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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10138, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153533

ABSTRACT

Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) and sarcolemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) structures are involved in heart cell Ca2+ homeostasis. Previous studies have shown discrepancies in their function and expression in heart failure. The goal of this study was to evaluate heart function and hypertrophied muscle Ca2+-handling protein behavior under pressure overload. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Aortic stenosis (AoS), induced by a clip placed at the beginning of the aorta, and Control (Sham). After 18 weeks, heart function and structure were evaluated by echocardiogram. Myocardial function was analyzed by isolated papillary muscle (IPM) at basal condition and Ca2+ protein functions were evaluated after post-pause contraction and blockage with cyclopiazonic acid in IPM. Ca2+-handling protein expression was studied by western blot (WB). Echocardiogram showed that AoS caused concentric hypertrophy with enhanced ejection fraction and diastolic dysfunction inferred by dilated left atrium and increased relative wall thickness. IPM study showed developed tension was the same in both groups. AoS showed increased stiffness revealed by enhanced resting tension, and changes in Ca2+ homeostasis shown by calcium elevation and SERCA2a blockage maneuvers. WB revealed decreased NCX1, SERCA2a, and phosphorylated phospholambam (PLB) on serine-16 in AoS. AoS had left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction compared to Sham; this could be related to our findings regarding calcium homeostasis behavior: deficit in NCX1, SERCA2a, and phosphorylated PLB on serine-16.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Calcium/metabolism , Ventricular Remodeling , Rats, Wistar , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Homeostasis
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878338

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Exposure to microgravity results in postflight cardiovascular deconditioning in astronauts. Vascular oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported during this process. To elucidate the mechanism for this condition, we investigated whether mitochondrial oxidative stress regulates calcium homeostasis and vasoconstriction in hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat cerebral arteries.@*Methods@#Three-week HU was used to simulate microgravity in rats. The contractile responses to vasoconstrictors, mitochondrial fission/fusion, Ca @*Results@#An increase of cytoplasmic Ca @*Conclusion@#The present results suggest that mitochondrial oxidative stress enhances cerebral vasoconstriction by regulating calcium homeostasis during simulated microgravity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cerebral Arteries , Homeostasis , Male , Mitochondria/physiology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Weightlessness Simulation
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 275-285, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878256

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the positive inotropic effect of phosphodiesterase type 9 (PDE9) inhibitor PF-04449613 in ratsand its cellular and molecular mechanisms. The heart pressure-volume loop (P-V loop) analysis was used to detect the effects of PF-04449613 on rat left ventricular pressure-volume relationship, aortic pressures and peripheral vessel resistance in healthy rats. The Langendorff perfusion of isolated rat heart was used to explore the effects of PF-04449613 on heart contractility. The cardiomyocyte sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Myocardial Contraction , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases , Rats , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 137-142, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878243

ABSTRACT

Rapamycin (Rap) is an immunosuppressant, which is mainly used in the anti-rejection of organ transplantation. Meanwhile, it also shows great potential in the fields of anticancer, neuroprotection and anti-aging. Rap can inhibit the activity of mammalian target of Rap (mTOR). It activates the transcription factor EB (TFEB) to up-regulate lysosomal function and eliminates the inhibitory effect of mTOR on ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1) to promote autophagy. Recent research showed that Rap can directly activate the lysosomal cation channel TRPML1 in an mTOR-independent manner. TRPML1 activation releases lysosomal calcium. Calcineurin functions as the sensor of the lysosomal calcium signal and activates TFEB, thus promoting lysosome function and autophagy. This finding has greatly broadened and deepened our understanding of the pharmacological roles of Rap. In this review, we briefly introduce the canonical Rap-mTOR-ULK1/TFEB signaling pathway, and then discuss the discovery of TRPML1 as a new target of Rap and the pharmacological potential of this novel Rap-TRPML1-Calcineurin-TFEB pathway.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Channels , Lysosomes/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sirolimus
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190594, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132264

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important health problem across the world affecting the adult population with an enormous social and economic burden. Calcium regulation is also affected in patients with CKD, and related to several disorders including vascular calcifications, mineral bone disorders, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Upper zone of growth plate and cartilage matrix (UCMA) is vitamin K-dependent protein (VKDP) and acts as a calcification inhibitor in the cardiovascular system. The molecular mechanism of UCMA action remains unclear in CKD. In the current study, we aimed to investigate serum total UCMA levels and its association with calcium metabolism parameters in CKD patients including hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-seven patients with CKD stage 3-5, 41 HD patients, and 34 healthy individuals were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum UCMA and calcification related protein levels (Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), Osteocalcin (OC), and Fetuin-A) were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Calcium mineral disorder parameters (Serum Ca, P, iPTH) were quantified with routine techniques. We, for the first time, report the potential biomarker role of UCMA in CKD including HD. Serum total UCMA levels were significantly higher in patients with CKD including HD patients than the healthy controls. Also, serum UCMA levels showed negative correlations with serum calcium, and eGFR, while showed positive relationships with P, iPTH, MGP, OC. Increased total UCMA levels may have a role in the Ca metabolism disorder and related to the pathogenesis of Vascular Calcification in patients with CKD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteocalcin/blood , Calcium/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Matrilin Proteins/blood , Growth Plate/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 757-764, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878223

