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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e602, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280185

ABSTRACT

Abstract Radical penectomy (RP) is infrequently performed as it is reserved for specific cases of penile cancer, hence the paucity of reports regarding surgical and anesthetic considerations. Acute postoperative pain, chronic post-surgical pain, concomitant mood disorders as well as a profound impact on the patient's quality of life have been documented. This case is of a patient with diabetes and coronary heart disease, who presented with advanced, over infected penile cancer, depressive disorder and a history of pain of neuropathic characteristics. The patient underwent radical penectomy using a combined spinal-epidural technique for anesthesia. Preoperatively, the patient was treated with pregabalin and magnesium sulphate, and later received a blood transfusion due to intraoperative blood loss. Adequate intra and postoperative analgesia was achieved with L-bupivacaine given through a peridural catheter during one week. Recovery was good, pain was stabilized to preoperative levels and the patient received pharmacological support and follow-up by psychiatry and the pain team.


Resumen La penectomía radical (PR) es una cirugía infrecuente, reservada para casos específicos de cáncer de pene, por lo que hay escasos informes sobre sus consideraciones quirúrgicas y anestésicas. Se ha documentado dolor agudo postoperatorio, dolor crónico posquirúrgico y alteraciones del estado de ánimo concomitantes, así como un profundo impacto en la calidad de vida posterior del paciente. Se presenta el caso de un paciente diabético y cardiópata coronario con cáncer de pene avanzado y sobreinfectado, trastorno depresivo y dolor previo de características neuropáticas, que recibe técnica combinada espinal-peridural para cirugía de penectomía radical. Se le trata también con pregabalina preoperatoria, sulfato de magnesio y transfusión por sangrado quirúrgico. Se otorgó una adecuada analgesia intra y postoperatoria, mediante catéter peridural con L-bupivacaína hasta por una semana. El paciente tuvo una buena recuperación, estabilización del dolor a niveles preoperatorios, controles y apoyo farmacológico por psiquiatría de enlace y equipo del dolor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Penile Neoplasms , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Catheters , Anesthetics , Pain, Postoperative , Psychiatry , Quality of Life , Blood Transfusion , Bupivacaine , Coronary Disease , Depressive Disorder , Pain Management , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Magnesium Sulfate
2.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(2): e698, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289350

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La videolaparascopía es un procedimiento frecuente en los servicios de urgencias de cirugía general. El dolor agudo después de estas intervenciones es de naturaleza compleja y requiere un tratamiento analgésico efectivo. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad del empleo de bupivacaína intraperitoneal en el alivio del dolor posoperatorio en la videolaparascopía de urgencia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo y analítico en 80 pacientes mayores de 18 años, anunciados para videolaparoscopía bajo anestesia general orotraqueal en el servicio de urgencias del HMC: Dr. Luis Díaz Soto, desde septiembre de 2016 hasta septiembre de 2018. Los pacientes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 40 cada uno. Al grupo 1 se aplicó lidocaína transdérmica preincisional en las incisiones de piel y, al término de la cirugía, se irrigaron ambos hemidiafragmas con bupivacaína al 0,25 por ciento. Al grupo 2 se le administró dosis preincisional de analgésicos endovenosos solamente. Resultados: Predominó significativamente el sexo femenino sin diferencia entre grupos. La analgesia posoperatoria fue mejor en el grupo 1 estadísticamente significativa a las 4, 8 y 12 horas. Los requerimientos de analgesia de rescate fueron menores en el grupo 1 (p=0,0024). No se reportaron efectos adversos. Conclusiones: La administración de lidocaína transdérmica preincisional y la instilación de bupivacaína intraperitoneal al final de la videolaparoscopía de urgencia, reduce significativamente el dolor en las primeras horas de posoperatorio. Su aplicación es sencilla, fácil y segura sin evidencias de efectos adversos(AU)


Introduction: Videolaparoscopy is a frequent general surgery procedure in emergency services. Acute pain after these interventions is complex in nature and requires effective analgesic treatment. Objective: To determine the usefulness of intraperitoneal bupivacaine in the relief of postoperative pain in emergency videolaparoscopy. Methods: A prospective, analytical and longitudinal study was carried out in eighty patients older than eighteen years old, announced for videolaparoscopy under orotracheal general anesthesia in the emergency department of Hospital Militar Central Dr. Luis Díaz Soto, from September 2016 to September 2018. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of forty individuals each. Group 1 was applied pre-incisional transdermal lidocaine on skin incisions and, at the end of surgery, both hemidiaphragms were irrigated with bupivacaine 0.25 percent. Group 2 received pre-incisional doses of intravenous analgesics only. Results: The female sex predominated significantly, without difference between the two groups. Postoperative analgesia was better in group 1, insofar it was statistically significant at four, eight and twelve hours. Rescue analgesia requirements were lower in group 1 (p=0.0024). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions: The administration of pre-incisional transdermal lidocaine and the instillation of intraperitoneal bupivacaine at the end of emergency videolaparoscopy significantly reduces pain during the first hours after surgery. Its application is simple, easy and safe, without evidence of adverse effects(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , General Surgery , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Longitudinal Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Analgesia/methods
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 627-634, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155766

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives The mechanisms by which local anesthetics cause neurotoxicity are very complicated. Apoptosis and autophagy are highly coordinated mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis against stress. Studies have shown that autophagy activation serves as a protective mechanism in vitro. However, whether it also plays the same role in vivo is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of autophagy in local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and to elucidate the mechanism of neurotoxicity in an intrathecally injected rat model. Methods Eighteen healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Before receiving an intrathecal injection of 1% bupivacaine, each rat received an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or rapamycin (1 mg.kg-1) once a day for 3 days. The pathological changes were examined by Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining. Apoptosis was analysed by TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labelling (TUNEL) staining. Caspase-3, Beclin1 and LC3 expression was examined by Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Beclin1 and LC3 expression and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio were detected by western blot analysis. Results After bupivacaine was injected intrathecally, pathological damage occurred in spinal cord neurons, and the levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 increased. Enhancement of autophagy with rapamycin markedly alleviated the pathological changes and decreased the levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 while increasing the expression of LC3 and Beclin1 and the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Conclusions Enhancement of autophagy decreases caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and improves neuronal survivalin vivo. Activation of autophagy may be a potential therapeutic strategy for local anaesthetic-induced neurotoxicity.


