paciente con el bloqueo y el dolor percibido en las primeras 24 h fue: muy satisfecho (89%), satisfecho (10%) y poco satisfecho (1%). No hubo casos de secuela neurológica permanente, toxicidad sistémica ni infección. Conclusión:El bloqueo supramaleolar de tobillo es un método simple, eficaz y seguro que puede realizar el traumatólogo para obtener una analgesia posquirúrgica prolongada. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Background: We present the description of a supramalleolar ankle block technique and our experience using this technique in foot and ankle surgery. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective observational study of the past 5 years of patients with foot and ankle pathology that had undergone the supramalleolar ankle block. We excluded patients with a history of previous foot surgery, bilateral surgeries, vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, diabetes, smoking, or active surgical site infection. The supramalleolar ankle block was guided by anatomic landmarks and we used a solution of lidocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5%. We evaluated the duration of the ankle block, the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain 24 hrs after surgery, the time until the first analgesic dose, and the level of patient satisfaction. Results:771 patients were included in this study, all of whom had complete analgesia for at least 12 hrs (mean 18 hrs) after surgery. The mean value on the VAS for pain after 24 hrs was 1.4. On average, the first analgesic dose was administered 16 hrs after surgery. The level of satisfaction about the pain perceived in the first 24 hrs after surgery was: very satisfied (89%), satisfied (10%), and dissatisfied (1%). There were no reports of permanent neurological sequelae, systemic toxicity, or surgical site infections. Conclusion: We consider the supramalleolar ankle block a simple, effective, and safe procedure to obtain long-lasting postoperative analgesia. Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , Bupivacaine , Treatment Outcome , Foot , Anesthesia, Local , Lidocaine , Ankle Joint
Rev. anesth.-réanim. med. urgence ; 15(2): 133-137, 2023. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1511822


La pratique de la rachianesthésie est motivée par la qualité de l'analgésie post-opératoire qu'elle procure. Cependant, la rachianesthésie reste comme tout acte médical associée à certains accidents. Méthodes : C'est une étude prospective, descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée sur une période d'un (01) mois allant du 07 Mai 2022 au 07 Juin 2022 au CHU d'Angré. Résultats : la rachianesthésie a été réalisée dans 188 des cas, soit un taux de 60% de l'ensemble des interventions. Le sexe ratio était de 0,13 et l'âge moyen était de 33 ± 10 ans. L'antécédent le plus retrouvé était l'HTA. La bupivacaine était le seul anesthésique local utilisé avec comme adjuvant la morphine, le fentanyl ou l'association morphine -fentanyl. Les incidents peropératoires étaient dominés par les troubles hémodynamiques à type d'hypotension artérielle (98,7%) et de bradycardie. Les patients ayant présenté un syndrome de mal être post opératoire représentaient 70,8% de notre effectif. Le Syndrome de Mal Etre post opératoires était dominé par les nausées et vomissements suivis des prurits. Tous les patients ayant présenté un syndrome de mal être post rachianesthésie n'avaient pas bénéficié de prise en charge. La survenue du syndrome de mal être post rachianesthésie était statistiquement associé à la présence de la morphine comme adjuvant (p=0,016). Conclusion : La rachianesthésie est une remarquable technique d'anesthésie. Néanmoins la fréquence des évènements per et post opératoires survenant au décours de cette technique n'est pas négligeable, car ils sont la source d'inconforts notables

Humans , Bupivacaine , Anesthesia, Spinal , Disease , Morbidity , Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(3): 71-75, 20221115.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401555


En la anestesia para las cesáreas, la anestesia raquídea con bupivacaína hiperbárica constituye la elección habitual en nuestro medio. Existen dos formas de bupivacaína disponibles, la isobárica (BI) y la hiperbárica (BH). La utilización de la BI es poco frecuente por lo que es relevante conocer la experiencia en su utilización para las anestesias de las cirugías obstétricas. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar la utilización de BI en las anestesias raquídeas para cesáreas. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal en 23 pacientes que recibieron anestesia espinal con BI. La edad promedio fue de 28  5 años, la dosis promedio de BI utilizada de 9,4 mg. La latencia promedio fue 90 segundos y el tiempo para la instauración una anestesia adecuada fue en promedio 4,9 minutos. En el 82,6% el nivel anestésico alcanzó el dermatoma T4. En el 21,7% fue necesario administrar efedrina para aumentar la presión arterial. En el 52,1% se presentaron efectos adversos menores. A las 24 horas, el dolor fue nulo en 56,5% y leve en 43,5% de los casos. En conclusión, se encontró que las pacientes alcanzaron un nivel sensitivo adecuado en poco tiempo, con una dosis promedio de BI de 9 mg. Pocos pacientes requirieron la administración de un vasopresor para aumentar la presión arterial. Los efectos adversos fueron menores en casi la mitad de los pacientes. En el post operatorio la mayoría de las pacientes no presentaron dolor

