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1.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 570-576, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940890

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effect of lipid regulating therapy on carotid atherosclerotic plaque in diabetic patients. Methods: The REACH study, conducted between March 2009 and February 2012, enrolled asymptomatic patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed carotid atherosclerotic plaque, who had never taken lipid-lowering drugs. Patients were treated with a moderate dose of rosuvastatin for 24 months. Blood lipid levels were measured and carotid MRI was performed at baseline, 3 and 24 months after treatment. The volume of carotid wall and lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) were measured by image analysis software. This study retrospectively analyzed patients in the REACH study. Patients were divided into diabetes group and non-diabetic group. The changes of blood lipid level and MRI parameters of carotid atherosclerotic plaque were compared between the two groups and their correlation was analyzed. Results: A total of 38 patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque were included in this study, including 13 patients (34.2%) in the diabetic group and 25 patients (65.8%) in the non-diabetic group. Baseline parameters were comparable between the two groups, except higher HbA1c level in diabetes group (P<0.05). Compared with baseline, the total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly decreased at 3 and 24 months in both two groups (P<0.05). The change of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in diabetes group was not obvious, while it was significantly increased in non-diabetic group at 24 months ((1.38±0.33) mmol/l vs. (1.26±0.26) mmol/l, P<0.05). MRI results showed that the volume and percentage of LRNC remained unchanged at 3 months, slightly decreased at 24 months (64.86 (45.37, 134.56) mm3 vs. 75.76 (48.20, 115.64) mm3, P>0.05) and (15.84% (11.47%, 24.85%) vs. 16.95% (11.64%, 22.91%), P>0.05) in diabetic group. In non-diabetic group, the volume and percentage of LRNC were significantly decreased at 3 months (63.01 (44.25, 188.64) mm3 vs. 72.49 (51.91, 199.59) mm3, P<0.05) and (13.76% (8.81%, 27.64%) vs. 16.04% (11.18%, 27.05%), P<0.05) respectively. Both parameters further decreased to (55.63 (27.18, 179.40) mm3) and (12.71% (8.39%, 24.41%)) at 24 months (both P<0.05). Wall volume, lumen volume and percent wall volume (PWV) were not affected post therapy in both two groups(P>0.05). There were no correlations between the changes of plaque parameters including volume and percentage of LRNC, wall volume, lumen volume, PWV and the changes of blood lipid parameters (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG) in 3 and 24 months (P>0.05). Conclusion: Lipid-lowering therapy possesses different effects on carotid atherosclerotic plaque in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, and the LRNC improvement is more significant in non-diabetic patients as compared to diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Carotid Arteries/pathology , Carotid Artery Diseases/drug therapy , Cholesterol, HDL/therapeutic use , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Necrosis/pathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Rosuvastatin Calcium/therapeutic use
2.
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20220012, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386126

ABSTRACT

Abstract Accidental fish bone ingestion is a common complaint at emergency departments. The majority of cases have a benign course. However, serious complications such as esophagus perforation, cervical vessel injury and cervical abscess can occur in 7.4% of cases. Mortality rates can be as high as 50% when mediastinitis occurs. We report a case of an esophageal perforation caused by a fish bone with a lesion to the right common carotid artery after 20 days of evolution. Surgical exploration occurred with corrections of the lesion in the right common carotid and esophagus. Early identification of this kind of injury is paramount to prevent potentially fatal complications.


Abstract Accidental fish bone ingestion is a common complaint at emergency departments. The majority of cases have a benign course. However, serious complications such as esophagus perforation, cervical vessel injury and cervical abscess can occur in 7.4% of cases. Mortality rates can be as high as 50% when mediastinitis occurs. We report a case of an esophageal perforation caused by a fish bone with a lesion to the right common carotid artery after 20 days of evolution. Surgical exploration occurred with corrections of the lesion in the right common carotid and esophagus. Early identification of this kind of injury is paramount to prevent potentially fatal complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/surgery , Esophagus/surgery , Foreign Bodies/complications
3.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(4): 40-46, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359227

ABSTRACT

The description of arteries at the base of the human brain forming an 'arterial circle', named after Thomas Willis, has had a long history after the restoration of human dissection, partly due to the studies of many outstanding anatomists that preceded Willis. He provided, with the collaboration of Richard Lower and Christopher Wren, the first incontestable complete description, as recognized nowadays, accompanied by a superb illustration. Additionally, he presented an explanation for its meaning, indicating for the first time the functional significance of this structure, in health and disease. However, it should be recognized that the initial studies of the arteries of the base of the human brain by Willis' predecessors, as well as those from ancient times, despite their fragmentary descriptions, were certainly pivotal in paving the way for further and more detailed knowledge of this vascular formation.