Resumo Introdução e objetivos Os mecanismos de neurotoxicidade dos anestésicos locais são complexos. A apoptose e a autofagia são mecanismos altamente organizados que mantêm a homeostase celular durante o estresse. Estudos revelam que a ativação da autofagia atua como mecanismo de proteção in vitro. Não está claro se a autofagia também desempenha essa função in vivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o papel da autofagia na neurotoxicidade induzida por anestésico local e esclarecer o mecanismo dessa neurotoxicidade utilizando um modelo de injeção intratecal em ratos. Métodos Dezoito ratos Sprague‐Dawley machos adultos saudáveis foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. Antes de receber a injeção intratecal de bupivacaína a 1%, cada rato recebeu injeção intraperitoneal de veículo ou rapamicina (1 mg.kg‐1) uma vez ao dia durante 3 dias. As alterações patológicas foram examinadas por coloração com Hematoxilina e Eosina (HE). A apoptose foi analisada por coloração com o método dUTP Nick‐End Labeling (TUNEL) mediado por TdT. A expressão de caspase‐3, Beclin1 e LC3 foram examinadas por coloração Imunohistoquímica (IHQ). A expressão de Beclin1 e LC3 e a razão LC3‐II/LC3‐I foram detectadas por análise de western blot. Resultados Após a injeção intratecal de bupivacaína, ocorreu lesão patológica nos neurônios da medula espinhal e os níveis de apoptose e caspase‐3 aumentaram. A ativação da autofagia causada pela rapamicina mitigou de forma expressiva as alterações patológicas e diminuiu os níveis de apoptose e caspase‐3, aumentando a expressão de LC3 e Beclin1 e a razão LC3‐II/LC3‐I. Conclusões O aumento da autofagia diminui a apoptose dependente da caspase‐3 e melhora a sobrevivência neuronal in vivo. A ativação da autofagia pode ser uma estratégia terapêutica potencial para a neurotoxicidade induzida por anestésicos locais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Autophagy/drug effects , Bupivacaine/toxicity , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/prevention & control , Caspase 3/metabolism , Anesthetics, Local/toxicity , Neurons/drug effects , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Autophagy/physiology , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Sirolimus/administration & dosage , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Beclin-1/metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/pathology
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 457-463, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143967

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) risk factors have not been defined for obstetric patients. In this study, our objective was to identify potential risk factors for PONV after cesarean sections performed under spinal anesthesia. Methods: One cohort of patients submitted to cesarean under spinal anesthesia was used to investigate potential risk factors for PONV. The best numerical risk factors were dichotomized using chi-squared method. A conditional independence (incremental association method) casual network was used to select the best predictors for PONV. Results: Two hundred and fifty of 260 patients remained in the study. Odds ratio for PONV of younger maternal age (< 25 years: 2.9 [1.49−5.96]), lower spinal bupivacaine dose (< 13 mg, inf [2.4-inf]), lower spinal morphine dose (< 80 mg, 0.03 [0−0.97]), history of motion sickness (2.5 [1.27−5.25]), significant nausea during the first trimester (0.3 [0.16−0.64]), intraoperative nausea and vomiting (8.2 [3.67−20.47]), and lower gestational age (< 38 weeks, 2.0 [1.01−4.08]) were statistically significant. The causal network selected absence of significant nausea during the first gestational trimester, intraoperative nausea, and gestational age < 38 weeks as the main direct risk factors for PONV. Conclusions: Intraoperative nausea and maternal age < 25 years were the main risk factors for PONV after cesareans under spinal anesthesia. Absence of self-reported nausea during the first trimester was a protective factor for post-cesarean nausea and vomiting.


Resumo Introdução: Os fatores de risco para náusea e vômitos pós-operatórios (NVPO) ainda não foram definidos para pacientes de obstetrícia. Neste estudo, nosso objetivo foi identificar potenciais fatores de risco para NVPO após parto cesariano realizado sob raquianestesia. Método: Uma coorte de pacientes submetidas a cesariana sob raquianestesia foi usada para investigar potenciais fatores de risco para NVPO. Os melhores fatores de risco numéricos foram dicotomizados por meio do método qui-quadrado. Uma rede casual de independência condicional (método de associação adicional) foi usada para selecionar os melhores preditores de NVPO. Resultados: Das 260 pacientes iniciais, 250 completaram o estudo. A razão de chances para NVPO foi estatisticamente significante para menor idade materna (< 25 anos: 2,9 [1,49−5,96]), dose mais baixa de bupivacaina raquidiana (< 13 mg, inf [2,4-inf]), dose mais baixa de morfina raquidiana (< 80 mg, 0,03 [0−0,97]), histórico de enjoo de movimento (2,5 [1,27−5,25]), náuseas importantes durante o primeiro trimestre (0,3 [0,16−0,64]), náusea e vômitos intraoperatórios (8,2 [3,67−20,47]) e menor idade gestacional (< 38 semanas, 2,0 [1,01−4,08]). A rede causal selecionou ausência de náuseas significativas durante o primeiro trimestre gestacional, náusea intraoperatória e idade gestacional < 38 semanas como os principais fatores de risco diretos para NVPO. Conclusões: Náusea intraoperatória e idade materna < 25 anos foram os principais fatores de risco para NVPO após cesariana sob raquianestesia. A ausência de náusea autorreferida durante o primeiro trimestre foi um fator protetor para náusea e vômitos após cesariana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Cesarean Section/methods , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Prognosis , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Maternal Age , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/etiology , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Morphine/administration & dosage
5.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(3): 169-173, July-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1126299

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Regional anesthesia is widely used for postopera tive analgesia in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Although it is a safe and effective procedure, serious complications may still develop. In the event of an unusual or torpid evolution, the possibility of local anesthetic-induced myotoxicity should be suspected. Case presentation: A 54-year old patient, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II, underwent TKA due to primary gonarthrosis.. The analgesic technique used was a femoral nerve block associated with continuous perineural infusion. 24 hours later, the patient's medical condition deteriorated presenting pain, edema, and functional limitation of the thigh of the operated extremity. The symptoms were suggestive of myotoxicity, confirmed with diagnostic images leading to the removal of the catheter. The patient experienced then a significant improvement and was discharged 5 days after surgery. Conclusion: The diagnosis of myotoxicity from local anes thetics is rare, since its manifestations may be masked by the usual symptoms of the postoperative period. Early identification of the condition is fundamental to reduce its negative impact on the patient's recovery and satisfaction. Since the scope of the damage depends particularly on the concentration and duration of the exposure to the local anesthetic agent, there is a need to implement protocols that enable an effective block with the lowest concentration and volume of the medication.


Resumen Introducción: La anestesia regional es ampliamente usada para la analgesia posoperatoria en la Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla (ARR). Aunque son procedimientos seguros y efectivos, la posibilidad de complicaciones graves existe. Ante una evolución inusual o tórpida se debe sospechar la posibilidad de miotoxicidad inducida por anestésicos locales. Presentación del caso: En un paciente de 54 años, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II, se llevó a cabo ARR por gonartrosis primaria. Como técnica analgésica se usó el bloqueo de nervio femoral asociado a infusión continua perineural. 24 horas después el paciente presenta deterioro clínico dado por dolor, edema y limitación funcional en muslo de extremidad operada. Ante síntomas sugestivos de miotoxicidad confirmada por imágenes diagnósticas, el catéter fue retirado. Posteriormente, presentó una mejoría significa tiva y egresó del hospital al quinto día posoperatorio. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de miotoxicidad por anestésicos locales es poco frecuente debido a que sus manifestaciones pueden estar enmascaradas por los síntomas habituales durante el periodo posoperatorio. Su identificación temprana es funda mental para disminuir el efecto negativo sobre la recuperación y la satisfacción del paciente. Dado que la magnitud del daño depende especialmente de la concentración y la duración de la exposición al anestésico local, es necesario implementar proto colos que permitan lograr un bloqueo efectivo con la menor concentración y volumen posible del medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthroplasty , Bupivacaine , Myotoxicity , Analgesia , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Toxicity
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 333-342, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137205

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: PECS I block was first described for surgery involving the pectoralis muscles. No randomized clinical trial has been conducted on surgeries that directly involve these muscles, such as subpectoral breast augmentation. We hypothesized that PECS I block would decrease pain in the postoperative period in this population. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in women undergoing subpectoral breast augmentation surgery. PECS I block was performed using 0.4 mL.kg-1 of 0.9% saline on one side and bupivacaine (0.25%) on the other side, each patient being her own control. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain scores (0 - 10) were measured at rest and during movement. The primary outcome was pain score at rest 30 minutes after arrival in the PACU. To detect a clinically significant difference of 50% in pain reduction, 14 volunteers were enrolled (power of 90% and alpha < 0.05). Results: In the PACU, three patients had no difference in pain between sides, five had reduced pain on the placebo side, and six had reduced pain on the bupivacaine side. In the bupivacaine group, pain scores at rest at 5, 30 and 60 minutes and 24 hours were 4.89 (4.23 - 5.56; mean 95% CI), 3.75 (3.13 - 4.37), 3.79 (2.93 - 4.64), and 2.29 (1.56 - 3.01), respectively, whereas in the placebo group, they were 4.96 (4.32 - 5.60), 4.00 (3.50 - 4.49), 3.93 (3.12 - 4.73), and 2.29 (1.56 - 3.01), respectively. Conclusions: PECS I block in patients undergoing breast augmentation surgery does not provide better pain relief than placebo. Therefore, the indications for PECS I block in breast augmentation surgery should be reconsidered.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O bloqueio PECS I foi descrito pela primeira vez para cirurgia envolvendo os músculos peitorais. Nenhum estudo clínico randomizado foi realizado em procedimentos envolvendo diretamente os músculos peitorais, como a mamoplastia de aumento submuscular. Nossa hipótese foi de que o bloqueio PECS I diminuiria a dor pós-operatória nessa população. Método: Realizamos estudo randomizado, duplo-cego, controlado por placebo em mulheres submetidas à mamoplastia de aumento submuscular. Realizamos o bloqueio PECS I com 0,4 mL.kg-1 de solução salina a 0,9% de um lado e bupivacaína (0,25%) do outro lado, sendo cada paciente seu próprio controle. Os escores da Escala de Avaliação Numérica (EAN) de dor (0 - 10) foram obtidos em repouso e durante movimento. O desfecho primário foi o escore de dor em repouso 30 minutos após a chegada à SRPA. Para detectar uma diferença clinicamente significante de 50% na redução da dor, 14 voluntárias foram incluídas (poder de 90% e alfa < 0,05). Resultados: Na SRPA, três pacientes não apresentaram diferença na dor entre os lados, cinco relataram menos dor no lado do placebo e seis, menos dor no lado da bupivacaína. No grupo bupivacaína, os escores de dor em repouso aos 5, 30 e 60 minutos e 24 horas foram 4,89 (4,23 - 5,56; IC médio 95%), 3,75 (3,13 - 4,37), 3,79 (2,93 - 4,64) e 2,29 (1,56 - 3,01), respectivamente, enquanto no grupo placebo foram 4,96 (4,32 - 5,60), 4,00 (3,50 - 4,49), 3,93 (3,12 - 4,73) e 2,29 (1,56 - 3,01), respectivamente. Conclusões: O bloqueio PECS I em pacientes submetidas a mamoplastia de aumento não oferece melhor alívio da dor do que o placebo. Portanto, as indicações para bloqueio de PECS I na cirurgia de aumento de mama devem ser reconsideradas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Breast Implantation/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Pain Measurement , Double-Blind Method , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 357-363, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137204

ABSTRACT

Abstract Study objective: In this study, we aimed to compare the antimicrobial effects of bupivacaine and fentanyl citrate and to reveal the impact on antimicrobial effect potential in the case of combined use. Design: In vitro prospective study. Setting: University Clinical Microbiology Laboratory. Measurements: In our study, in vitro antimicrobial effect of 0.05 mg.mL-1 fentanyl citrate, 5 mg.mL-1 bupivacaine were tested against Staphylococcus aureus American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 as Group F (Fentanyl Citrate) and Group B (Bupivacaine), respectively. S. aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were cultured onto Mueller Hinton agar (Oxoid, UK) plates and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were cultured onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid, UK) plates for 18-24 hours at 37 °C. Main results: In terms of inhibition zone diameters, S. Aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and C. albicans ATCC10231 values obtained after 12 and 24 hours of incubation ​​were significantly higher in Group F than Group B (p < 0.001). In terms of inhibition zone diameters, E. coli ATCC 25922, and K. pneumomiae ATCC 13883 values obtained after 12 and 24 hours of incubation ​​were significantly higher in Group B than Group F (p < 0.001, E. coli 12ª hour p = 0.005). Conclusions: Addition of fentanyl to Local Anesthetics (LAs) is often preferred in regional anesthesia applications in today's practice owing especially to its effect on decreasing the local anesthetic dose and increasing analgesia quality and patient satisfaction. However, when the fact that fentanyl antagonized the antimicrobial effects of LAs in the studies is taken into account, it might be though that it contributes to an increase in infection complications. When the fact that fentanyl citrate which was used in our study and included hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide as protective agents, broadened the antimicrobial effect spectrum of LAs, had no antagonistic effect and showed a synergistic antimicrobial effect against E. Coli is considered, we are of the opinion that the addition of fentanyl to LAs would contribute significantly in preventing the increasing regional anesthesia infection complications.


Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os efeitos antimicrobianos da bupivacaína e citrato de fentanil e revelar o impacto no potencial do efeito antimicrobiano no caso de uso combinado. Desenho: Estudo prospectivo in vitro. Local: Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica da Universidade. Medidas: Em nosso estudo, os efeitos antimicrobianos in vitro do citrato de fentanil na concentração de 0,05 mg.mL-1 - Grupo F e da bupivacaína na concentração de 5 mg.mL-1 - Grupo B foram testados em culturas de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (do inglês American Type Culture Collection 29213), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Candida albicans ATCC 10231. As culturas de S. aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 e Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 foram semeadas em placas de ágar Mueller Hinton (Oxoid, Reino Unido), e a cultura de Candida albicans ATCC 10231 foi realizada em placa de ágar Sabouraud dextrose (Oxoid, Reino Unido) durante 18-24 horas a 37 °C. Principais resultados: Com relação ao diâmetro da zona de inibição, os valores de S. aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 e C. albicans ATCC10231 obtidos após 12 e 24 horas de incubação foram significantemente maiores no Grupo F do que no Grupo B (p < 0,001). Os valores do diâmetro da zona de inibição das culturas de E. coli ATCC 25922 e K. pneumomiae ATCC 13883 obtidos após 12 e 24 horas de incubação foram significantemente maiores no Grupo B do que no Grupo F (p < 0,001, E. coli na 12ª hora p = 0,005) Conclusões: A preferência atual e frequente pela adição de fentanil aos Anestésicos Locais (AL) para a realização de anestesia regional se deve sobretudo à possibilidade de redução da dose do anestésico local, a melhora na qualidade da analgesia e a satisfação do paciente. No entanto, ao considerar estudos em que o fentanil antagonizou o efeito antimicrobiano dos AL, pode-se pensar que esse fato contribua para aumento de complicação infecciosa. O citrato de fentanil usado em nosso estudo, contendo ácido clorídrico e hidróxido de sódio como agentes conservantes, ampliou o espectro de efeitos antimicrobianos dos AL, não teve efeito antagônico e demonstrou efeito antimicrobiano sinérgico contra a E. coli. Acreditamos que a adição de fentanil aos anestésicos locais traria importante contribuição na prevenção das crescentes complicações por infecção da anestesia regional.


Subject(s)
Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Sodium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Drug Synergism , Hydrochloric Acid/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 220-224, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137187

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The association between local anesthetics (LA) and neuromuscular blocking (NMB) drugs in clinical practice, and the possibility of interaction between these drugs has been investigated. LAs act on neuromuscular transmission in a dose-dependent manner and may potentiate the effects of NMB drugs. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, in an experimental model, the effect of lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine on neuromuscular transmission and the influence on neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium. Methods: Male Wistar rats, weighing from 250 to 300 g were used. The preparation was set up based on a technique proposed by Bülbring. Groups were formed (n = 5) according to the drug studied: lidocaine 20 µg.mL−1 (Group I); racemic bupivacaine 5 µg.mL−1 (Group II); atracurium 20 µg.mL−1 (Group III); atracurium 20 µg.mL−1 in a preparation previously exposed to lidocaine 20 µg.mL−1 and racemic bupivacaine 5 µg.mL−1, Groups IV and V, respectively. The following parameters were assessed: 1) Amplitude of hemi diaphragmatic response to indirect stimulation before and 60 minutes after addition of the drugs; 2) Membrane potentials (MP) and miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs). Results: Lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine alone did not alter the amplitude of muscle response. With previous use of lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine, the neuromuscular blockade (%) induced by atracurium was 86.66 ± 12.48 and 100, respectively, with a significant difference (p = 0.003), in comparison to the blockade produced by atracurium alone (55.7 ± 11.22). These drugs did not alter membrane potential. Lidocaine initially increased the frequency of MEPPs, followed by blockade. With the use of bupivacaine, the blockade was progressive. Conclusions: Lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine had a presynaptic effect expressed by alterations in MEPPs, which may explain the interaction and potentiation of NMB produced by atracurium.


Resumo Introdução: A associação de anestésicos locais (AL) com bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNM) na prática clínica e a possibilidade de interação entre esses fármacos têm sido investigadas. Objetivo: Avaliar, em modelo experimental, o efeito da lidocaína e da bupivacaína racêmica na transmissão neuromuscular e sua influência no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio. Método: Ratos machos da linhagem Wistar, peso entre 250 e 300 g. A preparação foi feita de acordo com a técnica proposta por Bulbring. Grupos (n = 5) de acordo com o fármaco em estudo: lidocaína 20 µg.mL-1 (Grupo I); bupivacaína racêmica 5 µg.mL-1 (Grupo II); atracúrio 20 µg.mL-1 (Grupo III); atracúrio 20 µg.mL-1 em preparação previamente exposta a lidocaína 20 µg.mL-1 e bupivacaína racêmica 5 µg.mL-1, Grupos IV e V, respectivamente. Foram avaliados: 1) A amplitude das respostas do hemidiafragma à estimulação indireta antes e 60 minutos após a adição dos fármacos; 2) Os potenciais de membrana (PM) e os potenciais de placa terminal em miniatura (PPTM). Resultados: Os AL, isoladamente, não alteraram a amplitude das respostas musculares. Com o uso prévio dos AL, o bloqueio neuromuscular (%) do atracúrio foi 86,66 ± 12,48 e 100, respectivamente, com diferença significante (p= 0,003) em relação ao produzido pelo atracúrio isoladamente (55,7 ± 11,22). Não alteraram o PM. A lidocaína inicialmente aumentou a frequência dos PPTM, seguido de bloqueio; com a bupivacaína, o bloqueio foi progressivo. Conclusão: A lidocaína e a bupivacaína racêmica apresentaram efeito pré-sináptico expresso por alterações nos PPTM, podem justificar a potencialização do bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Atracurium/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Neuromuscular Blockade , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Neuromuscular Junction/drug effects , Neuromuscular Junction/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Drug Interactions
9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 180-184, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131592

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To report the outcomes of bupivacaine injection for the treatment of comitant horizontal strabismus and evaluate clinical effectiveness and associated radiological changes. Methods: This prospective observational clinical study was conducted on 10 patients with comitant horizontal strabismus of up to 40 prism diopters. Ophthalmologic examinations and three-dimensional orbital magnetic resonance imaging were performed pre and post-injection (at first, third, and 12th months). A 4.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine was injected into the extraocular muscle under topical anesthesia using an electromyography in all patients. Results: The mean follow-up time at post bupivacaine injection and mean deviation at primary position were was 17 ± 2 months and 21.3 prism diopters, respectively. The mean changes in ocular alignment, enlargement of the cross-sectional area in the injected muscle, and volumetric enlargement were 7.7 PD, 12%, and 17% at the first year post-injection, respectively. No severe or persistent complication was observed. Ptosis and mydriasis were noted post-injection due to the anesthetic effects of bupivacaine but disappeared within 2 h post-injection. Conclusions: Bupivacaine injection improved eye alignment in small-angle horizontal comitant strabismus, effectively diagnosed with orbital magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate volumetric changes of the extraocular muscles. Further clinical studies with larger numbers of patients should be performed to define optimal dosages, concentration, and application method and dose-response relationship.


RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar resultados da injeção de bupivacaína para o tratamento do estrabismo comitante horizontal e avaliar sua eficácia clínica e as alterações radiológicas associadas. Métodos: Este estudo clínico observacional prospectivo foi realizado em 10 pacientes com estrabismo comitante horizontal de até 40 dioptrias de prisma. Exames oftalmológicos e ressonância magnética orbital tridimensional foram realizados pré e pós-injeção (no primeiro, terceiro e 12º mês). A 4,5 mL de bupivacaína a 0,5% foi injetado no músculo extraocular sob anestesia tópica usando eletromiografia em todos os pacientes. Resultados: O tempo médio de acompanhamento pós-injeção de bupivacaína e o desvio médio na posição primária foram de 17 ± 2 meses e 21,3 dioptrias de prisma, respectivamente. As alterações médias no alinhamento ocular, aumento da área da secção transversal no músculo injetado e aumento volumátrico foram de 7,7 PD, 12% e 17% no primeiro ano pós-injeção, respectivamente. Nenhuma complicação grave ou persistente foi observada. Ptose e midríase foram observadas após a injeção devido ao efeito anestésico da bupivacaína, mas desapareceram dentro de duas horas após a injeção. Conclusões: A injeção de bupivacaína melhorou o alinhamento dos olhos no estrabismo comitante horizontal de pequeno ângulo, efetivamente diagnosticado com ressonância magnética orbital para avaliar as alterações volumétricas dos músculos extraoculares. Outros estudos clínicos, com maior número de pacientes devem ser realizados para definir dosagens, concentração, método de aplicação e a relação dose-resposta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bupivacaine , Strabismus , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Radiography , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Oculomotor Muscles
10.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 62-67, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Posttonsillectomy pain results in significant morbidity to the patients. There is a disagreement in the literature regarding the use of local anesthetics during tonsillectomy. The aim of this placebo-controlled, double-blind study is to evaluate the effect of peritonsillar administration of local anesthetics. Objective To evaluate the role of intraoperative use of analgesics in tonsillar fossa and postoperative evaluation with visual analogue scale (VAS) scores in achieving pain relief after tonsillectomy procedure Methods In this study, 180 patients were randomized to 1 of the 6 groups: bupivacaine infiltration, lidocaine infiltration, normal saline infiltration, bupivacaine packing, lidocaine packing, and normal saline packing. Pain caused by speaking, swallowing, and on rest was assessed using VAS at 4, 8, 12, 16 hours, and at discharge. Results Significant analgesia was obtained in patients who received bupivacaine infiltration and packing compared with placebo (p < 0.05). The majority of the study subjects had no postoperative complications, and patients receiving bupivacaine infiltration required less additional analgesics in the first 24 hours after surgery. Conclusion We advocate the use of bupivacaine infiltration or packing immediately following the procedure to achieve adequate postoperative analgesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Tonsillectomy , Analgesia , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Intraoperative Care , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pakistan , Placebos/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications , Pain Measurement/methods , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Injections, Intravenous , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Lidocaine/therapeutic use
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(1): 82-90, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088712

ABSTRACT

Abstract Local anesthetics are essential medications for the conduction of dermatological procedures. They stop the depolarization of nerve fibers and are divided into two main categories, the amide and ester types. Systemic toxicity with reflex on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems is their most feared adverse reactions, and the anaphylactic reaction is the most concerning one. Although potentially fatal, these events are extremely rare, so local anesthetics are considered safe for use in in-office procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Mepivacaine/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Drug Hypersensitivity
12.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 23(2): 184-191, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358299

ABSTRACT

El uso de coadyuvantes en anestesia obstétrica es útil para disminuir la dosis de los anestésicos locales. En boga la adición de un nuevo fármaco como es la dexmedetomidina espinal que abarca de 5 µg a 10 µg en el reporte mundial. OBJETIVOS: comparar el efecto de la administración espinal de la dexmedetomidina y morfina, más bupivacaina pesada en pacientes sometidas a cesárea. MÉTODOS: ensayo clínico, doble ciego y prospectivo de 99 pacientes randomizados en 3 grupos: grupo D2 (fentanilo 10 µg, bupivacaina 9 mg y dexmedetomidina 2 µg); grupo D3 (fentanilo 10 µg, bupivacaina 9 mg y dexmedetomidina 3 µg) y grupo M (fentanilo 10 µg, bupivacaina 9 mg y morfina 100 µg). Evaluación de parámetros hemodinámicos, duración de bloqueo motor, necesidad de vasopresores y complicaciones. Análisis estadístico: ANOVA para variables cuantitativas, para variables nominales se empleó chi cuadrado. Valor de p <0.05 es significativo. RESULTADOS: la duración más prolongada del bloqueo motor fue en el grupo D2 (140,3 ± 30,7minutos), seguido del grupo de D3 (142,4 ± 16 minutos) y el grupo M (107 ± 14,6). En los grupos con dexmedetomidina se tiene sedación y estabilidad hemodinámica, la necesidad de rescate fue en el grupo M; la cantidad de vasopresores que se utilizó fue de 1 ± 1,7 ml en el grupo D2; 1,8 ± 2,9 ml en el grupo D3 y 1,7 ± 2,1 ml en el grupo M. Hipotensión es la complicación más frecuente. CONCLUSIONES: dexmedetomidina 2 µg mejor estabilidad hemodinámica con prolongación del bloqueo motor y menor necesidad de vasopresores.


The use of adjuvants in obstetric anesthesia, useful to decrease the dose of local anesthetics. The addition of a new drug such as spinal dexmedetomidine ranging from 5 µg to 10 µg in the world report. OBJECTIVES: to compare the effect of spinal administration of dexmedetomidine and morphine plus hyperbaric bupivacaine in patients undergoing cesarean section. METHODS: prospective double-blind clinical trial, 99 randomized patients in 3 groups: group D2 (fentanyl 10 µg, bupivacaine 9 mg and dexmedetomidine 2 µg); group D3 (fentanyl 10 µg, bupivacaine 9 mg and dexmedetomidine 3 µg) and group M (fentanyl 10 µg, bupivacaine 9 mg and morphine 100 µg). Evaluation of hemodynamic parameters, duration of motor block, need for vasopressor and complications. Statistical analysis: ANOVA for quantitative variables. Chi-squared tes was used for nominal variables. P value <0.05 is significant. RESULTS: the duration of the longer Motor Block was in the D2 group (140.3 ± 30.7 minutes), followed by the D3 group (142.4 ± 16 minutes) and the M group of 107 ± 14.6; In the dexmedetomidine groups, it has sedation and hemodynamic stability. The need for rescue was in group M; the amount of vasopressor used was 1 ± 1.7 ml in group D2; 1.8 ± 2.9 ml in group D3 and 1.7 ± 2.1 ml group M. Hypotension is the most frequent complication. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine 2 µg better hemodynamic stability with prolonged motor block and less need for vasopresor.


Subject(s)
Female , Adolescent , Adult , Bupivacaine , Fentanyl , Anesthesia
13.
Kanem Journal of Medical Sciences ; 14(1): 56-61, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1264612

ABSTRACT

Background: This study was aimed at comparing the duration and quality of epidural analgesia between plain bupivacaine alone with plain bupivacaine and tramadol in lower limb orthopaedic surgeries. Method: This was a prospective randomized double blinded control study involving 74 ASA I and II patients scheduled for elective lower limb orthopaedic surgeries. Group A (n=37) received 19mls of 0.5% epidural plain bupivacaine with 1 ml of water for injection, while group B received 19mls of 0.5% epidural plain bupivacaine with 1ml (50mg) of preservative freetramadol. The duration of analgesia was from the time of epidural block to the time of rescue analgesia. While, the quality of block was measured with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Bromage scale. Results: Thestudy ages were between 16-60years,consisting of 22(60%) male and 15(40%) female in group A, while in group B 20 (54%) were male and 17(46%) female. It showed the mean duration of analgesia were 189.05±21.92min and 254.19±32.78min in group A and B respectively with p <0.01.The intra-operative VAS scores between the two groups did not show any significant difference between study groups (P> 0.05).The differences of grades of motor block and maximum sensory block height were not statistically significant (P=0.26) among the study groups. Conclusion: The addition of 50mg (1ml) of tramadol to plain bupivacaine epidurally prolonged the duration of analgesia and improved the quality of analgesia when compared to the use of bupivacaine alone


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Analgesia, Epidural , Bupivacaine , Comparative Study , Injections, Epidural , Nigeria , Orthopedics , Quality Control , Quality of Health Care , Tramadol
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785431

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Local anesthetics can decrease postoperative pain after appendectomy. This study sought to verify the efficacy of bupivacaine on postoperative pain and analgesics use after single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (SILA).METHODS: Between March 2014 and October 2015, 68 patients with appendicitis agreed to participate in this study. After general anesthesia, patients were randomized to bupivacaine or control (normal saline) groups. The assigned drugs were infiltrated into subcutaneous tissue and deep into anterior rectus fascia. Postoperative analgesics use and pain scores were recorded using visual analogue scale (VAS) by investigators at 1, 8, and 24 hours and on day 7. All surgeons, investigators and patients were blinded to group allocation.RESULTS: Thirty patients were allocated into the control group and 37 patients into bupivacaine group (one patient withdrew consent before starting anesthesia). Seven from the control group and 4 from the bupivacaine group were excluded. Thus, 23 patients in the control group and 33 in the bupivacaine group completed the study. Preoperative demographics and operative findings were similar. Postoperative pain and analgesics use were not different between the 2 groups. Subgroup analysis determined that VAS pain score at 24 hours was significantly lower in the bupivacaine group (2.1) than in the control group (3.8, P = 0.007) when surgery exceeded 40 minutes. During immediate postoperative period, bupivacaine group needed less opioids (9.1 mg) than control (10.4 mg).CONCLUSION: Bupivacaine did not decrease pain and analgesics use. When surgery exceeded 40 minutes, bupivacaine use might be associated with less pain and less analgesics use.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Local , Anesthetics, Local , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Bupivacaine , Demography , Fascia , Humans , Laparoscopy , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Period , Research Personnel , Subcutaneous Tissue , Surgeons
15.
Acta ortop. mex ; 33(6): 365-369, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345062

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La artroscopía de rodilla es uno de los procedimientos que más comúnmente se realizan para tratar esta articulación. La anestesia general y el bloqueo espinal son las modalidades de anestesia más comunes para este procedimiento. Consideramos que esta cirugía se puede manejar con anestesia local intraarticular, con lo que se evitan estancias en recuperación más prolongadas; tiene un mejor manejo efectivo del dolor y optimización de tiempos prequirúrgicos, intraquirúrgicos y postquirúrgicos. Material y métodos: Estudio prospectivo, cuasiexperimental y longitudinal, realizado para comparar dos procedimientos anestésicos: la anestesia intraarticular (lidocaína con epinefrina, bupivacaína y fentanil) sin uso de isquemia (grupo A) y el bloqueo espinal y uso de manguito de isquemia (grupo B). Ambos procedimientos se calcularon mediante la evaluación de la edad, el tiempo de cirugía, el dolor transquirúrgico y a las 24 horas mediante escala EVA, el tiempo de estancia en recuperación, la necesidad de administrar anestesia general o dosis anestésica de rescate y los grados de flexión a las 24 horas en el postquirúrgico. Se utilizó prueba t de Student con un nivel de significación p < 0.05 para variables no paramétricas y χ2 para variables paramétricas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 38 pacientes por cada grupo. El tiempo quirúrgico fue de 45 contra 39 minutos (p = 0.03); el tiempo en recuperación: 1.9 contra 3 horas (p = 0.0004), el cual fue menor en el grupo A, mientras que el dolor transquirúrgico fue mayor (17 contra 3% [p = 0.09]), sin requerir anestesia general. Conclusiones: Las ventajas a favor de la anestesia intraarticular fueron: estadías hospitalarias cortas, menor dolor a las 24 horas y seguridad en su aplicación. Su desventaja es la probabilidad de dolor transquirúrgico, siendo suficiente la sedación.


Abstract: Indroduction: Knee arthroscopy is one of the most commonly performed procedures. General anesthesia and spinal blockage are the most common forms of anesthesia. We consider that this surgery can be managed with intra-articular local anesthesia, thus avoiding prolonged stays in recovery, with effective pain management and optimization of presurgical, intrasurgical and post-surgical times. Material and methods: Prospective, quasi-experimental, longitudinal study to compare two anesthetic procedures: intraarticular anesthesia (lidocaine with epinephrine, bupivacaine and fentanyl) without the use of ischemia (group A); spinal blockage and use of ischemia (group B) by assessing age, surgery time, pain during surgery and 24 hour post-op VA scale, time spent in recovery, need to administer general anesthesia or anesthetic rescue doses, 24-hour range of motion. Student t-test, significance level was used: p < 0.05 for nonparametric variables and χ2 parametric variables. Results: 38 patients were included per group. The surgical time (45 min vs 39 min, p = 0.03), recovery time (1.9 vs 3 hours, p = 0.0004) were lower in group A, while pain during surgery was greater (17 vs 3%, p = 0.09), without requiring general anesthesia. Conclusion: The advantages in favor of intraarticular anesthesia were: shortened hospital stays, less pain at 24 hours, safety in its application. Its disadvantage is the possibility of pain during surgery and sedation is sufficient as adjuvant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroscopy , Anesthesia, Spinal , Pain, Postoperative , Bupivacaine , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Injections, Intra-Articular , Anesthesia, Local , Knee Joint , Lidocaine/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. méd. panacea ; 8(3): 116-120, sept.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1127870