In anesthesia for caesarean sections, spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine is the usual choice in our setting. There are two forms of bupivacaine available, isobaric (BI) and hyperbaric (BH). The use of BI is infrequent, so it is relevant to know the experience in its use for anesthesia in obstetric surgeries. The objective of the study was to characterize the use of BI in spinal anesthesia for cesarean sections. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in 23 patients who received spinal anesthesia with BI. The average age was 28  5 years, the average dose of BI used was 9.4 mg. The average latency was 90 seconds and the time for establishment of adequate anesthesia was on average 4.9 minutes. In 82.6% of the cases, the anesthetic level reached dermatome T4. In 21.7% it was necessary to administer ephedrine to increase blood pressure. Minor adverse effects occurred in 52.1%. At 24 hours, the pain was null in 56.5% and mild in 43.5% of cases. In conclusion, it was found that the patients reached an adequate sensory level in a short time, with an average dose of BI of 9 mg. Few patients required administration of a vasopressor to increase blood pressure. Adverse effects were minor in almost half of the patients. In the postoperative period, most of the patients did not present pain

Cesarean Section , Bupivacaine , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Spinal
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 21(3): e840, sept.-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408177


Introducción: En la cirugía de colon se persigue lograr una recuperación acelerada y se debate el método analgésico más ventajoso. Objetivo: Comparar la eficacia analgésica de la infusión continua peridural con bupivacaína y fentanilo frente a la analgesia parenteral en este tipo de intervención. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuasi-experimental, prospectivo y longitudinal, en 30 pacientes operados de colon entre agosto 2018 agosto 2019 en el Hospital Militar Central Dr. Carlos J. Finlay; divididos de forma no aleatoria en grupo analgesia peridural y grupo analgesia multimodal endovenosa. Resultados: La demora en despertar y extubar en el grupo peridural fue inferior (1,6-1,8 min) a los 4,9-5,0 min en el multimodal, igual ocurrió con la estadía en Unidad Cuidados Intensivos Quirúrgicos y hospitalaria aunque con discreta diferencia. El 60 por ciento de los pacientes en el grupo peridural presentaron ruidos hidroaéreos en las primeras 24 h y el 80 por ciento expulsó gases a las 48 h o antes, con marcada diferencia del multimodal. La analgesia fue buena en ambos grupos, valores de escala visual análoga inferiores en el grupo peridural, solo el 13,3 por ciento necesitó dosis rescate frente al 26,7 por ciento en el multimodal. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron hipotensión (23,3 por ciento) y bradicardia (10 por ciento), sin diferencias entre grupos. La analgesia aceleró la recuperación en el 87,5 por ciento de los casos en el grupo peridural superior al 76 por ciento del grupo multimodal. Conclusiones: La analgesia peridural continua con bupivacaína y fentanilo es más eficaz que la analgesia multimodal endovenosa en la cirugía de colon y acelera la recuperación posoperatoria(AU)

Introduction: In colon surgery, accelerated recovery is pursued and the most advantageous analgesic method is still under debate. Objective: To compare the analgesic efficacy of continuous epidural infusion with bupivacaine and fentanyl versus parenteral analgesia in this type of operation. Methods: A quasiexperimental, prospective and longitudinal study was carried out with thirty patients who underwent colon surgery, between August 2018 and August 2019 at Dr. Carlos J. Finlay Central Military Hospital, nonrandomly divided into an epidural analgesia group and a multimodal intravenous analgesia group. Results: The awakening and extubation time in the epidural group was lower (1.6 -1.8 min) than the 4.9 to 5.0 min for the multimodal group. The same happened with intensive care unit and hospital stay, although with a discrete difference. 60 percent of the patients from the epidural group presented hydroaerial noise within the first 24 hours and 80 percent expelled gasses at 48 hours or earlier, with a marked difference in the multimodal group. Analgesia was good in both groups, with lower visual analog scale values in the peridural group; only 13.3 percent required rescue doses compared to 26.7 percent in the multimodal group. The most frequent complications were hypotension (23.3 percent ) and bradycardia (10 percent ), without differences between groups. Analgesia accelerated recovery for 87.5 percent of cases in the epidural group, compared to 76 percent in the multimodal group. Conclusions: Continuous epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl is more effective than multimodal intravenous analgesia in colon surgery and accelerates postoperative recovery(AU)

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Analgesia, Epidural/methods , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Colon/surgery , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Critical Care
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 599-604, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420600


Abstract Background Continuous injection of local anesthetics by using surgical wound catheters for postoperative pain relief has gained acceptance in recent years. However, whether this method can be alternatively used instead of systemic opioids in different surgical procedures has not yet been elucidated. Objectives The aim was to investigate the effect of continuous injection of bupivacaine through a catheter inside the surgical wound on reducing the postoperative pain of lumbar spine fusion surgeries. Methods In this clinical trial, 31 patients undergoing non-traumatic lumbar spine stabilization surgery were randomly assigned to receive (n = 15) or do not receive (n = 16) bupivacaine through a catheter inside the surgical wound, postoperatively. Pain intensity (NRS), dose of required morphine, and drug-related complications within 24 hours of intervention were assessed and compared by the Mann-Whitney and independent t-test. Results Mean pain intensity was significantly lower in the case group over the first postoperative hour in the recovery room (p < 0.001), which continued for the first 2 hours after entering the ward. The mean morphine intake was lower in the bupivacaine group during the first postoperative 24 hours (16 ± 0.88 vs. 7.33 ± 0.93 mg, p < 0.001). The two groups were not significantly different regarding drug-related complications. Conclusion Continuous intra-incisional infusion of bupivacaine helped better pain reduction during the early postoperative hours while sparing morphine consumption in the first postoperative day.

