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Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 117-121, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971503


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the effect of local unstable atherosclerotic plaque on plaque formation in the carotid and aortic arteries of rabbits.@*METHODS@#Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into atherosclerosis model group, highfat diet feeding group, and normal chow feeding group (blank control group). In the model group, carotid artery balloon injury was induced after 4 weeks of high-fat diet feeding. Eight weeks later, all the rabbits were euthanized for histopathological examination of the carotid artery and abdominal aorta, and the mean intimal thickness and plaque to lumen area ratio were measured using image analysis software. Venous blood samples were collected from the rabbits for blood lipid analysis.@*RESULT@#At the ends of 4, 8 and 12 weeks, the rabbits in the model group and high-fat feeding group, but not those in the blank control group, all showed significant weight gain compared with their body weight at 0 week (P < 0.05). The mean intimal thickness was significantly greater in atherosclerosis model group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). In atherosclerosis model group, the mean intimal thickness and plaque to lumen area ratio in the injured carotid artery were significantly greater than those in the contralateral carotid artery and abdominal aorta (P < 0.05). At the end of the 12 weeks, the levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) and highsensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were all significantly higher in the model group and high-fat feeding group than in the blank control group (P < 0.05); the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, or HDL-C did not differ significantly between the model group and high-fat feeding group (P>0.05), but the level of CRP was significantly higher in arteriosclerosis model group (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Local unstable atherosclerotic plaque can increase the level of CRP and promote the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery and abdominal aorta in rabbits.

Rabbits , Animals , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Aorta, Abdominal , Cholesterol, LDL , Atherosclerosis , Carotid Arteries
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1011-1017, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985513


Objective: To establish reference values for carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) of adult dwellers in Shenzhen City. Methods: The study was conducted based on the Shenzhen heart failure epidemiological survey from 2021 to 2022. In this survey, residents aged 18 years and above in Shenzhen were selected by using a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. General information, cardiovascular disease (CVD) related behavior and carotid ultrasound examination and etc. were collected from the participants. People with CVD factors, a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, carotid plaque or having no carotid ultrasound examination results were excluded. The parameter regression model based on fractional polynomial was used to establish the reference values of CIMT by age and sex. Results: A total of 2 163 healthy individuals were enrolled in the final analysis, including 576 males (26.6%) and 1 587 females (73.4%). The fractional polynomial regression of the CIMT mean and standard deviation was obtained. For men, the regression was meanCIMT=0.324 7+0.006 9×age and SDCIMT=0.076 9+0.001 2×age. For women, the regression was meanCIMT=0.354 9+0.005 4×age and SDCIMT=0.041 6+0.002 0×age. Conclusion: The age and sex reference values for CIMT of adult people in Shenzhen established in this study could provide the latest reference standards for early screening of subclinical CVD.

Male , Humans , Adult , Female , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Cardiovascular Diseases , Reference Values , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Carotid Arteries , Risk Factors , Carotid Artery Diseases
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 570-574, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982787


Objective:To investigate surgical treatment of carotid artery diseases in neck tumor surgery. Methods:A retrospective analysis of the clinical data on carotid artery treatment was conducted in the five cases of neck tumor surgeries treated at Department of Surgical Oncology, the First Peoples Hospital of Lanzhou from March 2010 to May 2020. Surgical methods, including carotid artery resection and ligation, tumor-involved artery resection and vascular reconstruction, and tumor peeling and carotid rupture repairing were used, respectively. Results:Five cases were successfully operated on. One case of carotid artery ligation was followed by intermittent dizziness and decreased contra-lateral limb strength after the surgery. The remaining patients exhibited no neurological complications. A patient with cervical low-grade myofibroblastoma developed into lung metastases 8 months after the surgery. Another patient with cervical lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer developed into lung metastases 24 months after the surgery. Conclusion:Currently, surgical methods for clinical treatment of diseased carotid arteries include carotid artery resection and ligation, simple tumor peeling, tumor invasion artery resection and vascular reconstruction, and interventional therapy. Each surgical method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the choice of treatment depends on the patient's specific conditions, physician's clinical experience, and the equipment available.