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El dolor agudo postoperatorio es un conjunto de percepciones sensoriales, emocionales y mentales desagradables, asociadas a respuestas autonómicas, psicológicas y conductuales, precipitadas por el acto quirúrgico. Objetivo: Generar conocimiento sobre la eficacia del fentanilo en anestesia raquídea para el dolor agudo postoperatorio. Material y métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo de búsqueda bibliografía y se ha realizado en Pubmed, Medline, Scielo, bibliotecas de universidades nacionales e internacionales. Resultados: La asociación de fentanilo a los anestésicos locales para la anestesia subaracnoidea, reduciendo la dosificación de anestésico local y manteniendo el tiempo de su recuperación y así de esta manera mejorar la calidad, la tasa de éxito de pequeñas dosis de los mismos, con ello, la incidencia de complicaciones hemodinámicas. La administración subaracnoidea de anestésicos locales y opioides, provocan eventos adversos, prurito (30 %), náuseas y vómito (25 %), retención urinaria (10-53 %), depresión respiratoria (3 %). Las diferentes dosis de fentanilo asociado a bupivacaína 0.5%, en la raquianestesia disminuyen la intensidad de dolor según EVA, en el trans-operatorio y el manejo del dolor agudo post-operatorio en los diferentes actos quirúrgicos. Conclusión: Se concluye que la asociación de bupivacaína 0,5% más fentanilo, mediante la técnica raquídea, en pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente, resulta eficaz, debido a que permite obtener un menor tiempo de latencia para el bloqueo con una duración prolongada, manteniendo una adecuada hemodinamia y estabilidad respiratoria, y también reduciendo el dolor postoperatorio y sus posibles reacciones adversas. (AU)


Introduction: Acute postoperative pain is a set of unpleasant sensory, emotional and mental perceptions associated with autonomic, psychological and behavioral responses precipitated by the surgical act. Objective: Generate knowledge about the efficacy of fentanyl in spinal anesthesia for acute postoperative pain. Material and methods: It is a descriptive study of literature search and has been carried out in Pubmed, Medline, Scielo, libraries of national and international universities. Results: The association of fentanyl with local anesthetics for subarachnoid anesthesia, reduces the dose of local anesthetic, without prolonging the recovery time, improving the quality, the success rate of small doses of them, with this, the incidence of hemodynamic complications. The subarachnoid administration of local anesthetics and opioids, cause adverse events, itching (30%), nausea and vomiting (25%), urinary retention (10-53%), respiratory depression (3%), all this as a result of interactions with opioid receptors at the brain level. The different doses of fentanyl associated with 0.5% bupivacaine, in spinal anesthesia reduce the intensity of pain according to EVA, in the trans-operative period and the management of acute post-operative pain in the different surgical acts. Conclusion: It is concluded that the association of 0.5% bupivacaine plus fentanyl, through the spinal technique, in surgically treated patients, is effective, since it allows to reach a shorter time of onset of the blockade and longer duration of the block, maintaining adequate hemodynamic and respiratory stability, the time it reduces acute post-operative pain and adverse reactions. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Acute Pain , Anesthesia, Spinal , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
17.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 18(3): e441, sept.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093118

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La analgesia subaracnoidea es una alternativa para el trabajo de parto por su seguridad y adecuada relación riesgo/beneficio. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la analgesia durante el trabajo de parto con la comparación de dos métodos analgésicos. Método: Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental, longitudinal y prospectivo en 92 gestantes que se atendieron en el Hospital General Docente Abel Santamaría Cuadrado durante el período entre enero de 2014 y enero de 2017. Las pacientes se dividieron en dos grupos de 46 cada uno, al azar, por orden de llegada a la unidad quirúrgica. El grupo A, bupivacaína al 0,5 por ciento, en dosis de 2 mg y fentanilo en dosis de 25 mcg; y grupo B en el que se utilizó petidina en dosis de 25 mg, en todos los casos por vía intratecal. Las variables analizadas fueron: tensión arterial media, frecuencia cardíaca media, saturación parcial de oxígeno, tiempo de inicio de la analgesia, calidad analgésica, efectos adversos y nivel de satisfacción de las pacientes. Se empleó el análisis descriptivo y la diferencia de proporciones. Resultados: El grupo A mantuvo una TAM entre 84 y 88 mmHg, (Z= 6,0 significativa); FC media entre 80 y 88 lat/min, (Z= 1,94 no significativa); SpO2 con una media de 99,2 por ciento. En 46,74 por ciento (43 casos) el tiempo de inicio de la analgesia fue corto (Z= 8,47), siendo Buena en 100 por ciento de los casos (Z= 6,89 significativa), con recién nacido vigoroso en 100 por ciento (Z= 10,25 significativa). La evolución fue satisfactoria en 48,19 por ciento de las pacientes. Presentaron prurito 8,69 por ciento. En el grupo B hubo hipertensión arterial en 2,17 por ciento de los casos, con menos estabilidad de la FC, tiempos mayores de inicio de trabajo de parto en 12,96 por ciento y fue Buena en 40,22 por ciento. Estas pacientes mostraron menos satisfacción (41,30 por ciento). Conclusiones: La administración subaracnoidea de fentanilo/bupivacaína fue más efectiva que la petidina para la analgesia durante el trabajo de parto(AU)


Introduction: Subarachnoid analgesia is an alternative for labor due to its safety and suitable risk-benefit relationship. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of analgesia during labor with the comparison of two analgesic methods. Method: A quasiexperimental, longitudinal and prospective study was carried out in 92 pregnant women who attended Abel Santamaría Cuadrado General Teaching Hospital during the period between January 2014 and January 2017. The patients were divided into two groups of 46 each, randomly assigned, in order of arrival to the surgical unit. Group A was treated with intrathecal administration of bupivacaine 0.5 percent, in a dose of 2 mg, and fentanyl in a dose of 25 mcg; and group B was treated with intrathecal administration of pethidine, in a dose of 25 mg. The variables analyzed were mean arterial blood pressure, mean heart rate, partial oxygen saturation, time of onset of analgesia, analgesic quality, adverse effects and level of patient satisfaction. The descriptive analysis and the difference in proportions were used. Results: Group A maintained a mean arterial blood pressure between 84 and 88 mmHg, (Z=6.0 significant); heart rate averages between 80 and 88 beats per minute, (Z=1.94 not significant); partial oxygen saturation with an average of 99.2 percent. In 46.74 percent (43 cases) the time of onset of analgesia was short (Z=8.47), being good in 100 percent of the cases (Z=6.89 significant), with vigorous newborn in 100 percent (Z=10.25 significant). The evolution was satisfactory in 48.19 percent of the patients. They presented pruritus 8.69 percent. In group B, there was arterial hypertension in 2.17 percent of the cases, with less stability of the heart rate, greater times of labor beginning in 12.96 percent and it was good in 40.22 percent. These patients showed less satisfaction (41.30 percent). Conclusions: Subarachnoid administration of fentanyl/bupivacaine was more effective than pethidine for analgesia during labor(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Labor Pain/drug therapy , Analgesia , Anesthesia/methods , Meperidine/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 561-568, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057475

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: The primary aim of this study is to assess the effect of ultrasoung-guided erector spinae block on postoperative opioid consumption after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The secondary aims are to assess the effects of erector spinae plane block on intraoperative fentanyl need and postoperative pain scores. Methods: Patients between 18-70 years old, ASA I-II were included in the study and randomly allocated into two groups. In Group ESP, patients received bilateral US-ESP with 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine at the level of T7, while in Group Control, they received bilateral US-ESP with 40 ml of saline before the induction of anesthesia. Then a standard general anesthesia procedure was conducted in both groups. NRS scores at the postoperative 15th, 30th, 60th minutes, 12th and 24th hours, intraoperative fentanyl need and total postoperative tramadol consumption were recorded. Results: There were 21 patients in Group ESP and 20 patients in Group Control. Mean postoperative tramadol consumption was 100 ± 19.2 mg in Group ESP, while it was 143 ± 18.6 mg in Group Control (p < 0.001). The mean intraoperative fentanyl need was significantly lower in Group ESP (p = 0.022). NRS scores at the postoperative 15th, 30th min, 12th hour and 24th hour were significantly lower in ESP group (p < 0.05). According to repeated measures analysis, NRS score variation over time was significantly varied between two groups (F[1, 39] = 24.061, p < 0.0005). Conclusions: Bilateral US-ESP block provided significant reduction in postoperative opioid consumption, intraoperative fentanyl need and postoperative pain scores of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O objetivo primário deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do bloqueio do plano do músculo eretor da espinha guiado por ultrassom (US-ESP) sobre o consumo de opioides no pós-operatório após colecistectomia laparoscópica. Os objetivos secundários foram avaliar os efeitos do bloqueio do plano eretor da espinha sobre a necessidade de fentanil no intraoperatório e nos escores de dor pós-operatória. Métodos: Pacientes entre 18 e 70 anos, ASA I-II, foram incluídos no estudo e alocados randomicamente em dois grupos. No Grupo ESP, os pacientes receberam o bloqueio bilateral US-ESP com 40 mL de bupivacaína a 0,25% no nível de T7, enquanto no Grupo Controle os pacientes receberam o bloqueio bilateral US-ESP com 40 mL de solução salina antes da indução da anestesia. Em seguida, um procedimento-padrão de anestesia geral foi feito em ambos os grupos. Os escores da NRS aos 15, 30 e 60 minutos e em 12 e 24 horas de pós-operatório, a necessidade de fentanil no intraoperatório e o consumo total de tramadol no pós-operatório foram registrados. Resultados: O grupo ESP foi constituído por 21 pacientes e o Grupo Controle por 20. O consumo médio de tramadol no pós-operatório foi de 100 ± 19,2 mg no Grupo ESP e de 143 ± 18,6 mg no grupo controle (p < 0,001). A necessidade média de fentanil no intraoperatório foi significativamente menor no grupo ESP (p = 0,022). Os escores da NRS aos 15, 30 e 60 minutos e em 12 e 24 horas de pós-operatório foram significativamente menores no grupo ESP (p < 0,05). De acordo com a análise de medidas repetidas, a variação do escore NRS ao longo do tempo foi estatisticamente significativa entre dois grupos (F [1,39] = 24,061, p < 0,0005). Conclusões: O bloqueio bilateral US-ESP reduziu de forma significativa o consumo de opioides no pós-operatório, a necessidade de fentanil no intraoperatório e os escores de dor no pós-operatório dos pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia laparoscópica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Time Factors , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1839-1845, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055128

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar latência, duração do efeito, progressão cranial da lidocaína e da bupivacaína isoladas, ou em associação, pela via epidural, em cães, além de mensurar a pressão média do canal epidural antes e após a realização dela. Utilizaram-se 18 cães, alocados em três grupos, os quais receberam, por via epidural: lidocaína 2% (GL) 0,25mL/kg; bupivacaína 0,5% (GB) no mesmo volume, ou a associação de ambas (GLB) na proporção de 1:1. Avaliaram-se as frequências cardíaca e respiratória e a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) previamente aos tratamentos (M0) e até 60 minutos após a anestesia epidural. Ainda, avaliou-se a pressão no canal epidural antes e após a administração dos tratamentos, o período de latência, a progressão e a duração do bloqueio pelo pinçamento interdigital e do panículo paravertebral. Houve redução de 12% da PAS no GL em todos os momentos e de 16% aos 30 minutos no GLB quando comparados ao basal. A pressão média no espaço epidural antes e após a anestesia epidural foi de -1,5 (±3,9) e 41 (±16) mmHg; 55% apresentaram pressão negativa no espaço epidural. O período de latência não diferiu entre os grupos (GL: 3,5±1,6; GB: 4,5±4,5; e GLB: 2,4±1 minutos) e a duração do bloqueio foi maior no GB em relação ao GL (GL: 125±24; GB: 176±24; e GLB: 153±35 minutos). A progressão máxima dos anestésicos foi até L1-T13 no GL, L4-L3 no GB e L3-L2 no GLB. Conclui-se que a associação de lidocaína com bupivacaína não apresenta vantagens em relação ao uso dos fármacos isolados pela via epidural, tendo a lidocaína progredido mais cranialmente em relação à bupivacaína ou à associação. A lidocaína promoveu redução da PAS, mesmo quando associada à bupivacaína, permanecendo dentro dos valores de referência. Apenas 55% dos cães apresentaram pressão média negativa no espaço epidural antes da administração dos fármacos, dessa forma o teste da gota pendente pode não ser eficiente para localização do espaço epidural em todos os animais.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the latency, duration of the effect, and cranial progression of lidocaine and bupivacaine alone or in combination, by epidural route in dogs, and measuring the average pressure of the epidural channel before and after the completion thereof. Eighteen dogs were allocated in three groups, which received epidural: lidocaine 2% (GL) 0.25ml / kg; bupivacaine 0.5% (GB) in the same volume, or the association of both (GLB) in a 1: 1 ratio. Heart and respiratory rates and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were evaluated before treatment (M0) and up to 60 minutes after epidural anesthesia. In addition, the pressure in the epidural canal was evaluated before and after the administration of the treatments, latency period, progression and duration of the block by interdigital and paravertebral pannicus clamping. There was a 12% decrease in SBP in the GL at all times and 16% at 30 minutes in GLB when compared to the baseline. The mean pressure in the epidural space before and after epidural anesthesia was -1.5 (±3.9) and 41 (±16) mmHg), 55% presented negative pressure in the epidural space. The latency period did not differ between groups (GL: 3.5±1.6; GB: 4.5±4.5; and GLB: 2.4±1 minutes) and the duration of blockade was higher in GB (GL: 125±24, GB: 176±24, and GLB: 153±35 minutes). The maximum progression of anesthetics was up to L1-T13 in GL, L4-L3 in GB and L3-L2 in GLB. It is concluded that the association of lidocaine with bupivacaine does not present advantages in relation to the use of the drugs isolated by the epidural route, with lidocaine progressing more cranially in relation to bupivacaine or the association. Lidocaine promoted the reduction of SBP, even when associated with bupivacaine, remaining within the reference values. Only 55% of the dogs presented negative mean pressure in the epidural space before administration of the drugs, so the drop test may not be efficient for locating the epidural space in all animals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Bupivacaine , Anesthetics, Combined/administration & dosage , Drug Interactions , Anesthesia, Epidural/veterinary , Lidocaine
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