Humans , Bupivacaine , Surgical Wound/complications , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthetics, Local , Morphine
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 257-266, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388000


Abstract Objective To evaluate postoperative pain, using the visual analog scale (VAS), in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and receiving intra-articular anesthetic solutions. Methods The present is a randomized clinical trial with a sample of 48 patients divided into 4 groups: Group I (n » 12) - 20 mL of saline solution (control); Group II (n » 12) - 20 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine; Group III (n » 12) - 20 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine þ 0.1 mg of epinephrine; and Group IV (n » 12) - 20 mL of saline solution þ 0.1 mg of epinephrine. These solutions were injected into the knee at the end of the surgery. Pain was assessed using the VAS immediately and 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after the procedure. Results The VAS scores were highly variable among the groups. A Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA), considering a level of significance of 5%, revealed that all intra-articular anesthetic solutions influenced the assessment of pain (p » 0.003), and that Group-III subjects presented less postoperative pain. There was no evidence of a higher or lower use of supplemental analgesic agents, or of adverse effects resulting from these anesthetic solutions. Conclusion Bupivacaine combined with epinephrine was the most effective solution for pain control in patients undergoing ACLR, but with no statistically significant differences when compared to Group II (p » 0.547). There was no decrease or increase in the use of supplemental analgesics or in the occurrence of adverse systemic effects (p > 0.05).

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar primariamente a dor pós-operatória, por meio da escala visual analógica (EVA), nos pacientes submetidos a reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior (RLCA) que receberam soluções anestésicas intra-articulares (IAs). Métodos Ensaio clínico randomizado com uma amostra de 48 pacientes, divididos em 4 grupos: Grupo I (n » 12) - 20 ml de solução fisiológica (controle); Grupo II (n » 12) - 20 ml de bupivacaína a 0,5%; Grupo III (n » 12) - 20 ml de bupivacaína a 0,5% þ 0,1 mg de epinefrina; e Grupo IV (n » 12) - 20 ml de solução fisiológica þ 0,1 mg de epinefrina, injetados no joelho ao término da cirurgia. A dor foi avaliada pela EVA imediatamente e 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas após o procedimento. Resultados Observou-se grande variabilidade nos resultados da EVA entre os pacientes avaliados em cada grupo. Verificou-se, pela análise de variância (analysis of variance, ANOVA) de Kruskal-Wallis, considerando um nível de 5% de significância, que as soluções anestésicas IAs de cada grupo influenciaram na avaliação da dor desses pacientes (p » 0,003), sendo os do Grupo III os que apresentaram menor dor pósoperatória. Não se evidenciou um maior ou menor consumo de drogas analgésicas suplementares, ou efeitos adversos das decorrentes das soluções empregadas. Conclusão A solução combinada de bupivacaína e epinefrina foi a mais eficaz no controle da dor nos pacientes submetidos a RLCA, mas sem diferenças estatisticamente significativas com relação ao grupo II (p » 0,547). Não se observou diminuição ou aumento no consumo de analgésicos suplementares, ou o aparecimento de efeitos sistêmicos adversos (p > 0,05).

Humans , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Pain Measurement , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/surgery
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 35(1): e1509, ene.-mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409037


La cirugía de la musculatura extraocular ha sido el estándar de atención para tratamiento quirúrgico del estrabismo por más de un siglo. A pesar del gran desarrollo técnico de la cirugía de estrabismo en la actualidad, la utilización de microscopio quirúrgico, el diseño novedoso del instrumental quirúrgico, la calidad de la sutura no reabsorbible; los avances en equipamiento y fármacos anestésicos, la misma no está exenta de complicaciones quirúrgicas, además del tiempo de recuperación que necesita el paciente para reincorporarse a sus actividades sociales, han propiciado una búsqueda permanente del tratamiento farmacológico para el estrabismo. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es analizar las distintas alternativas farmacológicas disponibles como tratamiento del estrabismo. Para su confección se consultó textos completos y artículos en idiomas español e inglés, disponible en algunas bases de datos. Concluimos que aunque se han estudiado numerosos fármacos, la toxina botulínica que es la más conocida y utilizada mundialmente, seguida de la bupivacaína. Encontramos otros como la IGF I y II (Insuline Growing Factor), capaces de generar un efecto de reforzamiento de la actividad muscular. Y otros que "debilitan" la musculatura extraocular, incluyen la mAb35-Rubicina, BMP4 (Proteína morfogénica ósea). Se continúa su investigación en la actualidad(AU)

