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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 780-785, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351051

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de las infecciones fúngicas atendidas en un centro de quemados de alta complejidad situado en Buenos Aires, entre 2011 y 2014, mediante el análisis de las histo rias clínicas (n = 36). Las edades de los pacientes estuvieron entre 18 y 87 años, y 23 (63.9%) fueron mujeres. La extensión de la superficie corporal afectada más prevalente varió entre 30 y 50% (p = 0.03), y entre 71% y 100% en pacientes de menor edad, relacionándose con intentos de femicidio. En el 69.4% la profundidad de la quemadura fue grado 4, y en el 50% de los casos se observaron lesiones por inhalación, con una alta mortali dad (p = 0.04). El Candida score resultó de 3 en el 77.7% de los casos. Se usaron vías centrales y ventilación mecánica. Todos los pacientes recibieron tratamiento antibiótico y en 33 (91.7%) antifúngicos. La escisión qui rúrgica de la quemadura se practicó en 33 (91.7%) y los autoinjertos de piel en 29 (80.6%). La infección fúngica se desarrolló en una media de 21.4 días del ingreso en UCI. Se estudiaron 52 muestras de levaduras que se aislaron de urocultivo (42.3%), hemocultivo (26.9%), biopsia cutánea (9.6%), punta de catéter (15.4%) y aspirado traqueal (5.8%). Por cultivo microbiológico y métodos moleculares se identificaron a Candida albicans (53.8%), C. tropicalis (23.1%), C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (13.5%), C. krusei (5.8%), C. glabrata (1.9%) y C. dubliniensis (1.9%). Las infecciones fúngicas representan severas complicaciones en quemados con factores de riesgo.


Abstract A retrospective analysis of fungal infections was carried out in a health-care burn center between 2011 and 2014 using the patients' medical records (n = 36). Patients ranged from 18 to 87 years of age, with 23 (63.9%) being women. The most prevalent widespread total body surface area affected (TBSA) was 30-50% (p = 0.03), and 71-100% in younger patients, mainly associated with femicide. Fourth degree burns were revealed in 69.4% of the patients while in 50%, inhalation injuries were observed to represent a higher mortality rate (p = 0.04). The Candida score was 3 in 77.7% of cases respectively. Central venous catheter and mechanical ventilation were used. All patients received antibiotic treatment and 91.7% antifungal treatment. Surgical excision of the burn was performed in 33 (91.7%) patients, and skin autografting in 29 (80.6%). The median of the fungal infection devel oped was 21.4 days after admission to the ICU. The specimens analyzed involved 52 yeast samples isolated from different cultures: urine (42.3%), blood (26.9%), skin biopsy (9.6%), catheter tip (15.4%) and tracheal aspirate (5.8%). The use of microbiological culture and molecular methods allowed for the identification of Candida albicans (53.8%), C. tropicalis (23.1%), C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (13.5%), C. krusei (5.8%), C. glabrata (1.9%) and C. dubliniensis (1.9%). Fungal infections observed in skin burns lead to severe complications in at-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Candida , Mycoses/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Antifungal Agents
2.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(2): 117-126, 20210630. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348662

ABSTRACT

El brote mundial del SARS-CoV-2, descrito a partir del 2019, provocó la pandemia de COVID-19, originando un riesgo para la salud de las personas, una amenaza a la vida y una emergencia de salud pública internacional, que hasta Julio del 2021 no se ha logrado controlar. La coinfección en estos pacientes, por virus, bacterias y hongos, aumenta la dificultad de diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico de la enfermedad. Es importante profundizar los conocimientos sobre el virus SARS-CoV-2 y las coinfecciones que podrían presentarse, en particular, en pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan micosis. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es, determinar la importancia de las micosis, como enfermedad oportunista, en pacientes con COVID-19. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sistemática, en la base de datos "PubMed-NCBI". Se utilizaron las palabras claves: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19 and coinfection", "Mycosis", "Aspergillus spp.", "Candida spp.", "COVID-19 and Aspergillus spp.", "COVID-19 and Candida spp.". Del análisis de la bibliografía, se concluye la importancia de las micosis respiratorias, originadas por diversos hongos en pacientes con COVID-19. Hay poca información del manejo de estas, siendo necesario fortalecer la investigación de la coinfección, para así, mejorar los flujogramas de sospecha clínica, contribuyendo a diagnósticos, tratamientos precisos y fomentar la prevención frente a esta pandemia.


The global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, described as of 2019 whose expansion caused the COVID-19 pandemic, has created a risk to people's health, presenting itself as a threat to life and an international public health emergency, which to the date cannot be controlled. Coinfection in these patients, by viruses, bacteria and fungi, increases the difficulty of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the disease. It's important to deepen the knowledge about the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the co-infections that could occur, in particular, in patients with COVID-19 who present with mycosis. The objective of this bibliographic review is to determine the importance of mycosis, as an opportunistic disease, in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2. A systematic bibliographic review was carried out in the "PubMed-NCBI" database, using the keywords and / or headings: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19 and coinfection" ,"Mycosis", "Aspergillus spp.", "Candida spp." COVID-19 and Aspergillus spp.", "COVID-19 and Candida spp.". From the analysis of the literature, one can conclude the importance of respiratory mycoses, caused by various fungal pathogens in patients with COVID-19. The disease was described in 2019 and there is few a information on cases and their management, making it necessary to strengthen the investigation of coinfection in these patients, in order to improve the flow charts of clinical suspicion, contributing to diagnoses, accurate treatments and promoting prevention against to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus , Candida , Coinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Immune Tolerance
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e10928, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278587

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of cryptic Candida species from candidemia cases in 22 public hospitals in São Paulo State, Brazil, and their antifungal susceptibility profiles. During 2017 and 2018, 144 isolates were molecularly identified as 14 species; C. parapsilosis (32.6%), C. albicans (27.7%), C. tropicalis (14.6%), C. glabrata (9.7%), C. krusei (2.8%), C. orthopsilosis (2.8%), C. haemulonii var. vulnera (2.1%), C. haemulonii (1.4%), C. metapsilosis (1.4%), C. dubliniensis (1.4%), C. guilliermondii (1.4%), C. duobushaemulonii (0.7%), C. kefyr (0.7%), and C. pelliculosa (0.7%). Poor susceptibility to fluconazole was identified in 6.4% of C. parapsilosis isolates (0.12 to >64 µg/mL), 50% of C. guilliermondii (64 µg/mL), 66.6% of C. haemulonii var. vulnera (16-32 µg/mL), and C. duobushaemulonii strain (MIC 64 µg/mL). Our results corroborated the emergence of C. glabrata in Brazilian cases of candidemia as previously reported. Importantly, we observed a large proportion of non-wild type C. glabrata isolates to voriconazole (28.6%; <0.015 to 4 µg/mL) all of which were also resistant to fluconazole (28.6%). Of note, C. haemulonii, a multidrug resistant species, has emerged in the Southeast region of Brazil. Our findings suggested a possible epidemiologic change in the region with an increase in fluconazole-resistant species causing candidemia. We stress the relevance of routine accurate identification to properly manage therapy and monitor epidemiologic trends.


Subject(s)
Candida , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Hospitals
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20210024, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340097

ABSTRACT

Abstract Understanding the behavior of Candida spp. when exposed to denture disinfectants is essential to optimize their effectiveness. Changes in the virulence factors may cause increased resistance of Candida spp. to disinfectant agents. Objective To evaluate the microbial load, cellular metabolism, hydrolytic enzyme production, hyphae formation, live cell and biofilm quantification of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata after exposure to disinfectant solutions. Methodology Simple biofilms were grown on heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens, and divided into groups according to solutions/strains: distilled water (control); 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 0.25% ); 10% Ricinus communis (RC 10%); and 0.5% Chloramine T (CT 0.5%). The virulence factors were evaluated using the CFU count (microbial load), XTT method (cell metabolism), epifluorescence microscopy (biofilm removal and live or dead cells adhered), protease and phospholipase production and hyphae formation. Data were analyzed (α=0.05) by one-way ANOVA/ Tukey post hoc test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon test. Results NaOCl 0.25% was the most effective solution. CT 0.5% reduced the number of CFUs more than RC 10% and the control. RC 10% was effective only against C. glabrata. RC 10% and CT 0.5% decreased the cellular metabolism of C. albicans and C. glabrata. Enzyme production was not affected. Hyphal growth in the RC 10% and CT 0.5% groups was similar to that of the control. CT 0.5% was better than RC 10% against C. albicans and C. tropicalis when measuring the total amount of biofilm and number of living cells. For C. glabrata, CT 0.5% was equal to RC 10% in the maintenance of living cells; RC 10% was superior for biofilm removal. Conclusions The CT 0.5% achieved better results than those of Ricinus communis at 10%, favoring the creation of specific products for dentures. Adjustments in the formulations of RC 10% are necessary due to efficacy against C. glabrata. The NaOCl 0.25% is the most effective and could be suitable for use as a positive control.


Subject(s)
Candida , Disinfectants , Acrylic Resins , Candida albicans , Biofilms , Virulence Factors
5.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31105, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291252

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A cesárea é realizada em condições maternas e/ou fetais que impeçam o nascimento via vaginal. Devido ao risco de complicações infecciosas, o procedimento é precedido de antibioticoprofilaxia, o que pode provocar a seleção de cepas multirresistentes e alterar a flora nativa do indivíduo. O colostro é um fator determinante para a colonização do trato digestivo por ser fonte probiótica, além de apresentar papel importante na modulação do sistema imunológico e desenvolvimento do neonato. Objetivo: Este estudo visa avaliar possíveis interferências da antibioticoprofilaxia realizada previamente à cesárea na flora materna. Métodos: Selecionou-se 140 lactantes após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, divididas em grupos estudo (realizaram parto cesáreo com antibioticoprofilaxia) e controle (realizaram parto vaginal sem antibioticoprofilaxia) para coleta das amostras ­ colostro e esfregaço areolar ­ com intuito de realizar a análise microbiológica das mesmas no Laboratório de Microbiologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Barbacena. Resultados: 94 lactantes pertencem ao grupo estudo e 46 ao controle. O microrganismo mais prevalente em todas as amostras foi a Candida sp. Ao se discriminar os grupos, a mesma também apresentou maior prevalência, seguida de Enterococcus sp. Em relação à detecção de Staphylococcus aureus pelo esfregaço mamilar, ele foi encontrado em 24 amostras do grupo controle e em 34 do grupo estudo. Na análise comparativa da prevalência de microrganismos entre os grupos, não se observou diferença estatisticamente relevante. Conclusão: A antibioticoprofilaxia peri-operatória mostrou-se segura em não alterar a composição da flora materna. Entretanto, mais estudos sobre o tema devem ser realizados.


Introduction: The C-section is performed under maternal and / or fetal conditions that prevent vaginal birth. Because of the infectious complications, the procedure is preceded by antibiotic prophylaxis, which can cause the selection of multidrug-resistant strains and shift the individual's native flora. Colostrum is a determining factor for colonization of the digestive tract being a probiotic source, along with playing an important role in the modulation of the immune system and development of the newborn. Objective: This study aims to assess possible interferences of antibiotic prophylaxis performed prior to cesarean section on maternal flora. Methods: 140 lactating women were selected after applying the exclusion criteria, divided into study groups (94 lactating women who underwent cesarean delivery with antibiotic prophylaxis) and control groups (46 lactating women who underwent vaginal delivery without antibiotic prophylaxis) for sample collection - colostrum and areolar swab - therefore perform the microbiological analysis at the Laboratório de Microbiologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Barbacena. Results: The most prevalent microorganism in all samples was Candida sp. Discriminating the groups, it also had the highest prevalence, followed by Enterococcus sp. Regarding the detection of Staphylococcus aureus by the areolar swab, it was found in 24 samples from the control group and 34 from the study group. In the comparative analysis of prevalence of microorganisms, between the groups, there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis proved to be safe not changing the composition of the maternal flora. However, further studies on the subject should be carried out.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Microbiological Techniques , Colostrum , Infant , Staphylococcus aureus , Candida , Cesarean Section , Flora , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Parturition , Postpartum Period , Enterobacteriaceae , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
6.
Vive (El Alto) ; 3(9): 227-246, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252340

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones fúngicas ocasionadas por levaduras del género Cándida son extremadamente comunes en mujeres de edad reproductiva, y constituyen un motivo de atención medica de salud. OBJETIVO: evaluar la susceptibilidad de Cándidas spp, mediante el método colorimétrico (Integral Yeast System Plus). MÉTODO: fue de tipo descriptivo, transversal; se recopiló información mediante observación directa en campo y el análisis documental para obtener información bibliográfica de tipo secundaria. RESULTADOS: de los 72 casos encontrados de Cándida Albicans revela que son susceptibles a la anfotericina B (2ug/ml); de los 5 casos encontrados de Cándida Krusei revela que son sensibles a la Anfotericina B (2ug/ml); De 1 caso encontrado de Cándida Parapsilosis revela sensibilidad en la Nistatina (1.25ug/ml). En este estudio la prevalencia de la infección por Cándida fue del (44.98%). CONCLUSIONES: Cándida Albicans fue la especie más común aislada en las mujeres embarazadas representando un 72%, En la evaluación de la susceptibilidad a través del kit Integral System Yeast Plus se obtuvo que Cándida Albicans es susceptible a Anfotericina B, Flucitosina entre otros, en Cándida Glabrata se obtuvo que es sensible a la Nistatina, Anfotericina B, susceptible entre otros, en Cándida Krusei se obtuvo que es sensible a la Anfotericina B, Clotrimazol, Miconazol, susceptibles a la Nistatina, Voriconazol y resistente a la Flucitosina, Ketoconazol, Itraconazol y Fluconazol.


INTRODUCTION: fungal infections caused by yeast of the genus Candida are extremely common in women of reproductive age, and constitute a reason for medical health care. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the susceptibility of Candida spp, using the colorimetric method (Integral Yeast System Plus). METHOD: it was descriptive, transversal; Information was collected through direct observation in the field and documentary analysis to obtain secondary bibliographic information. RESULTS: of the 72 cases found, Candida Albicans reveals that they are susceptible to amphotericin B (2ug / ml); of the 5 cases found, Candida Krusei reveals that they are sensitive to Amphotericin B (2ug / ml); Of 1 case found of Candida Parapsilosis reveals sensitivity in Nystatin (1.25ug / ml). In this study, the prevalence of Candida infection was (44.98%). CONCLUSIONS: Candida Albicans was the most common species isolated in pregnant women, representing 72%. In the evaluation of susceptibility through the Integral System Yeast Plus kit it was obtained that Candida Albicans is susceptible to Amphotericin B, Flucytosine among others, in Candida Glabrata was obtained that it is sensitive to Nystatin, Amphotericin B, susceptible among others, in Candida Krusei it was obtained that it is sensitive to Amphotericin B, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, susceptible to Nystatin, Voriconazole and resistant to Flucytosin, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole and Fluconazole.


INTRODUÇÃO: as infecções fúngicas causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida são extremamente comuns em mulheres em idade reprodutiva e constituem motivo de cuidados médicos. OBJETIVO: avaliar a suscetibilidade de Candida spp, por meio do método colorimétrico (Integral Yeast System Plus). MÉTODO: foi descritivo, transversal; as informações foram coletadas por meio de observação direta em campo e análise documental para obtenção de informações bibliográficas secundárias. RESULTADOS: Dos 72 casos encontrados, Cândida Albicans revelou ser suscetíveis à anfotericina B (2ug /ml); dos 5 casos encontrados, Candida Krusei revela que são sensíveis à Anfotericina B (2ug / ml); de 1 caso encontrado de Candida Parapsilosis revela sensibilidade na Nistatina (1,25ug / ml). Neste estudo, a prevalência de infecção por Candida foi (44,98%). CONCLUSÕES: Cândida Albicans foi a espécie mais comum isolada em gestantes, representando 72%. Na avaliação da susceptibilidade através do kit Integral System Yeast Plus foi obtido que Candida Albicans é suscetível à Anfotericina B, Flucitosina entre outras, em Cândida Glabrata foi obtido que é sensível a Nistatina, Anfotericina B, suscetível entre outras, em Candida Krusei foi obtido que é sensível a Anfotericina B, Clotrimazol, Miconazol, suscetível a Nistatina, Voriconazol e resistente a Flucitosina, Cetoconazol, Itraconazol e Fluconazol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Candida , Candida albicans , Amphotericin B , Colorimetry , Candida glabrata , Pregnant Women , Fluconazole , Prevalence , Clotrimazole , Itraconazole , Voriconazole , Flucytosine , Candida parapsilosis , Infections , Miconazole
7.
Infectio ; 24(4): 266-269, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114881

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La endocarditis fúngica es una enfermedad infecciosa agresiva e infrecuente, considerada una emergencia en los servicios hospitalarios. Se ha evidenciado una incidencia de 0-12% del total de las admisiones pediátricas por endocarditis infecciosa. La mortalidad por Candida spp se encuentra alrededor del 50-80% en todos los casos. La Candida lusitaniae afecta principalmente a pacientes inmunocomprometidos, con uso de dispositivos intravasculares y el empleo de antibióticos de amplio espectro. Reporte de caso: Se presenta el caso de un lactante menor quien es diagnosticado con fungemia y endocarditis infecciosa por Candida lusitaniae en válvula nativa posterior a cirugía de corrección por transposición de grandes vasos. Discusión y Conclusiones: La endocarditis infecciosa por Candida lusitaniae es una entidad poco frecuente, con una prevalencia menor al 2% constituyéndose un escenario desafiante en la práctica clínica. Se describen las características de un lactante menor quien presentó endocarditis fúngica ya definidas en la literatura mundial. Es imprescindible la detección temprana y una intervención terapéutica vertiginosa; puesto que, la persistencia del inoculo, la resistencia antimicótica y el retraso en el diagnóstico conllevan a una condición amenazante para la vida del paciente.


Abstract Introduction: Fungal infective endocarditis is an aggressive and infrequent disease, considered an emergency in hospital services. Candida mortality is around 50-80% in all cases. The Candida lusitaniae mainly affects immunocompromised patients with chronic venous access and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Case report: A minor infant is presented who is diagnosed with fungemia and infective endocarditis due to Candida lusitaniae in a native valve secondary to surgery by transposition of large vessels. Discussion and Conclusions: Candida lusitaniae infectious endocarditis is very rare, with a prevalence of less than 2% constituting a challenging scenario in clinical practice. The characteristics of fungemia and endocarditis already defined in the world literature are described. Early detection and a vertiginous therapeutic intervention are essential, since; latent infection, antifungal resistance and delay in diagnosis lead to a threatening condition for the patient's life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Candida , Endocarditis , Fungemia , Echinocandins , Infections/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents
8.
Infectio ; 24(4): 224-228, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114873

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Comparar los resultados obtenidos de diferentes sistemas de identificación de C. auris. Métodos: Análisis descriptivo con datos recopilados durante 2016-19 mediante la vigilancia nacional. Se evaluaron los resultados generados por los sistemas MicroScan, Phoenix BD, VITEK 2 y MALDI-TOF MS de instituciones hospitalarias de 843 aislamientos clínicos sospechosos de C. auris remitidos al INS y se compararon con los resultados generados de confirmación a través de MALDI- TOF MS (Bruker Daltonics) o PCR. Resultados: De los 843 aislamientos clínicos remitidos al INS, el 81,7% fueron confirmados como C. auris mediante MALDI- TOF MS o PCR en el INS y el resto, 18,3%, fueron identificados como otras especies de Candida spp. Las identificaciones correctas enviadas por los laboratorios representaron el 42,4%. MicroScan identificó C. auris principalmente como C. haemulonii, C. guilliermondii, C. albicans y C. famata; Phoenix BD, VITEK 2 y MALDI-TOF MS identificó C. auris como C. haemulonii. Discusión: Estudios señalan que C. auris exhibe una estrecha relación filogenética con C. haemulonii. Las identificaciones discrepantes pueden darse debido a que las bases de datos de los sistemas de diagnóstico son limitadas para este patógeno. Las deficiencias de los sistemas comerciales para la identificación de C. auris deben ser complementados con otros sistemas como MALDI-TOF MS o pruebas moleculares.


Abstract Objective: To compare the identification results obtained by different identification systems of C. auris isolates. Methods: A descriptive study with data collected during the years 2016-19 through surveillance. The results generated by the MicroScan, Phoenix BD, VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF MS systems of 843 clinical isolates of C. auris submitted to the INS were evaluated and compared with the results generated from confirmation through MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonics) or PCR. Results: Out of 843 clinical isolates submitted to the INS, 81.7% were confirmed as C. auris by MALDITOF MS or PCR in the INS and the rest, 18.3%, were identified as other species of Candida spp. The correct identifications sent by the laboratories was 42.4%. MicroScan identified C. auris as C. haemulonii, C. guilliermondii, C. albicans and C. famata; Phoenix BD, VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF MS identified C. auris as C. haemulonii. Discussion: Studies indicate that C. auris exhibits a close phylogenetic relationship with C. haemulonii. In addition, discrepant identifications may occur because the databases of diagnostic systems are limited with reference to this pathogen. The deficiencies of commercial systems for the identification of C. auris must be complemented with other systems such as MALDI-TOF MS or molecular tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Candida , Surveillance , Diagnosis , Laboratories , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Colombia , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Alkalies
9.
Infectio ; 24(4): 217-223, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114872

ABSTRACT

Resumen Candida spp. es un agente etiológico importante en infecciones del tracto urinario, principalmente en población con terapia antimicótica de amplio espectro y con catéteres urinarios. Candida albicans es la especie más frecuente, pero otras especies han surgido como patógenos emergentes. En este trabajo se recolectaron aislamientos de Candida spp. de urocultivos de pacientes que consultaron en Dinamica IPS entre enero 2016 y noviembre 2017. Para estimar la frecuencia de las especies y observar los patrones de sensibilidad, se realizó la identificación fenotípica y su perfil de sensibilidad con el sistema comercial Vitek 2® (BioMérieux, Inc.), adicionalmente se evaluaron mediante análisis de las secuencia y filogenética ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. En el estudio se incluyeron 78 aislamientos de Candida spp. Las frecuencias de especies de Candida identificadas empleando las herramientas moleculares fueron: C. albicans (38,5%), C. tropicalis (23,1%), C. glabrata (21,8%), C. parapsilosis (10,3%), C. metapsilosis y C. krusei (2,5%) y C. guillermondi (1,3%). La identificación por métodos moleculares y por el sistema Vitek 2 fue: C. albicans (93,3%), C. glabrata (94,1%), C. tropicalis (83,3%), C. parapsilosis (75%) C. guilliermondii y C. krusei (100%). La sensibilidad de todos los aislamientos al fluconazol fue 93,6%.


Abstract Candida spp is an important etiologic agent in urinary tract infections, mainly in patients in broad-spectrum antifungal therapy, with urinary catheters. Candida albicans is the most frequent specie; but other species have arised as emerging pathogens. In this study, isolates of Candida spp. of urine cultures from patients who consulted in Dinamica IPS between January 2016 and November 2017 were evaluated. To estimate the frequency of the species and to observe the sensitivity patterns, the phenotypic identification and its sensitivity profile was performed employed the Vitek 2® commercial system. (BioMérieux, Inc) In addition the isolates were evaluated by sequence analysis and phylogenetics ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. This study included 78 isolates of Candida spp. The frequencies of Candida species identified using the molecular tools were: C. albicans (38.5%), C. tropicalis (23.1%), C. glabrata (21.8%), C. parapsilosis (10.3%), C. guillermondi (1.3%) and C. metapsilosis and C. krusei (2.5%). The identification by molecular methods and by Vitek 2 system were: C. albicans (93.3%), for C. glabrata (94.1%), C. tropicalis (83.3%), C. parapsilosis (75%) and 100% for C. guilliermondii and C. krusei.. fluconazole sensitivity of all isolates was 93.6%


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Candida , Diagnostic Techniques, Urological , Candida parapsilosis , Laboratories , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Sequence Analysis , Urinary Catheters , Infections
10.
San Salvador; MINSAL; oxt. 23, 2020. 18 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1129230

ABSTRACT

Ante el riesgo potencial de casos por este hongo en pacientes que consultan en el Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud, se elaboran los presentes lineamientos para el control y diagnóstico de infecciones por C. auris, contándose con la colaboración técnica de expertos internacionales del Centro para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades de los Estados Unidos de América (CDC), de la Secretaría Ejecutiva del Consejo de Ministros de Salud de Centroamérica y República Dominicana (SE-COMISCA) y de un panel de expertos nacionales


Given the potential risk of cases due to this fungus in patients who consult in the National Integrated Health System, these guidelines are prepared for the control and diagnosis of C. auris infections, with the technical collaboration of international experts from the Center for the Disease Control and Prevention of the United States of America (CDC), the Executive Secretariat of the Council of Ministers of Health of Central America and the Dominican Republic (SE-COMISCA) and a panel of national experts


Subject(s)
Candida , Diagnosis , Fungi
11.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 68(3): 463-466, July-Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1143736

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Candida auris is an opportunistic yeast associated with multiple infections, which was first reported in 2009 in Tokyo, Japan. Provided that it has great antifungal resistance to azoles and amphotericin B, its treatment options are limited, and therefore an empiric therapy using echinocandins such as micafungin should be considered. Case presentation: A rare case of a 48-year-old male patient with osteomyelitis caused by C. auris was reported in the city of Popayán, Colombia. The patient had a history of femoral head fracture, paraplegia due to firearm-related injury and neurogenic bladder, and reported having experienced abundant purulent foul-smelling secretions through trochanteric right ulcer for 15 days. MRI images revealed myositis and bone intensity alterations, which allowed diagnosing him with osteomyelitis. Due to repeated isolations of C. haemulonii in several bone samples, antifungal management was initiated. However, since no improvement in the patient's condition was observed, a culture was sent to the Colombian National Institute of Health to identify the pathogen considering the repeated isolations of C. haemulonii and its apparent resistance to antifungals. C. auris was finally confirmed as the pathogen. Conclusion: Osteomyelitis by C. auris is a rare entity, which must be considered when treating patients with predisposing risk factors such as long hospital stays, bearing in mind that this is an inpatient-associated opportunistic infection.


Resumen Introducción. Candida auris es una levadura oportunista asociada a múltiples infecciones que, en 2009, fue descrita por primera vez en Tokio, Japón. Dado que tiene una gran resistencia antifúngica a los azoles y a la anfotericina B, su manejo es limitado, por lo que se debe considerar iniciar un tratamiento empírico con equinocandinas como la micafungina. Presentación de caso. Caso inusual de osteomielitis por C. auris en un hombre de 48 años de Popayán, Colombia, con antecedentes de fractura de cabeza de fémur, paraplejia por herida con arma de fuego y vejiga neurogénica. El paciente tenía cuadro clínico de 15 días de evolución consistente en salida abundante de líquido purulento fétido en úlcera derecha por presión trocantérica. Mediante resonancia magnética se identificaron miositis y alteraciones de intensidad ósea, por lo que fue diagnosticado con osteomielitis. Debido a la identificación de aislamientos repetidos de Candida haemulonii en varias muestras óseas, se inició manejo antifúngico; sin embargo, ya que no se observó ninguna mejora en la condición del paciente, el cultivo fue enviado al Instituto Nacional de Salud para confirmar la identificación del patógeno debido a aislamientos repetidos de C. haemulonii y su aparente resistencia a los antifúngicos. Finalmente, el patógeno identificado fue C. auris. Conclusión. La osteomielitis por C. auris es una entidad inusual cuyo diagnóstico debe ser considerado en pacientes con factores de riesgo predisponente, como aquellos con larga estancia hospitalaria, ya que esta es una infección oportunista asociada a pacientes hospitalizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteomyelitis , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Candida
12.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(3): 1-16, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247638

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivos: A candidíase oral tem uma ocorrência comum em pacientes imunocomprometidos. No entanto, outras infecções emergentes tornaram-se cada vez mais habituais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência, os determinantes de virulência e a suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras que colonizam a mucosa de pacientes imunocomprometidos na região Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: A amostra foi composta por 60 pacientes HIV positivos atendidos no Serviço de Atendimento Especializado/Hospital Dia do Hospital Universitário Prof. Alberto Antunes, vinculado à Universidade Federal de Alagoas. As amostras foram coletadas em regiões subgengivais e semeadas em CHROMagar para confirmação presuntiva de Candida spp., seguido por PCR e sequenciamento. Além disso, testamos os determinantes de virulência fosfolipase e protease e avaliamos in vitro a concentração inibitória mínima dos antifúngicos anfotericina B e fluconazol. Este projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de ética em pesquisa do Centro de Estudos Superiores de Maceió. Resultados: Aproximadamente 63% dos pacientes foram colonizados por leveduras. A espécie C. albicans foi predominante, enquanto as espécies de Candida não-albicans representaram 49% dos isolados, sendo C. dubliniensis e C. parapsilosis as mais comuns. Entretanto, C. intermedia, Bullera penniseticola e Naganishia liquefaciens também foram encontrados. Os determinantes da virulência protease e/ou fosfolipase também foram produzidos por Candida spp. e alguns isolados oportunistas incomuns como Kodamaea ohmeri, N. liquefaciens e Saitozyma podzolica. Além disso, a maioria dos isolados de Candida spp. e algumas espécies oportunistas incomuns apresentaram altos valores de concentração inibitória mínima. Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos indicam que C. albicans continua a ser a espécie predominante na cavidade oral de pacientes imunodeficientes e, juntamente com outras espécies incomuns, pode apresentar alta resistência aos antifúngicos testados.(AU)


Background and Objectives: Oral candidiasis has a common occurrence in immunocompromised patients. However, other emergent infections have become increasingly common. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, virulence determinants and the antifungal susceptibility of yeast colonizing the mucosa of immunocompromised patients in Northeastern Brazil. Methods: Samples from sixty HIV-positive patients seen at the Specialized Service / Hospital Dia - Hospital Universitário Prof. Alberto Antunes from the Federal University of Alagoas were collected from subgingival sites and seeded on CHROMagar for presumptive confirmation of Candida spp. followed by PCR and sequencing. In addition, we tested virulence determinants, phospholipase and protease and evaluated in vitro the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of antifungals amphotericin B and fluconazole. This project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Center for Higher Studies in Maceió. Results: Approximately 63% of the patients were colonized by yeasts, with C. albicans as the predominant species, while non-Candida albicans species accounted for 49% of the isolates, with C. dubliniensis and C. parapsilosis being the commonest, but C. intermedia, Bullera penniseticola and Naganishia liquefaciens were also found. The virulence determinants protease and/or phospholipase were also produced by Candida spp. and some uncommon opportunistic isolates such as Kodamaea ohmeri, N. liquefaciens and Saitozyma podzolica. Furthermore, most of Candida spp. strains and some uncommon opportunistic species showed high values of minimal inhibitory concentration. Conclusion: Results obtained indicate that C. albicans continues to be the predominant species in oral cavity of immunodeficient patients and along with other unusual species may present high resistance to the antifungals tested.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: La candidiasis oral acomete con frecuencia a pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Sin embargo, otras infecciones emergentes se han vuelto cada vez más comunes. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la prevalencia, la producción de determinantes de virulencia y la susceptibilidad a antifúngicos de levaduras que colonizan la mucosa de pacientes inmunocomprometidos en la región Nordeste de Brasil. Métodos: Se colectaron muestras de sesenta pacientes VIH positivos atendidos en el Servicio de Atención Especializado/Hospital Día del Hospital Universitario Prof. Alberto Antunes, vinculado a la Universidad Federal de Alagoas. Se colectaron las muestras en las regiones subgingivales y las sembraron en CHROMagar para la presunta confirmación de Candida spp. seguido de PCR y secuenciación. Además, analizamos los determinantes de virulencia fosfolipasa y proteasa y evaluamos in vitro la concentración mínima inhibitoria de los antifúngicos anfotericina B y fluconazol. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación del Centro de Estudios Superiores de Maceió. Resultados: Aproximadamente el 63% de los pacientes fueron colonizados por levaduras, y la C. albicans fue la especie predominante, mientras que las especies de Candida no-albicans representaron el 49% de los aislamientos, de las cuales la C. dubliniensis y la C. parapsilosis fueron las más comunes. Sin embargo, también se encontraron C. intermedia, Bullera penniseticola y Naganishia liquefaciens. Los determinantes de virulencia de proteasa y/o fosfolipasa también fueron producidos por Candida spp. y algunos aislados oportunistas inusuales como Kodamaea ohmeri, N. liquefaciens y Saitozyma podzolica. Además, la mayoría de los asilados de Candida spp. y algunas especies oportunistas inusuales mostraron valores altos de concentración mínima inhibitoria. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos indican que C. albicans continúa siendo la especie predominante en la cavidad oral de pacientes inmunodeprimidos y, junto con otras especies poco comunes, puede presentar una alta resistencia a los antifúngicos evaluados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Virulence , Yeasts/virology , Candida , Candidiasis, Oral , Virulence Factors , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Antifungal Agents , Prevalence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
13.
Infectio ; 24(3): 143-148, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114857

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Candida spp. Es la principal causa de fungemia, cuya incidencia ha aumentado en los últimos años. Existen datos locales insuficientes sobre este tipo de infecciones. Materiales y métodos: Este fue un estudio observacional retrospectivo de 44 pacientes diagnosticados con candidiasis invasiva hospitalizados en la Fundación Valle del Lili, el cual es un centro de cuarto nivel afiliado a la Universidad Icesi en el Suroccidente Colombiano, entre los años 2012 a 2017. Resultados: Se identificaron 44 pacientes con candidiasis invasiva, 27 de ellos mujeres (61%). La mediana de edad fue de 56 años (36 - 70). Más del 50% tenían una enfermedad crónica subyacente, uso de antibióticos (84%), catéter venoso central (80%), ventilación mecánica (68%) y nutrición enteral (66%) El 80% requirió manejo en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) donde debutaron con sepsis (68%) y falla respiratoria (61%). En el 90% de los casos se aisló alguna especie de Candida spp. A partir de hemocultivo y sólo al 22% se le realizó prueba de sensibilidad. El tratamiento de elección fue con fluconazol (80%), asociado a caspofungina (70%). La tasa de mortalidad fue del 49%, con una mediana de 33 (22-49,5) días desde el ingreso hasta el fallecimiento. C. albicans fue el principal microorganismo aislado. La resistencia a azoles en especies no albicans existe en nuestro medio. Conclusión: La candidiasis se presenta como candidemia asociada a infección bacteriana concomitante, que cobra mayor importancia en el contexto del paciente inmunosuprimido asociado a elevadas tasas de mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Candida spp. is the main cause of fungemia, whose incidence has increased in recent years. There are insufficient local data about this pathology. Materials and methods: This was an observational, retrospective chart review of 44 patients diagnosed with invasive candida who were hospitalized at Fundación Valle del Lili, which is a fourth level center affiliated to Icesi university between 2012 and 2017. Results: We identified 44 patients with invasive candidiasis, 27 of them women (61%). The median age was 56 years (36 - 70). More than 50% had an underlying chronic disease, use of antibiotics (84%), central venous catheter (80%), mechanical ventilation (68%) and enteral nutrition (66%). 80% required management in an intensive care unit. Sepsis (68%) and respiratory failure (61%) were the most common clinical presentation. Almost 90% of the cases, had positive blood cultures, but only 22% presented susceptibility tests. The treatment was mainly fluconazole (80%), associated with caspofungin (70%). The mortality rate was 49%, median of 33 (22-49.5) days from admission to death. Candida albicans was the main isolated organism. Azole resistance in non-albicans species was observed. Conclusion: Candidiasis presents as bacterial infection associated candidemia, which becomes more important in the context of the immunosuppressed patient with high mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Infections , Immunocompromised Host , Fungemia , Candidiasis, Invasive , Candida , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Colombia , Sepsis , Caspofungin , Infections , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents
14.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(3): e578, jul.-set. 2020. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144477

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se desconocen las características de las infecciones cervicovaginales, diagnosticadas mediante el exudado vaginal, sobre todo en mujeres cubanas de mediana edad. En otras etapas del ciclo vital femenino, sí se han realizado estos estudios. Esta información es importante, fundamentalmente para realizar acciones de promoción de salud. Objetivo: Determinar las características de las infecciones cervicovaginales más frecuentes diagnosticadas mediante el exudado vaginal. Método: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 1118 mujeres. Se recogió la edad (agrupada en 20 - 44 años y 45 y más años), los resultados del exudado vaginal, la percepción de secreción vaginal o la ausencia de esta (asintomáticas) y los microorganismos identificados en el exudado. Resultados: El 49,9 por ciento de exudados vaginales fueron positivos a vaginosis bacteriana, Cándidas albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis y desequilibro en la ecología vaginal. El 45 por ciento de las pacientes no tenían secreción vaginal, es decir, estaban asintomáticas. Conclusión: Las infecciones cervicovaginales se caracterizaron por ser de elevada frecuencia, usualmente asintomáticas, con predominio de vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y trichomoniasis(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The characteristics of cervicovaginal infections diagnosed by vaginal exudate are unknown, especially in middle-aged Cuban women. At other stages of the female life cycle, these studies have been done. Due to the importance of this information, to carry out health promotion actions, this research was carried out. Objective: To determine the characteristics of the most frequent cervicovaginal infections diagnosed by vaginal exudate. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1118 women. Age (grouped into 20-44 years and 45 and over), the results of positive vaginal discharge, the perception of presence or not of vaginal discharge (asymptomatic) and the microorganisms identified in the discharge were collected. Results: 49.9 percent of vaginal exudates were positive for bacterial vaginosis, Candidas albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and imbalance in vaginal ecology. 45 percent of the patients had no vaginal discharge, that is, they were asymptomatic. Conclusion: Cervicovaginal infections were characterized by being of high frequency, usually asymptomatic, with prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Candida , Candidiasis , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaginosis, Bacterial , Vaginal Discharge , Infections
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 46: 14-21, jul. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biosurfactants are biomolecules that have the potential to be applied in food formulations due to their low toxicity and ability to improve sensory parameters. Considering the ability of yeasts to produce biosurfactants with food-friendly properties, the aim of the present study was to apply a biosurfactant produced by Candida utilis in the formulation of cookies. RESULTS: The biosurfactant was obtained with a yield of 24.22 ± 0.23 g/L. The characterization analysis revealed that the structure of a metabolized fatty acid with high oleic acid content (68.63 ± 0.61%), and the thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated good stability at temperatures lower than 200°C, potential for food applications. The biosurfactant also exhibited satisfactory antioxidant activity at concentrations evaluated, without cytotoxic potential for cell strains, L929 and RAW 264.7, according to the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The incorporation of the surfactant into the dough of a standard cookie formulation to replace animal fat was carried out, achieving a softer, spongier product without significantly altering the physical and physicochemical properties or energy value. CONCLUSION: The thermal stability and antioxidant activity of the biosurfactant produced by C. utilis were verified, besides the positive contribution in the texture analysis of the cookies. Therefore, this biomolecule presents itself as a potential ingredient in flour-based sweet food formulations.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Candida/metabolism , Food, Formulated , Cookies , Temperature , Yeasts , Food Industry , Food Additives , Antioxidants
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(3): 288-294, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126121

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La candidemia es una micosis sistémica asociada a los cuidados de la salud de elevada morbimortalidad. Los adultos mayores presentan las tasas más altas y la información en esta población es escasa. Objetivos: Describir las características de las candidemias en los adultos mayores, identificar factores asociados a mortalidad y evaluar la utilidad de un score predictor. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de las candidemias en adultos mayores en un hospital de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se analizaron todos los episodios en pacientes mayores de 60 años en un período de ocho años. Resultados: Se incluyeron 59 episodios. La co-morbilidad más frecuente fue diabetes mellitus. El principal sitio de origen fue infección asociada a catéter (45%). Sólo 17% presentó un Candida score mayor a 2,5. La mortalidad global a las 48 h fue 20% y a 15 días 49%. Las variables asociadas a mortalidad fueron: shock, asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM), plaquetopenia, insuficiencia renal y leucocitosis (rango p < 0,0001-0,006). En el análisis multivariado el shock fue la única variable independiente asociada a mortalidad (HR 4,02 [IC 95% 1,18-13,72], p = 0,026). Conclusiones: La mitad de los adultos mayores con candidemia falleció en los primeros 15 días. Shock, ARM, plaquetopenia, insuficiencia renal y leucocitosis fueron factores asociados a mortalidad. El score predictor de uso habitual no fue útil en esta población.


Abstract Background: Candidemia is a nosocomial bloodstream infection and an important cause of comorbidity and mortality. Elderly patients present the highest rates of candidemia but data about this population is scarce. Aims: To describe characteristics of candidemia in elderly patients, to identify risk factors associated with mortality and to evaluate the usefulness of a predictive score. Methods: A retrospective observational study of candidemia in elderly patients from a tertiary care hospital was carried out. We analyzed all Candida bloodstream infections during an eight-year period in patients older than 60 years. Results: Fifty-nine episodes were included. Diabetes was the most frequent comorbidity. Most candidemia were catheter related infections (45%). Only 17% of patients had a Candida score > 2.5. Overall mortality at 48 hours was 20%, and at 15 days was 49%. Mortality-related factors were shock, assisted mechanical ventilation, thrombocytopenia, renal failure and leukocytosis (p range < 0.0001-0.006). On multivariate analysis septic shock was independently associated with mortality (HR 4.02 [CI 95% 1.18-13.72] p = 0.026). Conclusions: Nearly half of patients with candidemia died during the first fifteen days. Shock, assisted mechanical ventilation, thrombocytopenia, renal failure, and leukocytosis were factors associated with mortality. The predictive score was not useful in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Cross Infection , Candidemia , Candida , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Antifungal Agents
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 782-791, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826898

ABSTRACT

L-2-aminobutyric acid (L-ABA) is an important chemical raw material and chiral pharmaceutical intermediate. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient method for L-ABA production from L-threonine using a trienzyme cascade route with Threonine deaminase (TD) from Escherichia. coli, Leucine dehydrogenase (LDH) from Bacillus thuringiensis and Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Candida boidinii. In order to simplify the production process, the activity ratio of TD, LDH and FDH was 1:1:0.2 after combining different activity ratios in the system in vitro. The above ratio was achieved in the recombinant strain E. coli 3FT+L. Moreover, the transformation conditions were optimized. Finally, we achieved L-ABA production of 68.5 g/L with a conversion rate of 99.0% for 12 h in a 30-L bioreactor by whole-cell catalyst. The environmentally safe and efficient process route represents a promising strategy for large-scale L-ABA production in the future.


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates , Bacillus thuringiensis , Candida , Escherichia coli , Formate Dehydrogenases , Metabolism , Leucine Dehydrogenase , Metabolism , Threonine , Metabolism , Threonine Dehydratase , Metabolism
18.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(4): 1-7, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1122044

ABSTRACT

Objective: The use of medicinal plants may be an alternative method for the control of Candida spp. Responsible for human infections. This study evaluated the antifungal effect of Schinus terebinthifolius extract (Brazilian Peppertree) on C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei planktonic cultures and bio films. Material and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungal concentration (MFC) of the plant extract were determined by the broth microdilution method. Biofilms formed in microplate wells were exposed to the extract for 5 min (50, 100 and 200 mg/mL) or 24 h (25, 50 and 100 mg/mL). After determination of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL), the data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's Test (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Different MIC (mg/mL) were found, such as 0.39 (C. dubliniensis), 1.56 (C. albicans), and 3.13 (C. glabrata and C. krusei). Besides, MFC (mg/mL) of 0.78 (C. dubliniensis) and 3.13 (C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei) were also observed. Regarding the biofilms, significant reductions (log10) were found after 5 min and 24 h exposure to the plant extract, compared to the control group. However, C. dubliniensis was significantly affected only in 24 h treatment. Conclusion: S. terebinthifolius extract presented a significant antifungal effect on C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, and C. Krusei both in planktonic cultures and biofilms (AU)


Objetivo: O uso de plantas medicinais pode ser um método alternativo para o controle de Candida spp. responsáveis por infecções humanas. Este estudo avaliou o efeito antifúngico do extrato de Schinus terebinthifolius (pimenta rosa) sobre culturas planctônicas e biofilmes de C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata e C. krusei. Material e Métodos: Concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração fungicida mínima (CFM) do extrato vegetal foram determinadas pelo método de micro diluição em caldo. Biofilmes formados em poços de microplacas foram expostos ao extrato por 5 min (50, 100 e 200 mg/mL) ou 24 h (25, 50 e 100 mg/mL). Após determinação de unidades formadoras de colônias por mililitro (UFC/mL), os dados foram analisados por one-way ANOVA e Teste de Tukey (P ≤ 0,05). Resultados: Foram encontradas diferentes CIM (mg/mL), como 0,39 (C. dubliniensis),1,56 (C. albicans) e 3,13 (C. glabrata e C. krusei). Além disso, CFM (mg/mL) de 0,78 (C. dubliniensis) e 3,13 (C. albicans, C. glabrata e C. krusei) também foram observadas. Em relação aos biofilmes, foram encontradas reduções significativas (log10) após 5 min e 24 h de exposição ao extrato vegetal, em comparação ao grupo controle. No entanto, C. dubliniensis foi significativamente afetada apenas no tratamento de 24 h. Conclusão: O extrato de S. terebinthifolius apresentou efeito antifúngico significativo sobre C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata e C. Krusei, tanto em culturas planctônicas quanto em biofilmes. (AU)


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Candida , Biofilms
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200349, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Essential oils (EO) extracted from Cinnamomum verum has been used as an antimicrobial agents for centuries. The effects of C. verum leaf oil against virulence of microorganisms is not well studied yet. OBJECTIVES This study evaluates the effect of C. verum leaf oil against three virulence factors of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis and its in-vivo toxicity. METHODS Chemical composition of EO was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) M27-A3 broth microdilution. Effect of EO on initial adhesion was quantified using XTT assay after allowing Candida cells to adhere to the polystyrene surface for 2 h. Biofilm formation of Candida in the presence of EO was quantified using XTT viability assay. Efficacy on reduction of germ tube formation was evaluated using standard protocol. Visualisation of biofilm formation and progression under the EO treatment were done using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Time lapses microscope respectively. In-vivo toxicity of EO was determined using Galleria mellonella larvae. Chlorhexidine digluconate: positive control. RESULTS Eugenol was the main compound of EO. MIC was 1.0 mg/mL. 50% reduction in initial adhesion was achieved by C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis with 1.0, > 2.0 and 0.34 mg/mL respectively. 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL significantly inhibit the germ tube formation. MBIC50 for forming biofilms were ≤ 0.35 mg/mL. 1.0 mg/mL prevent biofilm progression of Candida. SEM images exhibited cell wall damages, cellular shrinkages and decreased hyphal formation. No lethal effect was noted with in-vivo experiment model at any concentration tested. CONCLUSION C. verum leaf oil acts against virulence factors of Candida and does not show any toxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/drug effects , Oils, Volatile , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Virulence Factors , Antifungal Agents
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(4): 408-419, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145999

ABSTRACT

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las propiedades químicas, antioxidantes y antimicrobianas del aceite de pulpa de Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae). La identificación química se realizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Se caracterizaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas. La capacidad antioxidante se ha verificado eliminando los radicales libres, reduciendo y quelando el hierro. La actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante la concentración inhibitoria mínima y la acción moduladora de los antibióticos. Los principales ácidos grasos identificados fueron ácido esteárico, ácido palmítico y ácido oleico. La acidez y el índice de saponificación están dentro de los límites establecidos por la Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria. El aceite mostró actividad antioxidante moderada y actividad antimicrobiana contra las cepas de Candida. También mostró efectos sinérgicos, especialmente acerca de cefotaxima contra Bacillus cereus. Los resultados sugieren el potencial de la especie como antioxidante y en terapia antimicrobiana.


This study aimed to characterize the chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the pulp oil of Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae). Chemical identification was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The physicochemical properties were characterized. Antioxidant capacity has been verified by eliminating of free radicals, reducing and chelation of iron. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the minimum inhibitory concentration and the modulatory action of antibiotics. The major fatty acids identified were stearic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid. The acidity and the saponification index are within the limits established by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. The oil showed moderate antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against Candida strains. It also showed synergistic effects, especially on cefotaxime against Bacillus cereus. The results suggest the potential of the species as an antioxidant and in antimicrobial therapy.


Subject(s)
Arecaceae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants , Mass Spectrometry , Candida , Chromatography, Gas
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