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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18719, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364412


Abstract The aim of present study was calculate the Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of silver nanoparticles and clotrimazole for Candida species and their interaction by the adaptation of standarized methods. The MICs values of clotrimazole were 9 E-04-3 E-03 ug/ml, 0.1-0.6 ug/ml, 3 E-03- 0.1 ug/ml and 3 E-03-0.3 ug/ml for Candida albicans susceptible to fluconazole, Candida albicans resistance to fluconazole, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis respectively. The MICs values of silver nanoparticles were 26.50- 53 ug/ml; 26.50-106 ug/ml; 106-212 ug/ ml and 26.50- 53 ug/ml for Candida albicans susceptible to fluconazole, Candida albicans resistance to fluconazole, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis respectively. Synergism between clotrimazole and silver nanoparticles was measured by checkerboard BMD (broth microdilution) test and shown only for C. albicans susceptible to fluconazole because the fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) values were 0.07 - 0.15 ug/ml. Indifference was shown for the other species tested because the FICs values were between 0.5 - 2- 3.06 ug/ml. The results suggest synergistic activity depending on the fungus species analysed, however we recommend the incorporation of others measurement methodologies to confirm our results. As for measurement methodologies of MICs of silver nanoparticles and clotrimazole international normative were respected to guarantee reproducible and comparable results.

Candida/classification , Clotrimazole/analogs & derivatives , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Fungi
Clin. biomed. res ; 39(4): 341-345, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087506


O gênero Candida possui várias espécies conhecidas e que podem tornar-se patogênicas em determinadas situações. Candida blankii é uma espécie emergente que, na última década, foi identificada como um agente de doenças sistêmicas. Ainda não existe um protocolo de tratamento específico, apesar de que n os poucos casos registrados na literatura a terapia adotada foi efetiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão bibliográfica para coletar informações relevantes sobre este patógeno como um possível agente etiológico em infecções sistêmicas, bem como sua epidemiologia e os aspectos de sua patogenicidade. (AU)

The genus Candida has several known species and may become pathogenic in certain situations. Candida blankii is an emerging species that in the past decade has been identified as an agent of systemic diseases. There is no specific treatment protocol yet, although in the few cases reported in the literature the therapy adopted was effective. The objective of this study was to conduct a literature review to collect relevant information about this pathogen as a possible etiological agent in systemic infections, as well as its epidemiology and aspects of pathogenicity. (AU)

Humans , Candida/classification , Candida/drug effects , Candida/pathogenicity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/genetics , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 644-652, Nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951608


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Candida species between a non-hospitalized and a hospitalized population. For this purpose, samples of saliva were sampled through sterile swabs, moistened in peptone water and rubbed in the oral cavity of 140 individuals, from which, 70 were hospitalized patients from the Medical Clinic of a Teaching Hospital and the other 70 were non-hospitalized subjects. All saliva samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose agar added with Chloramphenicol and incubated at 36 °C for 48 hours. The morphology identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic characterization, the CHROMagar Candida medium and the VITEK® system Yeast Biochemical Card (bio Mérieux SA, France). The results showed a colonization of Candida spp. in 85.7% the hospitalized individuals, where the species found were C. albicans (60%), C. tropicalis (23.4%), C. krusei (3.3%) and Candida spp. (13.3%). In the non-hospitalized individuals the colonization by Candida spp was 47.1%, and the species found were: C. albicans (45.5%), C.krusei (9.1%), C. guilliermondii (9.1% %), C. tropicalis (3.0%), C. famata (3.0%) and Candida spp. (30.3%). In spite of their presence in oral cavity in both groups, Candida spp. was more frequently isolated in hospitalized individuals, who were 6.73 times more likely to have this fungus in the oral cavity and were 3.88 times more likely to have Candida albicans.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência de espécies de Candida entre uma população de indivíduos não-hospitalizados e hospitalizados. Para isto, amostras de saliva foram coletadas através de swabs estéreis, umedecidas em água de peptona e friccionadas na cavidade bucal de 140 indivíduos, dos quais 70 eram pacientes internados em uma Clínica Médica de um Hospital Escola e os outros 70 eram indivíduos não hospitalizados sem contato com ambiente hospitalar. Todas as amostras de saliva foram plaqueadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose adicionadas de cloranfenicol e incubadas a 36 °C durante 48 horas. A identificação morfológica foi realizada através da caracterização macroscópica e microscópica, com o meio CHROMagar Candida e do sistema VITEK® Biochemical Card (bio Mérieux SA, França). Os resultados mostraram uma colonização de Candida spp. em 85,7% dos indivíduos hospitalizados, onde as espécies encontradas foram: C.albicans (60%), C. tropicalis (23,4%), C. krusei (3,3%) e Candida spp. (13,3%). Nos indivíduos não-hospitalizados a colonização por Candida spp foi de 47,1%, e as espécies encontradas foram: C. albicans (45,5%), C. krusei (9,1%), C. guilliermondii (9,1%), C. tropicalis (3,0%), C. famata (3,0%) e Candida spp. (30,3%). Apesar de sua presença na cavidade oral em ambos os grupos, Candida spp. foi mais freqüentemente isolada em indivíduos hospitalizados, que foram 6,73 vezes mais propensos a ter este fungo na cavidade oral e foram 3,88 vezes mais propensos a ter Candida albicans.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Candidiasis/microbiology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Saliva/microbiology , Candida/classification , Candida/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Culture Media , Mouth/microbiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 644-650, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957457