Extraocular musculature surgery has been the standard of care for surgical treatment of strabismus for more than a century. Despite the great technical development of strabismus surgery today, the use of a surgical microscope, the novel design of surgical instruments, the quality of the non-absorbable suture; Advances in anesthetic equipment and drugs, it is not exempt from surgical complications, in addition to the recovery time that the patient needs to return to their social activities, have led to a permanent search for pharmacological treatment for strabismus. The objective of this bibliographic review is to analyze the different pharmacological alternatives available as a treatment for strabismus. For its preparation, full texts and articles in Spanish and English languages were consulted, available in some databases. We conclude that although numerous drugs have been studied, botulinum toxin, which is the best known and used worldwide, followed by bupivacaine. We find others such as IGF I and II (Insuline Growing Factor), capable of generating an effect of reinforcing muscle activity. And others that "weaken" MOE include mAb35-Rubicin, BMP4 (Bone Morphogenic Protein). His research is continuing today(AU)

Humans , Botulinum Toxins/therapeutic use , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Strabismus/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Standard of Care
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21310, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420508


Abstract In the hospital environment, postoperative pain is a common occurrence that impairs patient recovery and rehabilitation and lengthens hospitalization time. Racemic bupivacaine hydrochloride (CBV) and Novabupi® (NBV) (S (-) 75% R (+) 25% bupivacaine hydrochloride) are two examples of local anesthetics used in pain management, the latter being an alternative with less deleterious effects. In the present study, biodegradable implants were developed using Poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) through a hot molding technique, evaluating their physicochemical properties and their in vitro drug release. Different proportions of drugs and polymer were tested, and the proportion of 25%:75% was the most stable for molding the implants. Thermal and spectrometric analyses were performed, and they revealed no unwanted chemical interactions between drugs and polymer. They also confirmed that heating and freeze-drying used for manufacturing did not interfere with stability. The in vitro release results revealed drugs sustained release, reaching 64% for NBV-PLGA and 52% for CBV-PLGA up to 30 days. The drug release mechanism was confirmed by microscopy, which involved pores formation and polymeric erosion, visualized in the first 72 h of the in vitro release test. These findings suggest that the developed implants are interesting alternatives to control postoperative pain efficiently.

Pain, Postoperative/classification , Bupivacaine/analysis , Absorbable Implants/classification , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Hospitals/classification
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e602, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280185


Abstract Radical penectomy (RP) is infrequently performed as it is reserved for specific cases of penile cancer, hence the paucity of reports regarding surgical and anesthetic considerations. Acute postoperative pain, chronic post-surgical pain, concomitant mood disorders as well as a profound impact on the patient's quality of life have been documented. This case is of a patient with diabetes and coronary heart disease, who presented with advanced, over infected penile cancer, depressive disorder and a history of pain of neuropathic characteristics. The patient underwent radical penectomy using a combined spinal-epidural technique for anesthesia. Preoperatively, the patient was treated with pregabalin and magnesium sulphate, and later received a blood transfusion due to intraoperative blood loss. Adequate intra and postoperative analgesia was achieved with L-bupivacaine given through a peridural catheter during one week. Recovery was good, pain was stabilized to preoperative levels and the patient received pharmacological support and follow-up by psychiatry and the pain team.

Resumen La penectomía radical (PR) es una cirugía infrecuente, reservada para casos específicos de cáncer de pene, por lo que hay escasos informes sobre sus consideraciones quirúrgicas y anestésicas. Se ha documentado dolor agudo postoperatorio, dolor crónico posquirúrgico y alteraciones del estado de ánimo concomitantes, así como un profundo impacto en la calidad de vida posterior del paciente. Se presenta el caso de un paciente diabético y cardiópata coronario con cáncer de pene avanzado y sobreinfectado, trastorno depresivo y dolor previo de características neuropáticas, que recibe técnica combinada espinal-peridural para cirugía de penectomía radical. Se le trata también con pregabalina preoperatoria, sulfato de magnesio y transfusión por sangrado quirúrgico. Se otorgó una adecuada analgesia intra y postoperatoria, mediante catéter peridural con L-bupivacaína hasta por una semana. El paciente tuvo una buena recuperación, estabilización del dolor a niveles preoperatorios, controles y apoyo farmacológico por psiquiatría de enlace y equipo del dolor.

