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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927462

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Evidence regarding the efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygenation for preoxygenation and apnoeic oxygenation is conflicting. Our objective is to evaluate whether HFNC oxygenation for preoxygenation and apnoeic oxygenation maintains higher oxygen saturation (SpO2) during rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in ED patients compared to usual care.@*METHODS@#This was a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial in adult ED patients requiring RSI. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to either intervention (HFNC oxygenation at 60L/min) group or control (non-rebreather mask for preoxygenation and nasal prongs of at least 15L/min oxygen flow for apnoeic oxygenation) group. Primary outcome was lowest SpO2 during the first intubation attempt. Secondary outcomes included incidence of SpO2 falling below 90% and safe apnoea time.@*RESULTS@#One hundred and ninety patients were included, with 97 in the intervention and 93 in the control group. Median lowest SpO2 during the first intubation attempt was 100% in both groups. Incidence of SpO2 falling below 90% was lower in the intervention group (15.5%) compared to the control group (22.6%) (adjusted relative risk=0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-1.25). Post hoc quantile regression analysis showed that the first quartile of lowest SpO2 during the first intubation attempt was greater by 5.46% (95% CI 1.48-9.45%, P=0.007) in the intervention group.@*CONCLUSION@#Use of HFNC for preoxygenation and apnoeic oxygenation, when compared to usual care, did not improve lowest SpO2 during the first intubation attempt but may prolong safe apnoea time.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cannula , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Rapid Sequence Induction and Intubation , Respiration, Artificial
2.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(7): 353-359, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358932

ABSTRACT

Se analiza una de las complicaciones de la lipoaspiración abdominal: la perforación intestinal intra-operatoria por la cánula (instrumental). Se describe la relación entre la cánula, la pared abdominal y el intestino delgado: los tres componentes de esta complicación. Se detallaron las características de las cánulas generalmente empleadas y la técnica quirúrgica de la lipoaspiración abdominal, así como el cuadro clínico ocasionado y cómo tratarlo


One of the complications of abdominal liposuction is analyzed: intra-operative intestinal perforation by the cannula (instrumental). The relationship between the cannula, the abdominal wall and the small intestine is described: the three components of this complication. The characteristics of the cannulas generally used and the surgical technique of abdominal liposuction were detailed, as well as the clinical picture caused and how to treat it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lipectomy/methods , Medical Errors , Abdominal Wall/pathology , Cannula/adverse effects , Intestinal Perforation/prevention & control , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 384-393, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347302

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as práticas clínicas atuais relacionadas à utilização de cânula nasal de alto fluxo por intensivistas pediátricos brasileiros e compará-las com as de outros países. Métodos: Para o estudo principal, foi administrado um questionário a intensivistas pediátricos em países das Américas do Norte e do Sul, Ásia, Europa e Austrália/Nova Zelândia. Comparou-se a coorte brasileira com coortes dos Estados Unidos, Canadá, Reino Unido e Índia. Resultados: Responderam ao questionário 501 médicos, dos quais 127 eram do Brasil. Apenas 63,8% dos participantes brasileiros tinham disponibilidade de cânula nasal de alto fluxo, em contraste com 100% dos participantes no Reino Unido, no Canadá e nos Estados Unidos. Coube ao médico responsável a decisão de iniciar a utilização de uma cânula nasal de alto fluxo segundo responderam 61,2% dos brasileiros, 95,5% dos localizados no Reino Unido, 96,6% dos participantes dos Estados Unidos, 96,8% dos médicos canadenses e 84,7% dos participantes da Índia; 62% dos participantes do Brasil, 96,3% do Reino Unido, 96,6% dos Estados Unidos, 96,8% do Canadá e 84,7% da Índia relataram que o médico responsável era quem definia o desmame ou modificava as regulagens da cânula nasal de alto fluxo. Quando ocorreu falha da cânula nasal de alto fluxo por desconforto respiratório ou insuficiência respiratória, 82% dos participantes do Brasil considerariam uma tentativa com ventilação não invasiva antes da intubação endotraqueal, em comparação com 93% do Reino Unido, 88% dos Estados Unidos, 91,5% do Canadá e 76,8% da Índia. Mais intensivistas brasileiros (6,5%) do que do Reino Unido, Estados Unidos e Índia (1,6% para todos) afirmaram utilizar sedativos com frequência concomitantemente à cânula nasal de alto fluxo. Conclusão: A disponibilidade de cânulas nasais de alto fluxo no Brasil ainda não é difundida. Há algumas divergências nas práticas clínicas entre intensivistas brasileiros e seus colegas estrangeiros, principalmente nos processos e nas tomadas de decisão relacionados a iniciar e desmamar o tratamento com cânula nasal de alto fluxo.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe current clinical practices related to the use of high-flow nasal cannula therapy by Brazilian pediatric intensivists and compare them with those in other countries. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to pediatric intensivists in North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Australia/New Zealand for the main study. We compared the Brazilian cohort with cohorts in the United States of America, Canada, the United Kingdom, and India Results: Overall, 501 physicians responded, 127 of which were in Brazil. Only 63.8% of respondents in Brazil had a high-flow nasal cannula available, in contrast to 100% of respondents in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. The attending physician was responsible for the decision to start a high-flow nasal cannula according to 61.2% respondents in Brazil, 95.5% in the United Kingdom, 96.6% in the United States, 96.8% in Canada, and 84.7% in India. A total of 62% of respondents in Brazil, 96.3% in the United Kingdom, 96.6% in the United States, 96.8% in Canada, and 84.7% in India reported that the attending physician was responsible for the decision to wean or modify the high-flow nasal cannula settings. When high-flow nasal cannula therapy failed due to respiratory distress/failure, 82% of respondents in Brazil would consider a trial of noninvasive ventilation before endotracheal intubation, compared to 93% in the United Kingdom, 88% in the United States, 91.5% in Canada, and 76.8% in India. More Brazilian intensivists (6.5%) than intensivists in the United Kingdom, United States, and India (1.6% for all) affirmed using sedatives frequently with high-flow nasal cannulas. Conclusion: The availability of high-flow nasal cannulas in Brazil is still not widespread. There are some divergences in clinical practices between Brazilian intensivists and their colleagues abroad, mainly in processes and decision-making about starting and weaning high-flow nasal cannula therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Noninvasive Ventilation , Cannula , United States , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Critical Care
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 279-284, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281012

ABSTRACT

La decanulación es el proceso de retirar la cánula de traqueotomía de forma definitiva, una vez que la patología original que motivó la traqueotomía se haya resuelto o mejorado significativamente.La predicción del éxito de decanulación es difícil debido a la influencia de varios factores. No existe un protocolo universalmente aceptado. Existen diversos protocolos y la elección depende, en gran medida, de cada institución y de la situación individual de cada paciente. Sin embargo, para lograr la decanulación exitosa deben tenerse en cuenta varios criterios esenciales que deben cumplirse independientemente del protocolo elegido.Se señalan las características que debe reunir el paciente apto para la decanulación y se presentan recomendaciones sobre los pasos necesarios para lograr el retiro de la cánula de traqueotomía en el niño de manera segura y minimizando el riesgo de fracaso.


Decannulation is the process of removing the tracheotomy cannula permanently, once the original pathology that led to the tracheotomy has been resolved or significantly improved. The prediction of decannulation success is difficult due to the influence of several factors. There is no universally accepted decannulation protocol. There are several protocols and the choice depends, largely, on each institution and the individual situation of each patient. However, in order to achieve successful decannulation, several essential criteria must be taken into account, which must be fulfilled regardless of the chosen protocol.We indicate the characteristics that the patient must meet for decannulation, and we present recommendations on the necessary steps to achieve the removal of the tracheotomy cannula in a child safely and minimizing the risk of failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Tracheotomy , Device Removal/methods , Pediatrics , Guidelines as Topic , Cannula
7.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 34: e34302, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286429

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The use of a high-flow nasal cannula as an alternative treatment for acute respiratory failure can reduce the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and the duration of hospital stays. Objective: The present study aimed to describe the use of a high-flow nasal cannula in pediatric asthmatic patients with acute respiratory failure and suspected COVID-19. Methods: To carry out this research, data were collected from medical records, including three patients with asthma diagnoses. The variables studied were: personal data (name, age in months, sex, weight, and color), clinical data (physical examination, PRAM score, respiratory rate, heart rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation), diagnosis, history of the current disease, chest, and laboratory radiography (arterial blood gases and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). Clinical data were compared before and after using a high-flow nasal cannula. Results: After the application of the therapy, a gradual improvement in heart, respiratory rate, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure score was observed. Conclusion: The simple and quick use of a high-flow nasal cannula in pediatric patients with asthma can be safe and efficient in improving their respiratory condition and reducing the need for intubation.


Resumo Introdução: A utilização da cânula nasal de alto fluxo como alternativa de tratamento para a insuficiência respiratória aguda pode diminuir a necessidade de utilização de ventilação mecânica invasiva e reduzir os dias de internamento. Objetivo: Descrever a utilização da cânula nasal de alto fluxo em pacientes pediátricos asmáticos com insuficiência respiratória aguda e suspeita de COVID-19. Métodos: Para a realização dessa pesquisa foram coletados dados de prontuários, sendo três pacientes com diagnóstico de asma incluídos. As variáveis estudadas foram: dados pessoais (nome, idade em meses, sexo, peso e cor) e clínicos (exame físico, PRAM Escore, frequência respiratória, frequência cardíaca, e saturação periférica de oxigênio), diagnóstico, história da moléstia atual, radiografia de tórax e exames laboratoriais (gasometria arterial e Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction). Foram comparados dados clínicos antes e após a utilização da cânula nasal de alto fluxo. Resultados: Após a aplicação da terapia foi possível observar melhora gradativa da frequência cardíaca e respiratória, relação PaO2/FiO2 e do escore Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure. Conclusão: A utilização simples e rápida da cânula nasal de alto fluxo em pacientes pediátricos com asma pode ser segura e eficiente para melhora do quadro respiratório, diminuindo a necessidade de intubação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pediatrics , Asthma , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Physical Therapy Modalities , Cannula , COVID-19
8.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1349482

ABSTRACT

Los progresos en la ciencia y la tecnología en el ámbito de la salud y, en concreto, en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) hospitalarios han incrementado la supervivencia en la población que demanda atención médica; no obstante, también han generado una población que requiere cuidados y manejos específicos, en su mayoría de manera multidisciplinaria, entre ellos, los pacientes que requieren de atención a traqueotomía. La necesidad de estandarizar el proceso de decanulación es una carencia no cubierta. En esta revisión narrativa exponemos algunos criterios, protocolos o guías vertidas por los autores consultados, sin que hasta el momento exista una guía estandarizada.


Progress in science and technology in the health field, and specifically in the hospital intensive care unit, has increased survival in the population that requires medical care; however, it has also generated a population that requires specific care and management, mostly in a multidisciplinary way, including patients who require attention to a tracheostomy. The need to standardize the decannulation process is an unmet deficiency. In this narrative review, we expose some criteria, protocols or guidelines issued by the authors consulted, so far there is no standardized guide.good surgical and clinical results in the vast majority of cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cannula , Tracheotomy
9.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 49(2): 112-120, 2021. TAB, ILUS, GRAF
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253865

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: actualmente los profesionales de la salud se enfrentan al manejo de las vías aéreas artificiales en grupos pediátricos, esto requiere de cuidados delicados y mucha atención para detectar, establecer y manejar situaciones apremiantes; por esta razón, existe un mayor riesgo de aparición de infecciones bacterianas traqueopulmonares. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la caracterización de las infecciones en pacientes pediátricos portadores de cánula de traqueotomía en las diferentes publicaciones científicas. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática mediante la búsqueda de la literatura existente entre los años 2015-2020 en las bases de datos Elsevier, PubMed, Google Académico y SciELO, teniendo en cuenta los criterios de inclusión artículos en idioma inglés, español y población de edad entre los 0-15 años con infección de cánula de traqueotomía en los años 2015-2020. Resultados: de 258 artículos distribuidos en las bases de datos, se seleccionaron 21 artículos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. Conclusiones: a pesar de que en la actualidad existan criterios clínicos, factores de riesgo y pruebas de laboratorio asociados a infecciones de la cánula postraqueotomía en pacientes pediátricos, se requiere mayor investigación para definir las guías clínicas de manejo en la toma de decisiones médicas. Asimismo, se consideró como limitación importante la cantidad de literatura existente con respecto al tema.


Abstract Introduction: Currently, health professionals face the management of artificial airways in pediatric groups, this requires delicate care and a lot of attention to detect, establish and manage pressing situations, which is why there is a greater risk of tracheo-pulmonary bacterial infections. The objective was to analyze the characterization of infections in pediatric patients with tracheostomy tubes in the different scientific publications. Method: A systematic review of the literature was carried out between the years 2015-2020 in Elsevier, PubMed, Google Academic and SciELO databases, taking into account the inclusion criteria of the population aged 0-15 years in the years 2015-2020. The amount of existing literature on the subject was considered an important limitation. Results: From 258 articles distributed in the databases, 21 articles were selected that met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions: Although there are currently clinical criteria, risk factors and laboratory tests associated with infections of the post-tracheotomy tube in pediatric patients, further research is required to define clinical guidelines for management in medical decision-making.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Tracheitis/microbiology , Tracheotomy/adverse effects , Bronchitis/microbiology , Cannula/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Tracheitis/diagnosis , Tracheitis/drug therapy , Bronchitis/diagnosis , Bronchitis/drug therapy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887514

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Despite adhering to criteria for extubation, up to 20% of intensive care patients require re-intubation, even with use of post-extubation high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). This study aims to identify independent predictors and outcomes of extubation failure in patients who failed post-extubation HFNC.@*METHODS@#We conducted a multicentre observational study involving 9 adult intensive care units (ICUs) across 5 public hospitals in Singapore. We included patients extubated to HFNC following spontaneous breathing trials. We compared patients who were successfully weaned off HFNC with those who failed HFNC (defined as re-intubation ≤7 days following extubation). Generalised additive logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for failed HFNC.@*RESULTS@#Among 244 patients (mean age: 63.92±15.51 years, 65.2% male, median APACHE II score 23.55±7.35), 41 (16.8%) failed HFNC; hypoxia, hypercapnia and excessive secretions were primary reasons. Stroke was an independent predictor of HFNC failure (odds ratio 2.48, 95% confidence interval 1.83-3.37). Failed HFNC, as compared to successful HFNC, was associated with increased median ICU length of stay (14 versus 7 days, @*CONCLUSION@#Post-extubation HFNC failure, especially in patients with stroke as a comorbidity, remains a clinical challenge and predicts poorer clinical outcomes. Our observational study highlights the need for future prospective trials to better identify patients at high risk of post-extubation HFNC failure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Airway Extubation , Cannula , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Singapore/epidemiology
11.
Horiz. enferm ; 32(1): 79-90, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1224728

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: el propósito de este estudio fue determinar los principales desenlaces clínicos en lactantes con insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (IRA), tratados con cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF) en una unidad de cuidado intensivo pediátrico (UCIP). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de cohorte histórica, se reclutaron niños entre 1 y 24 meses que ingresaron a la UCIP de un hospital de referencia con diagnóstico de IRA (Julio 1, 2016 a junio 30, 2017) tratados con CNAF como terapia inicial. Los datos extraídos incluyeron variables demográficas, clínicas y principales desenlaces. RESULTADOS: se identificaron 112 casos que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión durante el periodo del estudio. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue neumonía multilobar (41%), seguido por bronquiolitis (34%). Se encontró que el 22.4% de los niños poseía alguna comorbilidad, siendo la más frecuente la displasia broncopulmonar. El virus más frecuentemente aislado fue el virus sincitial respiratorio (VSR) en el 37.5% de los casos. De los 112 pacientes, 59 niños (53%) requirieron intubación traqueal. Los factores asociados con el riesgo de intubación fueron el diagnóstico de neumonía multilobar, el uso de sedación, el aislamiento de VSR y el sexo femenino. CONCLUSIONES: la CNAF es un sistema de soporte respiratorio no invasivo, seguro, bien tolerado y capaz de disminuir la necesidad de intubación y los días de estancia en cuidado intensivo. En niños con IRA, el diagnóstico de neumonía multilobar, la necesidad de sedación, la presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y el sexo femenino son factores asociados con la necesidad de requerir ventilación mecánica invasiva.


OBJECTIVE: the purpose of this study was to determine the main clinical outcomes in infants with acute respiratory failure (ARF), treated with a high-flow nasal cannula (CNAF) in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: a retrospective observational study was conducted on a cohort of children between 1 and 24 months of age who were admitted to the PICU entered UCIP of a referral hospital with a diagnosis of ARF treated with CNAF as initial therapy. The data extracted included demographic and clinical variables and main outcomes. RESULTS: 112 cases were identified that met the inclusion criteria during the study period. The most frequent diagnosis was pneumonia (41%), followed by bronchiolitis (34%). It was found that 22.4% of the children had some comorbidity, the most frequent being bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The most frequently isolated virus was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 37.5% of the cases. Of the 112 patients, 59 children (53%) required tracheal intubation. The factors associated with the risk of intubation were the diagnosis of pneumonia, the use of sedation, the isolation of RSV and the female gender. CONCLUSIONS: CNAF is a non-invasive respiratory support system, capable of reducing the need for intubation and days of stay in intensive care. In children with ARF, the diagnosis of pneumonia, the need for sedation, the presence of associated comorbidities, and the female gender are factors associated with the need to require invasive mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Cannula , Intubation , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Bronchiolitis , Colombia , Intensive Care Units
12.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(2): e206, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1280506

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivos: describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de niños admitidos por bronquiolitis en 13 unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos (UCIP) del Uruguay y comparar los resultados asistenciales finales entre UCIP de Montevideo (UM) y del interior del país (UI). Material y método: estudio observacional retrospectivo multicéntrico de los registros ingresados a base de datos prospectiva de LARed Network. Se incluyeron niños mayores de 1 mes y menores de 2 años admitidos en el período 1 de mayo de 2017 y 30 de abril de 2019 con diagnóstico de bronquiolitis comunitaria. Se analizaron datos demográficos, clínicos, así como intervenciones y desenlaces al alta. Resultados: se analizaron 666 casos. No se detectaron diferencias significativas de comorbilidades ni en el soporte respiratorio al ingreso. En UI los pacientes fueron derivados con más frecuencia desde otro hospital. La distancia y tiempo medio, así como el porcentaje de traslados mayor de 50 km, fue también mayor. En UI los pacientes tuvieron mayor gravedad clínica y gasométrica al ingreso. El perfil radiológico y etiológico fue similar. Virus respiratorio sincicial (VRS) aislado > 50%. La indicación global de corticoides superó el 25% y el de broncodilatadores el 85%. La prescripción de antibióticos y adrenalina nebulizada fue mayor en UI. La cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF) fue globalmente el método de soporte respiratorio más utilizado, aunque se observó un mayor uso de ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) y CPAP en UI (47% vs 28% en UM). No hubo diferencias en el número de complicaciones por VMI o ventilación no invasiva, ni en el uso de terapias de rescate. Tampoco se notaron diferencias significativas en la duración de la estadía en UCIP, ni en la mortalidad absoluta y ajustada, y hubo un solo caso de nueva morbilidad. Conclusiones: los niños admitidos en UI tuvieron mayor gravedad al ingreso y más factores de riesgo relacionados con mal pronóstico en el traslado, recibiendo más antibióticos y soporte invasivo que aquellos ingresados en UM. El CNAF fue el tipo de soporte respiratorio más utilizado en el país. Se detectó alto porcentaje de prescripción de terapias no recomendadas, como broncodilatadores y corticoides. La mortalidad y complicaciones fueron bajas, así como la generación de morbilidad residual.


Summary: Objectives: to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children admitted for bronchiolitis in 13 Pediatric Intensive Care Units (UCIP) in Uruguay and compare the final care outcomes between Montevideo (UM) and Interior of the country (IU). Method: multicenter, retrospective, observational study of data entered in the LARed Network prospective database. Children over 1 month and younger than 2 years admitted between May 1, 2017 and April 30, 2019 with a diagnosis of Community Bronchiolitis were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed, as well as interventions and discharge outcomes. Results: 666 cases were analyzed. No significant differences in comorbidity and respiratory support were detected at admission. In IU patients were referred more frequently from another hospital. The distance and average time, as well as the percentage of transfers greater than 50 km, was also higher. In IU, patients had greater clinical and gasometrical severity at admission. The radiological and etiological profile was similar (VRS at > 50%). The overall indication of corticosteroids exceeded 25% and that of bronchodilators exceeded 85%. The prescription for antibiotics and nebulized adrenaline was higher in IU. The high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) was globally the most widely used respiratory support method, although increased use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and CPAP in IU (43% vs 28% in UM) was observed. There were no differences in the number of complications from IVF or non-invasive ventilation, nor in the use of rescue therapies. There were also no significant differences in the length of stay at UCIP or in absolute and adjusted mortality and there was only one case of new morbidity. Conclusions: children admitted to IU had higher severity scores and more transfer-related risk factors, received more antibiotics and invasive support. HFNC was the most widely used type of respiratory support in the country. A high prescription of non-recommended therapies such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids was detected. Mortality and complications were low, as were the generation of new morbidity.


Resumo: Objetivos: descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de crianças internadas por bronquiolite em 13 Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica (UTIP) do Uruguai e comparar os resultados finais do atendimento entre UTIP de Montevidéu (UM) e do Interior do país (IU). Material e métodos: estudo observacional retrospectivo multicêntrico dos dados inseridos no banco de dados prospectivo da Rede LARed. Foram incluídas crianças maiores de 1 mês e menores de 2 anos internadas no período de 1º de maio de 2017 a 30 de abril de 2019 com diagnóstico de bronquiolite comunitária. Dados demográficos e clínicos, bem como intervenções e desfechos na alta, foram analisados. Resultados: foram analisados 666 casos. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas nas comorbidades ou no suporte respiratório na admissão. No IU, os pacientes foram encaminhados com maior frequência a outro hospital. A distância e o tempo médios, assim como o percentual de transferências superiores a 50 km, também foram maiores. No IU, os pacientes apresentaram maior gravidade clínica e gasométrica na admissão. O perfil radiológico e etiológico foi semelhante. O vírus sincicial respiratório (RSV) foi isolado em > 50%. A indicação global de corticosteroides ultrapassou 25% e a de broncodilatadores 85%. A prescrição de antibióticos e adrenalina nebulizada foi maior no IU. A cânula nasal de alto fluxo (CNAF) foi o método de suporte respiratório mais utilizado, embora tenha sido observado um maior uso de ventilação mecânica invasiva (VMI) e CPAP no IU (47% vs 28% em UM). Não houve diferenças no número de complicações devido à VMI ou Ventilação Não Invasiva, ou no uso de terapias de resgate. Também não foram observadas diferenças significativas no tempo de internação na UTIP ou na mortalidade absoluta e ajustada, havendo apenas um caso de nova morbidade. Conclusões: as crianças admitidas no IU apresentaram maior gravidade na admissão e mais fatores de risco relacionados ao mau prognóstico na transferência, recebendo mais antibióticos e suporte invasivo do que as internadas em UM. O CNAF foi o tipo de suporte respiratório mais utilizado no país. Detectou-se alto percentual de prescrição de terapias não recomendadas, como broncodilatadores e corticosteroides. A mortalidade e as complicações foram baixas, assim como a geração de morbidade residual.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Bronchiolitis , Morbidity , Noninvasive Ventilation , Cannula , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
13.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5846, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286286

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the evolution of clinical outcomes in children with bronchiolitis who used a high-flow nasal cannula, and to determine after long of non-clinical improvement the therapy should be discontinued, and treatment should be escalated to other forms of ventilatory support. Methods: An observational retrospective study of infants with bronchiolitis who used a high-flow nasal cannula. Patients were divided into two study groups according to success or failure of high-flow nasal cannula therapy, namely the Success Group and the Failure Group. The main demographics and clinical variables were assessed 30 minutes and 6 hours after initiating therapy until removal of the high-flow nasal cannula. Results: A total of 83 children were studied and 18 children (21.7%) failed therapy. Among subjects with successful therapy, a significant decrease in respiratory rate (p<0.001), and a significant increase in peripheral oxygen saturation (p<0.001) were observed within 30 minutes. The Success Group was significantly different from the Failure Group after 6 hours, for both respiratory rate (p<0.01) and peripheral oxygen saturation (p<0.01). Conclusion: The absence of clinical sign improvement within 30 minutes and for up to a maximum of 6 hours can be considered as failure of the high-flow nasal cannula therapy. If this time elapses with no improvements, escalating to another type of ventilatory support should be considered.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a evolução de desfechos clínicos em crianças com bronquiolite que utilizaram cânula nasal de alto fluxo, e determinar com quanto tempo de não melhora clínica a terapia deve ser interrompida para escalonamento do tratamento para outras formas de suporte ventilatório. Métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo, de lactentes com bronquiolite que utilizaram cânula nasal de alto fluxo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de estudo, de acordo com o sucesso ou não da terapêutica com cânula nasal de alto fluxo, nomeados Grupo Sucesso e Grupo Falha. Foram analisadas as principais características demográficas e variáveis clínicas, tendo sido avaliadas 30 minutos e 6 horas após o início do tratamento até a retirada da cânula nasal de alto fluxo. Resultados: Foram estudados 83 crianças; destas, 18 crianças (21,7%) falharam. Entre os pacientes que tiveram sucesso na terapia, observou-se diminuição significativa da frequência respiratória (p<0,001), e também aumento significativo da saturação de oxigênio (p<0,001) já nos primeiros 30 minutos. O Grupo Sucesso foi significativamente diferente do Grupo Falha a partir de 6 horas, tanto para frequência respiratória (p<0,01), quanto para saturação de oxigênio (p<0,01). Conclusão: Na ausência de melhora dos sinais clínicos, a falha da terapia com cânula nasal de alto fluxo já pode ser considerada a partir de 30 minutos e, no máximo, em até 6 horas após o início da terapia. Após esse período sem melhora, o escalonamento para outro tipo de suporte ventilatório deve ser avaliado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Bronchiolitis/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Cannula , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy
14.
Med. infant ; 27(2): 101-106, Diciembre 2020. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1147908

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir la evolución en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos (UCIP) de los pacientes con bronquiolitis, tratados inicialmente con cánula nasal de alto flujo de oxígeno (CAFO) en la Unidad Emergencias. Determinar factores predisponentes de ingreso a ventilación no invasiva (VNI) o invasiva con intubación orotraqueal (TET). Métodos: Trabajo descriptivo retrospectivo por revisión de historias clínicas. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes menores de 2 años de edad con diagnóstico de bronquiolitis, sin comorbilidades, que ingresaron a UCIP polivalente luego de haber sido previamente tratados con CAFO en la Unidad de Emergencias entre los meses de Agosto 2017 y Agosto 2019. Resultados: Se evaluaron 145 pacientes. La mediana de edad fue de 4,4 meses (RIC 2-6 meses), con una mediana de tiempo desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta la consulta de 45,4 hs (RIC 24-72). La mediana del score de TAL modificado al ingreso a UCIP 8,4 (RIC 8-9). El 98,6% requirió asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM), en el grupo VNI 52,4% (75) y en el grupo TET 47,5% (68). El rescate de germen fue en 60% de los casos virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR). El 5,5% fueron co-infecciones. De los pacientes con rescate positivo para VSR, el 52,9% (46) requirieron VNI y 47,1% (41) TET. Los pacientes estudiados permanecieron en CAFO una mediana de 20 hs previo al ingreso a UCIP (RIC: 6-24). Aquellos que estuvieron en VNI con una mediana de 23,3 hs (RIC 6-24) y los que requirieron TET 17 hs (RIC 6-21). La mortalidad evidenciada en el grupo TET fue de 1,38% correspondiente a 2 pacientes, donde también se encontró un 7,5% de complicaciones. La mediana de días de internación en UCIP fue de 8,6 (5-11) para la totalidad de la población estudiada siendo 5,2 (4-6) para los pacientes en VNI y 12 días (9-14) para los pacientes en TET. Conclusiones: Casi la totalidad de pacientes tratados con CAFO en la Unidad Emergencias que requirieron pasar a UCI necesitaron ARM. Ni el score de TAL ni la cantidad de horas de CAFO previo al ingreso en UCI nos permitieron diferenciar los pacientes del grupo VNI de aquellos del grupo TET (AU)


Objective: To describe outcome of patients who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with bronchiolitis initially treated with high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula (HFNC) at the emergency department and to determine predisposing factors for the need for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or invasive endotracheal intubation (ETI). Methods: A retrospective descriptive study with a review of the clinical records was conducted. All patients less than 2 years of age with bronchiolitis without comorbidities that were admitted to the general PICU following treatment with HFNC at the emergency department between August 2017 and August 2019 were included in the study. Results: 145 patients were evaluated. Median age was 4.4 months (IQR 2-6 months). Median time from symptom onset to first consultation was 45.4 hours (IQR 24-72). Median modified TAL score on PICU admission was 8.4 (IQR 8-9). Overall 98,6% required mechanical ventilation (MV), 52.4% (75) in the NIV and 47.5% (68) in the ETI group. In 60% of the cases respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was isolated. Co-infections were found in 5.5%. Of the patients with an RSV-positive isolate, 52.9% (46) required NIV and 47.1% (41) ETI. Patients had remained on HFNC for a median of 20 hours prior to PICU admission (IQR 6-24). Patients were on NIV for a median time of 23.3 hours (IQR 6-24) and on ETI for a median time of 17 hours (IQR 6-21). In the ETI group, mortality rate was 1.38%, corresponding to two patients, while the complication rate was 7.5%. Median length of PICU stay was 8.6 days (5-11) for the entire study population, 5.2 days (4-6) for patients on NIV, and 12 days (9-14) for those on ETI. Conclusions: Almost all patients treated with HFNC at the emergency department who required admission to the PICU needed MV. Neither TAL score nor time on HFNC allowed us to differentiate patients requiring NIV from those who needed ETI (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Respiration, Artificial , Bronchiolitis/therapy , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Cannula , Retrospective Studies
15.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(4): 337-347, dic 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150711

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Hospitalización Domiciliaria (HD) se posiciona como un servicio trascendental, demostrando una gran efectividad en el tratamiento de patologías respiratorias. Objetivos: Evaluar los efectos de las cánulas nasales de alto flujo (CNAF), describir la experiencia de pacientes tratados con esta terapia en HD y plantear un protocolo que estandarice la utilización de este equipo en contexto de patología respiratoria aguda en domicilio. Material y Métodos: Esto se llevó a cabo por medio de un estudio cuasiexperimental, con pacientes ingresados a HD entre los meses de mayo a septiembre del año 2019, para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el programa Minitab 17.0. Resultados: Cumplieron los criterios de inclusión 11 usuarios, el promedio de la edad fue 73 ± 7.8 años.El 100% (N = 11) fueron derivados con requerimientos de oxígeno, desde el servicio de urgencias. El 73,2% (N = 8) ingresaron con patologías clasificadascomo J15 y J44; el 18,1% (N = 2) ingreso con diagnóstico clasificado en J84 y J46 el 9% (N = 1) según CIE-10. El promedio de días de conexión fue de 7.5 ± 5.1 días. Se utilizó un flujo promedio de 35 ± 5.2 l/min, FiO2 de 33 ± 6,1% y una temperatura en Grados Celsius (°C) de 32.3 ± 5.1. Los signos clínicos que tuvieron cambios estadísticamente significativos (Kruskal Wallis, p < 0.05) BORG, el UMA, FR y el Índice de SAFI. Mientras que la SpO2 y la FC no mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Conclusión: Si bien el número de pacientes tratados fue bajo, hay efectos potencialmente significativos en parámetros de relevancia para este tipo de patologías, lo cual puede servir de base para futuros estudios


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Rehabilitation , Physical Therapy Specialty , Cannula , Hospitalization
16.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(4): 348-357, dic 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150712

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hospital at Home (HAH) is considered an extremely important service, showing great efficacy in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of high-flow nasal cannulas (HFNCs), describe the experience of patients treated with this therapy as HC and propose a protocol that standardizes the use of this equipment in the context of acute respiratory diseases as home care. Materials and Methods: This was done by means of a quasi-experimental study with patients admitted to HAH between May and September 2019. For the statistical analysis we used Minitab 17.0. Results: 11 subjects met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 73 ± 7.8 years. 100% of them (N = 11) had been referred from the emergency service with oxygen requirements. 73.2% (N = 8) were admitted with diseases classified as J15 and J44; 18.1% (N = 2) had diagnosis code J84 and 9% (N = 1) had diagnosis code J46, according to the ICD-10 (International Classification of DiseasesTenth Edition). The mean duration of the HFNC connection was 7.5 ± 5.1 days. We used a mean flow of 35 ± 5.2 L/min, FiO2 of 33 ± 6.1% and a temperature of 32.3 ± 5.1 Degrees Celsius (°C). The clinical signs with statistically significant changes were (Kruskal Wallis, p < 0.05) the BORG Scale, UAM, RR and the SAFI Index. The SpO2 and HR didn't show statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Despite the fact that the number of patients under treatment was low, there are potentially significant effects in parameters of relevance for this type of diseases, and this may serve as a basis for future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Rehabilitation , Physical Therapy Specialty , Cannula , Hospitalization
17.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 294-295, set.-out. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137982

ABSTRACT

Abstract This paper provides a fast and inexpensive technique to prevent slippage of the infusion cannula from the EVA DORC® 27-gauge system. After the usual retrobulbar anesthesia, antisepsis and asepsis, a 2% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose drop is placed around the infusion cannula in the trocar to hold it in position. This technique prevents the slippage of the infusion cannula and both the surgical time and creation of the first sclerotomy in the eye can be shortened slightly.


Resumo Este artigo fornece uma técnica rápida e barata para evitar o deslizamento da cânula de infusão do sistema EVA DORC® 27-gauge. Após a habitual anestesia retrobulbar, antissepsia e assepsia, uma gota de 2% de hidroxipropilmetilcelulose é colocada ao redor da cânula de infusão no trocater para mantê-la em posição. Essa técnica evita o deslizamento da cânula de infusão e o tempo cirúrgico e da criação da primeira esclerotomia no olho podem ser ligeiramente reduzidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitrectomy/methods , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Vitreoretinal Surgery/methods , Cannula
18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(4): 422-431, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135054

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness and complications caused by the use of the high-flow nasal cannula in relation to the post-extubation continuous positive airway pressure system in preterm newborns. Data Sources: The searches were performed from January 2013 to December 2018 in the PubMed and Embase databases, as well as a manual search on the internet. Data Synthesis: Two reviewers independently conducted the search, and a third reviewer resolved questions that arose. Ninety-eight articles from the chosen sources were evaluated, and 66 were discarded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria (inadequate topic, age range, or design, in addition to the duplicates). Fifteen articles were read in full, and five more were discarded due to inadequacy to the topic or design. There were ten articles left for systematic review and four for meta-analysis. The study showed non-inferiority in terms of therapeutic failure of the high-flow nasal cannula in relation to continuous positive airway pressure after extubation of preterm newborns. In the meta-analysis, nasal trauma was significantly lower in patients submitted to the high-flow nasal cannula compared to those using continuous positive airway pressure (p < 0.00001). Conclusion: The high-flow nasal cannula is not inferior to continuous positive airway pressure for post-extubation respiratory support in preterm newborns with a gestational age of 32 weeks or less and greater than 28 weeks, in addition to resulting in less nasal trauma.


Resumo Objetivo: Realizar revisão sistemática e metanálise para avaliar efetividade e complicações decorrentes do uso da cânula nasal de alto fluxo em relação ao sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas no período pós-extubação em recém-nascidos prematuros. Fontes dos dados: As buscas foram feitas de janeiro de 2013 a dezembro de 2018 nas bases de dados PubMed, Embase e busca manual em arquivos da internet. Resumo dos dados: Dois revisores fizeram a busca de forma independente, um terceiro revisor ficou para dirimir dúvidas. Foram avaliados 98 artigos das fontes escolhidas, 66 descartados por não se enquadrar nos critérios de inclusão (tema, faixa etária ou desenho inadequados, além dos duplicados). Foram lidos 15 artigos na íntegra, foram descartados mais 5 por inadequação ao tema ou desenho. Restaram 10 artigos para revisão sistemática e 4 para metanálise. O estudo evidenciou não inferioridade em termos de falha terapêutica da cânula nasal de alto fluxo em relação ao sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas na pós-extubação de recém-nascidos prematuros. Na metanálise, foi significativamente menor o trauma nasal nos pacientes em cânula nasal de alto fluxo em relação ao que usaram sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas (p < 0,00001). Conclusão: A cânula nasal de alto fluxo não é inferior ao sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas para o suporte respiratório pós-extubação de recém-nascidos prematuros com idade gestacional igual a ou menor do que 32 semanas e maior do que 28 semanas, além de provocar menos trauma nasal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Airway Extubation , Cannula , Infant, Premature , Gestational Age , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
19.
Univ. salud ; 22(2): 102-111, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115959

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cánula nasal de alto flujo en adultos ofrece un tratamiento alternativo a la oxigenoterapia convencional. Objetivo: Establecer el comportamiento clínico y gasométrico de pacientes con falla respiratoria aguda que habitan a 2.600 msnm, tratados con cánula nasal de alto flujo en cuidado intensivo adulto. Materiales y métodos: Estudio piloto cuasi experimental pretest-postest intrasujeto, tamaño de muestra 14 pacientes calculado a través de Epidat. Tipo de muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia, durante catorce meses. Resultados: El 78% de los pacientes fueron mujeres, la edad promedio fue 68 años, y el diagnóstico principal fue enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) en el 71,42% de los casos. Se administró un flujo de oxígeno promedio de 30 Lt/min para pacientes con (EPOC), para el resto de diagnósticos se programaron flujos mayores. El trabajo respiratorio disminuyó posterior al uso de cánula nasal de alto flujo, la presión arterial de oxígeno mejoró paulatinamente en pacientes con falla hipoxémica y el índice de oxigenación incrementó progresivamente en los dos tipos de falla respiratoria. Conclusiones: La cánula nasal de alto flujo es una opción terapéutica útil en el manejo de la falla respiratoria aguda a 2.600 msnm, permitiendo mejoría de la oxigenación y disminución del trabajo respiratorio.


Introduction: High-flow nasal cannula offers an alternative treatment approach to conventional oxygen therapy in adults. Objective: To establish the clinical and gasometric behavior of patients with acute respiratory failure who live at 2,600 m.a.s.l. and are treated with high-flow nasal cannula in an adult intensive care unit. Materials and methods: Quasi-experimental pilot study with a pretest-posttest within-subject design and a sample size of 14 patients calculated through Epidat. A non-probabilistic convenience sampling was conducted for fourteen months. Results: 78% of the patients were women and their average age was 68 years. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) was diagnosed in 71.42% of the cases. An oxygen flow rate of 30 L/min was administered to patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, while higher rates were used for the rest of the diagnoses. Nasal cannula treatment led to (i) a decreased respiratory function, (ii) a gradually improved arterial blood pressure in patients with hypoxemic failure, (iii) and a progressively increased oxygenation rate. Conclusions: High-flow nasal cannula is a useful therapeutic option in the management of patients with acute respiratory failure living at 2,600 m.a.s.l. because it improves oxygenation and reduces respiratory function.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Blood Gas Analysis , Work of Breathing , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
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