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The increase in the incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida albicans and other Candida species, necessitates the understanding and treatment of Candida-associated infections. In this study, we aimed to investigate the identification, distribution, and biofilm formation ability of different clinical Candida isolates and evaluate the distribution and antifungal susceptibilities of high biofilm-forming (HBF) Candida isolates. METHODS: For identification, carbohydrate fermentation, carbohydrate assimilation, and ChromAgar tests were used. Biofilm formation was assessed using crystal violet binding assay, while the susceptibility to antifungal agents was determined using ATBTM Fungus 3 test kits. RESULTS: The majority of Candida species were C. parapsilosis (31.3%; 31/99) and C. tropicalis (30.3%; 30/99). C. tropicalis was found to be the most frequently isolated species among all HBF Candida species. HBF Candida isolates were more frequently isolated from vaginal swab (35.7%; 10/28), tracheal aspirate (17.9%; 5/28), and urine (17.9%; 5/28). The majority of tested isolates were resistant to itraconazole and voriconazole, whereas no isolate was deemed resistant to 5-flucytosine. CONCLUSIONS: C. tropicalis displays the highest biofilm formation ability among all the Candida species evaluated, and HBF Candida isolates were more frequently seen in vaginal swab, tracheal aspirate, and urine samples. Our findings revealed that 5-flucytosine is the most efficient antifungal agent against HBF Candida isolates.

Humans , Candida/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/classification , Candida/physiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms/growth & development
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 273-277, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974228


ABSTRACT Background Candidemia is the most frequent invasive fungal disease in hospitalized patients, and is associated with high mortality rates. The main objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the epidemiology of candidemia at a tertiary care hospital in a 21-year period. Methods We evaluated all episodes of candidemia diagnosed between 1996 and 2016 at a University-affiliated tertiary care hospital in Brazil. We arbitrarily divided the study period in 3: 1996-2002 (period 1), 2003-2009 (period 2) and 2010-2016 (period 3). Incidence rates were calculated using hospital admissions as denominator. Results We observed 331 episodes of candidemia. The incidence was 1.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, with no significant change over time. Candida albicans (37.5%), C. tropicalis (28.1%), C. parapsilosis (18.4%) and C. glabrata (6.9%) were the most frequent species. The proportion of patients receiving treatment increased (65.5%, 79.4% and 74.7% in periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively, p= 0.04), and the median time from candidemia to treatment initiation decreased from 4 days in period 1 (range 0-32 days) to 2 days in period 2 (range 0-33 days) and 2 days in period 3 (range 0-14 days, p< 0.001). We observed a significant decrease in the use of deoxycholate amphotericin B (47.4%, 14.8% and 11.9%), and an increase in the use of echinocandins (0%, 2.8% and 49.1%; p< 0.001). The APACHE II score increased over time (median 16, 17.5, and 22, p< 0.001). The overall 30-day mortality was 58.9%, and did not change significantly over the study period. Conclusions There was an improvement in patient care, with an increase in the proportion of patients receiving treatment and a decrease in the time to treatment initiation, but no improvement in the outcome, possibly because the proportion of sicker patients increased over time.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Candida/classification , Candidemia/epidemiology , Patient Admission/trends , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Incidence , Hospital Mortality/trends , Candidemia/mortality , Candidemia/drug therapy , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 542-545, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041473


Abstract INTRODUCTION This study aims to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of different species of Candida isolated from diabetic patients against eight antifungal agents. METHODS Susceptibility testing of 111 clinical isolates of Candida species was performed against 8 antifungals using the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). RESULTS Voriconazole, lanoconazole, and caspofungin showed the highest in vitro activity against all the isolates of C. albicans. Resistance against the tested antifungals was only observed in the C. albicans isolates. CONCLUSIONS Our finding revealed that resistance against amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, and fluconazole can be observed in C. albicans.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Candida/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Middle Aged
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 356-361, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949881


Abstract: BACKGROUND: Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity caused by fungi of the genus Candida and usually associated with immunosuppressed individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of oral candidiasis and identify the presence of Candida spp. in liver transplant recipients and assess the association between the presence of the fungus and sociodemographic variables, dietary habits and environmental exposure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 49 patients who had undergone liver transplants at Hospital São Vicente de Paulo in Passo Fundo - RS. Patient information was collected to obtain sociodemographic data, eating habits and environmental exposure. Fungal infections were screened by oral clinical examination and the presence of Candida spp by the collection of oral samples with a sterile swab, seeded in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, incubated at 25°C and observed at 48 hours. To identify Candida albicans, the germ tube test was performed. RESULTS: In 49 patient samples, 39% had the yeast of the genus Candida isolated and, of these patients, 12% had candidiasis, 66% of atrophic type and 34% pseudomembranous. Eleven yeast species were (58%) Candida non-albicans and eight (42%) Candida albicans. STUDY LIMITATIONS: The present study presents as a limitation the inclusion of patients in different stages of immunosuppression. CONCLUSION: The high incidence of Candida non-albicans in the oral cavity of transplant patients with a long period of transplantation is warning to a more effective control of the health of these individuals, especially those with older age.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Oral/diagnosis , Liver Transplantation , Mouth/microbiology , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunocompromised Host , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 378-391, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889229


Abstract High potential, thermotolerant, ethanol-producing yeasts were successfully isolated in this study. Based on molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis, the isolated thermotolerant yeasts were clustered in the genera of Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida glabrata and Kodamea ohmeri. A comparative study of ethanol production using 160 g/L glucose as a substrate revealed several yeast strains that could produce high ethanol concentrations at high temperatures. When sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate containing 85 g/L glucose was used as a substrate, the yeast strain designated P. kudriavzevii RZ8-1 exhibited the highest ethanol concentrations of 35.51 g/L and 33.84 g/L at 37 °C and 40 °C, respectively. It also exhibited multi-stress tolerance, such as heat, ethanol and acetic acid tolerance. During ethanol fermentation at high temperature (42 °C), genes encoding heat shock proteins (ssq1 and hsp90), alcohol dehydrogenases (adh1, adh2, adh3 and adh4) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (tdh2) were up-regulated, suggesting that these genes might play a crucial role in the thermotolerance ability of P. kudriavzevii RZ8-1 under heat stress. These findings suggest that the growth and ethanol fermentation activities of this organism under heat stress were restricted to the expression of genes involved not only in heat shock response but also in the ethanol production pathway.

Ethanol/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Pichia/metabolism , Biotransformation , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/metabolism , Pichia/classification , Pichia/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Stress, Physiological
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 352-356, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041467


Abstract INTRODUCTION We describe the clinical and laboratorial features of oral candidiasis in 66 HIV-positive patients. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques were performed for differentiation of Candida spp. isolated from patients at a public teaching hospital in Midwest Brazil. RESULTS: Oral lesions, mainly pseudomembranous, were significantly related to higher levels of immunosuppression. Of 45 Candida isolates, 66.7% were C. albicans. Most of the isolates were susceptible to the antifungal drugs tested. CONCLUSIONS: Oral lesions were associated with higher immunosuppression levels. Lower susceptibility to antifungals by non-albicans isolates supports the importance of surveillance studies using susceptibility tests to aid in the treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Oral/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Mycological Typing Techniques , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Middle Aged
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 148-151, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889204


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Candida species from the oral cavity of denture wearers with denture-related stomatitis who were attended at the University Federal of Pará (Belém City, Pará State, Brazil). A total of 36 denture wearers with denture-related stomatitis were included, and type I (50%), type II (33%) and type III (17%) stomatitis were observed. Candida spp. were isolated from 89% of the cases and included five different Candida species. C. albicans was the most frequently recovered species (78% of the cases), followed by C. famata and C. tropicalis. We observed a significant association between Candida species isolation and unsatisfactory denture condition (p = 0.0017). Our results demonstrated the highly frequency of Candida species isolation in denture wearers with denture-related stomatitis and showed the relationship between these species and poor denture maintenance.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Stomatitis, Denture/microbiology , Brazil , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , Dentures/microbiology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(1): 54-58, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897978


Abstract Introduction: Fungal endocarditis is reported less frequently than bacterial endocarditis, with an incidence of 0-12% of the total pediatric infective endocarditis. Objective: In this study, the incidence of infective endocarditis in Candida bloodstream infections in a tertiary hospital during the periods of 2007 and 2016 was reviewed. Methods: Patients with positive blood or catheter cultures in terms of Candida spp. during the study period of January 2007 and January 2016 were analyzed in terms of Candida infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis was defined according to the modified Duke criteria. The outcome, possible associated predisposing factors for Candida endocarditis were determined. Results: 221 patients and 256 attacks with positive blood or catheter cultures in terms of Candida were included in the study. The most common Candida species was Candida parapsilosis, isolated in 157 (61.3%) attacks, followed by Candida albicans in 70 (27.3%). Neurological diseases (23%), hemato-oncological diseases (12.1%), previously known heart diseases (8.2%), inborn errors of metabolism (9%) were common comorbidities. Twelve (5.4%) patients had a previous history of cardiac surgery. Among the 221 patients, Candida endocarditis was present in only two (0.9%) of them. Conclusion: Although Candida infective endocarditis is an uncommon but frequently fatal infection in pediatrics, echocardiography should be performed routinely for patients with positive blood or catheter cultures in terms of Candida. Prompt and effective antimicrobial therapy might prevent cardiac surgery in selected cases, however this could not be a general rule for all patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Candida/classification , Endocarditis/microbiology , Candidemia/microbiology , Turkey , Candida/isolation & purification , Echocardiography , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Endocarditis/epidemiology , Candidemia/complications , Candidemia/epidemiology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(3): eAO4224, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953168


ABSTRACT Objective To investigate antifungal susceptibility and factors associated with oral colonization by Candida species in HIV-positive patients. Methods A prospective study based on convenience sampling of subjects recruited from a pool of confirmed HIV-positive individuals seen at a specialty outpatient service in Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil). Oral swabs were collected from 197 patients. Candida species were identified by standard microbiological techniques (phenotypic and molecular methods). Antifungal susceptibility was investigated using the broth microdilution method. Results A total of 101 (51.3%) patients were Candida spp carriers. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (80%). Patients aged 45 to 59 years (Prevalence ratios: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.57-6.31) and 60 years or older (Prevalence ratios: 4.43; 95%CI: 1.57-34.18) were at higher risk of oral colonization by Candida species. Resistance to fluconazole and ketoconazole, or to itraconazole, corresponded to 1% and 4%, respectively. Conclusion Age (45 years or older) was the only factor associated with oral colonization by Candida . Low rates of antifungal resistance to azoles were detected in yeast isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients. Findings of this study may contribute to proper therapeutic selection for oral candidiasis in HIV-positive patients.

RESUMO Objetivo Investigar a suscetibilidade a antifúngicos e os fatores associados à colonização oral por espécies de Candida isoladas de pacientes HIV positivo. Métodos Estudo prospectivo realizado com amostragem por conveniência de indivíduos HIV positivo, acompanhados por um serviço de atendimento especializado da cidade de Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Foram coletados swabs orais de 197 pacientes. As espécies de Candida foram identificadas por técnicas microbiológicas fenotípicas padrão e por método molecular. A suscetibilidade antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Resultados Cento e um (51,3%) pacientes foram colonizados por Candida spp. Candida albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (80%). Identificou-se um maior risco de colonização oral por espécies de Candida em pacientes com idade entre 45 e 59 anos (razão de prevalência: 1,90; IC95%: 1,57-6,31) e 60 anos ou mais (razão de prevalência: 4,43; IC95%: 1,57-34,18). A resistência ao fluconazol e ao cetoconazol foi de 1% cada e de 4% ao itraconazol. Conclusão O único fator associado à colonização oral por espécies de Candida foi ter 45 anos ou mais. Identificamos baixa taxa de resistência antifúngica aos azóis entre as leveduras isoladas de pacientes HIV positivo. Estes achados podem contribuir para selecionar o tratamento da candidíase oral em pacientes HIV positivos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , HIV Infections/complications , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Oral/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 553-559, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978069


Resumen Introducción: El tratamiento y evolución de endocarditis infecciosa por Candida spp en niños debe basarse en guías de manejo; sin embargo, aún existen controversias al respecto. Objetivo: Describir nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de EI por Candida spp en pacientes pediátricos. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, analítico, realizado entre enero de 2006 y diciembre 2017. Análisis paramétrico de variables cuantitativas; razones, proporciones, comparación por medio de χ2 y prueba exacta de Fisher con IC al 95% para variables no paramétricas. Tasa de mortalidad. Resultados: Veinticinco episodios de endocarditis por Candida spp recibieron tratamiento anti fúngico estándar. La mortalidad fue superior en pacientes sometidos a resección de la vegetación endocárdica (66,7%) RR 3,16, χ2 p = 0,029, en niños con síndrome linfo-hemofagocítico SLHF (50%), RR= 1,18 (χ2 NS), en co infección con bacterias multi-resistentes (57,1 %) RR= 2, (χ2 NS) y en EI trombótica (88,9%) RR = 4,74 (χ2 p = 0,004). Conclusiones: Co-infección de EI por Candida sp con bacterias multi-resistentes, SLHF y/o manejo quirúrgico de la vegetación endocárdica, pueden considerarse factores de mal pronóstico.

Background: Treatment and outcome of Candida spp infectious endocarditis in children it most be based on treatment guidelines, however there are some controversies. Aim: To describe our experience on treatment of pediatric candidal infective endocarditis. Methods: Analytic prospective study, from January 2006 to December 2017. Parametric analysis for quantitative variable. Proportions were compared by χ2 and exact Fisher Test CI 95%. Mortality rate. Results: 25 episodes of Candida spp infective endocarditis were treated with standard antifungal drugs. Mortality rate was higher on patients submited to endocardic vegetation resection (66.7%) RR= 3.16, (χ2 p = 0.029), children with lymphohemophagocytic syndrome (LHFS) (50 %) RR= 1.18 (χ2 = N.S.), in multidrug resistant bacterial co infection (57.14%), RR = 2, (χ2 = NS) also thrombotic endocarditis (88.9%) RR= 4.74 (χ2 p = 0.004). Conclusion: Multidrug resistant bacteria co infection with Candida sp IE, LHFS, and/or surgical treatment of endocardic vegetation, might be considered as bad prognostic factors.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Candida/classification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Candidiasis/mortality , Candidiasis/therapy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Endocarditis, Bacterial/mortality , Endocarditis, Bacterial/therapy
Braz. dent. j ; 28(6): 669-674, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888713


Abstract Recently, the non-albicans Candida species have become recognized as an important source of infection and oral colonization by association of different species in a large number of immunosuppressed patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactions between C. krusei and C. glabrata in biofilms formed in vitro and their ability to colonize the oral cavity of mouse model. Monospecies and mixed biofilms were developed of each strain, on 96-well microtiter plates for 48 h. These biofilms were analyzed by counting colony-forming units (CFU/mL) and by determining cell viability, using the XTT hydroxide colorimetric assay. For the in vivo study, twenty-four mice received topical applications of monospecie or mixed suspensions of each strain. After 48 h, yeasts were recovered from the mice and quantified by CFU/mL count. In the biofilm assays, the results for the CFU/mL count and the XTT assay showed that the two species studied were capable of forming high levels of in vitro monospecie biofilm. In mixed biofilm, the CFU of C. krusei increased (p=0.0001) and C. glabrata decreased (p=0.0001). The metabolic activity observed in XTT assay of mixed biofilm was significantly reduced compared with a single C. glabrata biofilm (p=0.0001). Agreeing with CFU in vitro count, C. glabrata CFU/mL values recovered from oral cavity of mice were statistically higher in the group with single infection (p=0.0001) than the group with mixed infection. We concluded that C. krusei inhibits C. glabrata and takes advantage to colonize the oral cavity and to form biofilms.

Resumo Recentemente, as espécies não albicans tem se tornado uma importante fonte de infecção e de colonização oral pela associação de espécies em um grande número de pacientes imunossuprimidos. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a interação entre C. krusei e C. glabrata em biofilmes formados in vitro e sua capacidade em colonizar a cavidade oral em modelo de camundongo. Biofilmes monoespécies e mistos foram formados em placas de 96 poços por 48 h. Esses biofilmes foram analisados pela contagem de UFC/mL e pela determinação da viabilidade celular, usando ensaio de XTT. Para o estudo in vivo, vinte e quatro camundongos receberam aplicações tópicas de suspensões monoespécies e mistas de cada espécie. Após 48 h, as leveduras foram recuperadas dos camundongos e quantificadas por UFC/mL. Nos ensaios de biofilme, os resultados da contagem de UFC/mL e do ensaio de XTT mostraram que as duas espécies estudadas foram capazes de formar grande quantidade de biofilme monoespécie in vitro. Nos biofilmes mistos, a UFC/mL de C. krusei aumentou (p=0,0001) e de C. glabrata diminuiu (p=0,0001). A atividade metabólica observada no ensaio de XTT nos biofilmes mistos foi significantemente reduzida comparada com o biofilme formado apenas de C. glabrata (p=0,0001). Concordado com as contagens in vitro, os valores de UFC/mL de C. glabrata recuperados da cavidade oral dos camundongos foram estatisticamente maior no grupo com infecção simples (p=0,0001) do que do grupo com infecção mista. Nós concluímos que C. krusei inibe C. glabrata e possui vantagem em colonizar a cavidade oral e formar biofilmes.

Mice , Candida/physiology , Species Specificity , In Vitro Techniques , Candida/classification , Colony Count, Microbial , Colorimetry , Biofilms , Microbial Interactions
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 843-847, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041438


Abstract INTRODUCTION Incidence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. from two teaching public hospitals are described. METHODS The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute broth microdilution and genomic differentiation using PCR. RESULTS Of 221 Candida isolates, 50.2% were obtained from intensive care unit patients; 71.5% were recovered from urine and 9.1% from bloodstream samples. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto was the most common candidemia agent. CONCLUSIONS We observed variations in Candida species distribution in hospitals in the same geographic region and documented the emergence of non-C. albicans species resistant to azoles.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Voriconazole/pharmacology , Hospitals, Public , Middle Aged
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 145-150, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839344


Abstract Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection of the genital mucosa caused by different species of the genus Candida. Considering the lack of data on this topic in the south of Brazil, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of Candida spp. in the cervical-vaginal mucosa of patients treated at a university hospital in southern Rio Grande do Sul, as well as the etiology and the susceptibility of the isolates against fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and nystatin. Samples were collected at the gynecology clinic of the Federal Hospital of the University of Rio Grande, and the isolates were identified using phenotypic and biochemical tests. The susceptibility analysis was performed according to the CLSI M27-A2 protocol. Of the 263 patients included, Candida spp. was isolated in 27%, corresponding to a prevalence of approximately 15% for both VVC and colonization. More than 60% of the isolates were identified as Candida albicans; C. non-albicans was isolated at a rate of 8.6% in symptomatic patients and 14.3% in asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of resistance against fluconazole and itraconazole was 42% and 48%, respectively; the minimal inhibitory concentration of miconazole ranged from 0.031 to 8 µg/mL, and that of nystatin ranged from 2 to >16 µg/mL. The high rate of resistance to triazoles observed in our study suggests the necessity of the association of laboratory exams to clinical diagnosis to minimize the practice of empirical treatments that can contribute to the development of resistance in the isolates.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/microbiology , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , HIV Infections , Prevalence , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(3): 214-219, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040568


Since the description of Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis in 2005, several methods have been proposed to identify and differentiate these species from C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Species-specific uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed and compared with sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the LSU 28S rDNA gene, microsatellite typing of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA gene. There was agreement between results of testing of 98 clinical isolates with the four PCR-based methods, with 59 isolates identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 37 as C. orthopsilosis, and two as C. metapsilosis.