Humans , Male , Aged , Penile Neoplasms , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Catheters , Anesthetics , Pain, Postoperative , Psychiatry , Quality of Life , Blood Transfusion , Bupivacaine , Coronary Disease , Depressive Disorder , Pain Management , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Magnesium Sulfate
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 10(2): 292, ago. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1418914


El síndrome de cauda equina es una patología poco frecuente en el área de anestesiología. Esta se caracteriza por presentar un conjunto de signos y síntomas que involucran: dolor, disminución o abolición de la fuerza muscular, disfunción de esfínteres e hipoestesia de silla de montar. El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar y discutir el caso clínico de una paciente con diagnóstico de síndrome de cauda equina posterior a la administración por vía subaracnoidea de bupivacaina al 0,75 % hiperbárica. Se trata de paciente femenina de 42 años a quien se le realizó cesárea segmentaria y salpingectomia bilateral con bloqueo anestésico subaracnoideo; y quien posteriormente a las dieciséis horas del posoperatorio presentó: disminución de la fuerza muscular de miembros inferiores e hipoestesia de región de silla de montar, reflejo rotuliano: 0/4 bilateral y retención urinaria. Se le inicia tratamiento farmacológico y fisiátrico inmediatamente establecido el diagnóstico de síndrome de cauda equina. La paciente fue dada de alta el día diez del posoperatorio, con disminución significativa de la clínica antes descrita, evidenciándose posteriormente retención urinaria por lo que requirió sondaje vesical intermitente. Una vez establecido el diagnostico se instaló inmediatamente tratamiento farmacológico y fisiátrico para dar una oportuna resolución de la patología(AU)

Cauda equina syndrome is a rare pathology in the area of anesthesiology. This is characterized by presenting a set of signs and symptoms that involve: pain, decrease or abolition of muscle strength, sphincter dysfunction and saddle hypoesthesia. The objective of this work is to present and discuss the clinical case of a patient with a diagnosis of cauda equina syndrome after the administration of hyperbaric 0.75% bupivacaine via the subarachnoid route. This is a 42-year-old female patient who underwent segmental cesarean section and bilateral salpingectomy with subarachnoid anesthetic block; and who subsequently at sixteen hours postoperatively presented: decreased muscle strength, lower limbs and hypoesthesia of the saddle region, knee jerk reflex: bilateral 0/4 and urinary retention. Pharmacological and physical treatment was started immediately, the diagnosis of cauda equina syndrome was established. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 10, with a significant decrease in the symptoms described above, later evidence of urinary retention, requiring intermittent bladder catheterization. Once the diagnosis was established, pharmacological and physiatric treatment was immediately installed to give a timely resolution of the pathology(AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Bupivacaine , Cauda Equina Syndrome , Cesarean Section , Urinary Retention , Muscle Strength , Anesthesiology , Nervous System
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(2): e698, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289350


Introducción: La videolaparascopía es un procedimiento frecuente en los servicios de urgencias de cirugía general. El dolor agudo después de estas intervenciones es de naturaleza compleja y requiere un tratamiento analgésico efectivo. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad del empleo de bupivacaína intraperitoneal en el alivio del dolor posoperatorio en la videolaparascopía de urgencia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo y analítico en 80 pacientes mayores de 18 años, anunciados para videolaparoscopía bajo anestesia general orotraqueal en el servicio de urgencias del HMC: Dr. Luis Díaz Soto, desde septiembre de 2016 hasta septiembre de 2018. Los pacientes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 40 cada uno. Al grupo 1 se aplicó lidocaína transdérmica preincisional en las incisiones de piel y, al término de la cirugía, se irrigaron ambos hemidiafragmas con bupivacaína al 0,25 por ciento. Al grupo 2 se le administró dosis preincisional de analgésicos endovenosos solamente. Resultados: Predominó significativamente el sexo femenino sin diferencia entre grupos. La analgesia posoperatoria fue mejor en el grupo 1 estadísticamente significativa a las 4, 8 y 12 horas. Los requerimientos de analgesia de rescate fueron menores en el grupo 1 (p=0,0024). No se reportaron efectos adversos. Conclusiones: La administración de lidocaína transdérmica preincisional y la instilación de bupivacaína intraperitoneal al final de la videolaparoscopía de urgencia, reduce significativamente el dolor en las primeras horas de posoperatorio. Su aplicación es sencilla, fácil y segura sin evidencias de efectos adversos(AU)

Introduction: Videolaparoscopy is a frequent general surgery procedure in emergency services. Acute pain after these interventions is complex in nature and requires effective analgesic treatment. Objective: To determine the usefulness of intraperitoneal bupivacaine in the relief of postoperative pain in emergency videolaparoscopy. Methods: A prospective, analytical and longitudinal study was carried out in eighty patients older than eighteen years old, announced for videolaparoscopy under orotracheal general anesthesia in the emergency department of Hospital Militar Central Dr. Luis Díaz Soto, from September 2016 to September 2018. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of forty individuals each. Group 1 was applied pre-incisional transdermal lidocaine on skin incisions and, at the end of surgery, both hemidiaphragms were irrigated with bupivacaine 0.25 percent. Group 2 received pre-incisional doses of intravenous analgesics only. Results: The female sex predominated significantly, without difference between the two groups. Postoperative analgesia was better in group 1, insofar it was statistically significant at four, eight and twelve hours. Rescue analgesia requirements were lower in group 1 (p=0.0024). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions: The administration of pre-incisional transdermal lidocaine and the instillation of intraperitoneal bupivacaine at the end of emergency videolaparoscopy significantly reduces pain during the first hours after surgery. Its application is simple, easy and safe, without evidence of adverse effects(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , General Surgery , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Longitudinal Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Analgesia/methods
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37073, Jan.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359177