Humans , Retrospective Studies , Carotid Arteries/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 23(3)sept.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441492


Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares isquémicas constituyen la primera causa de muerte en el mundo desarrollado o en vías de serlo, por encima de las oncológicas, de los accidentes del tránsito y de las enfermedades vásculo-cerebrales. El diagnóstico temprano de una lesión coronaria permite lograr la prevención del ataque isquémico agudo, y realizar el tratamiento revascularizador oportuno con evaluación de riesgo quirúrgico, que permita obtener cifras de morbimortalidad aceptables. Objetivo: Describir las características ultrasonográficas de las arterias carotídeas como riesgo de accidente cerebro-vascular en pacientes con revascularización miocárdica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y longitudinal en 208 pacientes revascularizados del sector coronario, con estudio ultrasonográfico prequirúrgico de las arterias carotídeas como método predictivo de enfermedad vásculo-cerebral isquémica. Resultados: En 20 pacientes se presentaron síntomas cerebrales que se clasificaron en menores y mayores. Existió preponderancia de los menores y, entre ellos, de la agitación. Se evaluaron los factores de riesgo primarios y en las características de las placas ateroescleróticas se destacó el grado de irregularidad. Conclusiones: El estudio ultrasonográfico del árbol arterial carotídeo debe formar parte esencial del estudio predictivo del paciente que va a ser sometido a una revascularización coronaria(AU)

Introduction: Ischemic cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the developed world or in the process of becoming so, above oncological ones, traffic accidents and vascular-cerebral diseases. The early diagnosis of a coronary lesion allows to achieve the prevention of acute ischemic attack, and to perform the appropriate revascularization treatment with surgical risk assessment, which allows to obtain acceptable morbidity and mortality figures. Objective: To describe the ultrasonographic characteristics of carotid arteries as a risk of stroke in patients with myocardial revascularization. Methods: An observational, descriptive and longitudinal study was conducted in 208 coronary sector´s revascularized patients, with pre-surgical ultrasonographic study of the carotid arteries as a predictive method of ischemic cerebral vascular disease. Results: In 20 patients there were brain symptoms that were classified into minor and major. There was a predominance of minors and, among them, of agitation. The primary risk factors were evaluated and the degree of irregularity was highlighted in the characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: The ultrasonographic study of the carotid arterial tree should be an essential part of the predictive study of the patient who is undergoing coronary revascularization(AU)

Humans , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Studies as Topic
Rev. Bras. Neurol. (Online) ; 58(2): 35-41, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395444


The studies on the vascular system, including the cervicocephalic arteries (carotid and vertebral arteries), present a long trajectory, having their deep roots in the far past, considering the Western authors, having as representatives the Greek sages Alcmaeon, Diogenes, Hippocrates, Aristoteles, Rufus, and Galenus. They produced pivotal knowledge dissecting mainly cadavers of animals, and established solid bases for the later generations of scholars. The information assembled from these six authors makes it possible to build a quite clear picture of the vascular system, here specifically focused on the cervicocephalic arteries, and mainly of the extracranial segments. Thus, the carotid system became fairly well identified, origin, course, and name, as well as the origin of the still unnamed arteries running through the orifices of the transversal processes of the cervical vertebrae, and entering into the cranium. Almost all that was then known about human anatomy, since this period, and then throughout the Middle Ages, was extrapolated from animal dissections. This state of affairs was maintained until the 14th century, when human corpses dissections were again allowed.

Os estudos do sistema vascular, incluindo as artérias cervicocefálicas (artérias carótidas e vertebrais), apresentam um longo percurso, tendo suas raízes profundas no passado distante, considerando os autores ocidentais, tendo como representantes os doutos gregos Alcméon, Diógenes, Hipócrates, Aristóteles, Rufus e Galenus. Eles produziram conhecimento pivotal, dissecando principalmente cadáveres de animais e estabelecendo bases sólidas para as gerações futuras de estudiosos. A informação reunida desses seis autores permite construir um quadro bastante claro do sistema vascular, aqui focado especificamente nas artérias cervicocefálicas e principalmente nos seus segmentos extracranianos. Assim, o sistema carotídeo ficou bastante bem identificado, origem, trajeto e nome, assim como a origem das ainda não nomeadas artérias que percorrem os orifícios dos processos transversos das vértebras cervicais e entrando no crânio. Quase tudo que era conhecido sobre anatomia humana, desde esse período, e depois ao longo da Idade Média, foi extrapolado a partir de dissecções de animais. Esse estado de coisas foi mantido até o século 14, quando a dissecção de cadáveres humanos foi novamente permitida.

Humans , Animals , Vertebral Artery/anatomy & histology , Carotid Arteries/anatomy & histology , Anatomists/history , Skull , Cervical Vertebrae/blood supply , Dissection
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(2): 117-122, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407768


Resumen Objetivos: Presentar caso clínico y revisión de la literatura sobre asociación de tumores poco frecuentes compatibles con diagnóstico de tríada de Carney. Paciente y Métodos: Revisión de ficha clínica de paciente de sexo femenino de 39 años de edad con antecedentes de asma, quien acude a servicio de urgencias por síntomas respiratorios. En estudio con imágenes se evidencia masa pulmonar en lóbulo superior derecho probablemente hamartoma y masa en la bifurcación carotídea izquierda compatible con posible paraganglioma. Se completó el estudio con endoscopia digestiva alta sin evidencia de tumor gástrico y PET-CT (tomografía de emisión de positrones-tomografía computarizada) que descartó otras lesiones. Resultados: La paciente fue sometida a resección quirúrgica de ambos tumores (pulmonar y carotídeo). En estudio histopatológico diferido, se plantean los diagnósticos de paraganglioma carotideo y hamartoma pulmonar, el cual, luego de una segunda revisión histopatológica, es corregido a condroma pulmonar. Discusión: La tríada de Carney se compone por la asociación de al menos 2 de 3 tumores: tumor estromal gastrointestinal (GIST), paraganglioma extra-adrenal y condroma pulmonar. Su expresión es variable, coexistiendo en forma completa en solo el 22% de los casos. Conclusión: Los pacientes con sospecha de tríada de Carney deben recibir evaluación multidisciplinaria, estudio completo en búsqueda de tumores asociados y seguimiento a largo plazo por posibles recurrencias o metástasis.

Objective: To present a clinical case and review of the literature on the infrequent association of pulmonary and extra thoracic tumors compatible with Carney's triad. Patient and Methods: Review of clinical records of a 39 years-old female patient with history of asthma who presented in the emergency department with respiratory symptoms. An imaging study showed a pulmonary mass in the right upper lobe with the aspect of hamartoma and a mass in the left carotid artery bifurcation compatible with a possible paraganglioma. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed no evidence of gastric tumor and a PET-CT (Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography) excluded other lesions. Results: Patient underwent surgical resection of both tumors (pulmonary and carotid). Diagnosis of carotid paraganglioma and pulmonary hamartoma were stated by histopathology. However, lung tumor after a second pathological analysis was confirmed to be a pulmonary chondroma. Discussion: Carney's triad is defined by the association of at least 2 of 3 tumors: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST), extraadrenal paraganglioma and pulmonary chondroma. Its expression is variable, coexisting completely in only 22% of cases. Conclusion: Patients with suspected Carney's triad should receive a multidisciplinary assessment, a complete study searching associated tumors and long-term follow-up for recurrences or metastases.

Humans , Female , Adult , Paraganglioma/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Chondroma/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary , Paraganglioma/surgery , Radiography, Thoracic , Carotid Arteries/surgery , Chondroma/surgery , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/surgery , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/surgery , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/surgery
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 570-576, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940890


Objective: To observe the effect of lipid regulating therapy on carotid atherosclerotic plaque in diabetic patients. Methods: The REACH study, conducted between March 2009 and February 2012, enrolled asymptomatic patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed carotid atherosclerotic plaque, who had never taken lipid-lowering drugs. Patients were treated with a moderate dose of rosuvastatin for 24 months. Blood lipid levels were measured and carotid MRI was performed at baseline, 3 and 24 months after treatment. The volume of carotid wall and lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) were measured by image analysis software. This study retrospectively analyzed patients in the REACH study. Patients were divided into diabetes group and non-diabetic group. The changes of blood lipid level and MRI parameters of carotid atherosclerotic plaque were compared between the two groups and their correlation was analyzed. Results: A total of 38 patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque were included in this study, including 13 patients (34.2%) in the diabetic group and 25 patients (65.8%) in the non-diabetic group. Baseline parameters were comparable between the two groups, except higher HbA1c level in diabetes group (P<0.05). Compared with baseline, the total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly decreased at 3 and 24 months in both two groups (P<0.05). The change of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in diabetes group was not obvious, while it was significantly increased in non-diabetic group at 24 months ((1.38±0.33) mmol/l vs. (1.26±0.26) mmol/l, P<0.05). MRI results showed that the volume and percentage of LRNC remained unchanged at 3 months, slightly decreased at 24 months (64.86 (45.37, 134.56) mm3 vs. 75.76 (48.20, 115.64) mm3, P>0.05) and (15.84% (11.47%, 24.85%) vs. 16.95% (11.64%, 22.91%), P>0.05) in diabetic group. In non-diabetic group, the volume and percentage of LRNC were significantly decreased at 3 months (63.01 (44.25, 188.64) mm3 vs. 72.49 (51.91, 199.59) mm3, P<0.05) and (13.76% (8.81%, 27.64%) vs. 16.04% (11.18%, 27.05%), P<0.05) respectively. Both parameters further decreased to (55.63 (27.18, 179.40) mm3) and (12.71% (8.39%, 24.41%)) at 24 months (both P<0.05). Wall volume, lumen volume and percent wall volume (PWV) were not affected post therapy in both two groups(P>0.05). There were no correlations between the changes of plaque parameters including volume and percentage of LRNC, wall volume, lumen volume, PWV and the changes of blood lipid parameters (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG) in 3 and 24 months (P>0.05). Conclusion: Lipid-lowering therapy possesses different effects on carotid atherosclerotic plaque in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, and the LRNC improvement is more significant in non-diabetic patients as compared to diabetic patients.

Humans , Carotid Arteries/pathology , Carotid Artery Diseases/drug therapy , Cholesterol, HDL/therapeutic use , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Necrosis/pathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Rosuvastatin Calcium/therapeutic use
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20220012, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386126


Abstract Accidental fish bone ingestion is a common complaint at emergency departments. The majority of cases have a benign course. However, serious complications such as esophagus perforation, cervical vessel injury and cervical abscess can occur in 7.4% of cases. Mortality rates can be as high as 50% when mediastinitis occurs. We report a case of an esophageal perforation caused by a fish bone with a lesion to the right common carotid artery after 20 days of evolution. Surgical exploration occurred with corrections of the lesion in the right common carotid and esophagus. Early identification of this kind of injury is paramount to prevent potentially fatal complications.

Abstract Accidental fish bone ingestion is a common complaint at emergency departments. The majority of cases have a benign course. However, serious complications such as esophagus perforation, cervical vessel injury and cervical abscess can occur in 7.4% of cases. Mortality rates can be as high as 50% when mediastinitis occurs. We report a case of an esophageal perforation caused by a fish bone with a lesion to the right common carotid artery after 20 days of evolution. Surgical exploration occurred with corrections of the lesion in the right common carotid and esophagus. Early identification of this kind of injury is paramount to prevent potentially fatal complications.

Humans , Female , Adult , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/surgery , Esophagus/surgery , Foreign Bodies/complications
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(4): 40-46, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359227


The description of arteries at the base of the human brain forming an 'arterial circle', named after Thomas Willis, has had a long history after the restoration of human dissection, partly due to the studies of many outstanding anatomists that preceded Willis. He provided, with the collaboration of Richard Lower and Christopher Wren, the first incontestable complete description, as recognized nowadays, accompanied by a superb illustration. Additionally, he presented an explanation for its meaning, indicating for the first time the functional significance of this structure, in health and disease. However, it should be recognized that the initial studies of the arteries of the base of the human brain by Willis' predecessors, as well as those from ancient times, despite their fragmentary descriptions, were certainly pivotal in paving the way for further and more detailed knowledge of this vascular formation.

A descrição das artérias da base do cérebro humano, formando um 'círculo arterial', designado com o nome de Thomas Willis, tem uma longa história após o restauro de dissecções humanas, em parte devido aos estudos de muitos anatomistas de renome que precederam Willis. Ele proveu, com a colaboração de Richard Lower e Christopher Wren, a primeira descrição completa e incontestável, assim como a reconhecida atualmente, acompanhada por uma ilustração soberba. Adicionalmente, apresentou uma explicação quanto ao seu significado, indicando pela primeira vez a importância funcional dessa estrutura, na saúde e na doença. Entretanto, deve ser reconhecido que os estudos iniciais das artérias da base do cérebro humano pelos predecessores de Willis, assim como os de tempos antigos, apesar de suas descrições fragmentárias, certamente foram fulcrais na pavimentação do caminho para o conhecimento mais avançado e detalhado dessa formação vascular.

Humans , Carotid Arteries , Circle of Willis/anatomy & histology , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Cerebrum/innervation , Vertebral Artery , Dissection , Neurology/history
Int. j. morphol ; 39(6): 1587-1591, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385554


SUMMARY: Understanding microsurgical neuroanatomy is a fundamental part of the training of neurosurgeons. Notwithstanding the fact that throughout history the study in cadavers has been a fundamental part of training, the publication of these studies has never marked a trend, and in our country the available studies are limited. A descriptive anatomical study was carried out on 22 specimens regarding the anatomical arrangement of the anterior circulation arteries of the brain and the most frequent anatomical variants in the sample used. To this end, bilateral pterional and bifrontal approaches were performed, obtaining a total of 132 arteries, including supraclinoid internal carotid arteries (ICA), anterior cerebral arteries in their A1 segment (ACA), and middle cerebral arteries in their M1 segment (MCA). measurements in each of these segments were made and anatomical variants were documented. Out of 22 cadaveric specimens, 17 (77 %) were male. the mean age was 59 years (range 36-81 years). Internal carotid artery mean length was 12.73 and 12.86 in the right and left side respectively. Anatomical variants identified were hypoplasia of segment A1 in 1 (4.5 %) specimen, duplication in 1 (4.5 %) and trifurcation of segment M1 in 3 (13.6 %) specimens. A similarity was found between our data and data reported by literature, with some differences, especially in the anterior communicating artery.

RESUMEN: Entender la neuroanatomía microquirúrgica es una parte fundamental de la formación de los neurocirujanos. A pesar de que, durante la historia, el estudio en cadáveres ha sido parte fundamental del entrenamiento, no ha sido tendencia la publicación de estos estudios, y en nuestro país son limitados los que se encuentran. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo anatómico en 22 especímenes acerca de la disposición anatómica de las arterias de la circulación cerebral anterior y las variantes anatómicas más frecuentes en población colombiana. Para dicho objetivo se realizaron abordajes bilaterales pterionales, y bifrontales obteniendo un total de 132 arterias incluyendo las arterias carotídeas internas supraclinoideas (ACI), arterias cerebrales anteriores en su segmento A1 (ACA) y las arterias cerebrales medias en su segmento M1 (ACM), se realizaron mediciones en cada uno de estos segmentos y se documentaron las variantes anatómicas. De los 22 especímenes cadavéricos, 17 (77 %) eran masculinos, la edad media fue de 59 años (rango 36-81 años). La longitud media de la arteria carótida interna fue de 12,73 mm en el lado derecho y de 12,86 mm en el lado izquierdo. Las variantes anatómicas identificadas fueron hipoplasia del segmento A1 en 1 (4,5 %), duplicación de A1 en 1 (4,5 %) y trifurcación del segmento M1 en 3 (13,6 %) muestras. Se encontró una similitud entre nuestros datos y los reportados por la literatura, con algunas diferencias, especialmente en el segmento de la arteria comunicante anterior.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain/blood supply , Carotid Arteries/anatomy & histology , Anterior Cerebral Artery/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Colombia , Anatomic Variation , Neuroanatomy
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 365-375, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339149


Resumo Fundamento Pacientes com HIV têm maior probabilidade de apresentar doenças cardiovasculares quando comparados à população em geral. Objetivo Este foi um estudo de caso-controle que teve como objetivo avaliar quais fatores estavam associados a uma redução na espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) da carótida e ao aumento na dilatação mediada por fluxo (DMF) da artéria braquial em pacientes com HIV que receberam atorvastatina + aspirina por um período de 6 meses. Métodos Foi realizada uma análise secundária de um ensaio clínico, que incluiu pessoas vivendo com HIV e baixo risco cardiovascular. Um total de 38 pacientes alocados para o braço de intervenção e tratados por 6 meses com uma combinação de atorvastatina + aspirina foram incluídos. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a ultrassonografia da carótida e da artéria braquial, tanto no início quanto no final do estudo. Os casos que responderam com aumento >10% da dilatação braquial (DMF) e redução da espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) foram considerados casos, e aqueles que não responderam foram considerados controles. Avaliamos os fatores associados às respostas positivas obtidas através da IMT e DMF. Resultados A redução do IMT não se associou significativamente a nenhum dos fatores de risco avaliados: idade (p = 0,211), sexo (p = 0,260), tabagismo (p = 0,131) ou tempo de diagnóstico do HIV (p = 0,836). Um aumento na DMF foi significativamente associado com a idade entre aqueles na faixa etária de 40-59 anos, p = 0,015 (OR = 4,37; IC 95%: 1,07-17,79). Conclusões Os indivíduos mais velhos foram mais propensos a apresentar um aumento na DMF após 6 meses de tratamento com atorvastatina + aspirina.

Abstract Background Patients with HIV are more likely to present with cardiovascular disease when compared to the general population. Objective This was a case-control study that aimed to assess which factors were associated with a reduction in the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and an increase in the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in HIV patients who received atorvastatin + aspirin during a period of 6 months. Methods A secondary analysis of a clinical trial was conducted, which included people living with HIV infection and low cardiovascular risk. A total of 38 patients allocated to the intervention arm and treated for 6 months with a combination of atorvastatin + aspirin were included. All participants underwent a carotid and brachial artery ultrasound, both at the beginning and the end of the study. Cases that responded with an increase of >10% of the brachial dilatation (FMD) and reduction of the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were considered cases, and those who did not respond were considered controls. We assessed the factors associated with the positive responses obtained through IMT and FMD. Results A reduction in the IMT was not significantly associated with any of the evaluated risk factors: age (p=0.211), gender (p=0.260), smoking (p=0.131) or time since HIV diagnosis (p=0.836). An increase in the FMD was significantly associated with age amongst those in the 40-59 age group, p = 0.015 (OR = 4.37; 95% CI: 1.07-17.79). Conclusions Older individuals were more likely to present with an increased FMD after 6 months of treatment with atorvastatin + aspirin.

Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vasodilation , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Endothelium, Vascular/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(6): 1119-1126, Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278324


Resumo Fundamento A aterosclerose, em alguns casos, é uma condição assintomática, sendo necessário conhecer o grau de comprometimento arterial provocado pelas placas e sua associação com os fatores de risco. O exame de autópsia permite a compreensão dos processos básicos de doenças, assim como a avaliação e fornecimento de dados sobre a característica macroscópica do acometimento aterosclerótico. Objetivo Avaliar macroscopicamente e padronizar o acometimento aterosclerótico das artérias aorta, carótidas e ilíacas e comparar com a idade, o sexo e a causa de morte. Métodos Foram coletados 53 artérias aorta, 53 artérias carótida direita, 53 artérias carótida esquerda, 53 artérias ilíaca direita e 53 artérias ilíaca esquerda. Para essa avaliação, foi considerada a extensão de estrias lipídicas, de placas ateromatosas, de fibrose e de calcificação, as quais serviram de referência para pontuar a intensidade do acometimento aterosclerótico. Foram observados vários graus da aterosclerose e valores acurados para a classificação discreta, moderada e acentuada. Para a análise estatística, os dados foram analisados utilizando-se o software GraphPad Prism ® 7.0. As diferenças foram consideradas estatisticamente significativas quando "p" foi menor que 5% (p<0,05). Resultados As artérias carótidas apresentaram maior acometimento aterosclerótico em comparação às outras artérias avaliadas (K=15,73, p=0,0004). A ocorrência da aterosclerose se mostrou progressiva e significativa com o decorrer da idade (carótidas: t=6,321; p<0,0001; aortas: U=83,5; p<0,0001; ilíacas: U=306; p<0,0001) e na causa de morte cardiovascular (carótidas: t=5,047; p<0,0001; aortas: U=98,5; p=0,0068; ilíacas: U=467,5; p=0,0012). Conclusão A avaliação macroscópica da aterosclerose trata-se de uma forma inovadora e de baixo custo de avaliação através da visualização direta das placas ateroscleróticas, possibilitando uma associação com fatores de risco como idade avançada e doenças cardiovasculares, fornecendo dados importantes para a prática clínica.

Abstract Background Atherosclerosis, in some cases, is an asymptomatic condition, and it is important to know the degree of arterial impairment caused by plaques and its association with risk factors. Autopsy examination provides understanding of basic disease processes and assessment to data about macroscopic characteristic of atherosclerotic involvement. Objective To macroscopically assess and standardize atherosclerotic involvement of aorta, carotid and iliac arteries and compare with age, gender and causes of death. Methods We collected 53 aortic arteries, 53 right carotid arteries, 53 left carotid arteries, 53 right iliac arteries and 53 left iliac arteries. For this assessment, the extension of fatty streaks, atheromatous plaques, fibrosis and calcification were considered, being the reference to score the degree of atherosclerotic involvement. Many degrees of atherosclerosis and accurate values were observed for mild, moderate and severe classification. For statistical analysis, data were analyzed using the software GraphPad Prism® 7.0. Differences were considered statistically significant if p-value was less than 5% (p <0.05). Results Carotid arteries had greater atherosclerotic involvement compared to the other arteries (K = 15.73, p = 0.0004). Atherosclerosis was progressive and significant with increasing age (carotid arteries: t = 6.321; p <0.0001; aorta: U = 83.5; p <0.0001; iliac: U = 306; p <0.0001) and as cause of cardiovascular death (carotids: t = 5.047; p <0.0001; aorta: U = 98.5; p = 0.0068; iliac: U = 467.5; p = 0.0012). Conclusion Macroscopic assessment of atherosclerosis is an innovative and low-cost way of direct visualization of atherosclerotic plaques, enabling an association with risk factors such as increasing age and cardiovascular diseases, providing important data for clinical practice.

Humans , Atherosclerosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Aorta , Autopsy , Carotid Arteries , Risk Factors
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(4): 727-733, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285209


Resumo Fundamento: A incidência de reestenose da artéria coronária após o implante de um stent não farmacológico é mais baixa que na angioplastia com balão; no entanto, ainda apresenta altas taxas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar novos indicadores de risco para reestenose de stent usando ultrassonografia das carótidas que, em conjunto com indicadores já existentes, ajudariam na escolha do stent. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo prospectivo transversal incluindo 121 pacientes consecutivos com doença arterial coronariana que foram submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea com angiografia nos 12 meses anteriores. Após os casos de reestenose de stent serem identificados, os pacientes foram submetidos à ultrassonografia de carótidas para avaliar a espessura da camada íntima média e placas ateroscleróticas. Os dados foram analisados por regressão múltipla de Cox. O nível de significância foi p<0,05. Resultados: A idade mediana dos pacientes foi de 60 anos (1º quartil = 55, 3º quartil = 68), e 64,5% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. A angiografia coronária mostrou que 57 pacientes (47,1%) apresentaram reestenose de stent. Cinquenta e cinco pacientes (45,5%) apresentaram placas ateroscleróticas ecolucentes nas artérias carótidas e 54,5% apresentaram placas ecogênicas ou nenhuma placa. Dos pacientes que apresentaram placas ecolucentes, 90,9% apresentaram reestenose do stent coronário, e daqueles com placas ecogênicas ou nenhuma placa, 10,6% apresentaram reestenose de stent. A presença de placas ecolucentes nas artérias carótidas aumentou o risco de reestenose de stent coronário em 8,21 vezes (RR=8,21;IC95%: 3,58-18,82; p<0,001). Conclusões: A presença de placas ateroscleróticas ecolucentes na artéria carótida constitui um preditor de risco de reestenose de stent coronário e deve ser considerada na escolha do tipo de stenta ser usado na angioplastia coronária.

Abstract Background: The incidence of restenosis of the coronary artery after a bare-metal stent implant has been lower than in simple balloon angioplasty; however, it still shows relatively high rates. Objective: The aim of this study was to find new risk indicators for in-stent restenosis using carotid ultrasonography, that, in addition to the already existing indicators, would help in decision-making for stent selection. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional prospective study including 121 consecutive patients with chronic coronary artery disease who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with repeat angiography in the previous 12 months. After all cases of in-stent restenosis were identified, patients underwent carotid ultrasonography to evaluate carotid intima-media thickness and atherosclerosis plaques. The data were analyzed by Cox multiple regression. The significance level was set a p<0.05. Results: Median age of patients was 60 years (1st quartile = 55, 3rd quartile = 68), and 64.5% of patients were male. Coronary angiography showed that 57 patients (47.1%) presented in-stent restenosis. Fifty-five patients (45.5%) had echolucent atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and 54.5% had echogenic plaques or no plaques. Of patients with who had echolucent plaques, 90.9% presented coronary in-stent restenosis. Of those who had echogenic plaques or no plaques, 10.6% presented in-stent restenosis. The presence of echolucent plaques in carotid arteries increased the risk of coronary in-stent restenosis by 8.21 times (RR=8.21; 95%CI: 3.58-18.82; p<0.001). Conclusions: The presence of echolucent atherosclerotic plaques in carotid artery constitutes a risk predictor of coronary instent restenosis and should be considered in the selection of the type of stent to be used in coronary angioplasty.

Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Restenosis/etiology , Coronary Restenosis/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Stents/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Coronary Angiography , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Middle Aged
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(3): 189-194, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285337


ABSTRACT Background: Elevated levels of chemerin can predict future ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Although chemerin is thought to play a role in atherosclerotic inflammation, whether circulating chemerin levels are associated with the severity of atherosclerosis remains to be determined. Objectives: Through the use of carotid Doppler ultrasonography, our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships of serum chemerin levels with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as an indicator of generalized atherosclerosis. Methods: This study compared 40 patients with ischemic stroke and 40 healthy subjects. Measurements were made at end-diastole using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) after a 5-min rest interval in a quiet and dark room. CIMT was defined as the distance between the innermost edge of the luminal echo to the innermost edge of the media/adventitia echo. CIMT was measured in the posterior wall of both common carotid arteries within 1 cm proximally to the bulbus. Three measurements were made on both sides and the average measurement was taken as the CIMT. Serum chemerin levels were determined in all patients and healthy subjects. Results: Serum chemerin levels were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p=0.004). Serum chemerin levels were positively correlated with CIMT (p<0.05). There was a significant difference between the groups with regard to CIMT (p<0.001). Conclusion: Elevated serum chemerin levels appear to be associated with CIMT, thus suggesting that a link exists between chemerin and atherosclerotic ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

RESUMO Introdução: Níveis elevados de chemerin podem prever doenças cerebrovasculares isquêmicas futuras. Embora se acredite que a chemerin desempenhe um papel na inflamação aterosclerótica, ainda não foi determinado se os níveis circulantes de chemerin estão associados à gravidade da aterosclerose Objetivos: Por meio do uso da ultrassonografia Doppler da carótida, nosso objetivo neste estudo foi investigar as relações dos níveis séricos de chemerin com a espessura da íntima-média da carótida (EIMC) como um indicador de aterosclerose generalizada. Métodos: Este estudo comparou 40 pacientes com AVC isquêmico e 40 indivíduos saudáveis. As medidas foram feitas no final da diástole usando ultrassonografia Doppler em cores (USDC), após um intervalo de descanso de 5 minutos em um quarto silencioso e escuro. A EIMC foi definida como a distância entre a borda mais interna do eco luminal e a borda mais interna do eco da mídia/adventícia. EIMC foi medido na parede posterior de ambas as artérias carótidas comuns dentro de 1 cm proximalmente ao bulbo. Três medições foram feitas em ambos os lados e a medição média foi tomada como o EIMC. Os níveis séricos de chemerin foram determinados em todos os pacientes e indivíduos saudáveis. Resultados: Os níveis séricos de chemerin foram significativamente maiores no grupo de pacientes do que no grupo controle (p=0,004). Os níveis séricos de chemerin foram positivamente correlacionados com EIMC (p<0,05). Houve diferença significativa entre os grupos em relação à EIMC (p<0,001). Conclusão: Níveis séricos elevados de chemerin parecem estar associados com a EIMC, sugerindo que existe uma ligação entre chemerin e doença cerebrovascular isquêmica aterosclerótica.

Humans , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Chemokines/blood , Atherosclerosis , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography , Carotid Artery, Common/diagnostic imaging
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200169, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250237


Abstract Background The aim of carotid interventions is to prevent cerebrovascular events. Endovascular treatment (carotid-artery-stenting/CAS) has become established as an alternative to open surgery in some cases. Historically, female sex has been considered as a perioperative risk factor, however, there are few studies regarding this hypothesis when it comes to CAS. Objectives To analyze the CAS results in our center adjusted by sex. Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed, including patients with carotid atheromatosis operated at a single center from January 2016 to June 2019. Our objective was to compare cardiovascular risk, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and mortality, by sex. Follow-up rates of stent patency, restenosis, stroke, myocardial infarction, and death were reported. Results 71 interventions were performed in 50 men (70.42%) and 21 women (29.57%). Mean age was 70.50 ± 10.72 years for men and 73.62 ± 11.78 years for women. Cardiovascular risk factors did not differ significantly between sexes. Mean follow-up was 11.28 ± 11.28 months. There were no significant differences in neurological events during follow-up. No adverse cardiological events were detected at any time. Regarding the mortality rate, during medium-term follow up there were 2 neurological related deaths with no significant differences between sexes (p=0.8432). Neither sex had higher rated of restenosis during long term follow-up (5.63% vs. 1.41%, p = 0.9693) or reoperation (1.41% vs. 1.41%, p = 0.4971). All procedures remained patent (<50% restenosis). Conclusions Despite the limitations of our study, CAS is a therapeutic option that is as effective and safe in women as in men. No sex differences were observed.

Resumo Contexto As intervenções carotídeas visam prevenir eventos cerebrovasculares. O tratamento endovascular (implante de stent na artéria carótida) se estabeleceu como uma alternativa à cirurgia aberta em alguns casos. Historicamente, o sexo feminino é considerado um fator de risco perioperatório, mas há poucos estudos abordando essa hipótese em casos de stent de carótida. Objetivos Analisar os resultados do CAS em nosso centro ajustados por sexo. Métodos Este estudo de coorte retrospectivo incluiu pacientes com ateromatose carotídea operados em um centro de janeiro de 2016 a junho de 2019. Nosso objetivo foi comparar o risco cardiovascular, incluindo infarto do miocárdio, acidente vascular cerebral e mortalidade, de acordo com o sexo. No seguimento, foram descritos patência do stent, reestenose, acidente vascular cerebral, infarto do miocárdio e morte. Resultados Setenta e uma intervenções foram realizadas: 50 homens (70,42%) e 21 mulheres (29,57%). A média de idade foi de 70,50 ± 10,72 anos nos homens e 73,62 ± 11,78 anos nas mulheres. Os fatores de risco cardiovascular não diferiram significativamente entre os sexos. A média de seguimento foi de 11,28 ± 11,28 meses. Durante o seguimento, não houve diferenças significativas nos eventos neurológicos. Nenhum evento cardiológico adverso foi detectado. Quanto à taxa de mortalidade, durante o seguimento de médio prazo ocorreram 2 óbitos neurológicos sem diferenças significativas entre os sexos (p = 0,8432). Não foi observada maior taxa de reestenose no seguimento de longo prazo (5,63% vs. 1,41%, p = 0,9693) ou de reoperação (1,41% vs. 1,41%, p = 0,4971) ao comparar os dois sexos. Todos os procedimentos permaneceram pérvios (< 50% de reestenose). Conclusões Apesar das limitações deste estudo, o stent de carótida em mulheres é uma opção terapêutica tão eficaz e segura quanto em homens. Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre os sexos.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carotid Arteries/surgery , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Vascular Patency , Stents , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Graft Occlusion, Vascular