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1.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(4): 180-187, out.-dez. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532058

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: several patients with COVID-19 require hospital admission due to severe respiratory complications and undergo intensive care with mechanical ventilation (MV) support. Associated with this situation, there is an increase in fungal co-infections, which has a negative impact on the outcome of COVID-19. In this regard, this study intended to compare Candida spp. incidence in the respiratory tract of patients admitted in the COVID and General Intensive Care Units (ICU) at a teaching hospital in 2021. Methods: the results of protected tracheal aspirate samples from 556 patients admitted to the COVID ICU and 260 to General ICU as well as the respective records. Results: of the patients analyzed, 38 revealed a positive sample for Candida in the COVID ICU and 10 in the General ICU, with an incidence of 68.3/1000 and 38.5/1000, respectively. Males were predominant in both wards. The most affected age group was the population over 60 years old, and the average hospital admission for the COVID ICU was 22.1 years, and for the General ICU, 24.2. Conclusion: Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species, and the mortality rate in patients positive for Candida was higher in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients in the General ICU, suggesting that patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, admitted to the ICU under MV, are more predisposed to colonization by Candida spp., which can have a fatal outcome in these patients.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: muitos pacientes com COVID-19 necessitam de hospitalização devido às complicações respiratórias graves, e são submetidos a cuidados intensivos com suporte de ventilação mecânica (VM). Associado a esse quadro, verifica-se o aumento de coinfecções fúngicas, que tem impacto negativo no desfecho da COVID-19. Nesse sentido, este estudo pretendeu comparar a incidência de Candida spp. no trato respiratório de pacientes internados nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) COVID e Geral em um hospital escola em 2021. Métodos: foram avaliados os resultados de amostras de aspirado traqueal protegido provenientes de 556 pacientes internados na UTI COVID e 260 na UTI Geral, bem como os respectivos prontuários. Resultados: dos pacientes analisados, 38 revelaram amostra positiva para Candida na UTI COVID e 10 na UTI Geral, com incidência de 68,3/1000 e 38,5/1000, respectivamente. O sexo masculino foi predominante em ambas as alas. A faixa etária mais acometida foi a população acima de 60 anos, e a média de internação para a UTI COVID foi de 22,1 anos, e para a UTI Geral, 24,2. Conclusão: Candida albicans foi a espécie isolada com maior frequência, e a taxa de mortalidade em pacientes com positivos para Candida foi maior em pacientes com COVID-19 em relação aos pacientes da UTI Geral, sugerindo que pacientes infectados com SARS-CoV-2, internados em UTI sob VM, são mais predispostos à colonização por Candida spp., que pode ter um desfecho fatal nesses pacientes.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: muchos pacientes con COVID-19 requieren hospitalización debido a complicaciones respiratorias graves y se someten a cuidados intensivos con soporte de ventilación mecánica (VM). Asociado a esta situación, hay un aumento de las coinfecciones fúngicas, lo que repercute negativamente en el desenlace de la COVID-19. En este sentido, este estudio pretendió comparar la incidencia de Candida spp. en el tracto respiratorio de pacientes ingresados en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) COVID y General de un hospital escuela en 2021. Métodos: los resultados de muestras de aspirado traqueal protegidas de 556 pacientes ingresados en la UCI COVID y 260 en el UCI General, así como los respectivos registros. Resultados: de los pacientes analizados, 38 presentaron muestra positiva a Candida en UCI COVID y 10 en UCI General, con una incidencia de 68,3/1000 y 38,5/1000, respectivamente. Los machos predominaban en ambas alas. El grupo de edad más afectado fue la población mayor de 60 años, y la hospitalización promedio en la UCI COVID fue de 22,1 años, y en la UCI General, de 24,2. Conclusiones: Candida albicans fue la especie aislada con mayor frecuencia, y la tasa de mortalidad en pacientes positivos para Candida fue mayor en pacientes con COVID-19 en comparación con los pacientes en la UCI General, lo que sugiere que los pacientes infectados con SARS-CoV-2, ingresados en la UCI bajo VM, están más predispuestos a la colonización por Candida spp., lo que puede tener un desenlace fatal en estos pacientes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/isolation & purification , Clinical Evolution , Coinfection , COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 89-96, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533905

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las proteasas y las fosfolipasas son factores de virulencia de Candida spp. que cumplen un papel importante en la invasión de los tejidos. Entre los factores relacionados con el huésped, se encuentran algunos asociados con las características ambientales y otros con la colonización. Objetivo. Determinar la actividad de fosfolipasas y proteasas en aislamientos de especies colonizadoras y patógenas de Candida spp., aisladas de mujeres gestantes de Cartagena de Indias. Materiales y métodos. Se determinó la actividad de fosfolipasas y proteasas en 56 aislamientos mediante degradación del sustrato y cálculo del coeficiente de actividad enzimática. Se compararon las actividades de fosfolipasas y proteasas, entre los aislamientos colonizadores y los patógenos. Resultados. La actividad de la fosfolipasa fue "muy alta" (< 0,69) en 34 aislamientos e, igualmente, la de la proteasa en 14. No hubo diferencias significativas al comparar las actividades de las fosfolipasas y de las de las proteasas, entre los aislamientos colonizadores y los patógenos. Conclusiones. La actividad de las fosfolipasas predominó como factor de virulencia en los aislamientos estudiados. No obstante, no se encontró una diferencia significativa entre los grupos de aislamientos colonizadores y los patógenos, en cuanto a las actividades de fosfolipasas y proteasas.


Introduction. Proteases and phospholipases are virulence factors of Candida spp. that play an important role in tissue invasion. Among the factors related to the host some are associated with environmental characteristics and others with Candida colonization. Objectives. To determine phospholipase and protease activities in colonizing and pathogenic strains, isolated from pregnant women in Cartagena de Indias. Materials and methods. Phospholipase and protease activity was determined in 56 isolates, evaluating substrate degradation and calculating the enzyme activity coefficient. Phospholipase and protease activities were compared between colonizing and pathogenic strains. Results. "Very high" (<0.69) phospholipase and protease activity was found in 34 and 14 isolates, respectively. There was no significant difference when comparing phospholipase and protease activities between colonizing and pathogenic isolates. Conclusions. Phospholipase activity predominated as a virulence factor in the studied strains, but no significant difference was found between colonizing and pathogenic strains for phospholipase and protease activities.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Endopeptidases , Phospholipases , Candida , Virulence Factors , Microbiota
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 97-108, ago. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533907

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los pacientes con diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 son propensos a adquirir infecciones por Candida spp., en ocasiones, causadas por más de una especie. La resistencia de algunas de ellas puede resultar en complicaciones médicas por falla del tratamiento. Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y las variedades clínicas de la candidiasis oral mixta en pacientes con diabetes mellitus de tipo 2, las especies de Candida involucradas y sus espectros de sensibilidad a los antifúngicos utilizados como tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio transversal analítico en pacientes con diabetes mellitus de tipo 2, hiperglucemia (superior o igual al 7 % de la hemoglobina glucosilada, HbA1C) y con diagnóstico clínico de candidiasis oral. Mediante técnicas microbiológicas, se identificaron las especies causales de la candidiasis oral. Las pruebas de sensibilidad se llevaron a cabo con el método de difusión en placa con tiras (E-test®). Resultados. Se incluyeron 72 pacientes: 32 (44 %) hombres y 40 (56 %) mujeres, clasificados en tres grupos de edad: jóvenes adultos (17 %), adultos (74 %) y ancianos (9 %), con una media de 51 años. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la candidiasis oral según los grupos de sexo y edad, ni entre las candidiasis orales mixtas y el sexo, el porcentaje de HbA1C, el tratamiento antihiperglucemiante o el tiempo de diagnóstico de la diabetes mellitus de tipo 2. En el grupo etario de adultos, se encontró una correlación con las candidiasis mixtas o simples. Se encontraron 8 (13 %) casos de candidiasis mixtas: siete con coinfección por dos especies de Candida y uno con coinfección por tres especies. Las especies identificadas en ellos, fueron: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, C. kefyr, C. tropicalis y C. krusei. La mayoría de estas especies presentó sensibilidad a ketoconazol y fluconazol, y mayor resistencia a itraconazol. Conclusiones. Las candidiasis orales mixtas se presentan, aproximadamente, en el 10 % de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 y el tratamiento puede ser ineficaz cuando no se identifica el agente etiológico.


Introduction. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are susceptible to acquire Candida spp. infections, sometimes involving more than one species. The resistance of some species to antimycotic agents can cause treatment failure. Objectives. To determine the frequency and clinical varieties of mixed oral candidiasis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the involved species, and its sensitivity spectra when exposed to antifungals used as candidiasis treatment. Materials and methods. We developed an analytical cross-sectional study with 72 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperglycemia (HbAIC s 7%) and an oral candidiasis diagnosis. The causal species of oral candidiasis were identified through microbiological techniques, and sensitivity tests were carried out using the diffusion method in a plate with strips (E-test ®). Results. We included 72 patients in the study, 32 (44%) males and 40 (56%) females. Patients were divided into three age groups: young adults (17%), adults (74%), and older adults (9%). The mean age of the patients was 51 years. No significant differences were found between mixed oral candidiasis and groups (sex and age), or between mixed oral candidiasis and gender, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C), antihyperglycemic treatment, or type 2 diabetes mellitus time of diagnosis. We found a correlation between the adult group and development of mixed or simple oral candidiasis. The results showed eight (13%) cases of mixed oral candidiasis: seven with a coinfection of two species and one with a coinfection of three species. The identified species were Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, C. kefyr, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. Most of these species presented sensitivity against ketoconazole and fluconazole, and higher resistance to itraconazole. Conclusions. Mixed oral candidiasis occurs in approximately 10% of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its treatment can be ineffective when the etiological agent is not identified.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Candida , Candida albicans
4.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440502

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La candidemia es considerada el tipo de fungemia más frecuente asociada a pacientes en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Es una afección rápidamente progresiva con elevada mortalidad, la cual presenta dificultad en un diagnóstico precoz y capacidad de resistencia al tratamiento. Objetivos: Caracterizar aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y microbiológicos de las especies de Candida aisladas en niños hospitalizados en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en 143 aislamientos de especies de Candida obtenidas en hemocultivos de pacientes menores de 18 años, en el laboratorio de Microbiología del Hospital Universitario Ginecobstétrico «Mariana Grajales», en el período de enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2018. Se utilizaron tablas de contingencia (prueba de Ji Cuadrado y V de Cramer); se utilizaron las variables: edad, sexo, factores de riesgo, especies y servicios hospitalarios. Resultados: Los mayores aislamientos de candidemia correspondieron a pacientes del sexo femenino de edades comprendidas entre 29 días y 18 años. Todos fueron sometidos al uso de antimicrobianos y con ventilación mecánica. El mayor número de aislamientos en pacientes de 9 años correspondió a Candida tropicalis, que fue la más aislada en la Unidad de Neonatología y Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos, no así en Cuidados Intermedios donde predominó Candida sin precisar especie. Por estas razones se puede señalar que existe una relación entre las especies y los servicios hospitalarios. Conclusiones: Predominaron pacientes del sexo femenino mayores de 29 días y hasta 18 años hospitalizados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos; la especie más aislada fue Candida tropicalis.


Introduction: candidemia is considered the most frequent type of fungemia associated with patients hospitalized in intensive care units. It is a rapidly progressive condition with high mortality, difficult to diagnose early and resistant to treatment. Objective: to characterize the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological aspects of Candida species isolated from children hospitalized in intensive care units. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out on 143 isolates of Candida species corresponding to blood cultures from patients under 18 years of age and obtained in the Microbiology laboratory at "Mariana Grajales" Gynecological and Obstetric University Hospital, from January 2009 to December 2018. Contingency tables were used (Chi- square and Cramer's V tests); age, gender, risk factors, species and hospital services were the used variables. Results: the largest candidemia isolates corresponded to female patients aged between 29 days and 18 years. All were subjected to the use of antimicrobials and mechanical ventilation. The highest number of isolates in 9-year-old patients corresponded to Candida tropicalis, which was the most isolated species in the Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, but not in the Intermediate Care Unit where Candida predominated without specifying the species. For these reasons, it can be pointed out that there is a relationship between species and hospital services. Conclusions: female patients older than 29 days and up to 18 years hospitalized in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit predominated; the most isolated species was Candida tropicalis.


Subject(s)
Candida , Critical Care , Candida tropicalis , Candidemia
5.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e203984, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1518164

ABSTRACT

Wild animals can be natural reservoirs of different microorganisms, essential for monitoring these pathogens for the generation of knowledge and creation of tools aimed at programs for the prevention and control of infectious diseases, including zoonoses. The objective was to report the fungal diversity in the skin of pacas in captivity in Acre, Western Amazon, Brazil. Twenty-six animals were evaluated, from which skin samples were collected by superficial scraping, hair avulsion, and sterile plastic brush. The samples were seeded on Mycosel agar, and the phenotypic characteristics of the colonies were analyzed. In 80.8% of the samples, different fungi were isolated, from the genera Candida, Microsporum,and Trichophyton, among others. This is the first description of the identification of fungi in the skin of pacas and suggests that these animals can be considered essential reservoirs of saprophytic or pathogenic microorganisms with zoonotic potential in the Western Amazon.(AU)


Animais silvestres podem ser reservatórios naturais de diferentes microrganismos, sendo fundamental o monitoramento destes patógenos para a geração de conhecimento e criação de ferramentas direcionadas a programas de prevenção e controle de enfermidades infecciosas, incluindo as zoonoses. Assim, objetivou-se relatar a diversidade fúngica da pele de pacas criadas em cativeiro no Acre, Amazônia Ocidental, Brasil. Foram avaliados 26 animais, dos quais amostras cutâneas foram colhidas por raspagem superficial, avulsão pilosa e escova plástica estéril. As amostras foram semeadas em ágar Mycosel e as características fenotípicas das colônias foram analisadas. Em 80,8% das amostras houve isolamento de diferentes fungos, dos gêneros Candida, Microsporum e Trichophyton, dentre outros. Esta é a primeira descrição da identificação de fungos na pele de pacas e sugere que estes animais podem ser considerados importantes reservatórios de microrganismos saprófitas ou patogênicos, de potencial zoonótico, na Amazônia Ocidental.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodentia/microbiology , Bacterial Infections and Mycoses/diagnosis , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Trichophyton/pathogenicity , Brazil , Candida/pathogenicity , Microsporum/pathogenicity
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22045, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439519

ABSTRACT

Abstract The genus Candida represents the main cause of infections of fungal origin. Some species stand out as disease promoters in humans, such as C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. This study evaluated the antifungal effects of propyl (E)-3-(furan-2-yl) acrylate. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the synthetic compound, amphotericin B and fluconazole alone against four species of Candida ranged from 64 to 512 µg/mL, 1 to 2 µg/mL, and 32 to 256 µg/mL, respectively. The synergistic effect of the test substance was observed when associated with fluconazole against C. glabrata, there was no antagonism between the substances against any of the tested strains. The potential drug promoted morphological changes in C. albicans, decreasing the amount of resistance, virulence, and reproduction structures, such as the formation of pseudohyphae, blastoconidia, and chlamydospores, ensuring the antifungal potential of this substance. It was also possible to identify the fungicidal profile of the test substance through the study of the growth kinetics of C. albicans. Finally, it was observed that the test compound inhibited the ergosterol biosynthesis by yeast


Subject(s)
Candida albicans/drug effects , Ergosterol/agonists , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Candida/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21117, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The phenolic compound content, the antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition potentials of different extracts of the Plectranthus amboinicus, P. barbatus and P. ornatus were evaluated. We also evaluated the influence of plant growth and harvest time on the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) of P. amboinicus, its antioxidant and anti-Candida activities and the α-amylase and lipoxygenase inhibitions. The turbo-extract of P. barbatus showed the greatest phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity. No α-amylase inhibition activity was observed in the analyzed extracts, but the turbo-extraction and refluxing extracts possessed high antioxidant activities. Protected cultivation and morning harvest conditions gave the best antioxidant activities, which was associated to the highest carvacrol content. P. amboinicus EO antioxidant activity could contribute to the reduction of oxidative stress in diabetes. Causal Candida strains of diabetic foot ulcers showed sensitivity to P. amboinicus EO. C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were the most sensitive of the selected Candida strains. Turbo-extracts or refluxing of the three species extracts and the EO of P. amboinicus should be considered as a potential candidate for the management the complications of type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Candida/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Triage/classification , Plectranthus/adverse effects , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Antioxidants/analysis
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e19978, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429949

ABSTRACT

Abstract Propolis is a resinous hive product collected by bees from the buds or other parts of plants. It is known for having various biological properties, including antifungal activity. Among the substances present in propolis, flavonoids and phenolic acids and their esters are responsible for its antifungal properties. This means that propolis is ideal for use as an antifungal agent in alternative medicine to treat a number of both topical and systemic infections caused by Candida species and other yeast-like fungi, dermatophyte and nondermatophyte moulds, without the serious side effects typical of synthetic treatment. It is also active against strains of fungi that are resistant to polyenes and azoles, the classes of drugs most commonly used to treat fungal infections. In this article, we review current knowledge about the activity of propolis from different parts of the world and its components in vitro and in vivo against pathogenic fungi isolated from human infections. The article also indicates the possible mechanism of antifungal activity of propolis and its components.


Subject(s)
Propolis/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Complementary Therapies/classification , Candida/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Arthrodermataceae/classification
9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 823-827, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985568

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a nested recombinant enzyme-assisted polymerase chain reaction (RAP) technique combined with recombined mannose-binding lectin protein (M1 protein)-magnetic beads enrichment for the detection of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis) in blood samples for the early diagnosis of candidemia albicans and candidiemia tropicalis. Methods: The primer probes for highly conserved regions of the internal transcribed spacerregions of C. albicans and C. tropicalis were deigned to establish RAP assays for the detections of C. albicans and C. tropicalis; The sensitivity and reproducibility of nucleic acid tests with gradient dilutions of standard strains and specificity of nucleic acid tests with common clinical pathogens causing bloodstream infection were condcuted. M1 protein-magnetic bead enriched plasma C. albicans and C. tropicalis were used for RAP and PCR in with simulated samples and the results were compared. Results: The sensitivity of the established dual RAP assay was 2.4-2.8 copies/reaction, with higher reproducibility and specificity. M1 protein-magnetic bead enrichment of pathogen combined with the dual RAP assay could complete the detections of C. albicans and C. tropicalis in plasma within 4 hours. Fie the pathogen samples at concentration <10 CFU/ml, the number of the samples tested by RAP was higher than that tested by PCR after enrichment. Conclusion: In this study, a dual RAP assay for the detections of C. albicans and C. tropicalis in blood sample was developed, which has the advantages of accuracy, rapidity, and less contaminants and has great potential for rapid detection of Candidemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lectins , Candida , Candidemia , Reproducibility of Results , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nucleic Acids , Magnetic Phenomena
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468830

ABSTRACT

Bats are important for the homeostasis of ecosystems and serve as hosts of various microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and fungi with pathogenic potential. This study aimed to isolate fungi from biological samples obtained from bats captured in the city of Sinop (state of Mato Grosso, Brazil), where large areas of deforestation exist due to urbanization and agriculture. On the basis of the flow of people and domestic animals, 48 bats were captured in eleven urban forest fragments. The samples were processed and submitted to microbiological cultures, to isolate and to identify the fungal genera. Thirty-four (70.83%) of the captured bats were positive for fungi; 18 (37.5%) and 16 (33.33%) of these bats were female and male, respectively. Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp., and Candida sp., which may cause opportunistic infections, were isolated. The bat species with the highest number of fungal isolates was Molossus molossus: 21 isolates (43.8%). According to our results, bats captured in urban forest fragments in Sinop harbor pathogenic fungi, increasing the risk of opportunistic fungal infections in humans and domestic animals.


Os morcegos apresentam grande importância na homeostasia dos ecossistemas e são hospedeiros de uma rica diversidade de micro-organismos como bactérias, vírus e fungos com potencial patogênico. Portanto, este estudo visou isolar fungos presentes em amostras biológicas de morcegos na cidade de Sinop - MT, que possui grandes áreas de desmatamento devido à urbanização e agricultura. Foram capturados 48 morcegos de diferentes espécies, em onze fragmentos florestais urbanos definidos de acordo com fluxo de pessoas e animais domésticos, para obtenção de amostras biológicas. Essas amostras foram processadas e submetidas aos cultivos microbiológicos, para isolamento e identificação dos gêneros dos fungos. Dos 48 morcegos, 34 (70,83%) foram positivos para pelos menos um gênero de fungo, sendo 18 (37,5%) fêmeas e 16 (33,33%) machos, e os gêneros isolados a partir das amostras biológicas foram Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp. e Candida sp., que podem ser causadores de infecções oportunistas. Desse total, a espécie que apresentou maior positividade para pelo menos um gênero de fungo foi Molossus molossus com 21 (43,8%). Nossos resultados demonstram que os morcegos capturados nos fragmentos florestais urbanos na cidade de Sinop - MT, podem atuar como agentes veiculadores de fungos com potencial patogênico, aumentando assim o risco de exposição e aquisição de infecções fúngicas oportunistas por pessoas e animais domésticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fungi/pathogenicity , Chiroptera/microbiology , Chiroptera/blood , Alternaria , Aspergillus , Candida , Cryptococcus , Fusarium , Penicillium , Scopulariopsis , Trichosporon
12.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 12(2): 80-86, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417371

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The finding of Candida species in urine is an usual finding and is called candiduria. There is an increase in the frequency of urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by Candida especially in critically ill patients. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and mycological characteristics of Candida urinary infections in intensive care unit (ICU) and antifungal susceptibilities. Methods: Urine cultures of 394 ICU patients with clinical suspicion of UTI were evaluated. After 24-48 hours of incubation, colonies appeared to grow as yeast, were morphologically examined by Gram staining. Candida strains that grew 104 ≥ CFU/mL in urine cultures were accepted as candiduria. The susceptibilities of the Candida strains to amphotericin B, itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, flucytosine, and caspofungin were investigated with broth microdilution method. Results: The distribution of the isolated 100 urinary Candida strains were as, 54 Candida albicans, 34 C. glabrata, 7 C. tropicalis, 2 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, and 1 as C. parapsilosis. Among 100 Candida species isolated in our study susceptibility rates of amphotericin B, flucytosine, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 100%, 100%, 91%, 23%, 13%, 25.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Accurate identification of Candida spp., as well as the investigating the antifungal susceptibility, will be beneficial in terms of the effectiveness of the treatment and the prevention of resistance development.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: O achado de espécies de Candida na urina é um achado comum e é chamado de candidúria. Há um aumento na frequência de infecções do trato urinário (ITU) causadas por Candida, principalmente em pacientes críticos. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar as características epidemiológicas, clínicas e micológicas das infecções urinárias por Candida em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) e a susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos. Métodos: Foram avaliadas culturas de urina de 394 pacientes de UTI com suspeita clínica de ITU. Após 24-48 horas de incubação, as colônias pareceram crescer como leveduras, foram morfologicamente examinadas por coloração de Gram. As cepas de Candida que cresceram ≥104 UFC/mL em culturas de urina foram aceitas como candidúria. As suscetibilidades das cepas de Candida à anfotericina B, itraconazol, fluconazol, voriconazol, flucitosina e caspofungina foram investigadas com o método de microdiluição em caldo. Resultados: A distribuição das cepas 100 isoladas de Candida urinária foi de 54 Candida albicans, 34 C. glabrata, 7 C. tropicalis, 2 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae e 1 como C. parapsilosis. Entre 100 espécies de Candida isoladas em nosso estudo, as taxas de susceptibilidade de anfotericina B, flucitosina, caspofungina, fluconazol, itraconazol e voriconazol foram de 100%, 100%, 91%, 23%, 13%, 25,8%, respectivamente. Conclusão: A identificação precisa de Candida spp., bem como a investigação da susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos, será benéfica em termos de eficácia do tratamento e prevenção do desenvolvimento de resistência.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: El hallazgo de especies de Candida en la orina es un hallazgo habitual y se denomina candiduria. Hay un aumento en la frecuencia de infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) causadas por Candida, especialmente en pacientes críticamente enfermos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y micológicas de las infecciones urinarias por Candida en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) y la susceptibilidad antifúngica. Métodos: Se evaluaron urocultivos de 394 pacientes de UCI con sospecha clínica de ITU. Después de 24-48 horas de incubación, las colonias parecían crecer como levadura, se examinaron morfológicamente mediante tinción de Gram. Las cepas de Candida que crecieron 104 ≥ UFC / ml en urocultivos se aceptaron como candiduria. Las susceptibilidades de las cepas de Candida a la anfotericina B, itraconazol, fluconazol, voriconazol, flucitosina y caspofungina se investigaron con el método de microdilución en caldo. Resultados: La distribución de las cepas 100 urinarias aisladas de Candida fue de, 54 C. albicans, 34 C. glabrata, 7 C. tropicalis, 2 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae y 1 como C. parapsilosis. Entre las 100 especies de Candida aisladas en nuestro estudio, las tasas de susceptibilidad de anfotericina B, flucitosina, caspofungina, fluconazol, itraconazol y voriconazol fueron 100%, 100%, 91%, 23%, 13%, 25,8%, respectivamente. Conclusión: La identificación precisa de Candida spp., así como la investigación de la susceptibilidad antifúngica, será beneficiosa en términos de la eficacia del tratamiento y la prevención del desarrollo de resistencias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Candida , Intensive Care Units , Fluconazole , Amphotericin B
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19248, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384018

ABSTRACT

The first report about antimicrobial resistance was published in the 1940s. And today, the antimicrobial resistance has become a worldwide problem. Because of this problem, there is a need to develop new drugs. That's why we synthesized some novel thiazolidine-4-one derivatives and evaluated their antimicrobial activity. The final compounds were obtained by reacting 2-[(4,5-diphenylthiazol-2-yl)imino]thiazolidin-4-one with some aryl aldehydes. The synthesized compounds were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against four Candida species, five gram-negative and four gram-positive bacterial species. The lead compounds (4a- h) were obtained with a yield of at least 70%. All compounds showed antimicrobial activity. Compound 4f (MIC: 31.25 µg/ml) exhibited more efficacy than the other compounds against C. glabrata (ATCC 24433). Compound 4b (MIC: 62.5 µg/ml) was the most active compound against all bacterial species, particularly K. pneumoniae (NCTC 9633). Whereas, compound 4c (MIC: <31.25 µg/ml) was observed as the most active compound against E. coli (ATCC 25922). In general, all compounds (4a-4h) showed antimicrobial activity against all fungi and bacterial species. Compounds 4b (2,6-dichlorobenzylidene), 4c (2,6-dihydroxybenzylidene), 4f (1H-pyrrol-2- yl)methylene), 4g (4-triflouromethylbenzylidene) and 4h (2,3,4-trimethoxybenzylidene) were determined as the most active compounds


Subject(s)
Azoles , Thiazoles/analysis , Candida/classification , Thiazolidines/analysis , Reference Drugs , Research Report , Lead/agonists
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18719, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364412

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of present study was calculate the Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of silver nanoparticles and clotrimazole for Candida species and their interaction by the adaptation of standarized methods. The MICs values of clotrimazole were 9 E-04-3 E-03 ug/ml, 0.1-0.6 ug/ml, 3 E-03- 0.1 ug/ml and 3 E-03-0.3 ug/ml for Candida albicans susceptible to fluconazole, Candida albicans resistance to fluconazole, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis respectively. The MICs values of silver nanoparticles were 26.50- 53 ug/ml; 26.50-106 ug/ml; 106-212 ug/ ml and 26.50- 53 ug/ml for Candida albicans susceptible to fluconazole, Candida albicans resistance to fluconazole, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis respectively. Synergism between clotrimazole and silver nanoparticles was measured by checkerboard BMD (broth microdilution) test and shown only for C. albicans susceptible to fluconazole because the fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) values were 0.07 - 0.15 ug/ml. Indifference was shown for the other species tested because the FICs values were between 0.5 - 2- 3.06 ug/ml. The results suggest synergistic activity depending on the fungus species analysed, however we recommend the incorporation of others measurement methodologies to confirm our results. As for measurement methodologies of MICs of silver nanoparticles and clotrimazole international normative were respected to guarantee reproducible and comparable results.


Subject(s)
Candida/classification , Clotrimazole/analogs & derivatives , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Fungi
15.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 352-356, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927887

ABSTRACT

Candida vertebral osteomyelitis,a rare but challenging clinical disease without specific clinical manifestations,is prone to delay in diagnosis,with potential risks of serious complications.Therefore,early diagnosis is the key to improving the cure rate of this disease.A case of invasive candida lumbar osteomyelitis after gastrointestinal surgery is reported in this paper.We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the patient and reviewed the relevant literature,aiming to improve the early diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Lumbar Vertebrae , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy
16.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 514-523, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979392

ABSTRACT

Aims@#This study was aimed to express Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain RT lipase using Komagataella phaffii X-33 expression system and its biochemical characterization and analyse the predicted structure of the product.@*Methodology and results@#Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain RT obtained from the previous study was used as the source of RT lipase gene. Extracellular M. guilliermondii strain RT lipase expression has significantly been improved up to 56 U/mg at 24 h cultivation in Yeast extract-Peptone-Dextrose (YPD) medium containing (in w/v): 1% yeast extract, 2% peptone, 2% dextrose with 0.5% v/v methanol induction. Characterization of RT lipase showed optimum activity at 45 °C and pH 9. It exhibited stability in the alkaline pH range (8 to 10) and retained 50% of its residual activity at 30 °C for 30 min. Substrate specificity analysis revealed that it preferred short to medium-chain triacylglycerols (C2-C12) with the highest activity towards caprylic acid (C8). Pairwise alignment revealed three substitutions (S2L, S92L and S193L) present in non-CTG-clade hosts (K. phaffii). Homology modelling (YASARA) was used to predict the structures of RT lipase [wild type (wt) and recombinant (rc)]. Mutational analysis of the structures showed the differences in loops that might attribute to the reduction of the optimum temperature from 75 °C (wt) to 45 °C (rc).@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#RT lipase was successfully overexpressed extracellularly using K. phaffii expression system with 91.8-fold higher specific activity than the native host. The conceptual advances on the importance of codon optimization before expressing a protein from a CTG-clade species in a non-CTG-clade yeast have been highlighted and the effect of the rare codon usage in recombinant protein characteristics has been evident.


Subject(s)
Candida
17.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 301-308, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979296

ABSTRACT

Aims@#Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used to identify Candida spp. in diagnostic laboratories due to its strength in providing accurate information results, speed and cost-effectiveness. However, its accuracy varies on instrument platform, reference database, sample preparation techniques and interlaboratory comparisons. Therefore, the use of MALDI-TOF MS for species identification was evaluated against traditional biochemical identification, namely BrillianceTM Candida and Remel RapIDTM Yeast Plus System.@*Methodology and results@#To evaluate and compare identification efficiency, turnaround time and consumable cost, 194 clinical isolates of Candida were collected. The results showed overall 85.6% concordant identification between two methods with 94.9-99.5% and 100% accuracy in traditional and MALDI-TOF MS, respectively, in the identification of four common Candida species; C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. glabrata sensu stricto. Other Candida species were also identified with 85.6% and 97.5% accuracy rates by traditional and MALDI-TOF MS, respectively. Additionally, identification using MALDI-TOF MS reduced overall turnaround time and cost by approximately 99.8% and 86.5%, respectively.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#This study highlights the performance of MALDI-TOF MS, which is more accurate in identifying Candida spp. with a less hands-on approach, cheaper cost and shorter turnaround time.


Subject(s)
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Candida , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 780-785, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351051

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de las infecciones fúngicas atendidas en un centro de quemados de alta complejidad situado en Buenos Aires, entre 2011 y 2014, mediante el análisis de las histo rias clínicas (n = 36). Las edades de los pacientes estuvieron entre 18 y 87 años, y 23 (63.9%) fueron mujeres. La extensión de la superficie corporal afectada más prevalente varió entre 30 y 50% (p = 0.03), y entre 71% y 100% en pacientes de menor edad, relacionándose con intentos de femicidio. En el 69.4% la profundidad de la quemadura fue grado 4, y en el 50% de los casos se observaron lesiones por inhalación, con una alta mortali dad (p = 0.04). El Candida score resultó de 3 en el 77.7% de los casos. Se usaron vías centrales y ventilación mecánica. Todos los pacientes recibieron tratamiento antibiótico y en 33 (91.7%) antifúngicos. La escisión qui rúrgica de la quemadura se practicó en 33 (91.7%) y los autoinjertos de piel en 29 (80.6%). La infección fúngica se desarrolló en una media de 21.4 días del ingreso en UCI. Se estudiaron 52 muestras de levaduras que se aislaron de urocultivo (42.3%), hemocultivo (26.9%), biopsia cutánea (9.6%), punta de catéter (15.4%) y aspirado traqueal (5.8%). Por cultivo microbiológico y métodos moleculares se identificaron a Candida albicans (53.8%), C. tropicalis (23.1%), C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (13.5%), C. krusei (5.8%), C. glabrata (1.9%) y C. dubliniensis (1.9%). Las infecciones fúngicas representan severas complicaciones en quemados con factores de riesgo.


Abstract A retrospective analysis of fungal infections was carried out in a health-care burn center between 2011 and 2014 using the patients' medical records (n = 36). Patients ranged from 18 to 87 years of age, with 23 (63.9%) being women. The most prevalent widespread total body surface area affected (TBSA) was 30-50% (p = 0.03), and 71-100% in younger patients, mainly associated with femicide. Fourth degree burns were revealed in 69.4% of the patients while in 50%, inhalation injuries were observed to represent a higher mortality rate (p = 0.04). The Candida score was 3 in 77.7% of cases respectively. Central venous catheter and mechanical ventilation were used. All patients received antibiotic treatment and 91.7% antifungal treatment. Surgical excision of the burn was performed in 33 (91.7%) patients, and skin autografting in 29 (80.6%). The median of the fungal infection devel oped was 21.4 days after admission to the ICU. The specimens analyzed involved 52 yeast samples isolated from different cultures: urine (42.3%), blood (26.9%), skin biopsy (9.6%), catheter tip (15.4%) and tracheal aspirate (5.8%). The use of microbiological culture and molecular methods allowed for the identification of Candida albicans (53.8%), C. tropicalis (23.1%), C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (13.5%), C. krusei (5.8%), C. glabrata (1.9%) and C. dubliniensis (1.9%). Fungal infections observed in skin burns lead to severe complications in at-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Candida , Mycoses/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Antifungal Agents
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 536-557, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369226

ABSTRACT

This study determined phytochemical composition, antifungal activity and toxicity in vitro and in vivo of Syzygium cumini leaves extract (Sc). Thus, was characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and submitted to determination of Minimum Inhibitory (MIC) and Fungicidal concentrations (MFC) on reference and clinical strains of Candida spp. and by growth kinetics assays. Toxicity was verified using in vitro assays of hemolysis, osmotic fragility, oxidant and antioxidant activity in human erythrocytes and by in vivo acute systemic toxicity in Galleria mellonella larvae. Fourteen different compounds were identified in Sc, which showed antifungal activity (MIC between 31.25-125µg/mL) with fungistatic effect on Candida. At antifungal concentrations, it demonstrated low cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity and neglible in vivotoxicity. Thus, Sc demonstrated a promising antifungal potential, with low toxicity, indicating that this extract can be a safe and effective alternative antifungal agent.


Este estudio determinó la composición fitoquímica, la actividad antifúngica y la toxicidad in vitro e in vivo del extracto de hojas de Syzygium cumini (Sc). Así, se caracterizó mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas y se sometió a determinación de Concentraciones Mínimas Inhibitorias (CMI) y Fungicidas (MFC) sobre cepas de referencia y clínicas de Candida spp. y mediante ensayos de cinética de crecimiento. La toxicidad se verificó mediante ensayos in vitro de hemólisis, fragilidad osmótica, actividad oxidante y antioxidante en eritrocitos humanos y por toxicidad sistémica aguda in vivo en larvas de Galleria mellonella. Se identificaron catorce compuestos diferentes en Sc, que mostraron actividad antifúngica (CMI entre 31.25-125 µg/mL) con efecto fungistático sobre Candida. En concentraciones antifúngicas, demostró baja citotoxicidad, actividad antioxidante y toxicidad in vivo insignificante. Por lo tanto, Sc demostró un potencial antifúngico prometedor, con baja toxicidad, lo que indica que este extracto puede ser un agente antifúngico alternativo seguro y eficaz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Syzygium/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Candida/drug effects , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Toxicity Tests , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/toxicity , Antioxidants
20.
Medicina (Ribeirão Preto) ; 54(1)jul, 2021. fig.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353671

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: O gênero Candida possui alta taxa de incidência no ser humano, sendo a espécie Candida albicans a mais isolada em infecções invasivas e superficiais. Porém, tem sido relatado um aumento considerável de espécies de Candidanão-albicans em infecções fúngicas. Os óleos essenciais, por serem voláteis, podem agir como sinais de comunicação química e arma de defesa. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia, in vitro, dos óleos essenciais de Syzygium aromaticum e Eu-calyptus globulus na inibição do crescimento de espécies de Candida não-albicans. Métodos: Para avaliação da atividade antifúngica de S. aromaticum e de E. globulus e do efeito dos seus óleos essenciais sobre a micromorfologia das espécies Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis e Candida glabrata, foram empregadas, nesta ordem, a técnica de difusão em ágar e de microcultivo para leveduras. Resultados: Na técnica de difusão, o óleo essencial de S. aromaticum apresentou for-mação de halo de inibição para Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis e Candida glabrata. O óleo de E. globulus, por sua vez, não apresentou crescimento de halos de inibição em nenhuma das concentrações testadas frente às três espécies de Candida não-albicans. Todavia, com o microcultivo, ambos os óleos essenciais se provaram, in vitro, eficazes antimi-crobianos tendo apresentado estruturas indicativas de atividade antifúngica na maior concentração dos óleos e diferentes graus de destruição celular nas demais concentrações. Conclusão: Nas condições deste estudo, concluiu-se que os pro-dutos avaliados exerceram atividade antifúngica contra cepas de Candida não-albicans, destacando-se o óleo essencial de S. aromaticum que apresentou atividade antimicrobiana em ambas as metodologias. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Introduction: The genus Candida possesses a high incidence of infection in humans, with the Candida albicans species being the most isolated in invasive and superficial infections. However, a considerable increase in non-albicans Candidaspecies has been reported in fungal infections. Essential oils, for being volatile, can act as chemical communication sig-nals and defense mechanisms. Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness, in vitro, of the essential oils of Syzygium aromati-cum and Eucalyptus globulus in inhibiting the growth of non-albicans Candida species. Methods: To evaluate the antifun-gal activity of S. aromaticum and E. globulus and the effect of their essential oils on the micromorphology of the species Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata, in this order, the agar diffusion technique and microculture for yeasts. Results: In the diffusion technique, the essential oil of S. aromaticum presented an inhibition halo for Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida glabrata. E. globulus oil, on the other hand, did not show inhibition halo growth in any of the concentrations tested against the three non-albicans Candida species. However, in the microculture, both essential oils have proven to be effective antimicrobials having shown structures indicative of antifungal activity in the highest concentration and different degrees of cell destruction in the other concentrations. Conclusion: In the conditions of this study, it was concluded that the products evaluated exerted antifungal activity against non-albicans Candidastrains, highlighting the essential oil of S. aromaticum that showed antimicrobial activity in both methodologies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Candida , Syzygium , Candida glabrata , Defense Mechanisms , Eucalyptus , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents
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