The objective of this study was to compare the effects of two local anesthetics used on auriculopalpebral block on eyelid akinesia, tear production, intraocular pressure (IOP) and tear break-up time (TBUT) in conscious dogs. A blind, randomized, prospective study was conducted to determine the effects of auriculopalpebral block using ropivacaine 0.75% and bupivacaine 0.5% in 12 healthy non-brachycephalic dogs (24 eyes). Threat response and eyelid reflex tests, Schirmer tear test (STT), IOP and tear break-up time were conducted before blockage and at 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after application. A difference was observed between the values found at 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes compared to baseline for threat response and eyelid reflex tests in the two groups evaluated, proving eyelid akinesia after blockages. No difference was found for STT, IOP and TBUT between baseline values and post-anesthesia times or between groups. It was possible to conclude that ropivacaine and bupivacaine on auriculopalpebral block in conscious dogs promoted eyelid akinesia for at least 240 minutes, not altering ocular physiological parameters of tear production, intraocular pressure, and tear break-up time after blockages.

Bupivacaine , Dogs , Ropivacaine , Anesthesia/veterinary
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 627-634, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155766


Abstract Background and objectives The mechanisms by which local anesthetics cause neurotoxicity are very complicated. Apoptosis and autophagy are highly coordinated mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis against stress. Studies have shown that autophagy activation serves as a protective mechanism in vitro. However, whether it also plays the same role in vivo is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of autophagy in local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and to elucidate the mechanism of neurotoxicity in an intrathecally injected rat model. Methods Eighteen healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Before receiving an intrathecal injection of 1% bupivacaine, each rat received an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or rapamycin (1 once a day for 3 days. The pathological changes were examined by Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining. Apoptosis was analysed by TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labelling (TUNEL) staining. Caspase-3, Beclin1 and LC3 expression was examined by Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Beclin1 and LC3 expression and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio were detected by western blot analysis. Results After bupivacaine was injected intrathecally, pathological damage occurred in spinal cord neurons, and the levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 increased. Enhancement of autophagy with rapamycin markedly alleviated the pathological changes and decreased the levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 while increasing the expression of LC3 and Beclin1 and the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Conclusions Enhancement of autophagy decreases caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and improves neuronal survivalin vivo. Activation of autophagy may be a potential therapeutic strategy for local anaesthetic-induced neurotoxicity.

Resumo Introdução e objetivos Os mecanismos de neurotoxicidade dos anestésicos locais são complexos. A apoptose e a autofagia são mecanismos altamente organizados que mantêm a homeostase celular durante o estresse. Estudos revelam que a ativação da autofagia atua como mecanismo de proteção in vitro. Não está claro se a autofagia também desempenha essa função in vivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o papel da autofagia na neurotoxicidade induzida por anestésico local e esclarecer o mecanismo dessa neurotoxicidade utilizando um modelo de injeção intratecal em ratos. Métodos Dezoito ratos Sprague‐Dawley machos adultos saudáveis foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. Antes de receber a injeção intratecal de bupivacaína a 1%, cada rato recebeu injeção intraperitoneal de veículo ou rapamicina (1‐1) uma vez ao dia durante 3 dias. As alterações patológicas foram examinadas por coloração com Hematoxilina e Eosina (HE). A apoptose foi analisada por coloração com o método dUTP Nick‐End Labeling (TUNEL) mediado por TdT. A expressão de caspase‐3, Beclin1 e LC3 foram examinadas por coloração Imunohistoquímica (IHQ). A expressão de Beclin1 e LC3 e a razão LC3‐II/LC3‐I foram detectadas por análise de western blot. Resultados Após a injeção intratecal de bupivacaína, ocorreu lesão patológica nos neurônios da medula espinhal e os níveis de apoptose e caspase‐3 aumentaram. A ativação da autofagia causada pela rapamicina mitigou de forma expressiva as alterações patológicas e diminuiu os níveis de apoptose e caspase‐3, aumentando a expressão de LC3 e Beclin1 e a razão LC3‐II/LC3‐I. Conclusões O aumento da autofagia diminui a apoptose dependente da caspase‐3 e melhora a sobrevivência neuronal in vivo. A ativação da autofagia pode ser uma estratégia terapêutica potencial para a neurotoxicidade induzida por anestésicos locais.