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present paper was to study the role of sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) in the generation of action potentials (APs) in cardiomyocytes during early developmental stage (EDS). The precisely dated embryonic hearts of C57 mice were dissected and enzymatically dissociated to single cells. The changes of APs were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique before and after administration of NCX specific blockers KB-R7943 (5 μmol/L) and SEA0400 (1 μmol/L). The results showed that, both KB-R7943 and SEA0400 had potent negative chronotropic effects on APs of pacemaker-like cells, while such effects were only observed in some ventricular-like cardiomyocytes. The negative chronotropic effect of KB-R7943 on ventricular-like cardiomyocytes was accompanied by shortening of AP duration (APD), whereas such an effect of SEA0400 was paralleled by decrease in velocity of diastolic depolarization (Vdd). From embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E10.5, the negative chronotropic effects of KB-R7943 and SEA0400 on ventricular-like APs of embryonic cardiomyocytes gradually disappeared. These results suggest that, in the short-term development of early embryo, the function of NCX may experience developmental changes as evidenced by different roles of NCX in autorhythmicity and APs generation, indicating that NCX function varies with different conditions of cardiomyocytes.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Mice , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Sodium/metabolism , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger , Thiourea/pharmacology
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 901-909, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040082

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose It has been reported that calcitonin receptor (CALCR) gene polymorphisms might be associated with calcium stone urolithiasis. Owing to mixed and inconclusive results, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize and clarify this association. Materials and Methods A systematic search of studies on the association between CALCR gene polymorphisms and calcium stone urolithiasis susceptibility was conducted in databases. Results Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool the effect size. Five articles were included in our meta-analysis. Conclusions CALCR rs1801197 might be associated with increased risk of calcium stone urolithiasis. There is insufficient data to fully confirm the association between CALCR rs1042138 and calcium stone urolithiasis susceptibility. Well-designed studies with larger sample size and more subgroups are required to validate the risk identified in the current meta-analysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Receptors, Calcitonin/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Urolithiasis/genetics , Calcium/metabolism , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Genetic Association Studies
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(3): 400-409, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973754

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Caloric restriction is known to impair the cardiac function and morphology in hypertrophied hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); however, the influence of fasting/refeeding (RF) is unknown. Objective: To investigate the fasting/refeeding approach on myocardial remodeling and function. In addition, the current study was designed to bring information regarding the mechanisms underlying the participation of Ca2+ handling and b-adrenergic system. Methods: Sixty-day-old male SHR rats were submitted to food ad libitum (C), 50% food restriction (R50) or RF cycles for 90 days. Cardiac remodeling was assessed by ultrastructure analysis and isolated papillary muscle function. The level of significance considered was 5% (a = 0.05). Results: The RF rats presented lower cardiac atrophy than R50 in relation to C rats. The C rats increased weight gain, R50 maintained their initial body weight and RF rats increased and decreased weight during RF. The RF did not cause functional impairment because the isotonic and isometric parameters showed similar behavior to those of C. The isotonic and isometric cardiac parameters were significantly elevated in RF rats compared to R50 rats. In addition, the R50 rats had cardiac damage in relation to C for isotonic and isometric variables. While the R50 rats showed focal changes in many muscle fibers, the RF rats displayed mild alterations, such as loss or disorganization of myofibrils. Conclusion: Fasting/refeeding promotes cardiac beneficial effects and attenuates myocardial injury caused by caloric restriction in SHR rats, contributing to reduce the cardiovascular risk profile and morphological injuries. Furthermore, RF promotes mild improvement in Ca2+ handling and b-adrenergic system.


Resumo Fundamento: A restrição calórica compromete a função e a morfologia cardíacas em corações hipertrofiados de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). No entanto, a influência de ciclo de jejum/Realimentação é desconhecida. Objetivo: Investigar o efeito de ciclos de jejum/realimentação sobre a remodelação e função miocárdica. Além disso, o presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar os mecanismos subjacentes à participação do trânsito de cálcio (Ca+2) e sistema beta-adrenérgico. Métodos: Neste estudo, SHR machos de 60 dias de idade foram submetidos a alimento ad libitum (grupo C), 50% de restrição alimentar (grupo R50) ou ciclos de RF (grupo RF) por 90 dias. A remodelação cardíaca foi avaliada por meio da análise ultraestrutural e função do músculo papilar isolado. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5% (a = 0,05). Resultados: Os ratos do grupo RF apresentaram menor atrofia cardíaca do que os do grupo R50 em relação aos do grupo C. Os ratos do grupo C aumentaram peso corporal, os ratos do grupo R50 mantiveram seu peso corporal inicial e os ratos do grupo RF aumentaram e reduziram seu peso durante o ciclo RF. O ciclo RF não causou comprometimento funcional, pois os parâmetros isotônicos e isométricos apresentaram comportamento similar aos dos ratos do grupo C. Os parâmetros cardíacos isotônicos e isométricos mostraram-se significativamente elevados nos ratos do grupo RF em comparação aos dos ratos do grupo R50. Além disso, os ratos do grupo R50 apresentaram dano cardíaco em comparação aos ratos do grupo C quanto às variáveis isotônicas e isométricas. Os ratos do grupo R50 apresentaram alterações focais em muitas fibras musculares, enquanto os ratos do grupo RF apresentaram leves alterações, como perda ou desorganização de miofibrilas. Conclusão: Ciclos de Jejum/Realimentação promovem efeitos benéficos cardíacos e atenuam o dano miocárdico causado por restrição calórica em SHR, contribuindo para reduzir o risco cardiovascular e os danos morfológicos. Além disso, o ciclo de jejum/realimentação promove leve melhora do trânsito do Ca2+ e do sistema beta-adrenérgico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Papillary Muscles/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Fasting/physiology , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Cardiomyopathies/prevention & control , Papillary Muscles/pathology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Time Factors , Body Weight/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Caloric Restriction/adverse effects , Isoproterenol/analysis , Isoproterenol/metabolism , Myocardial Contraction , Cardiomyopathies/pathology
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(2): 172-179, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950219

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Regulation of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) in cardiomyocytes is altered by hypertension; and aerobic exercise brings benefits to hypertensive individuals. Objective: To verify the effects of aerobic exercise training on contractility and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) transients of cardiomyocytes and on the expression of microRNA 214 (miR-214) in the left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: SHR and normotensive Wistar rats of 16 weeks were divided into 4 groups -sedentary hypertensive (SH); trained hypertensive (TH); sedentary normotensive (SN); and trained normotensive (TN). Animals of the TH and TN groups were subjected to treadmill running program, 5 days/week, 1 hour/day at 60-70% of maximum running velocity for 8 weeks. We adopted a p ≤ 0.05 as significance level for all comparisons. Results: Exercise training reduced systolic arterial pressure in hypertensive rats. In normotensive rats, exercise training reduced the time to 50% cell relaxation and the time to peak contraction and increased the time to 50% decay of the intracellular Ca2+ transients. In SHR, exercise increased the amplitude and reduced the time to 50% decay of Ca2+ transients. Exercise training increased the expression of miR-214 in hypertensive rats only. Conclusion: The aerobic training applied in this study increased the availability of intracellular Ca2+ and accelerated the sequestration of these ions in left ventricular myocytes of hypertensive rats, despite increased expression of miR-214 and maintenance of cell contractility.


Resumo Fundamento: A regulação intracelular de cálcio (Ca2+) em cardiomiócitos é alterada pela hipertensão, e o exercício físico aeróbico traz benefícios para hipertensos. Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos do treinamento físico aeróbico sobre a contratilidade e a concentração intracelular de Ca2+ transitória em miócitos e a expressão do microRNA 214 no ventrículo esquerdo (VE) de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Métodos: SHR e ratos Wistar normotensos com 16 semanas de idade foram divididos em 4 grupos de 13 animais cada: hipertenso sedentário (HS); hipertenso treinado (HT); normotenso sedentário (NS); normotenso treinado (NT). Os animais dos grupos HT e NT foram submetidos a um programa de treinamento progressivo de corrida em esteira, 5 dias/semana, 1 hora/dia, em intensidade de 60-70% da velocidade máxima de corrida, durante 8 semanas. Adotou-se p ≤ 0,05 como nível de significância em todas as comparações. Resultados: O treinamento físico reduziu a pressão arterial sistólica nos animais hipertensos. Nos animais normotensos, o treinamento físico reduziu o tempo para 50% de relaxamento celular e o tempo para o pico de contração celular, mas aumentou o tempo para 50% de decaimento da concentração intracelular de Ca2+ transitória. Nos animais SHR, o treinamento físico aumentou a amplitude e reduziu o tempo para 50% de decaimento da concentração intracelular de Ca2+ transitória, sem alterar a contratilidade celular. O treinamento físico aumentou a expressão do miR-214 apenas nos animais hipertensos. Conclusão: O treinamento aeróbico utilizado aumenta a disponibilidade e acelera o sequestro de Ca2+ intracelular em miócitos do VE de ratos hipertensos, apesar do aumento da expressão de miR-214 e da manutenção da contratilidade celular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Calcium/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Calcium Signaling , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Hypertension/physiopathology
11.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(1): 35-43, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893814

