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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e56037, jan.-dez. 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151921

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: mapear as evidências disponíveis na literatura acerca dos manejos e desfechos da infecção pelo novo coronavírus no puerpério. Método: revisão de escopo conforme o Institute Joanna Briggs, desenvolvida em quatro fontes de dados eletrônicas. A extração, análise e síntese dos dados foi realizada por quatro pesquisadores independentes. Resultados: Nove publicações foram revisadas de 188 localizadas. Seis foram os países produtores das evidências, todas obtidas e publicadas em 2020. Vinte e um casos de COVID-19 no puerpério estiveram tratados nestas publicações, sendo 15 (71,4%) relativos a evoluções graves/exacerbação da doença e seis (28,6%) diagnosticados após a alta hospitalar. Conclusão: O mapeamento aponta para a ocorrência da infecção ou seu agravamento no período pós-parto, com indicativas ao monitoramento de sinais e sintomas, exploração diagnóstica e tratamento acurado e necessidade de acompanhamento próximo das mulheres diagnosticadas com COVID-19, sintomáticas ou não, no período pós-parto.


Objective: to map the evidence available in the literature about management and outcomes of postpartum infection by the new coronavirus. Method: scoping review conducted in four electronic sources, following Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Data were extracted, analyzed and summarized by four researchers independently. Results: nine of the 188 publications located were reviewed. The evidence, all obtained and published in 2020, was produced in six countries. These publications considered 21 cases of postpartum COVID-19, 15 (71.4%) of which related to severe developments / exacerbation of the disease and six (28.6%) diagnosed after hospital discharge. Conclusion: the mapping points to the occurrence of infection or worsening of the disease in the postpartum period, indicating the need for monitoring of signs and symptoms, diagnostic exploration and accurate treatment and the need for close monitoring of postpartum women diagnosed with COVID-19, whether symptomatic or not.


Objetivo: mapear las evidencias disponibles en la literatura sobre el manejo y los resultados de la infección por el nuevo coronavirus en el período posparto. Método: revisión del alcance según el Instituto Joanna Briggs, desarrollada en cuatro fuentes de datos electrónicas. La extracción, el análisis y la síntesis de los datos fueron realizados por cuatro investigadores independientes. Resultados: se revisaron nueve publicaciones de 188 encontradas. Fueron seis los países que produjeron las evidencias, obtenidas y publicadas en 2020. En estas publicaciones se trataron 21 casos de COVID-19 en el período posparto, 15 (71,4%) de los cuales estaban relacionados con evoluciones graves/exacerbación de la enfermedad y seis (28,6%) diagnosticados tras el alta hospitalaria. Conclusión: el mapeo apunta hacia la ocurrencia de la infección o su agravamiento en el posparto, con indicaciones de seguimiento de indicios y síntomas, exploración diagnóstica, tratamiento preciso y la necesidad de un seguimiento cercano a las mujeres diagnosticadas con COVID-19, sintomáticas o no, en el período posparto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Women's Health , Postpartum Period , COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Review , Coronavirus Infections , Postpartum Period/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis
2.
Washington; OPS; 26 Ago. 2021. 25 p. (OPS/IMS/EIH/COVID-19/21-024).
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284283

ABSTRACT

Estas directrices de práctica clínica se elaboraron con el objetivo de proveer recomendaciones para el manejo de pacientes con COVID-19 leve y moderada, así como de personas en riesgo de infección por el SARS-COV-2 en América Latina y el Caribe. La población diana está constituida por personas en riesgo de infección por COVID-19, pacientes leves o moderados con sospecha diagnóstica o confirmada de COVID-19 Estas directrices de práctica clínica proveen recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia para la profilaxis de personas en riesgo de infección por el SARS-COV-2; para la identificación de marcadores y factores de riesgo de mortalidad de los pacientes con COVID-19 leve o moderado; el tamizaje de COVID-19; el manejo en el domicilio; el uso de imágenes diagnósticas para orientar el manejo; el tratamiento farmacológico; el uso de suplementos; la anticoagulación profiláctica, y los criterios de seguimiento y alta médica. Las recomendaciones se dirigen a todo el personal de salud que atiende a los pacientes en el servicio de urgencias y en atención primaria (médicos generales, especialistas en medicina de urgencias, en neumología, en medicina interna, en medicina familiar y en infectología, así como terapeutas respiratorios y físicos, personal de enfermería y químicos farmacéuticos, entre otros). Las recomendaciones se dirigen a tomadores de decisiones y miembros de entidades gubernamentales relacionados con el manejo de pacientes con COVID-19


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Triage , Caribbean Region , Latin America
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S198-S211, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281043

ABSTRACT

La pandemia ocasionada por el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud OMS) en marzo de 2020, afecta a un reducido número de pacientes pediátricos, quienes presentan, en su mayoría, compromiso respiratorio leve y evolución favorable. Sin embargo, en niños previamente sanos, comenzó a observarse un aumento de casos definidos como síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico (SIM-C) o similar a Kawasaki (Kawasaki-like) asociado a la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) (KL-C) que evolucionan al shock y requieren internación en la unidad de cuidados intensivos.Los cuadros de SIM-C y los KL-C se caracterizan por fiebre, signos de inflamación, síntomas gastrointestinales y disfunción cardiovascular; las formas graves de presentación tienen mayor incidencia de hipotensión y/o shock. En el laboratorio se observan marcadores de inflamación, hipercoagulabilidad y daño miocárdico. El tratamiento farmacológico de primera línea consiste en la administración de inmunoglobulina por vía intravenosa más ácido acetilsalicílico por vía oral.Se recomienda un abordaje multidisciplinario para un diagnóstico certero y un tratamiento temprano y eficaz para disminuir la morbimortalidad.


The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus declared by the WHO in March 11th 2020, affects a small number of pediatric patients, who mostly present mild respiratory compromise and favorable evolution.However began to be observed in previously healthy children, an increase in cases defined as "Multisystemic Inflammatory Syndrome" (MIS-C) or "Kawasaki-like" post-COVID 19 (KL-C) that evolve to shock and require hospitalization in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.MIS-C and KL-C are characterized by fever; signs of inflammation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and cardiovascular dysfunction, associated with sever forms of presentation with higher incidence of hypotension and/or shock. In the laboratory, markers of inflammation, hypercoagulability and myocardial damage are observed. First-line drug treatment consists of intravenous immunoglobulin plus oral acetylsalicylic acid.A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for an accurate diagnosis and an early and effective treatment, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Critical Care , Diagnosis, Differential , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 396-400, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346475

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por SARS-CoV-2 en pacientes con neoplasias hematológicas y trasplantes de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TCPH) puede ser grave y con importante mortalidad. Llevamos a cabo un estudio prospectivo y observacional que tuvo como objetivo describir las características clínicas, epide miológicas y la evolución de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en pacientes con neoplasias hematológicas y TCPH. Se incluyeron 20 pacientes adultos con una mediana de edad de 58 años y una mediana de score de Charlson de 3. Las infecciones fueron de adquisición comunitaria y nosocomial en el 60% y 40% respectivamente, y el 30% de los pacientes tenía antecedente de contacto con una persona infectada por SARS-CoV-2. El 65% pre sentó infiltrados pulmonares, mayormente con patrón de vidrio esmerilado en la tomografía computarizada de tórax. Casi la mitad de los pacientes tuvo enfermedad grave y crítica, y una alta proporción recibió plasma de convalecientes como tratamiento. Presentaron complicaciones e infecciones hospitalarias el 20% y 15% respec tivamente, y tuvieron una mediana de días de internación prolongada. La mortalidad a 30 días fue del 10%. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 en nuestra población tuvo considerable impacto clínico y epidemiológico.


Abstract. SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with hematological malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) can be severe and with significant mortality. We carried out a prospective and observational study to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with hematological malignancies and HSCT. Twenty adult patients were included with a median age of 58 years and a median Charlson score of 3. Infections were community-acquired and nosocomial in 60% and 40%, respectively, and 30% of the patients had a history of contact with a SARS-CoV-2 infected person. Sixty-five percent had pulmonary infiltrates, mostly with a ground-glass pattern on CT scan. Almost half of the patients had a severe and critical illness, and a high proportion received convalescent plasma as treatment. Twenty percent and 15% had complications and hospital infections, respectively, and had prolonged hospitalization expressed as median days of it. The 30-day mortality was 10%. SARS-CoV-2 infection in our population had a considerable clinical and epidemiological impact.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Prospective Studies , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 170-177, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181006

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Healthcare institutions are confronted with large numbers of patient admissions during large-scale or long-term public health emergencies like pandemics. Appropriate and effective triage is needed for effective resource use. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score (PMEWS), Simple Triage Scoring System (STSS) and Confusion, Uremia, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure and age ≥ 65 years (CURB-65) score in an emergency department (ED) triage setting. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study in the ED of a tertiary-care university hospital in Düzce, Turkey. METHODS: PMEWS, STSS and CURB-65 scores of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia were calculated. Thirty-day mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation (MV) need and outcomes were recorded. The predictive accuracy of the scores was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: One hundred patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were included. The 30-day mortality was 6%. PMEWS, STSS and CURB-65 showed high performance for predicting 30-day mortality (area under the curve: 0.968, 0.962 and 0.942, respectively). Age > 65 years, respiratory rate > 20/minute, oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 90% and ED length of stay > 4 hours showed associations with 30-day mortality (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CURB-65, STSS and PMEWS scores are useful for predicting mortality, ICU admission and MV need among patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Advanced age, increased respiratory rate, low SpO2 and prolonged ED length of stay may increase mortality. Further studies are needed for developing the triage scoring systems, to ensure effective long-term use of healthcare service capacity during pandemics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Triage/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Early Warning Score , COVID-19/therapy , Turkey , Uremia/etiology , Uremia/epidemiology , Blood Pressure , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology
9.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 186-189, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181004

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Various skin manifestations have been reported in coronavirus disease. It may be difficult to determine the etiology of these lesions in view of the increased frequency of handwashing during the pandemic, along with occurrences of irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis due to disinfectant use; usage of herbal medicine and supplements to strengthen the immune system; and urticarial or maculopapular drug eruptions due to COVID-19 treatment. The variety of associated skin manifestations seen with COVID-19 makes it challenging to identify virus-specific skin manifestations. Petechiae, purpura, acrocyanosis and necrotic and non-necrotic purpura, which can be considered as manifestations of vascular involvement on the skin, have been reported. CASE REPORT: Here, we report a case of eruptive cherry angiomas, which was thought to have developed due to COVID-19, with a papulovesicular rash on distal extremities that progressed over time to reticular purpura. CONCLUSION: The case presented had a papulovesicular rash at the onset, which evolved to retiform purpura, and eruptive cherry angiomas were observed. It should be kept in mind that dermatological signs may vary in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Purpura/virology , Skin/virology , Skin Diseases, Viral/virology , Exanthema/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Hemangioma/virology , Skin/drug effects , Skin/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Skin Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy
10.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 29(105): 42-48, 2021 mar. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1348946

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La pandemia de COVID-19 representa un desafío para la salud mundial y continúa en investigación. Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas, demográficas, clínicas y la mortalidad por todas las causas de pacientes internados con COVID-19 en un establecimiento de salud privado de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, de corte transversal y descriptivo entre el 3 de marzo y el 8 de julio de 2020. Se incluyeron pacientes adultos con diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 por RT-PCR de hisopado nasofaríngeo internados en sala general y unidad de terapia intensiva (UTI) del Sanatorio San José. Se analizaron las características epidemiológicas, demográficas (edad, sexo, ocupación, procedencia, residencia), clínicas y mortalidad por todas las causas. Las variables continuas fueron descriptas con mediana y rango intercuartilo (RIC) y las variables categóricas con número y porcentaje. Se utilizó el programa STATA v 13.0.Resultados: Se incluyeron 118 pacientes. La mediana de edad fue de 50 años, 51% varones. Las comorbilidades más prevalentes fueron hipertensión arterial 31,4%, enfermedad neurológica crónica 27,1%, enfermedad cardiovascular 14,4% y diabetes 13,6%. Los signos y síntomas más frecuentes: fiebre 68,6% y tos 51,7%. Según la severidad inicial: 33,9% neumonía moderada y 27,1% grave. El 75% de las tomografías de tórax reveló vidrio esmerilado; linfopenia presentó el 30%. No se detectó coinfección viral. La mortalidad por todas las causas fue del 20%, y del 57% en UTI con ventilación mecánica. Conclusiones: Nuestro trabajo describe las características y mortalidad de pacientes internados con COVID-19. Es necesario aumentar la evidencia para desarrollar modelos de predicción clínica relacionados con COVID-19.Palabras clave: infecciones por coronavirus, pandemias, epidemiología, COVID-19.


ntroduction: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a global health challenge and continues to be investigated.Objective: To describe the epidemiological, demographic, clinical characteristics and all-cause mortality of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, in a private health care facility in Buenos Aires city.Materials and methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted between March 3 and July 8, 2020. Adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 by nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR, admitted to the general ward and intensive care unit (ICU) at the San José Sanatorium were included. Epidemiological, demographic (age, sex, occupation, origin, residence), clinical characteristics, and all-cause mortality were analyzed. Continuous variables were described with median and interquartile range (IQR) and categorical variables with number and percentage. The STATA v 13.0 program was used. Results: 118 patients were included. The median age was 50 years, 51% were men. The most prevalent comorbidities: arterial hypertension 31.4%, chronic neurological disease 27.1%, cardiovascular disease 14.4% and diabetes 13.6%. The most frequent signs and symptoms: fever 68.6% and cough 51.7%. According to the initial severity: 33.9% moderate pneumonia and 27.1% severe. Ground glass was reported in 75% of chest scans; lymphopenia presented 30%. Viral coinfection was not detected. Mortality from all causes was 20%, and 57% in ICU with mechanical ventilation.Conclusions: Our work describes the characteristics and mortality of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Increased evidence is needed to develop clinical predictive models related to COVID-19


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Profile , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy
11.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 29(105): 34-41, 2021 mar. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1348955

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En COVID-19 grave, identificar pacientes con mayor riesgo de ventilación mecánica (VM) ayuda a optimizar el manejo. Materiales y métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes con COVID-19 ingresados a UTI entre marzo/septiembre 2020. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva, análisis univariado (p significativa <0.05) y multivariado (variables significativas en el univariado).Resultados: Ingresaron 114 pacientes, 91 (79,8%) hombres, edad promedio 54,6 ±14,8 años. 66 (57,9%) eran obesos, 44 (38,6%) ≥ 60 años, 38 (33,3%) hipertensos (33,3%) y 28 (24,6%) diabéticos. 39 (23%) tenían ferritina elevada, 62 (76,5%) linfopenia y 33 (41,3%) LDH aumentada. Mortalidad global 34%. 72 pacientes (63,1%) requirieron VM. Los predictores independientes de requerimiento de VM en el análisis multivariado fueron sexo masculino, edad ≥60 años, diabetes, linfopenia y ferritina y LDH aumentadas. Conclusiones: En pacientes con COVID-19 grave, los predictores independientes de necesidad de VM fueron sexo masculino, edad ≥ 60 años, diabetes, niveles elevados de ferritina y LDH y linfopenia


Introduction: In severe COVID-19, identifying patients with a higher risk of mechanical ventilation (MV) helps to optimize management.Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical-epidemiological characteristics of patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU between March / September 2020. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate analysis were used. Results: 114 patients were admitted, 91 (79.8%) were men, mean age 54.6 ± 14.8 years. 66 (57.9%) were obese, 44 (38.6%) ≥60 years, 38 (33.3%) were hypertensive (33.3%) and 28 (24.6 %) diabetics. 39 (23%) had elevated ferritin, 62 (76.5%) had lymphopenia, and 33 (41.3%) had increased LDH. Overall mortality 34%. 72 patients (63.1%) required MV. The independent predictors of MV requirement in the multivariate analysis were male sex, age ≥60 years, diabetes, lymphopenia, and increased ferritin and LDH.Conclusions: In patients with severe COVID-19, the independent predictors of the need for MV were male sex, age ≥ 60 years, diabetes, elevated levels of ferritin and LDH, and lymphopenia


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/therapy , Intensive Care Units
12.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 29(105): 27-33, 2021 mar. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1348965

ABSTRACT

La pronación consciente es una de las herramientas utilizadas para reducir los ingresos a terapia intensiva (UTI) en la neumonía por COVID-19 con hipoxemia. Algunos pacientes no toleran estar en posición prono (intolerantes) y algunos que lo toleran no responden mejorando la saturación o su PO2. Presentamos una serie de 34 pacientes sometidos a pronación consciente; fueron tolerantes 18 (52,9%). Nueve pacientes pasaron a UTI (26,4%): 7 intolerantes (43,7%) y 2 tolerantes (11,1%) (p=0.038). No hallamos diferencias en la necesidad de ventilación mecánica y mortalidad entre tolerantes e intolerantes. De los 18 tolerantes se clasificó como respondedores a 10 pacientes (55,5%). No hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa en los pases a UTI entre los respondedores y no respondedores. La pronación consciente es una herramienta factible en el paciente con neumonía por COVID-19 y nos permitió predecir el requerimiento de terapia intensiva entre aquellos intolerantes al método.


The prone positioning (PP) in awake patients is one of the tools to reduce the number of admissions to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in cases of Covid-19 hipoxemic pneumonia. Some patients do not tolerate PP (intolerants) and others that tolerate it do not respond with improvement of PO2 or oxygen saturation. We present here a series of 34 patients who underwent PP. Eighteen of them tolerated PP (52,9%). Nine patients (26,4%) were admitted to ICU: 7 who had not tolerated PP (43,7%) and 2 who had tolerated PP (11,1%) (p= 0.038). We did not find differences in the need for mechanical ventilation and mortality between patients who tolerated and who did not tolerate PP. From those 18 who tolerated PP, 10 were classified as responders (55,5%). We did not find any significant statistical differences for admission to ICU between responders and non-responders. PP in awake patients is a feasible tool in cases of COVID-19 Pneumonia, and it allowed us to predict the requirements of ICU between those who were not tolerant to the method


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , COVID-19/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Prone Position
13.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(1): e2713, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289576

ABSTRACT

Se presentan las medidas de contención tomadas durante el segundo mes de la presencia de la COVID-19 en Cuba y se analiza su efectividad. Para el estudio se aplicó el método histórico lógico, sustentado en la técnica de la revisión documental. Se revisaron los partes diarios publicados por el Ministerio de Salud Pública disponibles en el sitio web oficial del Centro Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas y Cubadebate (medio de información alternativo), entre el 10 de abril y el 9 de mayo del 2020. Se concluye que el periodo de estudio corresponde con los días de mayor intensidad de la epidemia en Cuba, hasta esa fecha. Se logró adelantar el pico de la epidemia, en casi un mes, hecho que demuestra la pertinencia de las medidas de control tanto epidemiológicas y sociales que se implementaron. La estrategia de vigilancia de los sospechosos y contactos, así como el ingreso precoz y tratamiento de los casos confirmados, permitieron el logro de un elevado porcentaje de casos recuperados y una escasa mortalidad, con cifras de letalidad de 4,4 por ciento(AU)


The containment measures taken during the second month of the presence of COVID-19 in Cuba are presented in this work and their effectiveness is analyzed. For the study, the logical historical method was used, based on the technique of documentary review. The daily reports published by the Ministry of Public Health which are available on the official website of the National Center of Medical Sciences´ Information and Cubadebate (alternative information medium) from April 10 to May 9, 2020 were reviewed. It was concluded that the studied period corresponds to the most intense days of the epidemic in Cuba, until that date. It was managed to predict the peak of the epidemic, in almost a month, a fact that demonstrates the relevance of the epidemiological and social control measures that were implemented. The strategy of monitoring suspects and contacts, as well as the early admission and treatment of confirmed cases, favored the achievement of a high percentage of recovered cases, low mortality, and a 4.4 percent lethality(AU)


Subject(s)
COVID-19/history , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cuba
16.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e80, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289873

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cuba's National Health System has managed to guarantee an effective and equitable response to COVID-19. Universal and free health coverage, based on primary care, follows the principle of equity and the greatest resources are allocated to areas of the lowest socioeconomic stratum (where higher risk is concentrated), followed by those of medium and high strata, in that order. This allowed for similar mortality rates in the three strata, and Cuban national mortality rate was one of the lowest in the Region of the Americas. Before the first case was identified in Cuba, a Plan for Coronavirus Prevention and Control was elaborated with multisectoral participation, and when the first case was confirmed the Temporary National Working Group to Fight COVID-19 was created as an advisory body of the government. The actions to face the pandemic began with preventive measures in the community, continued in the isolation centers and ended again in the community with actions of surveillance and follow up of recovered patients. Following the principle of territoriality, molecular diagnosis laboratories were created in the provinces that did not have one. Free medical care and treatment; the preparation of a single national intersectoral government plan; the use of particular strategies for research, diagnosis and case tracing; and the implementation of a universal protocol for disease prevention and treatment of confirmed cases made it possible to control the disease with a health equity perspective.


RESUMEN El Sistema Nacional de Salud de Cuba ha logrado garantizar una respuesta eficaz y con equidad en el enfrentamiento a la COVID-19. La cobertura de salud universal y gratuita, basada en la atención primaria, sigue el principio de equidad, por lo que los mayores recursos se asignan a los territorios del estrato socioeconómico más bajo, que concentra mayores riesgos de salud, seguidos de los de estratos medio y alto, en ese orden. Esto permitió tener tasas de letalidad similares en los tres estratos, y a nivel nacional la de Cuba es una de las tasas más bajas de la Región de las Américas. Antes de identificar el primer caso en Cuba, se elaboró el Plan para la Prevención y Control del Coronavirus, con participación multisectorial, y al confirmarse el primer caso se creó el Grupo Temporal de Trabajo para Enfrentar la COVID-19 como órgano asesor del Gobierno. Las acciones de enfrentamiento a la pandemia comienzan en la comunidad con medidas preventivas, continúan en los centros de aislamiento y terminan nuevamente en la comunidad, con acciones de vigilancia y acompañamiento a los enfermos recuperados. Siguiendo el principio de territorialidad, se crearon laboratorios de diagnóstico molecular en las provincias que no lo tenían. La atención médica y los tratamientos gratuitos; la preparación de un plan de gobierno intersectorial nacional único; la utilización de estrategias particulares para la pesquisa, diagnóstico y rastreo de casos; y la implementación de un protocolo universal para la prevención de la enfermedad y el tratamiento de los casos confirmados permitieron el control de la enfermedad con una perspectiva de equidad en salud.


RESUMO O Sistema Nacional de Saúde de Cuba tem assegurado uma resposta eficaz e com equidade ao enfrentar a pandemia de COVID-19. A cobertura de saúde universal e gratuita baseada na atenção primária se pauta no princípio da equidade. Mais recursos são destinados às áreas de nível socioeconômico mais baixo que concentram risco de saúde maior e a seguir, nesta ordem, às áreas de nível socioeconômico médio e alto. Assim, a taxas de letalidade tem sido semelhante nos três níveis e a taxa nacional é uma das mais baixas da Região. Antes de o primeiro caso de COVID-19 ter sido detectado em Cuba, preparou-se o Plano para prevenção e controle do coronavírus com participação multissetorial. Quando o primeiro caso da doença foi confirmado, instituiu-se o Grupo de trabalho temporário para combater a COVID-19 como um órgão assessor do governo. As ações de combate à pandemia começam na comunidade com medidas preventivas, prosseguem nos centros de isolamento e retornam à comunidade com medidas de vigilância sanitária e o acompanhamento dos pacientes recuperados. E, seguindo o princípio de territorialidade, laboratórios de diagnóstico molecular foram instituídos nas províncias onde eles inexistiam. A atenção médica, o tratamento gratuito, a preparação de um plano de governo único intersetorial nacional, o emprego de estratégias próprias para pesquisa, diagnóstico e rastreio de casos e a implementação de um protocolo universal para prevenção da doença e tratamento dos casos confirmados possibilitaram controlar a doença de uma perspectiva de equidade em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Equity , Universal Access to Health Care Services , National Health Systems , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Cuba
17.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e33, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252032

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se está llevando a cabo un número considerable de ensayos clínicos en todo el mundo en respuesta a la pandemia de COVID-19, incluso en países de ingresos bajos y medios como los de América Latina y el Caribe. Sin embargo, la abundancia de estudios no necesariamente acorta el camino para encontrar intervenciones seguras y eficaces frente a la COVID-19. Se analizaron los ensayos para el tratamiento y la prevención de la COVID-19 de los países de América Latina y el Caribe que están registrados en la Plataforma de Registros Internacionales de Ensayos Clínicos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y se identificó una tendencia hacia la realización de estudios pequeños, repetitivos y no rigurosos que duplican los esfuerzos y merman recursos limitados sin producir conclusiones significativas sobre la seguridad y la eficacia de las intervenciones evaluadas. Se evaluaron asimismo los desafíos que plantea la realización de investigaciones científicamente sólidas y socialmente valiosas en América Latina y el Caribe a fin de brindar recomendaciones que alienten la realización de ensayos clínicos que tengan más probabilidades de producir evidencia sólida durante la pandemia.


ABSTRACT A considerable number of clinical trials is being conducted globally in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including in low- and middle-income countries such as those in the Latin America and Caribbean region (LAC). Yet, an abundance of studies does not necessarily shorten the path to find safe and efficacious interventions for COVID-19. We analyze the trials for COVID-19 treatment and prevention that are registered from LAC countries in the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and identify a trend towards small repetitive non-rigorous studies that duplicate efforts and drain limited resources without producing meaningful conclusions on the safety and efficacy of the interventions being tested. We further assess the challenges to conducting scientifically sound and socially valuable research in the LAC region in order to inform recommendations to encourage clinical trials that are most likely to produce robust evidence during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Developing Countries , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Caribbean Region , Latin America
18.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(3): e136, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279846

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: the coronavirus pandemic disclosed the need for safe orotracheal intubation not only for the patient, but also for the professionals involved in the procedure. Therefore, training and technique reviews became necessary. Objective: this article aims to propose the application of the Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice (RCDP) strategy for the training of anesthesiologists in orotracheal intubation in people with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and to present a guide for the application of this strategy in this situation. Method: This is a methodological study presenting the theoretical and operational aspects for the Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice application and a guide constructed from the search for evidence published in journals and official recommendations published by the institutions linked to the Brazilian and international health area. Results: the main theoretical aspects reported are related to the three principles on which Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice is based: maximizing time in deliberate practice, targeted feedback, and explicit psychological security. As for the operational aspects, it is highlighted that the training must be carried out with a maximum of six people. An error must be interrupted, prescriptive feedback must be given, and the task must be performed again until the participant reaches mastery. As for the procedure technical specificity, a guide to the application of the rapid cycle deliberate practice is presented with the sequence for the adequate airway management of hypoxemic patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. Conclusion: it is concluded that the assessed instructional strategy showed to be promising for the training with mastery learning in all professionals who will perform the procedure of orotracheal intubation while facing the severe forms of COVID-19, minimizing the risk of contamination.


Resumo: Introdução: A pandemia por coronavírus revelou a necessidade de intubação orotraqueal de forma segura não apenas para o paciente, mas igualmente para os profissionais envolvidos no procedimento. Para isso, treinamentos e revisões de técnicas se tornam necessários. Objetivo: Este artigo tem por objetivos propor a aplicação da estratégia de Prática Deliberada em Ciclos Rápidos (PDCR) para treinamento de anestesiologistas na intubação orotraqueal em pessoas confirmadas ou suspeitas com Covid-19 e apresentar um guia para aplicação dessa estratégia nessa conjuntura. Método: Trata-se de estudo metodológico que apresenta aspectos teóricos e operacionais para a aplicação da PDCR e um guia de aplicação construído a partir da busca de evidências publicadas em periódicos e recomendações oficiais divulgadas pelos órgãos vinculados à área da saúde brasileira e internacional. Resultado: Os principais aspectos teóricos relatados são concernentes aos três princípios que baseiam a PDCR: maximização do tempo em prática deliberada, feedback direcionado e segurança psicológica explícita. Quanto aos aspectos operacionais, destaca-se que o treinamento deve ser realizado com o máximo de seis pessoas. Deve-se interromper o erro, fornecer um feedback prescritivo e pedir que a tarefa seja realizada novamente até atingir a maestria. Quanto às especificidades técnicas do procedimento, apresenta-se um guia de aplicação da PDCR com a sequência para o adequado manuseio de vias aéreas de pacientes hipoxêmicos suspeitos e positivos para Covid-19. Conclusão: A estratégia instrucional estudada mostra ser propícia a treinar com maestria os profissionais que realizarão o procedimento de intubação orotraqueal no enfrentamento das formas graves da Covid-19, visando minimizar o risco de contaminação.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal , Anesthesiology/education , Patient Simulation
20.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177061

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Descrever caso de uma paciente adulta com COVID-19, internada em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) e submetida à posição prona. RELATO DO CASO: paciente do sexo feminino, 44 anos, portadora de síndrome metabólica prévia, com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, chegou ao pronto atendimento apresentando febre, congestão nasal, negando dispneia. Após a realização de exames clínicos e de imagem, foi transferida para a UTI, com suspeita de COVID-19. Na chegada na unidade intensiva, estava respirando espontaneamente com oxigenoterapia de baixo fluxo à 5L/min, apresentando hipoxemia (SpO2 = 88% e PaO2=76mmHg). Além das terapias médicas instituídas, foi orientada a se posicionar na PP durante um período de 15 a 30 minutos, realizado uma vez por turno. Após o primeiro posicionamento foi possível observar melhora na difusão pulmonar, pois a gasometria arterial demonstrou aumento da PaO2 para 96mmHg e de 18% na relação PaO2/FiO2, além de evolução clínica favorável. CONCLUSÕES: A indicação precoce da PP como terapia adicional no tratamento de paciente com COVID-19 pode ter contribuído para o desfecho clínico favorável, principalmente no que tange à oxigenação, evidenciada através da melhora de parâmetros de PaO2, relação PaO2/FiO2 e progressão com alta hospitalar.


OBJECTIVE: Describes a case of an adult COVID-19, who was addmited patient admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and submitted to the prone position. CASE REPORT: Female patient, 44 years old, with a previous metabolic syndrome and acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome, arrived at the emergency department. She had fever, nasal congestion, but without dyspnea. After clinical and imaging tests, she was transferred to an ICU, with suspected COVID-19. Upon arrival at the intensive unit, she was breathing spontaneously with low flow oxygen therapy, presenting hypoxemia. In addition to the established medical therapies, he was instructed to position himself in the PP for a period of 15 to 30 minutes, performed once when turning. Arterial blood gases increase to 96mmHg in PaO2 and consequently 18% in the PaO2 / FiO2 ratio, in addition to the favorable clinical evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The early indication of PP as an additional therapy in the treatment of COVID-19 patients, can have contributed to the favorable clinical outcome, especially with regard to oxygenation, evidenced by the improvement of PaO2 parameters, PaO2/FiO2 ratio and progress discharged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Therapeutics , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Prone Position , Coronavirus Infections , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension , Obesity
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