Animals , Male , Rats , Autophagy/drug effects , Bupivacaine/toxicity , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/prevention & control , Caspase 3/metabolism , Anesthetics, Local/toxicity , Neurons/drug effects , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Autophagy/physiology , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Sirolimus/administration & dosage , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Beclin-1/metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/pathology
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 457-463, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143967


Abstract Background: Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) risk factors have not been defined for obstetric patients. In this study, our objective was to identify potential risk factors for PONV after cesarean sections performed under spinal anesthesia. Methods: One cohort of patients submitted to cesarean under spinal anesthesia was used to investigate potential risk factors for PONV. The best numerical risk factors were dichotomized using chi-squared method. A conditional independence (incremental association method) casual network was used to select the best predictors for PONV. Results: Two hundred and fifty of 260 patients remained in the study. Odds ratio for PONV of younger maternal age (< 25 years: 2.9 [1.49−5.96]), lower spinal bupivacaine dose (< 13 mg, inf [2.4-inf]), lower spinal morphine dose (< 80 mg, 0.03 [0−0.97]), history of motion sickness (2.5 [1.27−5.25]), significant nausea during the first trimester (0.3 [0.16−0.64]), intraoperative nausea and vomiting (8.2 [3.67−20.47]), and lower gestational age (< 38 weeks, 2.0 [1.01−4.08]) were statistically significant. The causal network selected absence of significant nausea during the first gestational trimester, intraoperative nausea, and gestational age < 38 weeks as the main direct risk factors for PONV. Conclusions: Intraoperative nausea and maternal age < 25 years were the main risk factors for PONV after cesareans under spinal anesthesia. Absence of self-reported nausea during the first trimester was a protective factor for post-cesarean nausea and vomiting.

Resumo Introdução: Os fatores de risco para náusea e vômitos pós-operatórios (NVPO) ainda não foram definidos para pacientes de obstetrícia. Neste estudo, nosso objetivo foi identificar potenciais fatores de risco para NVPO após parto cesariano realizado sob raquianestesia. Método: Uma coorte de pacientes submetidas a cesariana sob raquianestesia foi usada para investigar potenciais fatores de risco para NVPO. Os melhores fatores de risco numéricos foram dicotomizados por meio do método qui-quadrado. Uma rede casual de independência condicional (método de associação adicional) foi usada para selecionar os melhores preditores de NVPO. Resultados: Das 260 pacientes iniciais, 250 completaram o estudo. A razão de chances para NVPO foi estatisticamente significante para menor idade materna (< 25 anos: 2,9 [1,49−5,96]), dose mais baixa de bupivacaina raquidiana (< 13 mg, inf [2,4-inf]), dose mais baixa de morfina raquidiana (< 80 mg, 0,03 [0−0,97]), histórico de enjoo de movimento (2,5 [1,27−5,25]), náuseas importantes durante o primeiro trimestre (0,3 [0,16−0,64]), náusea e vômitos intraoperatórios (8,2 [3,67−20,47]) e menor idade gestacional (< 38 semanas, 2,0 [1,01−4,08]). A rede causal selecionou ausência de náuseas significativas durante o primeiro trimestre gestacional, náusea intraoperatória e idade gestacional < 38 semanas como os principais fatores de risco diretos para NVPO. Conclusões: Náusea intraoperatória e idade materna < 25 anos foram os principais fatores de risco para NVPO após cesariana sob raquianestesia. A ausência de náusea autorreferida durante o primeiro trimestre foi um fator protetor para náusea e vômitos após cesariana.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Cesarean Section/methods , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Prognosis , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Maternal Age , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/etiology , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Morphine/administration & dosage
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(3): 169-173, July-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1126299


Abstract Introduction: Regional anesthesia is widely used for postopera tive analgesia in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Although it is a safe and effective procedure, serious complications may still develop. In the event of an unusual or torpid evolution, the possibility of local anesthetic-induced myotoxicity should be suspected. Case presentation: A 54-year old patient, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II, underwent TKA due to primary gonarthrosis.. The analgesic technique used was a femoral nerve block associated with continuous perineural infusion. 24 hours later, the patient's medical condition deteriorated presenting pain, edema, and functional limitation of the thigh of the operated extremity. The symptoms were suggestive of myotoxicity, confirmed with diagnostic images leading to the removal of the catheter. The patient experienced then a significant improvement and was discharged 5 days after surgery. Conclusion: The diagnosis of myotoxicity from local anes thetics is rare, since its manifestations may be masked by the usual symptoms of the postoperative period. Early identification of the condition is fundamental to reduce its negative impact on the patient's recovery and satisfaction. Since the scope of the damage depends particularly on the concentration and duration of the exposure to the local anesthetic agent, there is a need to implement protocols that enable an effective block with the lowest concentration and volume of the medication.

Resumen Introducción: La anestesia regional es ampliamente usada para la analgesia posoperatoria en la Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla (ARR). Aunque son procedimientos seguros y efectivos, la posibilidad de complicaciones graves existe. Ante una evolución inusual o tórpida se debe sospechar la posibilidad de miotoxicidad inducida por anestésicos locales. Presentación del caso: En un paciente de 54 años, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II, se llevó a cabo ARR por gonartrosis primaria. Como técnica analgésica se usó el bloqueo de nervio femoral asociado a infusión continua perineural. 24 horas después el paciente presenta deterioro clínico dado por dolor, edema y limitación funcional en muslo de extremidad operada. Ante síntomas sugestivos de miotoxicidad confirmada por imágenes diagnósticas, el catéter fue retirado. Posteriormente, presentó una mejoría significa tiva y egresó del hospital al quinto día posoperatorio. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de miotoxicidad por anestésicos locales es poco frecuente debido a que sus manifestaciones pueden estar enmascaradas por los síntomas habituales durante el periodo posoperatorio. Su identificación temprana es funda mental para disminuir el efecto negativo sobre la recuperación y la satisfacción del paciente. Dado que la magnitud del daño depende especialmente de la concentración y la duración de la exposición al anestésico local, es necesario implementar proto colos que permitan lograr un bloqueo efectivo con la menor concentración y volumen posible del medicamento.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthroplasty , Bupivacaine , Myotoxicity , Analgesia , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Toxicity
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 357-363, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137204


Abstract Study objective: In this study, we aimed to compare the antimicrobial effects of bupivacaine and fentanyl citrate and to reveal the impact on antimicrobial effect potential in the case of combined use. Design: In vitro prospective study. Setting: University Clinical Microbiology Laboratory. Measurements: In our study, in vitro antimicrobial effect of 0.05 mg.mL-1 fentanyl citrate, 5 mg.mL-1 bupivacaine were tested against Staphylococcus aureus American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 as Group F (Fentanyl Citrate) and Group B (Bupivacaine), respectively. S. aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were cultured onto Mueller Hinton agar (Oxoid, UK) plates and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were cultured onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid, UK) plates for 18-24 hours at 37 °C. Main results: In terms of inhibition zone diameters, S. Aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and C. albicans ATCC10231 values obtained after 12 and 24 hours of incubation ​​were significantly higher in Group F than Group B (p < 0.001). In terms of inhibition zone diameters, E. coli ATCC 25922, and K. pneumomiae ATCC 13883 values obtained after 12 and 24 hours of incubation ​​were significantly higher in Group B than Group F (p < 0.001, E. coli 12ª hour p = 0.005). Conclusions: Addition of fentanyl to Local Anesthetics (LAs) is often preferred in regional anesthesia applications in today's practice owing especially to its effect on decreasing the local anesthetic dose and increasing analgesia quality and patient satisfaction. However, when the fact that fentanyl antagonized the antimicrobial effects of LAs in the studies is taken into account, it might be though that it contributes to an increase in infection complications. When the fact that fentanyl citrate which was used in our study and included hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide as protective agents, broadened the antimicrobial effect spectrum of LAs, had no antagonistic effect and showed a synergistic antimicrobial effect against E. Coli is considered, we are of the opinion that the addition of fentanyl to LAs would contribute significantly in preventing the increasing regional anesthesia infection complications.

Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os efeitos antimicrobianos da bupivacaína e citrato de fentanil e revelar o impacto no potencial do efeito antimicrobiano no caso de uso combinado. Desenho: Estudo prospectivo in vitro. Local: Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica da Universidade. Medidas: Em nosso estudo, os efeitos antimicrobianos in vitro do citrato de fentanil na concentração de 0,05 mg.mL-1 - Grupo F e da bupivacaína na concentração de 5 mg.mL-1 - Grupo B foram testados em culturas de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (do inglês American Type Culture Collection 29213), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Candida albicans ATCC 10231. As culturas de S. aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 e Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 foram semeadas em placas de ágar Mueller Hinton (Oxoid, Reino Unido), e a cultura de Candida albicans ATCC 10231 foi realizada em placa de ágar Sabouraud dextrose (Oxoid, Reino Unido) durante 18-24 horas a 37 °C. Principais resultados: Com relação ao diâmetro da zona de inibição, os valores de S. aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 e C. albicans ATCC10231 obtidos após 12 e 24 horas de incubação foram significantemente maiores no Grupo F do que no Grupo B (p < 0,001). Os valores do diâmetro da zona de inibição das culturas de E. coli ATCC 25922 e K. pneumomiae ATCC 13883 obtidos após 12 e 24 horas de incubação foram significantemente maiores no Grupo B do que no Grupo F (p < 0,001, E. coli na 12ª hora p = 0,005) Conclusões: A preferência atual e frequente pela adição de fentanil aos Anestésicos Locais (AL) para a realização de anestesia regional se deve sobretudo à possibilidade de redução da dose do anestésico local, a melhora na qualidade da analgesia e a satisfação do paciente. No entanto, ao considerar estudos em que o fentanil antagonizou o efeito antimicrobiano dos AL, pode-se pensar que esse fato contribua para aumento de complicação infecciosa. O citrato de fentanil usado em nosso estudo, contendo ácido clorídrico e hidróxido de sódio como agentes conservantes, ampliou o espectro de efeitos antimicrobianos dos AL, não teve efeito antagônico e demonstrou efeito antimicrobiano sinérgico contra a E. coli. Acreditamos que a adição de fentanil aos anestésicos locais traria importante contribuição na prevenção das crescentes complicações por infecção da anestesia regional.

Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Sodium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Drug Synergism , Hydrochloric Acid/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage