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1.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 66-70, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013251

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical and genetic characteristics of children with β-ketothiolase deficiency (BKTD). Methods: The clinical characteristics, biochemical, markers detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as the variants in ACAT1 gene among 5 children with BKTD in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between October 2018 and December 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The onset age of the disease in 5 patients (4 males and 1 female) ranged from 9.7 to 28.0 months. During the acute phase, severe metabolic acidosis was observed with a pH of 6.9-7.1, as well as hypoglycaemia (2.3-3.4 mmol/L) and positive urinary ketone bodies (+-++++). Blood levels of methylcrotonyl carnitine, methylmalonyl carnitine and malonyl carnitine were 0.03-0.42, 0.34-1.43 and 0.83-3.53 μmol/L respectively and were significantly elevated. Urinary 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid was 22-202 and 3-hydroxybutyric acid was 4-6 066, both were higher than the normal levels. Methylcrotonylglycine was mild elevated (0-29). The metabolites detected by MS/MS and GC/MS were significantly reduced after treatment. Analysis of ACAT1 gene mutation was performed in 5 children. Most variants were missense (8/9). Four previously unreported variants were identified: c.678G>T (p.Trp226Cys), c.302A>G (p.Gln101Arg), c.627_629dupTGA (p.Asn209_Glu210insAsp) and c.316C>T (p.Gln106Ter), the first 2 variants were predicted to be damaging by SIFT, PolyPhen-2 and Mutation Taster software. c.316C>T (p.Gln106Ter) is a nonsense variant. Conclusions: β-ketothiolase deficiency is relatively rare, lacks specific clinical manifestations, however severe metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and ketosis during the acute onset were consistent findings. Missense mutations in the ACAT1 gene are common genetic causes of β-ketothiolase deficiency.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Acidosis , Carnitine , Retrospective Studies , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 654-659, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440321

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cadmium (Cd) is the industrial and environmental toxic heavy metal which is found in air, water and soil. Cd, adversely affects many organs in humans such as kidney, intestine, liver, testis and lungs. L-carnitine (LC) is an important agent that plays essential role in energy metabolism. In our study, we aimed to work out whether LC application has any protective effect on intestinal contractility and morphologic damage of prepubertal rat duodenum on Cd-induced toxicity. Twenty eight prepubertal female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group is control (C), second group; Cd group; Cadmium chloride was given 2 mg/kg 28 days with a one-day break by i.p. The third group; Cd+LC, which cadmium chloride was given 2 mg/kg i.p. and LC was given orally by gastric lavage. The LC dose was given as 75 mg/kg. The fourth group; LC, which only LC was given orally. The intestinal segments were isolated and suspended in tissue bath. Contractile responses were induced by acetylcholine (ACh) and relaxation was achieved with phenylephrine. Also the segments were examined for histological changes by light microscopy. Ach-induced contractions were higher in Cd+LC, LC, and control group compared to the Cd group in duodenal segments. The phenylephrine-induced relaxations were lower in Cd groups as compared with Control, Cd+LC and LC group in duodenal segments. In Cd group intestinal morphology was observed to be severely damaged whereas in Cd+LC group the damage was noticeably lower. Cd administration caused severe cellular damage and decreased gastrointestinal motility. Treatment with the LC has affected the gastrointestinal contractility and reduced the damage in intestinal morphology, which occured after Cd application.


El cadmio (Cd) es el metal pesado tóxico industrial y ambiental que se encuentra en el aire, el agua y el suelo. El Cd afecta negativamente a muchos órganos humanos, como los riñones, los intestinos, el hígado, los testículos y los pulmones. La L-carnitina (LC) es un agente importante que juega un rol esencial en el metabolismo energético. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la aplicación de LC tiene algún efecto protector sobre la contractilidad intestinal y el daño morfológico del duodeno de rata prepuberal sobre la toxicidad inducida por Cd. Veintiocho ratas Wistar hembras prepúberes se dividieron en cuatro grupos. El primer grupo control (C), segundo grupo; grupo cd; Se administró cloruro de cadmio 2 mg/kg durante 28 días con un descanso de un día por vía i.p. El tercer grupo; Cd+LC, al que se administró cloruro de cadmio 2 mg/kg i.p. y LC se administró por vía oral mediante lavado gástrico. La dosis de LC se administró como 75 mg/kg. El cuarto grupo; LC, al cual solo LC se administraba por vía oral. Los segmentos intestinales fueron aislados y suspendieron en baño de tejido. Las respuestas contráctiles fueron inducidas por acetilcolina (ACh) y la relajación se logró con fenilefrina. También se examinaron los segmentos en busca de cambios histológicos mediante microscopía óptica. Las contracciones inducidas por Ach fueron mayores en Cd+LC, LC y el grupo control en comparación con el grupo Cd en los segmentos duodenales. Las relajaciones inducidas por fenilefrina fueron menores en los grupos Cd en comparación con el grupo Control, Cd+LC y LC en los segmentos duodenales. En el grupo Cd se observó que la morfología intestinal estaba severamente dañada mientras que en el grupo Cd+LC el daño fue notablemente menor. La administración de Cd causó daño celular severo y disminución de la motilidad gastrointestinal. El tratamiento con LC afectó la contractilidad gastrointestinal y redujo el daño en la morfología intestinal, que ocurría después de la aplicación de Cd.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Cadmium/toxicity , Carnitine/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Diseases/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects
3.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 161-165, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the blood free carnitine (C0) level and SLC22A5 gene variants in 17 neonates with Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) and to determine its incidence in local area and explore the correlation between C0 level and genotype.@*METHODS@#148 043 newborns born in 9 counties (cities and districts) of Ningde city from September 2016 to June 2021 were selected as study subjects. Blood free carnitine and acyl carnitine of 148 043 neonates were analyzed. Variants of the SLC22A5 gene were screened in those with blood C0 < 10 µmol/L, or C0 between 10 ∼ 15 µmol/L. Correlation between the free carnitine level and genetic variants was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In total 17 neonates were diagnosed with PCD, which yielded a prevalence of 1/8 707 in the region. Twelve variants of the SLC22A5 gene were identified, with the common ones including c.760C>T, c.1400C>G and c.51C>G. Compared with those carrying other variants of the gene, children carrying the c.760C>T variant had significantly lower C0 values (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The prevalence of PCD is relatively high in Ningde area, and intervention measures should be taken to prevent and control the disease. The c. 760C>T variant is associated with lower level of C0, which can provide a clue for the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Carnitine , Hyperammonemia/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/genetics , Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 5/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 155-160, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970896

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical manifestations, biochemical abnormalities and pathogenic variants among children with Short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SBCAD) deficiency detected by neonatal screening.@*METHODS@#A total of 2 730 852 newborns were screened from January 2016 to December 2021 with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Suspected SBCAD deficiency patients were diagnosed by urine organic acid analysis and high-throughput gene sequencing analysis. The clinical, biochemical and genetic changes of the confirmed cases were analyzed, in addition with guidance for diet and life management, L-carnitine supplement, and survey of growth and intellectual development.@*RESULTS@#Twelve cases of SBCAD deficiency were diagnosed, which yielded a prevalence of 1/227 571. The lsovaleryl carnitine (C5) of primary screening blood samples was between 0.6 and 2.1 µmol/L, all exceeded the normal range. C5/acety1 carnitine (C2) was between 0.02 and 0.12, with 6 cases exceeding the normal range. C5/propionyl carnitine (C3) was between 0.1 and 1.16, with 5 cases exceeding the normal range. Free carnitine (C0) was between 18.89 and 58.12 µmol, with 1 case exceeding the normal range. Three neonates with abnormal screening results were recommended to have appropriate restriction for protein intake and two were given L-carnitine. During follow-up, their C5 has ranged from 0.22 to 2.32 µmol/L, C5/C2 has ranged from 0.01 to 0.31, C5/C3 has ranged from 0.14 to 1.7. C5 or C5/C2 and C5/C3 were transiently normal in all patients except for case 8 during the neonatal screening and follow-up. C0 was 17.42 ∼ 76.83 µmol/L Urine organic acid analysis was carried out in 9 of the 12 cases, and 2-methylbutyroglycine was elevated in 8 cases. Urine organic acid analysis was carried out in 9 cases, and 2-methylbutyrylglycine was increased in 8 cases. Genetic analysis was carried out for 11 children, and in total 6 ACADSB gene variants were identified, which included 4 missense variants (c.655G>A, c.923G>A, c.461G>A, c.1165A>G), 1 frameshift variant (c.746del) and 1 nonsense variant (c.275C>G). Among these, the C.461G>A variant was unreported previously. The most common variants were c.1165A>G (40.9%) and C.275C>G (22.7%). The patients were followed up for 18 days to 55 months. Only one patient had mental retardation, with the remainders having normal physical and mental development.@*CONCLUSION@#SBCAD deficiency is a rare disease. The detection rate of newborn screening in this study was 1/227 571. Early intervention can be attained in most asymptomatic patients through neonatal screening. In this study, the common gene variants are c.1165A>G and c.275C>G.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Carnitine , Neonatal Screening/methods
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 787-794, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of four patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD).@*METHODS@#Four children who had presented at the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University between August 2019 and August 2021 were selected as the study subjects. Clinical data of the children were collected. The children were subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES).@*RESULTS@#All of the four children were diagnosed with MCADD. Blood amino acid and ester acyl carnitine spectrum test showed that the concentration of octanoyl carnitine (C8) was significantly increased. The main clinical manifestations included poor mental response (3 cases), intermittent diarrhea with abdominal pain (1 case), vomiting (1 case), increased transaminase (3 cases), and metabolic acidosis (2 cases). Five variants were identified by genetic testing, among which c.341A>G (p.Y114C) was unreported previously. Three were missense variants, one was frameshift variant and one was splicing variant.@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical heterogeneity of MCADD is obvious, and the severity of the disease may vary. WES can assist with the diagnosis. Delineation of the clinical symptoms and genetic characteristics of the disease can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase/genetics , Carnitine , Genetic Testing , Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Neonatal Screening
6.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 707-713, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the genotypes and biochemical phenotypes of neonates with abnormal metabolism of butyrylcarnitine (C4).@*METHODS@#One hundred and twenty neonates with increased C4 levels detected by tandem mass spectrometry in the neonatal screening at Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2018 to June 2023 were included. The initial screening data and recalled data of C4 and C4/C3 were collected and converted into multiples of C4 reference range. Next generation sequencing was performed and the exons with adjacent 50 bp regions of ACAD8 and ACADS genes were captured by liquid phase capture technique. Variant information was obtained by bioinformatic analysis and the pathogenicity were classified according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics criteria. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to analyze the differences in C4 levels among neonates with different variation types.@*RESULTS@#In total, 32 variants in ACAD8 gene were detected, of which 7 variants were reported for the first time; while 41 variants of ACADS gene were detected, of which 17 variants have not been previously reported. There were 39 cases with ACAD8 biallelic variations and 3 cases with ACAD8 monoallelic variations; 34 cases with ACADS biallelic variations and 36 cases with ACADS monoallelic variations. Furthermore, 5 cases were detected with both ACAD8 and ACADS gene variations. Inter group comparison showed that the multiples of C4 reference range in initial screening and re-examination of the ACAD8 biallelic variations and ACADS biallelic variations groups were significantly higher than those of the ACADS monoallelic variations group (all P<0.01), while the multiples in the ACAD8 biallelic variations group were significantly higher than those in the ACADS biallelic variations group (all P<0.01). The multiples of C4 reference range in the initial screening greater than 1.5 times were observed in all neonates carrying ACAD8 or ACADS biallelic variations, while only 25% (9/36) in neonates carrying ACADS monoallelic variations.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ACAD8 and/or ACADS gene variants are the main genetic causes for elevated C4 in newborns in Zhejiang region with high genotypic heterogeneity. The C4 levels of neonates with biallelic variations are significantly higher than those of neonates with monoallelic variations. The cut-off value for C4 level could be modestly elevated, which could reduce the false positive rate in tandem mass spectrometry neonatal screening.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase/genetics , Genotype , Phenotype , Carnitine/metabolism , Mutation
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1496-1503, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the difference in the gene expression, amino acid and carnitine levels in the cervical secretions between the endometria of pre-receptive and receptive stages, with an aim to provide clues for identifying new molecular markers for endometrial receptivity.@*METHODS@#Fifty nine infertile women treated at the Department of Reproductive Medicine of Linyi People's Hospital from January 6, 2020 to January 31, 2022 were selected as as the study subjects, which were matched with 3 pairs (6 cases) of infertile women preparing for embryo transfer based on factors such as age, body mass index, and length of infertility. Endometrial tissue samples were collected for gene transcription and expression analysis. Twenty five women who had become pregnant through assisted reproductive technology were selected as the control group, and 28 non-pregnant women receiving ovulation monitoring at the Outpatient Department were enrolled as the case group. Status of endometrial receptivity was determined by ultrasonography. In the former group, endometrial tissues were sampled for sequencing, and GO and KEGG database enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes was carried out. In the latter group, cervical secretions were collected, and amino acid and carnitine levels were measured by mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was carried out using rank sum test, t test and chi-square test with SPSS v25.0 software.@*RESULTS@#No difference was found in the clinical data of the patients with regard to age, body mass index, infertility years, AMH, FSH, LH, E2, and type of infertility. Compared with the receptive endometrial tissues, there were 100 significantly up-regulated genes and 191 significantly down-regulated genes in the pre-receptive endometrial tissue, with the most significantly altered ones being HLA-DRB5 and MMP10. The biological processes, molecular functions and pathways enriched by more differentially expressed genes in GO and KEGG were mainly immune regulation, cell adhesion and tryptophan metabolism. Analysis of secretion metabolism also revealed a significant difference in the levels of amino acids and carnitine metabolites between the two groups (P < 0.05), in particular those of Alanine, Valine, 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C4OH) + malonylcarnitine (C3DC)/captoylcarnitine (C10).@*CONCLUSION@#A significant difference has been discovered in the levels of gene transcription and protein expression in the endometrial tissues from the pre-receptive and receptive stages. The levels of amino acids and carnitine, such as Alanine, Valine, 3-hydroxybutyryl carnitine (C4OH)+malonyl carnitine (C3DC)/caproyl carnitine (C10), may be associated with the receptive status of the endometrium, though this need to be verified with larger samples.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Infertility, Female/genetics , Endometrium/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , Gene Expression , Carnitine , Alanine/metabolism , Valine/metabolism
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1294-1299, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405302

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) of the small intestine causes serious abdominal pathologies including tissue dysfunction and organ failure. L-carnitine (L-C), a powerful antioxidant, may help lessen the severity of these pathological effects since it plays a key role in energy metabolism. In this work we aimed to study the effects of L-C on the isolated ileal and duodenal contractility and histological changes in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Twenty eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group is the control group. Second group, I/R group, had rats submitted to 45-minutes of intestinal ischemia and to 45-minutes reperfusion. The third group, I/R+ L-C group, rats were treated with L-C 5 minutes before reperfusion and than submitted to ischemia. The fourth group, included rats that were treated with L-C without ischemia or reperfusion. Intestinal ischemia was conducted by obstructing superior mesentery arteries by silk loop. The ileal and duodenal segments were isolated and suspended in tissue bath. Contractile responses were induced by acetylcholine (Ach) and relaxation was achieved with phenylephrine. At the same time the terminal ileal and duodenal segments were examined for histological changes. Ach-induced contraction responses were higher in the I/R+L-C group, the L-C group, and the control group compared to the I/R group, in both ileal and duodenal segments. On the other hand, the phenylephrine-induced relaxations were higher in the I/R+L-C and L-C groups, especially in duodenal segments. In I/R group intestinal morphology was observed to be severely damaged whereas in I/R+L-C group the damage was noticeably lower possibly due to protective properties of L-C. I/R injury caused severe cellular damage response within the muscularis resulting in decreased gastrointestinal motility. Treatment with the L-C has significantly affected the gastrointestinal contractility. Also L-C treatment reduced the damage in intestinal morphology that occurs after IR injury.


RESUMEN: La isquemia-reperfusión (I/R) del intestino delgado provoca graves patologías abdominales que incluyen disfunción tisular y falla orgánica. La L-carnitina (L-C), un poderoso antioxidante, puede ayudar a disminuir la gravedad de estos efectos patológicos, ya que desempeña un papel clave en el metabolismo energético. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de L-C sobre la contractilidad ileal y duodenal aislada y los cambios histológicos en la lesión por isquemia y reperfusión intestinal. Se dividieron 28 ratas Wistar en cuatro grupos. El primer grupo fue el control. El segundo grupo, grupo I/R, de ratas sometidas durante 45 minutos de isquemia intestinal y a 45 minutos de reperfusión. El tercer grupo, grupo I/R+ L-C, las ratas se trataron con L-C, 5 minutos antes de la reperfusión y luego se sometieron a isquemia. El cuarto grupo, las ratas fueron tratadas con L-C sin isquemia ni reperfusión. La isquemia intestinal se realizó obstruyendo la arteria mesentérica superior con un asa de seda. Los segmentos ileal y duodenal se aislaron y suspendieron en un baño de tejido. Las respuestas contráctiles fueron inducidas por acetilcolina (Ach) y la relajación se logró con fenilefrina. Al mismo tiempo, se examinaron cambios histológicos de los segmentos del íleon terminal y del duodeno. Las respuestas de contracción inducidas por Ach fueron mayores en el grupo I/R+L-C, el grupo L-C y el grupo control en comparación con el grupo I/R, tanto en el segmento ileal como en el duodenal. Por otra parte, las relajaciones inducidas por fenilefrina fueron mayores en los grupos I/R+L-C y L-C, especialmente en los segmentos duodenales. En el grupo I/R se observó que la morfología intestinal estaba dañada significativamente, mientras que en el grupo I/R+L-C el daño fue notablemente menor, posiblemente debido a las propiedades protectoras de L-C. La lesión por I/R causó una respuesta de daño celular severo dentro de la capa muscular que resultó en una disminución de la motilidad gastrointestinal. El tratamiento con L-C afectó significativamente la contractilidad gastrointestinal. Por otra parte, el tratamiento L-C redujo el daño en la morfología intestinal que ocurre después de la lesión por IR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Carnitine/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Carnitine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Intestines/pathology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
9.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 667-676, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940973

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects and molecular mechanism of exogenous L-carnitine on hepatic pyroptosis mediated by excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress in severely scald rats. Methods: The experimental research method was adopted. According to the random number table (the same group method below), fifteen female Sprague Dawley rats aged 6-8 weeks were divided into sham-injury group, scald alone group, and scald+carnitine group (with 5 rats in each group), and full-thickness scald of 30% total body surface area were made on the back of rats in scald alone group and scald+carnitine group, and rats in scald+carnitine group were additionally given intraperitoneal injection of L-carnitine. At post injury hour (PIH) 72, The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine dehydrogenase (ALT) of biochemical indicators of liver injury were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer with the sample number of 5. At PIH 72, liver tissue damage was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. At PIH 72, The mRNA levels of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), cysteine aspartic acid specific protease 1 (caspase-1), gasderminD (GSDMD), and interleukin 1β(IL-1β) in liver tissue as pyroptosis-related markers and glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in liver tissue as endoplasmic reticulum stress-related markers were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Protein expression levels of GRP78, CHOP, NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, GSDMD-N, and cleaved IL-1β in liver tissue were detected by Western blotting, and the sample numbers were all 5. HepG2 cells as human liver cancer cells were divided into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group, 0.1 μmol/L tunicamycin (TM) group, 0.2 μmol/L TM group, 0.4 μmol/L TM group, and 0.8 μmol/L TM group and were treated accordingly. After 24 h of culture, cell viability was detected by cell counting kit 8, and the intervention concentration of TM was screened, and the sample number was 5. HepG2 cells were divided into DMSO group, TM alone group, and TM+carnitine group, and treated accordingly. After 24 h of culture, the protein expression levels of GRP78, CHOP, NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, GSDMD-N, and cleaved IL-1β in cells were detected by Western blotting, and the sample numbers were all 3. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and least significant difference-t test. Results: At PIH 72, the AST and ALT levels of serum in scald alone group were (640±22) and (157±8) U/L, which were significantly higher than (106±13) and (42±6) U/L in sham-injury group, respectively, with t values of -46.78 and -25.98, respectively, P<0.01. The AST and ALT levels of serum in scald+carnitine group were (519±50) and (121±10) U/L, which were significantly lower than those in scald alone group, respectively, with t values of 4.93 and 6.06, respectively, P<0.01. At PIH 72, the morphology of liver tissue of rats in sham-injury group were basically normal with no obvious inflammatory cell infiltration; compared with those in sham-injury group, the liver tissue of rats in scald alone group showed a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration and disturbed cell arrangement; compared with that in scald alone group, the liver tissue of rats in scald+carnitine group showed a small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration. At PIH 72, the mRNA expression on levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD, and IL-1β in liver tissue of rats in scald alone group were significantly higher than those in sham-injury group (with t values of 34.42, 41.93, 30.17, and 15.68, respectively, P<0.01); the mRNA levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD, and IL-1β in liver tissue of rats in scald+carnitine group were significantly lower than those in scald alone group (with t values of 34.40, 37.20, 19.95, and 7.88, respectively, P<0.01). At PIH 72, the protein expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, GSDMD-N, and cleaved IL-1β in liver tissue of rats in scald alone group were significantly higher than those in sham-injury group (with t values of 12.28, 26.92, 5.20, 10.02, and 24.78, respectively, P<0.01); compared with those in scald alone group, the protein expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, GSDMD-N, and cleaved IL-1β in liver tissue of rats in scald+carnitine group were significantly decreased (with t values of 10.99, 27.96, 12.69, 8.96, and 12.27, respectively, P<0.01). At PIH 72, the mRNA levels of GRP78 and CHOP in liver tissue of rats in scald alone group were significantly higher than those in sham-injury group (with t values of 21.00 and 16.52, respectively, P<0.01), and the mRNA levels of GRP78 and CHOP in liver tissue of rats in scald+carnitine group were significantly lower than those in scald alone group (with t values of 8.92 and 8.21, respectively, P<0.01); the protein expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP in liver tissue of rats in scald alone group were significantly higher than those in sham-injury group (with t values of 22.50 and 14.29, respectively, P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP in liver tissue of rats in scald+carnitine group were significantly lower than those in scald alone group (with t values of 14.29 and 5.33 respectively, P<0.01). After 24 h of culture, the cell survival rates of 0.1 μmol/L TM group, 0.2 μmol/L TM group, 0.4 μmol/L TM group, and 0.8 μmol/L TM group were significantly decreased than that in DMSO group (with t values of 4.90, 9.35, 18.64, and 25.09, respectively, P<0.01). Then 0.8 μmol/L was selected as the intervention concentration of TM. After 24 h of culture, compared with that in DMSO group, the protein expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP in cells in TM alone group were significantly increased (with t values of 10.48 and 17.67, respectively, P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP in TM+carnitine group were significantly lower than those in TM alone group (with t values of 8.08 and 13.23, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). After 24 h of culture, compared with those in DMSO group, the protein expression levels of NLRP3 and GSDMD-N in cells in TM alone group were significantly increased (with t values of 13.44 and 27.51, respectively, P<0.01), but the protein expression levels of caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, and cleaved IL-1β in cells were not significantly changed (P>0.05); compared with that in TM alone group, the protein expression levels of NLRP3 and GSDMD-N in cells in TM+carnitine group were significantly decreased (with t values of 20.49 and 21.95, respectively, P<0.01), but the protein expression levels of caspase-1, caspase-1/p20, and cleaved IL-1β in cells were not significantly changed (P>0.05). Conclusions: In severely scald rats, exogenous L-carnitine may play a protective role against liver injury by inhibiting the pathways related to excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated pyroptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Rats , Burns , Carnitine/pharmacology , Caspase 1/pharmacology , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Liver , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Pyroptosis , RNA, Messenger , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 295-305, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929184

ABSTRACT

The association among plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), FMO3 polymorphisms, and chronic heart failure (CHF) remains to be elucidated. TMAO is a microbiota-dependent metabolite from dietary choline and carnitine. A prospective study was performed including 955 consecutively diagnosed CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction, with the longest follow-up of 7 years. The concentrations of plasma TMAO and its precursors, namely, choline and carnitine, were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the FMO3 E158K polymorphisms (rs2266782) were genotyped. The top tertile of plasma TMAO was associated with a significant increment in hazard ratio (HR) for the composite outcome of cardiovascular death or heart transplantation (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.13-1.91, P = 0.004) compared with the lowest tertile. After adjustments of the potential confounders, higher TMAO could still be used to predict the risk of the primary endpoint (adjusted HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.01-1.74, P = 0.039). This result was also obtained after further adjustment for carnitine (adjusted HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.01-1.74, P = 0.039). The FMO3 rs2266782 polymorphism was associated with the plasma TMAO concentrations in our cohort, and lower TMAO levels were found in the AA-genotype. Thus, higher plasma TMAO levels indicated increased risk of the composite outcome of cardiovascular death or heart transplantation independent of potential confounders, and the FMO3 AA-genotype in rs2266782 was related to lower plasma TMAO levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carnitine , Choline/metabolism , Chronic Disease , Heart Failure/genetics , Methylamines , Oxygenases , Prospective Studies
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 715-725, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345249

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamentos A L-carnitina (LC) tem muitos efeitos benéficos em animais diabéticos e humanos, mas seu efeito regulatório sobre a quemerina como uma citocina inflamatória e seu receptor no estado diabético são desconhecidos. Objetivos O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar o efeito regulatório da LC na expressão do receptor semelhante ao de quimiocina 1 e quemerina (CMKLRI) em tecidos adiposo e cardíaco de camundongos diabéticos. Métodos Sessenta camundongos NMARI foram divididos em quatro grupos, incluindo controle, diabético, diabético + suplementação com LC e controle + suplementação com LC. O diabetes foi induzido pela alimentação dos animais com dieta hipercalórica por 5 semanas e injeção de estreptozotocina. Os animais foram tratados com 300 mg/kg de LC por 28 dias. Nos dias 7, 14 e 28 após o tratamento, os níveis de mRNA e proteína da quemerina e CMKLRI nos tecidos cardíacos e adiposos de animais foram determinados utilizando análise por qPCR e ELISA. Os índices de resistência à insulina também foram medidos em todos os grupos experimentais. A diferença com p<0,05 foi considerada significativa. Resultados A expressão de quemerina e CMKLRI aumentou nos tecidos cardíaco e adiposo de camundongos diabéticos nos dias 14 e 28 após a indução do diabetes, concomitantemente com a incidência de resistência à insulina e níveis aumentados de quemerina circulante (p<0,05). O tratamento com LC causou uma diminuição significativa na expressão de ambos os genes nos tecidos estudados e redução dos sintomas de resistência à insulina e dos níveis séricos de quemerina (p<0,05). Conclusão Os resultados sugerem que o tratamento com LC pode diminuir a expressão de quemerina e CKLR1 em tecidos cardíacos e adiposos de animais experimentais obesos e diabéticos.


Abstract Background L-carnitine (LC) has many beneficial effects on diabetic animals and humans, but its regulatory effect on chemerin as an inflammatory cytokine, and its receptor in diabetes status is unknown. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory effect of LC on the expression of chemerin and chemokine-like receptor I (CMKLRI) in adipose and cardiac tissues of diabetic mice. Methods Sixty NMARI mice were divided into four groups including control, diabetic, diabetic + LC supplementation and control + LC supplementation. Diabetes was induced by feeding the animals a high-calorie diet for 5 weeks and injection of Streptozotocin. The animals were treated with 300 mg/kg LC for 28 days. On days 7, 14, and 28 after treatment, the mRNA and protein levels of chemerin and CMKLRI in the cardiac and adipose tissues of the animals were determined using qPCR analysis and ELISA. Insulin resistance indices were also measured in all experimental groups. Differences with p <0.05 were considered significant. Results Chemerin and CMKLRI expressions levels were increased in cardiac and adipose tissues of diabetic mice on days 14 and 28 after diabetes induction, concurrent with the incidence of insulin resistance and increased levels of circulating chemerin (p<0.05). The treatment with LC caused a significant decrease in the expression of both genes in studied tissues and the reduction of insulin resistance symptoms and serum chemerin levels (p<0.05). Conclusion The results suggest that LC treatment were able to downregulate the expression of chemerin and CKLR1 in cardiac and adipose tissues of obese, diabetic experimental animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Receptors, Chemokine , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Carnitine/pharmacology , Chemokines , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Mice, Obese , Obesity/drug therapy
13.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1051-1054, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the metabolic profile and genetic variants for newborns with primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) from Guangxi, China.@*METHODS@#From January 2014 to December 2019, 400 575 newborns from the jurisdiction of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Newborn Screening Center were subjected to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Newborns with positive results for PCD and their mothers were recalled for retesting. Those who were still positive were subjected to sequencing of the SLC22A5 gene.@*RESULTS@#Twenty-two newborns and 9 mothers were diagnosed with PCD, which gave a prevalence rate of 1/18 208. Sequencing of 18 newborns and 4 mothers have identified 14 types of SLC22A5 gene variants, with the common ones including c.51C>G (10/44, 22.7%), c.1195C>T (9/44, 20.5%) and c.1400C>G (7/44, 15.9%), The c.517delC(p.L173Cfs*3) and c.1031C>T(p.T344I) were unreported previously and predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PM2_supporting+PM3+PP4) and likely pathogenic (PM1+PM2_supporting+PM3+PP3+PP4) based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines.@*CONCLUSION@#c.51C>G, c.1195C>T and c.1400C>G are the most common variants underlying PCD in Guangxi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Cardiomyopathies , Carnitine/deficiency , China , Hyperammonemia , Metabolome , Muscular Diseases , Mutation , Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 5/genetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
14.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 184-187, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879552

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To report on the clinical, metabolic and genetic characteristics of a child with carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency.@*METHODS@#Clinical data and the level of acylcarnitine for a child who initially presented as epilepsy were analyzed. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the child and her parents and subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS).@*RESULTS@#Mass spectrometry of blood acylcarnitine indicated increased carnitine 0 (C0) and significantly increased C0/ (C16+C18). DNA sequencing revealed that the child has carried compound heterozygous variants of the CPT1A gene, namely c.1846G>A and c.2201T>C, which were respectively inherited from her mother and father.@*CONCLUSION@#CPT1A presenting initially as epilepsy was unreported previously. Analysis of blood acylcarnitine C0 and C0/ (C16 + C18) ratio and NGS are necessary for the identification and diagnosis of CPT1A deficiency. The c.1846G>A and c.2201T>C variants of the CPT1A gene probably underlay the disease in this child. Above finding has also enriched the spectrum of CPT1A gene variants.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Carnitine/blood , Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , Hypoglycemia/genetics , Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics
15.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(4): 662-671, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156821

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: Evaluar el rol de la L-carnitina (LC) sobre el estrés oxidativo inducido por fructosa en ratas Holtzman. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental durante 56 días, con cuatro grupos: control, control+LC, fructosa y fructosa+LC. Los grupos con fructosa recibieron el tratamiento durante los 56 días, y los grupos con LC lo recibieron en los últimos 28 días. La fructosa se dio a libre demanda y la LC se administró por vía oral a una dosis de 500 g/kg/24 h. En el hígado se midió la lipoperoxidación (MDA), la actividad de superóxido dismutasa, las proteínas mitocondriales y posmitocondriales, y la LC libre. En el plasma se midió la glicemia, el índice de modelo homeostático para evaluar la resistencia a la insulina (HOMA-IR) e insulina. En el páncreas se midió la insulina y se realizó la histología. Resultados: El tratamiento con LC en el hígado mostró disminución (p < 0,05) de MDA frente al grupo control (21,73 ± 5,36 nmol/g tejido vs. 64,46 ± 7,87 nmol/g tejido). Las proteínas mitocondriales y posmitocondriales aumentaron (p < 0,05) frente al grupo control. La insulina pancreática también aumentó frente al control (341,8 ± 42,3 μUI/ml vs. 70,1 ± 9,6 μUI/ml, p<0,05). El rol de LC frente al estrés oxidativo inducido por fructosa no mostró disminución de MDA, pero produjo disminución (p < 0,05) en la actividad de SOD Cu/Zn (9,39 ± 1,5 USOD/mg proteína vs. 13,52 ± 1,5 USOD/mg proteína). En el plasma, se observó que la LC mejora el valor de la HOMA-IR. Histológicamente, la presencia de LC aumentó el número y tamaño de islotes de Langerhans. Conclusiones: La LC favorece los cambios del metabolismo oxidativo y ante el consumo de fructosa contribuye con la homeostasis glicémica.


ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the role of L-carnitine (LC) on fructose-induced oxidative stress in Holtzman rats. Materials and methods: An experimental study was carried out during 56 days, in patients assigned to 4 groups: control, control+LC, fructose and fructose+LC. Patients in the fructose group received treatment during 56 days, and those in the LC groups were treated during the last 28 days. Fructose was given on demand and LC was administered orally at a dose of 500 g/kg/24 h. Lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase activity, free LC and mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial proteins were measured in liver tissue. Glycemia, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured in blood plasma. We measured insulin concentration and studied the histology of pancreatic tissue. Results: LC treatment showed a decrease (p < 0.05) of MDA when compared to the control group (21.73 ± 5.36 nmol/g tissue vs. 64.46 ± 7.87 nmol/g tissue). Mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial proteins increased (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control group; pancreatic insulin also increased when compared to the control (341.8 ± 42.3 μUI/ml vs. 70.1 ± 9.6 μUI/ml, p<0.05). The role of LC against fructose-induced oxidative stress did not show any decrease of MDA, but decreased (p < 0.05) SOD Cu/Zn activity (9.39 ± 1.5 USOD/mg protein vs. 13.52 ± 1.5 USOD/mg protein). We observed that LC improves HOMA-IR in blood plasma. Histological analysis of the pancreas showed that the presence of LC increased the number and size of the islets of Langerhans. Conclusions: LC favors changes in the oxidative metabolism and it also contributes to glycemic homeostasis when fructose is consumed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carnitine , Oxidative Stress , Fructose , Antioxidants , Superoxide Dismutase , Blood Glucose , Insulin , Malondialdehyde
16.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(1): 61-69, 20200000. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1370542

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of the study was to determine the oxidative stress (OS) intensity depending on the nutritional status (NS) among end-stage renal disease patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to investigate the effectiveness of medical strategies for the correction of nutritional disorders (ND). Methods: 69 end-stage renal disease patients treated with CAPD were examined who had varying degrees of ND. General clinical, biochemical parameters, OS markers were identified. Basing on the obtained data, the level of OS markers was determined in groups of patients with different NS. Subsequently, patients with moderate and severe ND were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group (n=20) included patients who received in complex treatment additionally to traditional treatment of CAPD Levocarnitine and one exchange per day of intraperitoneal fluid with amino acids. The second group consisted of patients (n=20) who received instead of one Dianeal fluid intraperitoneal fluid with amino acids. Results: OS indicators were increased in all four groups of patients with different NS, but they were the highest among patients with moderate and severe malnutrition. After the treatment the patients of the first study group had a statistically significant decrease in the MDA content, both in blood serum and erythrocytes (p<0.005). At the same time, the analysis of the informative markers dynamics for antioxidant oxidative stress (AOS) of blood serum allowed to register a statistically credible increase in their mean values among patients after treatment (p<0.05). It should be emphasized that no statistically significant effect of Levocarnitine on the anthropometric parameters of nutritional status and serum albumin level was obtained. However, after the therapy in the study group the values of SGA and protein consumption with food increased (p<0.05). At the same time, the patients from second study group had no positive effect on the reduction of oxidative stress, except for the level of transferrin (p<0.05) and contributes to the increase of serum albumin level (p<0.05).


Subject(s)
Humans , Carnitine/therapeutic use , Nutritional Status , Peritoneal Dialysis , Oxidative Stress , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(2): 81-87, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089002

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Huntington's disease (HD), caused by an expanded CAG repeat at HTT, has no treatment, and biomarkers are needed for future clinical trials. Objective: The objective of this study was to verify if free carnitine and branched chain amino acids levels behave as potential biomarkers in HD. Methods: Symptomatic and asymptomatic HD carriers and controls were recruited. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), age of onset, disease duration, UHDRS scores, and expanded CAG tract were obtained; valine, leucine, isoleucine, and free carnitine were measured. Baseline and longitudinal analysis were performed. Results: Seventy-four symptomatic carriers, 20 asymptomatic carriers, and 22 non-carriers were included. At baseline, valine levels were reduced in symptomatic and asymptomatic HD carriers when compared to non-carriers. No difference in free carnitine or isoleucine+leucine levels were observed between groups. BMI of symptomatic individuals was lower than those of non-carriers. Valine levels correlated with BMI. Follow-up evaluation was performed in 43 symptomatic individuals. UHDRS total motor score increased 4.8 points/year on average. No significant reductions in BMI or valine were observed, whereas free carnitine and isoleucine+leucine levels increased. Conclusions: Although valine levels were lower in HD carriers and were related to BMI losses observed in pre-symptomatic individuals, none of these metabolites seem to be biomarkers for HD.


RESUMO Introdução: A doença de Huntington (DH), causada por uma repetição CAG expandida no HTT, não possui tratamento e biomarcadores são necessários para futuros ensaios clínicos. Objetivo: Nosso objetivo foi verificar se os níveis de carnitina livre e aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada se comportam como potenciais biomarcadores na DH. Métodos: Portadores sintomáticos e assintomáticos e controles foram recrutados. Idade, sexo, índice de massa corporal (IMC), idade de início, duração da doença, escores UHDRS e trato CAG expandido foram obtidos; valina, leucina, isoleucina e carnitina livre foram medidas. Foram realizadas análises basal e longitudinal. Resultados: Setenta e quatro portadores sintomáticos, 20 portadores assintomáticos e 22 não portadores foram incluídos. No início do estudo, os níveis de valina estavam reduzidos em portadores de DH sintomáticos e assintomáticos quando comparados aos não portadores. Não foram observadas diferenças nos níveis de carnitina livre ou isoleucina + leucina entre os grupos. O IMC dos indivíduos sintomáticos foi menor que o dos não portadores. Níveis de valina correlacionaram-se com o IMC. Avaliação de acompanhamento foi realizada em 43 indivíduos sintomáticos. A pontuação do escore motor total da UHDRS aumentou 4,8 pontos/ano em média. Não foram observadas reduções significativas no IMC ou na valina, enquanto os níveis de carnitina livre e isoleucina+leucina aumentaram. Conclusões: Embora os níveis de valina tenham sido menores nos portadores de DH e estivessem relacionados às perdas de IMC observadas em indivíduos pré-sintomáticos, nenhum desses metabólitos parece ser biomarcador para a DH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Huntington Disease , Biomarkers , Carnitine , Amino Acids, Branched-Chain
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 5-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088955

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of the present study was to measure the free carnitine and acylcarnitine levels in pterygium tissue and normal conjunctival tissue at the metabolomics level using tandem mass spectrometry. Methods: In this prospective, clinical randomized study, pterygium tissues and normal conjunctival tissues taken during pterygium excision with autograft were compared regarding their free carnitine and acylcarnitine profiles. After tissue homogenization, carnitine levels were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. The data were statistically analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Pterygium and normal conjunctival tissue samples from a single eye of 29 patients (16 females, 13 males; mean age, 54.75 ± 11.25 years [range, 21-78 years]) were evaluated. While the free carnitine (C0) level was significantly high in the pterygium tissue (p<0.001), acylcarnitine levels were significantly high in some esterized derivatives (C2, C5, C5:1, C5DC, C16:1, C18, methylglutarylcarnitine) (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was determined for the other esterized derivatives (p>0.05). Conclusion: That the carnitine levels in pterygium tissue were higher suggests that acceleration of cell metabolism developed secondary to chronic inflammation and the premalignant characteristics of pterygium tissue. High carnitine levels may also effectively suppress the apoptosis process. The data reported in our study indicate that further, more extensive studies of the carnitine profile could help clarify the pathogenesis of pterygium.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi medir os níveis de carnitina livre e acil-carnitina a nível metabolómico com espectrometria de massa em tandem no tecido do pterígio e no tecido conjuntivo normal. Método: Neste estudo prospetivo, clínico e aleatório, os tecidos de pterígio e os tecidos normais de conjuntiva, retirados durante a cirurgia de pterígio com autoenxerto, foram comparados em relação ao perfil de carnitina livre e de acil-carnitina. Após a homogeneização dos tecidos, os níveis de carnitina foram medidos por espectrometria de massa em tandem. A análise estatística dos dados foi realizada com o teste dos postos sinalizados de Wilcoxon. Resultados: A avaliação foi feita através de amostras de tecido pterígio e de conjuntiva normal de um único olho de 29 pacientes (16 mulheres, 13 homens). A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 54,75 ± 11,25 anos (faixa dos 21 aos 78 anos). Enquanto o nível de carnitina livre (C0) foi significativamente elevado no tecido pterígio (p<0,001), os níveis de acil-carnitina foram significativamente elevados em alguns derivados esterificados (C2, C5, C5: 1, C5DC, C16:1, C18, metilglutaril carnitina) (p<0,05). Não foi determinada uma diferença estatisticamen te significante noutros derivados esterificados (p>0,05). Conclusão: Os níveis mais elevados de carnitina no tecido do pterígio sugerem que a aceleração do metabolismo celular se tenha tornado secundária com o efeito da inflamação crónica e o caráter pré-maligno do tecido do pterígio. Os níveis elevados de carnitina também podem ser eficazes na supressão do processo de apoptose. Os dados obtidos no estudo indicam que estudos mais extensivos do perfil da carnitina contribuiriam para o esclarecimento da patogénese do pterígio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pterygium/metabolism , Carnitine/analysis , Carnitine/analogs & derivatives , Conjunctiva/abnormalities , Pterygium/surgery , Carnitine/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Conjunctiva/surgery , Conjunctiva/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics
19.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 50-65, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786082

ABSTRACT

Ceramides are minor components of the hepatic lipidome that have major effects on liver function. These products of lipid and protein metabolism accumulate when the energy needs of the hepatocyte have been met and its storage capacity is full, such that free fatty acids start to couple to the sphingoid backbone rather than the glycerol moiety that is the scaffold for glycerolipids (e.g., triglycerides) or the carnitine moiety that shunts them into mitochondria. As ceramides accrue, they initiate actions that protect cells from acute increases in detergent-like fatty acids; for example, they alter cellular substrate preference from glucose to lipids and they enhance triglyceride storage. When prolonged, these ceramide actions cause insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, 2 of the underlying drivers of cardiometabolic diseases. Herein the author discusses the mechanisms linking ceramides to the development of insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis and resultant cardiometabolic disorders.


Subject(s)
Carnitine , Ceramides , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Fatty Liver , Glucose , Glycerol , Hepatocytes , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Triglycerides
20.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1164-1171, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880581

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is a rare fatty acid metabolism disorder that can cause neonatal death. This study aims to analyze carnitine levels and detect SLC22A5 gene in newborns with carnitine deficiency, to provide a basis for early diagnosis of PCD, and to explore the relationship between carnitine in blood and SLC22A5 genotype.@*METHODS@#A total of 40 neonates with low free carnitine (C0G (p.Y251C), c.495 C>A (p.R165E), and c.1298T>C (p.M433T). We found 14 PCD patients including 2 homozygous mutations and 12 heterozygous mutations, 14 with 1 mutation, and 12 with no mutation among 40 children. The C0 concentration of children with SLC22A5 gene homozygous or complex heterozygous mutations was (4.95±1.62) μmol/L in the initial screening, and (3.90±1.33) μmol/L in the second screening. The C0 concentration of children with no mutation was (7.04±2.05) μmol/L in the initial screening, and (8.02±2.87) μmol/L in the second screening. There were significant differences between children with homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations and with no mutation in C0 concentration of the initial and the second screening (both @*CONCLUSIONS@#There are 5 new mutations which enriched the mutation spectrum of SLC22A5 gene. C0<5 μmol/L is highly correlated with SLC22A5 gene homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations. Children with truncated mutation may have lower C0 concentration than that with untruncated mutation in the initial screening.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Cardiomyopathies , Carnitine/deficiency , Hyperammonemia/genetics , Muscular Diseases/genetics , Mutation , Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 5/genetics
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