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MS) are associated with low urinary pH and represent risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially composed by uric acid. Acidogenic diets may also contribute to a reduction of urinary pH. Propensity for calcium oxalate precipitation has been shown to be higher with increasing features of the MS. Objective: A retrospective evaluation of anthropometric and body composition parameters, MS criteria and the dietary patterns of overweight and obese calcium stone formers and their impact upon urinary pH and other lithogenic parameters was performed. Methods: Data regarding anthropometry, body composition, serum and urinary parameters and 3-days dietary records were obtained from medical records of 102(34M/68F) calcium stone formers. Results: A negative correlation was found between urinary pH, waist circumference and serum uric acid levels (males). The endogenous production of organic acids (OA) was positively correlated with triglycerides levels and number of features of MS (males), and with glucose, uric acid and triglycerides serum levels, and number of features of MS (females). No significant correlations were detected between Net Acid Excretion (NAE) or Potential Renal Acid Load of the diet with any of the assessed parameters. A multivariate analysis showed a negative association between OA and urinary pH. Conclusion: The endogenous production of OA and not an acidogenic diet were found to be independently predictive factors for lower urinary pH levels in calcium stone formers. Hypercalciuric and/or hyperuricosuric patients presented higher OA levels and lower levels of urinary pH.


RESUMO Introdução: A obesidade e a Síndrome Metabólica (SM) se associam a pH urinário ácido e representam fatores de risco para litíase renal, especialmente a úrica. Dietas acidogênicas também podem contribuir para a redução do pH urinário. Já foi demonstrado maior risco de precipitação de oxalato de cálcio em proporção aos critérios de SM. Objetivo: Avaliar retrospectivamente o impacto de parâmetros antropométricos, composição corporal, critérios de SM e padrão alimentar sobre o pH urinário e outros parâmetros litogênicos em pacientes com sobrepeso e obesos com litíase cálcica. Métodos: Foram coletados dados de antropometria, composição corporal, exames séricos e urinários, e registros alimentares (3 dias) de 102 (34M/68F) pacientes com litíase cálcica. Resultados: O pH urinário se correlacionou negativamente com a circunferência da cintura e ácido úrico sérico (homens). A produção endógena de ácidos orgânicos (AO) se correlacionou positivamente com os triglicérides séricos e o número de critérios de SM (homens), e com glicemia, ácido úrico, triglicérides e número de critérios para SM (mulheres). Não se observaram correlações significantes entre a excreção renal líquida de ácidos (NAE) e o potencial de carga ácida renal (PRAL) da dieta com nenhum dos parâmetros avaliados. Na análise de regressão multivariada, os AO apresentaram associação negativa significante com o pH urinário. Conclusão: A produção endógena de AO, e não um padrão de dieta acidogênica, foi o fator determinante independente para menores níveis de pH urinário em pacientes com litíase cálcica. Pacientes com hipercalciúria e/ou hiperuricosúria apresentaram maiores valores de AO e menores de pH urinário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Uric Acid/urine , Kidney Calculi/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Diet , Overweight/metabolism , Kidney Calculi/complications , Kidney Calculi/urine , Kidney Calculi/chemistry , Calcium/analysis , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies , Overweight/complications , Overweight/urine , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/urine
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(10): e7417, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951710

ABSTRACT

It is well known that the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin is capable of causing damage to kidney cells. Given the known involvement of Ca2+ in the nephrotoxic action of gentamicin, the purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and cellular cytotoxicity using MDCK-C11 cells, a clone that has several properties that resemble those of intercalated cells of the distal nephron. Changes in [Ca2+]i was determined using fluorescence microscopy. Cell viability was evaluated by the neutral red method, and cell cytotoxicity by the MTT method. The [Ca2+]i gradually increased when cells were exposed to 0.1 mM gentamicin for 10, 20, and 30 min. The presence of extracellular Ca2+ was found to be necessary to stimulate the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by gentamicin, since this stimulus disappeared by using 1.8 mM EGTA (a Ca2+ chelator). Morphological changes were observed with scanning electron microscopy in epithelial cells exposed to the antibiotic. Furthermore, with the MTT method, a decrease in metabolic activity induced by gentamicin was observed, which indicates a cytotoxic effect. In conclusion, gentamicin was able to alter [Ca2+]i, change the morphology of MDCK-C11 cells, and promote cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Gentamicins/toxicity , Calcium/metabolism , Toxicity Tests/methods , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Clone Cells , Models, Animal , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells/metabolism , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells/ultrastructure , Nephrons/cytology , Nephrons/drug effects
13.
Actual. osteol ; 13(3): 214-222, Sept - DIc. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117383

ABSTRACT

Los bajos niveles de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25OHD) se han vinculado con el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, obesidad, dislipidemia e hipertensión arterial, todos componentes del síndrome metabólico (SM). Además, se ha reportado una asociación inversa entre 25OHD y el SM, resistencia a la insulina, deterioro de la función celular ß e intolerancia a la glucosa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los niveles de 25OHD en pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 con y sin SM. Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se evaluaron 108 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 (grupo DM2) y 89 pacientes sin DM2 (GC) con y sin SM, en los cuales se determinó la concentración de 25OHD total. Se calculó el cociente de probabilidad (OR) e intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95) para la deficiencia de 25OHD (<20 ng/ml). Resultados: el grupo DM2 presentó niveles menores de 25OHD (19,8 ng/ml vs. 25,0 ng/ml) y mayor proporción de pacientes con deficiencia de 25OHD respecto del GC (50,9% vs. 28,1%, OR 2,7, IC95%: 1,5-4,8). No se halló una correlación entre 25OHD y HbA1c. Se halló asociación significativa entre deficiencia de 25OHD y presencia de diabetes, obesidad y SM. Sin embargo, en el análisis multivariado solo la presencia del SM presentó asociación negativa significativa con la deficiencia de 25OHD (OR=4,04, IC95% 1,48-11,68). En conclusión, nuestros datos demuestran una elevada prevalencia de hipovitaminosis D en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 a expensas, principalmente, del elevado porcentaje de pacientes que padecen SM. El SM incrementa cuatro veces el riesgo de deficiencia de vitamina D independientemente de la presencia de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. (AU)


Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) have been linked to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension, all components of the metabolic syndrome. An inverse association has been observed between 25OHD and metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, impaired ß-cell function and glucose intolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 25OHD levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without metabolic syndrome. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out. We included 108 type 2 diabetic patients (DM2 group) and 89 patients without DM2 (CG) with and without metabolic syndrome, in which the total 25OHD levels were measured. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for 25OHD deficiency (<20 ng/ml) were estimated. Results: The DM2 group had lower 25OHD levels (19.8 ng/ml vs 25.0 ng/ml) and higher proportion of patients with a 25OHD deficiency compared to the CG (50.9% vs 28.1%, OR 2.7, 95%CI: 1.5-4.8). No correlation was found between 25OHD and HbA1c. A significant association was found between 25OHD deficiency and the presence of diabetes, obesity, and the presence of metabolic syndrome. However, in the multivariate analysis only the presence of metabolic syndrome had a significant negative association with the 25OHD deficiency (OR=4.04, 95%CI 1.48-11.68). In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in DM2 and the metabolic syndrome increases the risk of 25OHD deficiency by four times. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hydroxycholecalciferols/deficiency , Avitaminosis/diagnosis , Vitamin D/physiology , Insulin Resistance , Body Mass Index , Calcium/metabolism , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Overweight/complications , Hydroxycholecalciferols/blood , Obesity/complications
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(5): 432-439, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887955

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Different types of high-fat and/or high-energy diets have been used to induce obesity in rodents. However, few studies have reported on the effects observed at the initial stage of obesity induced by high-fat feeding on cardiac functional and structural remodelling. Objective: To characterize the initial moment of obesity and investigate both metabolic and cardiac parameters. In addition, the role of Ca2+ handling in short-term exposure to obesity was verified. Methods: Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups (n = 19 each): control (C; standard diet) and high-fat diet (HF, unsaturated high-fat diet). The initial moment of obesity was defined by weekly measurement of body weight (BW) complemented by adiposity index (AI). Cardiac remodelling was assessed by morphological, histological, echocardiographic and papillary muscle analysis. Ca2+ handling proteins were determined by Western Blot. Results: The initial moment of obesity occurred at the 3rd week. Compared with C rats, the HF rats had higher final BW (4%), body fat (20%), AI (14.5%), insulin levels (39.7%), leptin (62.4%) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (15.5%) but did not exhibit alterations in systolic blood pressure. Echocardiographic evaluation did not show alterations in cardiac parameters. In the HF group, muscles were observed to increase their +dT/dt (C: 52.6 ± 9.0 g/mm2/s and HF: 68.0 ± 17.0 g/mm2/s; p < 0.05). In addition, there was no changes in the cardiac expression of Ca2+ handling proteins. Conclusion: The initial moment of obesity promotes alterations to hormonal and lipid profiles without cardiac damage or changes in Ca2+ handling.


Resumo Fundamentos: Diferentes tipos de dietas hiperlipídicas e/ou hipercalóricas têm sido usados para induzir obesidade em roedores. No entanto, poucos estudos relataram os efeitos da obesidade induzida por dieta hiperlipídica em sua fase inicial sobre a remodelação cardíaca funcional e estrutural. Objetivo: Caracterizar o momento inicial da obesidade e investigar parâmetros metabólicos e cardíacos. Além disso, analisar o papel do trânsito de Ca+2 em curtos períodos de exposição à obesidade. Métodos: Ratos Wistar com idade de 30 dias foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos (n = 19 em cada grupo): controle (C, dieta padrão) e dieta hiperlipídica (HL, dieta rica em gordura insaturada). O momento inicial da obesidade foi definido por medidas semanais do peso corporal, complementadas pelo índice de adiposidade (IA). A remodelação cardíaca foi avaliada por análise morfológica, histológica, ecocardiográfica e funcional dos músculos papilares. Proteínas envolvidas no trânsito de Ca2+ foram determinadas por Western Blot. Resultados: O momento inicial da obesidade ocorreu na terceira semana. Em comparação aos ratos C, os animais HL apresentaram maior peso corporal final (4%), gordura corporal (20%), IA (14,5%), níveis de insulina (39,7%), leptina (62,4%) e lipoproteína de baixa densidade (15,5%), mas não apresentaram alterações na pressão sistólica. A avaliação ecocardiográfica não mostrou alterações nos parâmetros cardíacos. No grupo HL, observou-se um aumento no +dT/dt (C: 52,6 ± 9,0 g/mm2/s e HL: 68,0 ± 17,0 g/mm2/s; p < 0,05) muscular. Além disso, não houve alterações na expressão cardíaca de proteínas envolvidas no trânsito de Ca2+. Conclusão: O momento inicial da obesidade promove alterações nos perfis hormonais e lipídicos sem causar danos cardíacos ou mudanças no trânsito de Ca2+.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Papillary Muscles/physiopathology , Calcium/metabolism , Sedentary Behavior , Diet, High-Fat , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/metabolism , Papillary Muscles/metabolism , Papillary Muscles/pathology , Blood Pressure , Insulin Resistance , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/pathology
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(3): 307-316, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888646

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the influence of a three-dimensional cell culture model and bioactive glass (BG) particles on the expression of osteoblastic phenotypes in rat calvaria osteogenic cells culture. Cells were seeded on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) collagen with BG particles for up to 14 days. Cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was performed. Cell morphology and immunolabeling of noncollagenous bone matrix proteins were assessed by epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. The expressions of osteogenic markers were analyzed using RT-PCR. Mineralized bone-like nodule formation was visualized by microscopy and calcium content was assessed quantitatively by alizarin red assay. Experimental cultures produced a growing cell viability rate up to 14 days. Although ALP activity at 7 days was higher on BG cultures, cells on 3D and 3D+BG had an activity decrease of ALP at 14 days. Three-dimensional conditions favored the immunolabeling for OPN and BSP and the expression of ALP and COL I mRNAs. BG particles influenced positively the OC and OPN mRNAs expression and calcified nodule formation in vitro. The results indicated that the 3D cultures and BG particles contribute to the expression of osteoblastic phenotype and to differentiated and mineralized matrix formation.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência do modelo de cultura celular tridimensional e das partículas de vidro bioativo (BG) sobre a expressão fenotípica de culturas de células osteogênicas da calvária de ratos. As células foram mantidas em culturas sobre superfícies colágenas bi-dimensionais (2D) e em géis de colágeno tridimensional (3D) com e sem partículas de BG até 14 dias. Foram avaliadas: viabilidade celular, atividade de fosfatase alcalina (ALP), morfologia celular e imunomarcação de proteínas da matriz não-colágena do osso através de epifluorescência e microscopia confocal. As expressões de marcadores osteogênicos foram analisadas utilizando RT-PCR. A formação de nódulos mineralizados foi visualizada através de microscopia e o conteúdo de cálcio foi avaliado quantitativamente pelo Alizarina Red. As culturas experimentais produziram uma taxa crescente de viabilidade até 14 dias. Embora a atividade ALP em 7 dias tenha sido maior em culturas com BG, as células em 3D e 3D+BG apresentaram uma diminuição da atividade ALP aos 14 dias. As condições tridimensionais favoreceram a imunomarcação para OPN e BSP e a expressão de mRNAs para ALP e COL I. As partículas de BG influenciaram positivamente a expressão do mRNAs para OPN e OC e a formação de nódulos calcificados in vitro. Os resultados indicaram que as culturas em 3D e partículas BG contribuíram para a expressão do fenótipo osteoblástico e para a diferenciação e formação de matriz mineralizada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biocompatible Materials , Glass , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteogenesis , Skull/cytology , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Survival , Collagen Type I/genetics , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Gene Expression Profiling , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Osteoblasts/enzymology , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Osteopontin/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Skull/enzymology , Skull/metabolism , Tissue Scaffolds
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(3): 196-200, jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894457

ABSTRACT

El hiperparatiroidismo primario puede tener diferentes características. Una de ellas es la forma asintomática. Esta es una variante leve del hiperparatiroidismo primario hipercalcémico, que se caracteriza por una calcemia no mayor a 1 mg/dl sobre el límite superior del método, hormona paratiroidea intacta (PTHi) elevada, ausencia de litiasis renal, deterioro de la función renal y de osteoporosis, edad menor de 50 años, y calciuria menor a 400 mg/día. No es una entidad quirúrgica, pero en su evolución puede llegar a serlo. Se estudiaron 24 mujeres postmenopáusicas, todas mayores de 50 años, con diagnóstico de hiperparatiroidismo asintomático, se describieron las manifestaciones clínicas, los cambios densitométricos, los parámetros bioquímicos y del remodelado óseo y se compararon los resultados con las variantes clásica y normocalcémica de la enfermedad. Se establecieron los criterios diagnósticos y se observó que solo 2 (8.3%) de las pacientes, durante un seguimiento de 44 ± 12 meses tuvo necesidad de paratiroidectomía. En definitiva, el hiperparatiroidismo primario asintomático es una alteración benigna, de seguimiento clínico periódico que, en pocas ocasiones, durante el seguimiento puede requerir cirugía.


Primary hyperparathyroidism may have different characteristics. One is the asymptomatic form. This is a mild variant of hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism, characterized by a calcemia not greater than 1 mg/dl above the upper limit of the method, a high intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), absence of renal stones, renal function impairement, and osteoporosis, less than 50 years of age, and less than 400 mg/day calciuria. It is not a surgical entity, but its evolution may require it. Twenty-four postmenopausal women, all older than 50 years, with a diagnosis of asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism, were studied. Clinical manifestations, densitometric changes, biochemical parameters and bone remodeling were analyzed and the results were compared with the classic and normocalcemic variants of the disease. Diagnostic criteria were established and observed that only 2 (8.3%) of patients, during a follow up of 44 ± 12 months, had need for a parathyroidectomy. In conclusion, the asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism is a benign disorder, of periodic clinical follow-up, which rarely may require surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/diagnosis , Asymptomatic Diseases , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/metabolism , Parathyroid Hormone/metabolism , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/metabolism , Hypercalcemia/metabolism
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 53-60, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841164

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/pathogenicity , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/growth & development , Calcium/metabolism , Candida/growth & development , Candida/virology , Dental Caries/virology , Dental Enamel/virology , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque/virology , Hardness Tests , HIV Infections/complications , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Polarization , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous/microbiology , Tooth, Deciduous/virology , Virulence
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(6): 343-348, dic. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841607

ABSTRACT

Nephrolithiasis is one of the most frequent urologic diseases. The aim of this paper is to study the composition and frequency of 8854 patient kidney stones and in a subset of them their metabolic risk factors to be related to their type of calculi. Physicochemical and crystallographic methods were used to assess kidney stone composition. In a subset of 715 patients, we performed an ambulatory metabolic protocol with diagnostic purposes. From the total sample 79% of stones were made of calcium salts (oxalate and phosphate), followed by uric acid stones in 16.5%, calcium salts and uric acid in 2%, other salts in 1.9% and cystine in 0.6%. Male to female ratio was almost three times higher in calcium salts and other types of stones, reaching a marked male predominance in uric acid stones, M/F 18.8 /1.0. The major risk factors for calcium stones are idiopathic hypercalciuria, followed by unduly acidic urine pH and hyperuricosuria. In uric acid stones unduly acidic urine pH and less commonly hyperuricosuria are the most frequent biochemical diagnosis. Our results show that analysis of kidney stones composition and the corresponding metabolic diagnosis may provide a scientific basis for the best management and prevention of kidney stone formation, as well as it may help us to study the mechanisms of urine stone formation.


La litiasis renal es una de las enfermedades urológicas más frecuentes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la composición y frecuencia de 8854 cálculos renales y evaluar en un subgrupo de ellos la relación de los factores de riesgo metabólicos con el tipo de cálculo hallado. Se utilizaron métodos fisicoquímicos y cristalográficos para evaluar la composición de los cálculos renales. En un subgrupo de 715 pacientes, se pudo realizar un protocolo metabólico ambulatorio con fines diagnóstico. De la muestra total, 79.0% de los cálculos fueron de sales de calcio (oxalato y fosfato), seguido por cálculos de ácido úrico en 16.5%, sales de calcio y ácido úrico en 2.0%, otras sales en 1.9% y cistina en 0.6%. La relación hombre/mujer fue casi tres veces mayor en las sales de calcio y otros tipos de cálculos, alcanzando un marcado predominio en varones con cálculos de ácido úrico, M/F 18.8/1.0. Los principales factores de riesgo para los cálculos de calcio fueron la hipercalciuria idiopática, seguida del pH urinario excesivamente ácido y la hiperuricosuria. En los cálculos de ácido úrico el pH urinario excesivamente ácido y con menor frecuencia la hiperuricosuria fueron los diagnósticos más frecuentes. Nuestros resultados muestran que el análisis de la composición de los cálculos renales y el correspondiente diagnóstico metabólico pueden proporcionar una base científica para el mejor manejo y prevención en la formación de cálculos renales, así como que nos puede ayudar a estudiar los mecanismos de formación de los mismos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Kidney Calculi/etiology , Kidney Calculi/metabolism , Kidney Calculi/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Reference Values , Uric Acid/metabolism , Kidney Calculi/chemistry , Sex Factors , Calcium/metabolism , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Crystallography, X-Ray/methods , Risk Assessment , Kidney/metabolism
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(6): 542-549, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838656

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Hyperthyroidism is currently recognized to affect the cardiovascular system, leading to a series of molecular and functional changes. However, little is known about the functional influence of hyperthyroidism in the regulation of cytoplasmic calcium and on the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) in the cardiac muscle. Objectives: To evaluate the functional changes in papillary muscles isolated from animals with induced hyperthyroidism. Methods: We divided 36 Wistar rats into a group of controls and another of animals with hyperthyroidism induced by intraperitoneal T3 injection. We measured in the animals' papillary muscles the maximum contraction force, speed of contraction (+df/dt) and relaxation (-df/dt), contraction and relaxation time, contraction force at different concentrations of extracellular sodium, post-rest potentiation (PRP), and contraction force induced by caffeine. Results: In hyperthyroid animals, we observed decreased PRP at all rest times (p < 0.05), increased +df/dt and -df/dt (p < 0.001), low positive inotropic response to decreased concentration of extracellular sodium (p < 0.001), reduction of the maximum force in caffeine-induced contraction (p < 0.003), and decreased total contraction time (p < 0.001). The maximal contraction force did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.973). Conclusion: We hypothesize that the changes observed are likely due to a decrease in calcium content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, caused by calcium leakage, decreased expression of NCX, and increased expression of a-MHC and SERCA2.


Resumo Fundamento: Sabe-se atualmente que o hipertireoidismo afeta o sistema cardiovascular, ocasionando uma série de alterações funcionais e moleculares. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a influência funcional do hipertireoidismo na regulação do cálcio citoplasmático e no trocador de sódio/cálcio (NCX) no músculo cardíaco. Objetivos: Avaliar as alterações funcionais de músculos papilares isolados de animais com hipertireoidismo induzido. Métodos: Ao todo, 36 ratos Wistar foram distribuídos em um grupo controle e outro grupo com hipertireoidismo induzido por injeção intraperitoneal de T3. Nos músculos papilares isolados dos animais foram medidos a força máxima de contração, a velocidade de contração (+df/dt) e relaxamento (-df/dt), o tempo de contração e relaxamento, a força de contração em diferentes concentrações de sódio extracelular, o potenciação pós-pausa (PPP) e a força de contração induzida por cafeína. Resultados: Em animais com hipertireoidismo, observamos uma diminuição da PPP em todos os períodos de repouso (p < 0,05), aumento do +df/dt e -df/dt (p < 0,001), baixa resposta inotrópica positiva à concentração reduzida de sódio extracelular (p < 0,001), diminuição da força máxima de contração induzida por cafeína (p < 0,003) e diminuição do tempo total de contração (p < 0,001). A força máxima de contração não diferiu significativamente entre os grupos (p = 0,973). Conclusões: Nossa hipótese é de que as alterações observadas são provavelmente resultantes de uma diminuição do conteúdo de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático causada por vazamento de cálcio, redução da expressão do NCX e aumento da expressão de a-MHC e SERCA2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Papillary Muscles/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Hyperthyroidism/physiopathology , Organ Size , Reference Values , Time Factors , Transducers , Random Allocation , Calcium/analysis , Calcium/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger/metabolism , Muscle Strength/physiology , Myocardial Contraction/physiology
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(3): 325-331, May-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782829

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated pH and release of calcium, sodium and phosphate ions from different medications in human dentin. Fifty premolars were prepared and randomly divided into groups: (CHX) - 2% chlorhexidine gel; (CHX + CH) - CHX + calcium hydroxide PA; (CH) - CH + propylene glycol 600; (NPBG) - experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass + distilled water; (BG) - bioactive glass (Bio-Gran) + distilled water. The specimens were immersed in deionized water and the pH variations were measured. The quantification of ions in the solutions was made by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) at 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test, with a significance level of 5%. CH had the highest level of calcium ions release at 30 days, while CHX and BG released more sodium ions. BG, NPBG and CHX released a higher amount of phosphate ions. The pH of CH was significantly higher compared with the other groups. CH favored the greatest increase of pH and calcium ions release. The bioactive glasses released more sodium and phosphate ions and presented an alkaline pH immediately and after 30 days.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o pH e a liberação de íons cálcio, sódio e fosfato de diferentes medicamentos em dentina humana. Cinquenta pré-molares foram preparados e divididos aleatoriamente em grupos: (CHX) - clorexidina gel 2%; (CHX + CH) - CHX + hidróxido de cálcio PA; (CH) - CH + propilenoglicol 600; (NPBG) - vidro experimental nióbio fosfato bioativo + água destilada; (BG) - vidro bioativo (Bio-Gran) + água destilada. Os espécimes foram submersos em água deionizada e as variações de pH foram mensuradas. A quantificação dos íons nas soluções foi feita por espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP - AES) nos tempos de 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 e 30 dias. Os resultados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste Tukey, com um nível de significância de 5%. Verificou-se que CH a teve a maior liberação íons de cálcio ao final de 30 dias, enquanto CHX e BG liberaram mais íons de sódio. BG, NPBG e CHX apresentaram a maior liberação de íons fosfato. O pH de CH foi significativamente maior em comparação com os outros grupos testados. O grupo CH aumentou o pH e a liberação de íons cálcio. Os vidros bioativos obtiveram uma maior liberação de íons sódio e fosfato e apresentaram pH alcalino imediato e ao final de 30 dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Calcium/metabolism , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Glass , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Root Canal Therapy , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
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