A descrição das artérias da base do cérebro humano, formando um 'círculo arterial', designado com o nome de Thomas Willis, tem uma longa história após o restauro de dissecções humanas, em parte devido aos estudos de muitos anatomistas de renome que precederam Willis. Ele proveu, com a colaboração de Richard Lower e Christopher Wren, a primeira descrição completa e incontestável, assim como a reconhecida atualmente, acompanhada por uma ilustração soberba. Adicionalmente, apresentou uma explicação quanto ao seu significado, indicando pela primeira vez a importância funcional dessa estrutura, na saúde e na doença. Entretanto, deve ser reconhecido que os estudos iniciais das artérias da base do cérebro humano pelos predecessores de Willis, assim como os de tempos antigos, apesar de suas descrições fragmentárias, certamente foram fulcrais na pavimentação do caminho para o conhecimento mais avançado e detalhado dessa formação vascular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carotid Arteries , Circle of Willis/anatomy & histology , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Cerebrum/innervation , Vertebral Artery , Dissection , Neurology/history
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 365-375, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339149

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Pacientes com HIV têm maior probabilidade de apresentar doenças cardiovasculares quando comparados à população em geral. Objetivo Este foi um estudo de caso-controle que teve como objetivo avaliar quais fatores estavam associados a uma redução na espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) da carótida e ao aumento na dilatação mediada por fluxo (DMF) da artéria braquial em pacientes com HIV que receberam atorvastatina + aspirina por um período de 6 meses. Métodos Foi realizada uma análise secundária de um ensaio clínico, que incluiu pessoas vivendo com HIV e baixo risco cardiovascular. Um total de 38 pacientes alocados para o braço de intervenção e tratados por 6 meses com uma combinação de atorvastatina + aspirina foram incluídos. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a ultrassonografia da carótida e da artéria braquial, tanto no início quanto no final do estudo. Os casos que responderam com aumento >10% da dilatação braquial (DMF) e redução da espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) foram considerados casos, e aqueles que não responderam foram considerados controles. Avaliamos os fatores associados às respostas positivas obtidas através da IMT e DMF. Resultados A redução do IMT não se associou significativamente a nenhum dos fatores de risco avaliados: idade (p = 0,211), sexo (p = 0,260), tabagismo (p = 0,131) ou tempo de diagnóstico do HIV (p = 0,836). Um aumento na DMF foi significativamente associado com a idade entre aqueles na faixa etária de 40-59 anos, p = 0,015 (OR = 4,37; IC 95%: 1,07-17,79). Conclusões Os indivíduos mais velhos foram mais propensos a apresentar um aumento na DMF após 6 meses de tratamento com atorvastatina + aspirina.


Abstract Background Patients with HIV are more likely to present with cardiovascular disease when compared to the general population. Objective This was a case-control study that aimed to assess which factors were associated with a reduction in the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and an increase in the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in HIV patients who received atorvastatin + aspirin during a period of 6 months. Methods A secondary analysis of a clinical trial was conducted, which included people living with HIV infection and low cardiovascular risk. A total of 38 patients allocated to the intervention arm and treated for 6 months with a combination of atorvastatin + aspirin were included. All participants underwent a carotid and brachial artery ultrasound, both at the beginning and the end of the study. Cases that responded with an increase of >10% of the brachial dilatation (FMD) and reduction of the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were considered cases, and those who did not respond were considered controls. We assessed the factors associated with the positive responses obtained through IMT and FMD. Results A reduction in the IMT was not significantly associated with any of the evaluated risk factors: age (p=0.211), gender (p=0.260), smoking (p=0.131) or time since HIV diagnosis (p=0.836). An increase in the FMD was significantly associated with age amongst those in the 40-59 age group, p = 0.015 (OR = 4.37; 95% CI: 1.07-17.79). Conclusions Older individuals were more likely to present with an increased FMD after 6 months of treatment with atorvastatin + aspirin.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vasodilation , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Endothelium, Vascular/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(6): 1119-1126, Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278324

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A aterosclerose, em alguns casos, é uma condição assintomática, sendo necessário conhecer o grau de comprometimento arterial provocado pelas placas e sua associação com os fatores de risco. O exame de autópsia permite a compreensão dos processos básicos de doenças, assim como a avaliação e fornecimento de dados sobre a característica macroscópica do acometimento aterosclerótico. Objetivo Avaliar macroscopicamente e padronizar o acometimento aterosclerótico das artérias aorta, carótidas e ilíacas e comparar com a idade, o sexo e a causa de morte. Métodos Foram coletados 53 artérias aorta, 53 artérias carótida direita, 53 artérias carótida esquerda, 53 artérias ilíaca direita e 53 artérias ilíaca esquerda. Para essa avaliação, foi considerada a extensão de estrias lipídicas, de placas ateromatosas, de fibrose e de calcificação, as quais serviram de referência para pontuar a intensidade do acometimento aterosclerótico. Foram observados vários graus da aterosclerose e valores acurados para a classificação discreta, moderada e acentuada. Para a análise estatística, os dados foram analisados utilizando-se o software GraphPad Prism ® 7.0. As diferenças foram consideradas estatisticamente significativas quando "p" foi menor que 5% (p<0,05). Resultados As artérias carótidas apresentaram maior acometimento aterosclerótico em comparação às outras artérias avaliadas (K=15,73, p=0,0004). A ocorrência da aterosclerose se mostrou progressiva e significativa com o decorrer da idade (carótidas: t=6,321; p<0,0001; aortas: U=83,5; p<0,0001; ilíacas: U=306; p<0,0001) e na causa de morte cardiovascular (carótidas: t=5,047; p<0,0001; aortas: U=98,5; p=0,0068; ilíacas: U=467,5; p=0,0012). Conclusão A avaliação macroscópica da aterosclerose trata-se de uma forma inovadora e de baixo custo de avaliação através da visualização direta das placas ateroscleróticas, possibilitando uma associação com fatores de risco como idade avançada e doenças cardiovasculares, fornecendo dados importantes para a prática clínica.


Abstract Background Atherosclerosis, in some cases, is an asymptomatic condition, and it is important to know the degree of arterial impairment caused by plaques and its association with risk factors. Autopsy examination provides understanding of basic disease processes and assessment to data about macroscopic characteristic of atherosclerotic involvement. Objective To macroscopically assess and standardize atherosclerotic involvement of aorta, carotid and iliac arteries and compare with age, gender and causes of death. Methods We collected 53 aortic arteries, 53 right carotid arteries, 53 left carotid arteries, 53 right iliac arteries and 53 left iliac arteries. For this assessment, the extension of fatty streaks, atheromatous plaques, fibrosis and calcification were considered, being the reference to score the degree of atherosclerotic involvement. Many degrees of atherosclerosis and accurate values were observed for mild, moderate and severe classification. For statistical analysis, data were analyzed using the software GraphPad Prism® 7.0. Differences were considered statistically significant if p-value was less than 5% (p <0.05). Results Carotid arteries had greater atherosclerotic involvement compared to the other arteries (K = 15.73, p = 0.0004). Atherosclerosis was progressive and significant with increasing age (carotid arteries: t = 6.321; p <0.0001; aorta: U = 83.5; p <0.0001; iliac: U = 306; p <0.0001) and as cause of cardiovascular death (carotids: t = 5.047; p <0.0001; aorta: U = 98.5; p = 0.0068; iliac: U = 467.5; p = 0.0012). Conclusion Macroscopic assessment of atherosclerosis is an innovative and low-cost way of direct visualization of atherosclerotic plaques, enabling an association with risk factors such as increasing age and cardiovascular diseases, providing important data for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Aorta , Autopsy , Carotid Arteries , Risk Factors
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(4): 727-733, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285209

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A incidência de reestenose da artéria coronária após o implante de um stent não farmacológico é mais baixa que na angioplastia com balão; no entanto, ainda apresenta altas taxas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar novos indicadores de risco para reestenose de stent usando ultrassonografia das carótidas que, em conjunto com indicadores já existentes, ajudariam na escolha do stent. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo prospectivo transversal incluindo 121 pacientes consecutivos com doença arterial coronariana que foram submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea com angiografia nos 12 meses anteriores. Após os casos de reestenose de stent serem identificados, os pacientes foram submetidos à ultrassonografia de carótidas para avaliar a espessura da camada íntima média e placas ateroscleróticas. Os dados foram analisados por regressão múltipla de Cox. O nível de significância foi p<0,05. Resultados: A idade mediana dos pacientes foi de 60 anos (1º quartil = 55, 3º quartil = 68), e 64,5% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. A angiografia coronária mostrou que 57 pacientes (47,1%) apresentaram reestenose de stent. Cinquenta e cinco pacientes (45,5%) apresentaram placas ateroscleróticas ecolucentes nas artérias carótidas e 54,5% apresentaram placas ecogênicas ou nenhuma placa. Dos pacientes que apresentaram placas ecolucentes, 90,9% apresentaram reestenose do stent coronário, e daqueles com placas ecogênicas ou nenhuma placa, 10,6% apresentaram reestenose de stent. A presença de placas ecolucentes nas artérias carótidas aumentou o risco de reestenose de stent coronário em 8,21 vezes (RR=8,21;IC95%: 3,58-18,82; p<0,001). Conclusões: A presença de placas ateroscleróticas ecolucentes na artéria carótida constitui um preditor de risco de reestenose de stent coronário e deve ser considerada na escolha do tipo de stenta ser usado na angioplastia coronária.


Abstract Background: The incidence of restenosis of the coronary artery after a bare-metal stent implant has been lower than in simple balloon angioplasty; however, it still shows relatively high rates. Objective: The aim of this study was to find new risk indicators for in-stent restenosis using carotid ultrasonography, that, in addition to the already existing indicators, would help in decision-making for stent selection. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional prospective study including 121 consecutive patients with chronic coronary artery disease who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with repeat angiography in the previous 12 months. After all cases of in-stent restenosis were identified, patients underwent carotid ultrasonography to evaluate carotid intima-media thickness and atherosclerosis plaques. The data were analyzed by Cox multiple regression. The significance level was set a p<0.05. Results: Median age of patients was 60 years (1st quartile = 55, 3rd quartile = 68), and 64.5% of patients were male. Coronary angiography showed that 57 patients (47.1%) presented in-stent restenosis. Fifty-five patients (45.5%) had echolucent atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and 54.5% had echogenic plaques or no plaques. Of patients with who had echolucent plaques, 90.9% presented coronary in-stent restenosis. Of those who had echogenic plaques or no plaques, 10.6% presented in-stent restenosis. The presence of echolucent plaques in carotid arteries increased the risk of coronary in-stent restenosis by 8.21 times (RR=8.21; 95%CI: 3.58-18.82; p<0.001). Conclusions: The presence of echolucent atherosclerotic plaques in carotid artery constitutes a risk predictor of coronary instent restenosis and should be considered in the selection of the type of stent to be used in coronary angioplasty.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Restenosis/etiology , Coronary Restenosis/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Stents/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Coronary Angiography , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Middle Aged
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(3): 189-194, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285337

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Elevated levels of chemerin can predict future ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Although chemerin is thought to play a role in atherosclerotic inflammation, whether circulating chemerin levels are associated with the severity of atherosclerosis remains to be determined. Objectives: Through the use of carotid Doppler ultrasonography, our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships of serum chemerin levels with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as an indicator of generalized atherosclerosis. Methods: This study compared 40 patients with ischemic stroke and 40 healthy subjects. Measurements were made at end-diastole using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) after a 5-min rest interval in a quiet and dark room. CIMT was defined as the distance between the innermost edge of the luminal echo to the innermost edge of the media/adventitia echo. CIMT was measured in the posterior wall of both common carotid arteries within 1 cm proximally to the bulbus. Three measurements were made on both sides and the average measurement was taken as the CIMT. Serum chemerin levels were determined in all patients and healthy subjects. Results: Serum chemerin levels were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p=0.004). Serum chemerin levels were positively correlated with CIMT (p<0.05). There was a significant difference between the groups with regard to CIMT (p<0.001). Conclusion: Elevated serum chemerin levels appear to be associated with CIMT, thus suggesting that a link exists between chemerin and atherosclerotic ischemic cerebrovascular disease.


RESUMO Introdução: Níveis elevados de chemerin podem prever doenças cerebrovasculares isquêmicas futuras. Embora se acredite que a chemerin desempenhe um papel na inflamação aterosclerótica, ainda não foi determinado se os níveis circulantes de chemerin estão associados à gravidade da aterosclerose Objetivos: Por meio do uso da ultrassonografia Doppler da carótida, nosso objetivo neste estudo foi investigar as relações dos níveis séricos de chemerin com a espessura da íntima-média da carótida (EIMC) como um indicador de aterosclerose generalizada. Métodos: Este estudo comparou 40 pacientes com AVC isquêmico e 40 indivíduos saudáveis. As medidas foram feitas no final da diástole usando ultrassonografia Doppler em cores (USDC), após um intervalo de descanso de 5 minutos em um quarto silencioso e escuro. A EIMC foi definida como a distância entre a borda mais interna do eco luminal e a borda mais interna do eco da mídia/adventícia. EIMC foi medido na parede posterior de ambas as artérias carótidas comuns dentro de 1 cm proximalmente ao bulbo. Três medições foram feitas em ambos os lados e a medição média foi tomada como o EIMC. Os níveis séricos de chemerin foram determinados em todos os pacientes e indivíduos saudáveis. Resultados: Os níveis séricos de chemerin foram significativamente maiores no grupo de pacientes do que no grupo controle (p=0,004). Os níveis séricos de chemerin foram positivamente correlacionados com EIMC (p<0,05). Houve diferença significativa entre os grupos em relação à EIMC (p<0,001). Conclusão: Níveis séricos elevados de chemerin parecem estar associados com a EIMC, sugerindo que existe uma ligação entre chemerin e doença cerebrovascular isquêmica aterosclerótica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Chemokines/blood , Atherosclerosis , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography , Carotid Artery, Common/diagnostic imaging
11.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200169, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250237

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The aim of carotid interventions is to prevent cerebrovascular events. Endovascular treatment (carotid-artery-stenting/CAS) has become established as an alternative to open surgery in some cases. Historically, female sex has been considered as a perioperative risk factor, however, there are few studies regarding this hypothesis when it comes to CAS. Objectives To analyze the CAS results in our center adjusted by sex. Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed, including patients with carotid atheromatosis operated at a single center from January 2016 to June 2019. Our objective was to compare cardiovascular risk, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and mortality, by sex. Follow-up rates of stent patency, restenosis, stroke, myocardial infarction, and death were reported. Results 71 interventions were performed in 50 men (70.42%) and 21 women (29.57%). Mean age was 70.50 ± 10.72 years for men and 73.62 ± 11.78 years for women. Cardiovascular risk factors did not differ significantly between sexes. Mean follow-up was 11.28 ± 11.28 months. There were no significant differences in neurological events during follow-up. No adverse cardiological events were detected at any time. Regarding the mortality rate, during medium-term follow up there were 2 neurological related deaths with no significant differences between sexes (p=0.8432). Neither sex had higher rated of restenosis during long term follow-up (5.63% vs. 1.41%, p = 0.9693) or reoperation (1.41% vs. 1.41%, p = 0.4971). All procedures remained patent (<50% restenosis). Conclusions Despite the limitations of our study, CAS is a therapeutic option that is as effective and safe in women as in men. No sex differences were observed.


Resumo Contexto As intervenções carotídeas visam prevenir eventos cerebrovasculares. O tratamento endovascular (implante de stent na artéria carótida) se estabeleceu como uma alternativa à cirurgia aberta em alguns casos. Historicamente, o sexo feminino é considerado um fator de risco perioperatório, mas há poucos estudos abordando essa hipótese em casos de stent de carótida. Objetivos Analisar os resultados do CAS em nosso centro ajustados por sexo. Métodos Este estudo de coorte retrospectivo incluiu pacientes com ateromatose carotídea operados em um centro de janeiro de 2016 a junho de 2019. Nosso objetivo foi comparar o risco cardiovascular, incluindo infarto do miocárdio, acidente vascular cerebral e mortalidade, de acordo com o sexo. No seguimento, foram descritos patência do stent, reestenose, acidente vascular cerebral, infarto do miocárdio e morte. Resultados Setenta e uma intervenções foram realizadas: 50 homens (70,42%) e 21 mulheres (29,57%). A média de idade foi de 70,50 ± 10,72 anos nos homens e 73,62 ± 11,78 anos nas mulheres. Os fatores de risco cardiovascular não diferiram significativamente entre os sexos. A média de seguimento foi de 11,28 ± 11,28 meses. Durante o seguimento, não houve diferenças significativas nos eventos neurológicos. Nenhum evento cardiológico adverso foi detectado. Quanto à taxa de mortalidade, durante o seguimento de médio prazo ocorreram 2 óbitos neurológicos sem diferenças significativas entre os sexos (p = 0,8432). Não foi observada maior taxa de reestenose no seguimento de longo prazo (5,63% vs. 1,41%, p = 0,9693) ou de reoperação (1,41% vs. 1,41%, p = 0,4971) ao comparar os dois sexos. Todos os procedimentos permaneceram pérvios (< 50% de reestenose). Conclusões Apesar das limitações deste estudo, o stent de carótida em mulheres é uma opção terapêutica tão eficaz e segura quanto em homens. Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre os sexos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carotid Arteries/surgery , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Vascular Patency , Stents , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Graft Occlusion, Vascular
13.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200242, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340181

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spontaneous dissection of the cervical and cerebral arteries is an important cause of stroke and disability in young patients. In this report, the authors present a case series of patients with spontaneous carotid, vertebral, or cerebral artery dissection who underwent digital angiography. A review of the published literature on this subject is also presented.


Resumo A dissecção espontânea das artérias cervicais e cerebrais é uma causa importante de acidente vascular cerebral e incapacidade em pacientes jovens. Neste relato, é apresentada uma série de casos de pacientes com dissecção espontânea da artéria carótida, vertebral ou cerebral submetidos à angiografia digital. Além disso, é fornecida uma revisão da literatura sobre esse assunto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vertebral Artery/pathology , Carotid Arteries/pathology , Cerebral Arteries/pathology , Stroke/etiology , Age Factors , Constriction, Pathologic , Stroke/physiopathology
14.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(4): 35-38, out.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140817

ABSTRACT

A persistência e a falha da involução das comunicações embrionárias entre a circulação cerebral anterior e posterior contribuem para anomalias vasculares em adultos. Esta variação é comumente detectada de forma incidental, causando sintomas muito raramente. Sua proximidade com os nervos oculomotor, troclear e abducente podem levar a paresia muscular ocular. Em alguns casos pode causar tinnitus pulsátil e ao espasmo de hemiface. Muitos casos de artéria trigeminal foram relatados como associados a aneurismas intracranianos.


The persistence and failure of the involution of embryonic communications between the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation contribute to vascular anomalies in adults. This variation is commonly detected incidentally, rarely causing symptoms. Its proximity to the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducent nerves can lead to ocular muscle paresis. Sometimes it can cause pulsatile tinnitus and hemiface spasm. Many cases of trigeminal artery have been reported to be associated with intracranial aneurysms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/surgery , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/abnormalities , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Malformations , Computed Tomography Angiography
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1560-1565, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134478

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Aunque la radiografía panorámica no es una prueba de diagnóstico inicial para detectar la aterosclerosis carotídea, no podemos ignorar su valor al ver estas lesiones como hallazgos incidentales que pueden ser grandes aliados en el diagnóstico temprano y la prevención de eventos vasculares graves. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de calcificaciones en la bifurcación de la arteria carótida en las radiografías panorámicas de rutina como principio diagnóstico, así como su relación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en individuos brasileños. Se analizaron 449 exámenes de radiografía panorámica de la base de datos del Departamento de Radiología de la Facultad de Odontología de Piracicaba, UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brasil. Después de obtener mediciones de la presión arterial e información sobre el tabaquismo y las enfermedades sistémicas, fue buscado en la radiografía panorámica la presencia o ausencia de la masa radiopaca en las regiones de las vértebras cervicales C3-C4. En el caso de una imagen sugestiva de ateroma, se realizó una radiografía anteroposterior para confirmar el diagnóstico. Aplicamos la prueba estadística de Chi-cuadrado con distribución normal y muestras independientes y aleatorias con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %. La confirmación de calcificaciones carotideas se produjo en el 8,5 % de la población de estudio (38 casos). No encontramos ninguna relación entre la presencia de calcificaciones con el tabaquismo, con el sexo o con datos previos de antecedentes familiares. Sin embargo 49,1 % de los casos estaban por encima de sesenta años y tenía asociación significativa con la hipertensión (P = 0,006). El mayor riesgo se presenta en pacientes ancianos hipertensos y, por lo tanto, hacemos hincapié en la importancia de una observación minuciosa de las radiografías panorámicas en la búsqueda de cualquier alteración de la anatomía normal y si es así, proceder con la derivación lo antes posible para un diagnóstico concluyente por parte de un especialista, pudiendo así ayudar en la prevención de episodios vasculares graves.


SUMMARY: Although panoramic radiography is not an initial diagnostic test for detecting carotid atherosclerosis, we cannot ignore its value in viewing these lesions as incidental findings that can be great allies in early diagnosis and prevention of serious vascular events. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of calcifications in the bifurcation of the carotid artery on routine panoramic radiographs as a diagnostic principle, as well as its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilians. We analyzed 449 panoramic radiography exams from the database of the Department of Radiology of the Faculty of Dentistry of Piracicaba, UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brazil. After obtaining blood pressure measurements and information on smoking and systemic diseases, the researcher observed on the panoramic radiograph, the presence or absence of the radiopaque mass in the regions of the cervical vertebrae C3-C4. In the case of a suggestive image of atheroma, an anteroposterior radiography was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The Chi-square test of normal distribution for independent and random samples with a 95 % confidence interval was applied to the data. Confirmation of carotid calcifications occurred in 8.5 % of the study population (38 cases). We did not find any relationship between the presence of calcifications with smoking, sex or previous family history. However, 49.1 % of cases occurred above sixty years old and there was a significant relationship with hypertension (P = 0.006). The greatest risk was presented in elderly and hypertensive patients, so we highlight the importance of a thorough observation by the dentist of panoramic radiographs to detect any alteration of the normal anatomy and in the positive case, proceed with the referral as soon as possible for a conclusive diagnosis by a specialist, being able to thus assist in the prevention of severe vascular episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Arteries/pathology , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brazil/epidemiology , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Panoramic , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Chi-Square Distribution , Confidence Intervals , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 417-423, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131620

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purposes: To evaluate changes in ocular blood flow and subfoveal choroidal thickness in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis after carotid artery stenting. Methods: We included 15 men (mean age, 63.6 ± 9.1 years) with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis and 18 healthy volunteers (all men; mean age, 63.7 ± 5.3 years). All participants underwent detailed ophthalmologic examinations including choroidal thickness measurement using enhanced depth-imaging optic coherence tomography. The patients also underwent posterior ciliary artery blood flow measurements using color Doppler ultrasonography before and after carotid artery stenting. Results: Patients lacked ocular ischemic symptoms. Their peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities increased to 10.1 ± 13.1 (p=0.005) and 3.9 ± 6.3 (p=0.064) cm/s, respectively, after the procedure. Subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner in patients with carotid artery stenosis than those in the healthy controls (p=0.01). But during the first week post-procedure, the subfoveal choroidal thicknesses increased significantly (p=0.04). The peak systolic velocities of the posterior ciliary arteries increased significantly after carotid artery stenting (p=0.005). We found a significant negative correlation between the mean increase in peak systolic velocity values after treatment and the mean preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness in the study group (p=0.025, r=-0.617). Conclusions: In patients with carotid artery stenosis, the subfoveal choroid is thinner than that in healthy controls. The subfoveal choroidal thickness increases after carotid artery stenting. Carotid artery stenting treatment increases the blood flow to the posterior ciliary artery, and the preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness may be a good predictor of the postprocedural peak systolic velocity of the posterior ciliary artery.


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar alterações no fluxo sanguíneo ocular e na espessura da coroide subfoveal em pacientes com estenose sintomática da artéria carótida, após implante de stent nessa artéria. Métodos: Foram incluídos 15 homens (idade média de 63,6 ± 9,1 anos) com estenose sintomática da artéria carótida e 18 voluntários saudáveis (todos homens; idade média de 63,7 ± 5,3 anos). Todos os participantes foram submetidos a exames oftalmológicos detalhados, incluindo d medição da espessura da coroide, usando tomografia de coerência óptica com imagem de profundidade aprimorada. Os pacientes também foram submetidos a medidas do fluxo sanguíneo das artérias ciliares posteriores, usando ultrassonografia com Doppler colorido, antes e após o implante do stent na artéria carótida. Resultados: Os pacientes não apresentaram sintomas isquêmicos oculares. O pico de velocidade sistólica e diastólica final aumentou para 10,1 ± 13,1 (p=0,005) e 3,9 ± 6,3 (p=0,064) cm/s, respectivamente, após o procedimento. As espessuras da coroide subfoveais foram significativamente mais finas nos pacientes com estenose da artéria carótida do que nos controles saudáveis (p=0,01). Porém, durante a primeira semana pós-procedimento, as espessuras das coroides subfoveais aumentaram significativamente (p=0,04). O pico de velocidade sistólica das artérias ciliares posteriores aumentou significativamente após o stent na artéria carótida (p=0,005). Encontramos uma correlação negativa significativa entre o aumento médio dos valores máximos de velocidade sistólica após o tratamento e a espessura da coroide subfoveal pré-procedimento média no grupo de estudo (p=0,025, r=-0,617). Conclusões: Em pacientes com estenose da artéria carótida, a coroide subfoveal é mais fina que a dos controles saudáveis. A espessura da coroide subfoveal aumenta após o stent na artéria carótida. O tratamento com stent na artéria carótida aumenta o fluxo sanguíneo para a artéria ciliar posterior, e a espessura coroidal subfoveal pré-procedimento pode ser um bom preditor da velocidade sistólica de pico pós-procedimento da artéria ciliar posterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Ophthalmic Artery , Blood Flow Velocity , Carotid Arteries , Choroid , Regional Blood Flow , Stents , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(7): 564-570, July 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135653

ABSTRACT

In ultrasonography, the bi-dimensional mode (B-mode) allows the morphological and morphometric evaluation of several types of organs and tissues, while the Doppler mode allows the hemodynamic evaluation. In humans, the Doppler evaluation is routinely used in the assessment of important arteries and veins, such as the carotid arteries and jugular veins, with significant differences between genres and sides. However, in veterinary medicine, this diagnostic method is not yet well established in the evaluation of the carotid arteries, with only few reports in domestic horses. This study aims to compare the right and left common carotid arteries of domestic horses and mules using bi-dimensional and Doppler ultrasound evaluation. The common carotid arteries from 10 domestic horses (five males and five females) and 10 mules (five males and five females) were evaluated. The following variables were measured at three different portions (cranial, middle and caudal): diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT), resistivity index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), peak of systolic velocity (pSV) and final diastolic velocity (fDV). No significant differences were observed in the bi-dimensional variables (diameter and IMT) between the common carotid arteries of horses and mules, regardless of gender (p>0.05). In Doppler mode, there were no significant differences between carotid values in male and female horses (p> 0.05). In the mules, it was only possible to observe differences between the RI and PI values (p<0.05), being higher on the left side (0.81 and 2.04 respectively), and the fDV (p<0.05) higher, on the right side (14.35) in males. As for females, there was only in fDV (p<0.05), with the upper right side (23.16). Diameters and IMT do not differ between sides in horses and mules in B-mode ultrasound. Spectral Doppler in horses does not differ between sides, regardless of gender. As for mules, males differ in RI, PI and fDV between sides, while females differ only in fDV.(AU)


Na ultrassonografia, o modo bidimensional (modo B) permite a avaliação morfológica e morfométrica de vários tipos de órgãos e tecidos, enquanto o modo Doppler permite a avaliação hemodinâmica. Em humanos, a avaliação com Doppler é usada rotineiramente na avaliação de artérias e veias importantes, como as artérias carótidas e veias jugulares, com diferenças significativas entre gêneros e lados. No entanto, em medicina veterinária, este método diagnóstico ainda não está bem estabelecido na avaliação das artérias carótidas, com apenas poucos relatos em equinos domésticos. Este estudo tem como objetivo comparar as artérias carótidas comuns direita e esquerda de equinos e mulas domésticos, utilizando a avaliação bidimensional (modo B) e por ultrassonografia Doppler espectral. Avaliaram-se as artérias carótidas comuns de 10 equinos domésticos (cinco machos e cinco fêmeas) e 10 mulas (cinco machos e cinco fêmeas). As seguintes variáveis foram medidas em três porções diferentes (cranial, médio e caudal): diâmetro, espessura íntima-média (IMT), índice de resistividade (RI), índice de pulsatilidade (PI), pico de velocidade sistólica (pSV) e velocidade diastólica final (fDV). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis bidimensionais (diâmetro e IMT) entre as artérias carótidas comuns de cavalos e muares, independentemente do gênero (p>0,05). No modo Doppler, não houve diferenças significativas entre os valores para carótidas em equinos machos e fêmeas (p>0,05). Nos muares, só foi possível observar diferenças entre os valores de RI e PI (p<0,05), sendo maiores no lado esquerdo (0,81 e 2,04 respectivamente), e o fDV (p<0,05) superior no lado direito (14,35) nos machos. Quanto as fêmeas, houve apenas no fDV (p<0,05), sendo o lado direito superior (23,16). Os diâmetros e IMT não diferem entre os lados em equinos e muares na ultrassonografia modo B. Já o Doppler espectral nos equinos não difere entre os lados, independentemente do gênero. Quanto aos muares, os machos diferenciam no IR, IP e fDV entre os lados, enquanto as fêmeas apenas para fDV.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Carotid Arteries/anatomy & histology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Equidae/anatomy & histology , Horses/anatomy & histology , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Ultrasonography, Doppler/veterinary
18.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(2): 45-48, Jan.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1130691

ABSTRACT

Moyamoya disease is a chronic neurovascular disease characterized by progressive bilateral stenosis of the internal carotid arteries with abnormal formation of new abnormal blood vessels whose blockage of blood flow causes a variety of clinical manifestations and complications associated with acute cerebrovascular events (ischemic or hemorrhagic), which may even be fatal. This article seeks to describe this entity, its incidence, prevalence, forms of presentation, therapeutic measures and prognosis through a clinical case report. (Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:http://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1424).


La enfermedad de Moyamoya es una enfermedad neurovascular crónica caracterizada por una estenosis progresiva bilateral de las arterias carótidas internas, con la formación anormal de nuevos vasos sanguíneos, cuyo bloqueo en flujo sanguíneo ocasiona variadas manifestaciones clínicas y complicaciones asociadas a eventos cerebrovasculares (isquémicos o hemorrágicos) agudos que pueden llegar a ser incluso mortales. El presente artículo pretende realizar una aproximación acerca de esta entidad, su incidencia, prevalencia, formas de presentación y medidas terapéuticas y pronostico mediante el reporte de un caso clínico.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1424).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Moyamoya Disease , Prognosis , Blood Vessels , Carotid Arteries , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Prevalence , Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease
19.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 13(2): 411-419, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103985

ABSTRACT

O objetivo foi avaliar se a espessura íntima carotídea está associada à vitamina D, perfil glicêmico e antropométrico. Foram coletados dados pessoais, antropométricos, bioquímicos e laudo de ultrassonografia carotídea, o qual foi utilizado a fim de avaliar o espessamento em milímetros e constatar ou não placas ateroscleróticas. As variáveis estudadas foram tratadas com o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, ANOVA e Kruskal-Wallis. A média do IMC dos 51 pacientes foi de 29,47±6,39 kg/m². A espessura carotídea foi ≥1 mm em 54,90%. Quanto à vitamina D, 41,18% apresentaram hipovitaminose. A correlação da espessura carotídea com dados antropométricos, glicemia de jejum e HbA1c foi diretamente proporcional e inversamente com os valores de vitamina D, embora sem diferença significativa. As variáveis estudadas não puderam ser associadas com diferença significativa à espessura da camada média intimal da carótida nesta amostra.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of carotid intima thickness with vitamin D, glycemia and anthropometry. Personal, anthropometric and biochemical data, and carotid ultrasound report (to check thickening in millimeters and for the presence of atherosclerotic plaques) were collected. The variables studied were treated with Pearson's correlation coefficient, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis. The mean BMI of the 51 patients was 29.47 ± 6.39kg/m². The carotid thickness was ≥1mm in 54.90%. Regarding vitamin D, 41.18% had hypovitaminosis. The carotid thickness was directly proportionally correlated with anthropometric data, fasting blood glucose and HbA1c, and inversely correlated with vitamin D values, although without significant difference. The studied variables were not significantly associated with carotid intima thickness in this sample.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vitamin D , Blood Glucose , Carotid Arteries , Anthropometry , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 419-430, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128360

ABSTRACT

A ultrassonografia convencional e o Doppler espectral nas artérias carótidas comuns em equinos e muares são considerados escassos, diferentemente do que ocorre na medicina humana. Este trabalho propôs comparar as artérias carótidas comuns de equinos e muares por ultrassonografia modo-B e Doppler espectral, além de verificar as diferenças dessas variáveis entre os gêneros desses animais e a relação com a massa corpórea. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: massa corpórea, diâmetros das artérias, espessura da camada íntima-média (EIM), índice de resistividade (IR), índice de pulsatilidade (IP), velocidade sistólica (VS), velocidade diastólica (VD) e velocidade média (VM). Salvo a massa corpórea, esses parâmetros foram obtidos de três regiões (cranial, médio e caudal) e submetidos à análise conjuntamente. Os diâmetros das artérias carótidas comuns são diferentes entre equinos e muares, com valores menores nos equinos. O IR, o IP, a VS e a VM diferiram entre equinos e muares, sendo maiores nos equinos, e a VD superior nos muares. Não foi observada diferença das variáveis do modo-B e Doppler entre gêneros nos equinos, diferentemente dos muares, cujos machos apresentaram valores maiores do diâmetro, do IR e do IP, mas menores da VS e da VM. A massa corpórea não influenciou as variáveis do modo-B, independentemente do gênero, mas apresenta correlação significativa nas variáveis do modo Doppler. As artérias carótidas comuns de equinos e muares são diferentes pelos exames ultrassonográficos modo-B e Doppler espectral. O gênero não influencia no modo-B e no Doppler nos equinos, porém influencia parcialmente nos muares. A massa corpórea de equinos e de muares, independentemente do gênero, não tem associação com as variáveis do modo-B, apenas com o Doppler.(AU)


Conventional ultrasound and spectral Doppler in the common carotid arteries in horses and mules are considered scarce, different from human medicine. The aim of this study was to compare the common carotid arteries of horses and mules by B-mode ultrasonography and spectral Doppler ultrasonography, as well as to verify the differences of these variables between their genders and the relation with body mass. The following parameters were evaluated: body mass, artery diameter, intima-media thickness (EIM), resistivity index (IR), pulsatility index (IP), systolic velocity (VS), diastolic velocity (VD) and average velocity (VM). Besides the body mass, the other variables were obtained from three regions (cranial, medium and caudal) and analyzed together. The diameters of the common carotid arteries are different between horses and mules, being smaller in horses. The IR, IP, VS and VM differed between horses and mules, being higher in the horses, but the VD was higher in mules. No difference in the variables in B-mode and Doppler between gender were observed in horses, different from mules, in which the diameters, IR and IP values were higher in males and the VS and VM was higher in females. Body mass did not influence B-Mode, both for horses and mules. A significant correlation was observed for Doppler. The common carotid arteries of horses and mules are different by ultrasound scans B-mode and spectral Doppler. Gender does not influence the B-Mode and Doppler variables in horses, but can in mules. The body mass of horses and mules, regardless of gender, is not associated with B-mode variables, but with Doppler variables.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Carotid Arteries/physiology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Equidae/anatomy & histology , Horses/anatomy & histology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Ultrasonography, Doppler/veterinary
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