Humans , Candida/isolation & purification , Mycological Typing Techniques/methods , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA Fingerprinting , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Genotype
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(1): 19-26, feb. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844440


Background: Invasive Candida spp. infections have been described more frequently. Aim: To characterize the epidemiological data of candidemia in recent years. Methods: A retrospective study of adult patients in a University Hospital in Santiago, Chile, with 1 or more documented episodes of candidemia, from January 2000 to December 2013. Results: One hundred and twenty episodes of candidemia were identified in 120 patients, annual incidence of 0.4 cases per 1000 discharges, 53.3% were male patients, 58.3% > 60 years, 77,5% had at least one co-morbidity. Candida albicans was the species most frequently identified 55%, followed by C. glabrata 18.3%, C. tropicalis 11.7% and C. parapsilosis 9.2%. Comparing 2000-2006 vs 2007-2013, increased the frequency of C. parapsilosis among non-albicans and echinocandins prescription. Patients with C. albicans showed higher APACHE-II, more requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation, greater association with CVC, and shorter incubation time compared with non-albicans species. The 30-day mortality was 31.7%. Conclusions: During this 14-years period we observed that C. albicans was the predominant specie and more recently a change among C. non-albicans increasing C. parapsilosis and decreasing C. glabrata 30-days and attributable mortality decreased together with more echinocandins prescription.

Introducción: Las infecciones invasoras por Candida spp. se describen cada vez con mayor frecuencia. Objetivo: Precisar datos epidemiológicos de candidemia en nuestro hospital en los últimos años. Metodología: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes adultos de un hospital universitario en Santiago, Chile, con un o más episodios de candidemia, acaecidas desde enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2013. Resultados: Se identificaron 120 episodios de candidemia, incidencia anual 0,4 casos x 1.000 egresos, 53,3% pacientes masculinos, 58,3% > 60 años y 77,5% presentaban al menos una co-morbilidad. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente (55%), seguida por C. glabrata (18,3%), C. tropicalis (11,7%) y C. parapsilosis (9,2%). Los tiempos de incubación e identificación fueron más prolongados para C. glabrata. Al comparar el período 2000-2006 vs 2007-2013, aumentó la frecuencia de C. parapsilosis entre las C. no-albicans y el uso de equinocandinas. Los pacientes con C. albicans presentaban puntaje APACHE-II más elevado, mayor requerimiento de ventilación mecánica invasora, mayor asociación a CVC y menor tiempo de incubación respecto C. no-albicans. La mortalidad a 30 días fue de 31,7%. Conclusiones: Durante este período de 14 años observamos predominio de C. albicans y en el período reciente incremento de C. parapsilosis con disminución de C. glabrata, una disminución de mortalidad global y atribuible junto a mayor uso de equinocandinas.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Candida/classification , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Candidemia/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Candidemia/microbiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 75-79, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842827


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the susceptibilities of oral candidiasis-derived Candida albicans, fluconazole-resistant (FR) Candida dubliniensis, and fluconazole-susceptible (FS) C. dubliniensis to synthetic antiseptics [chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and triclosan (TRC)] and natural compounds (carvacrol, eugenol and thymol). METHODS: Susceptibility tests were performed based on the M27-A3 reference method. The fluconazole-resistant C. dubliniensis strains were obtained after prolonged in vitro exposure to increasing fluconazole concentrations. The geometric mean values for minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Fluconazole-susceptible C. dubliniensis was more sensitive to CPC and TRC than FR C. dubliniensis and C. albicans were. However, eugenol and thymol were more active against FR C. dubliniensis. The fungicidal activities of CHX and TRC were similar for the three groups, and FR C. dubliniensis and C. albicans had similar sensitivities to CPC. CONCLUSIONS: The resistance of C. dubliniensis to fluconazole affects its sensitivity the synthetic antiseptics and natural compounds that were tested.

Humans , Candida/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Thymol/pharmacology , Triclosan/pharmacology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candida albicans/drug effects , Eugenol/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology