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Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 65-65, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984280


@#A 23-year-old male motorcyclist experienced blunt head trauma with loss of consciousness, headache and vomiting, epistaxis and right otorrhagia after a collision with a motor vehicle. Fractures involving the right parietal and temporal bones, as well as acute subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage were identified on a cranial and facial CT scan. On independent evaluation of the imaging study, a subtle but distinct fracture line in the skull base involving the petrous carotid canal was identified. (Figure 1) The patient subsequently underwent CT angiography to evaluate for any injury to the internal carotid artery. In this examination, good opacification of the internal carotid arteries and their branches was noted, with no evident aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation or arteriovenous fistula formation. In patients with temporal bone fractures, the most commonly encountered complications are: tympano-ossicular injury causing conductive hearing loss, cochlear or vestibular injury causing sensorineural hearing loss or vertigo, facial nerve trauma causing facial paralysis, and fractures of the tegmen or posterior cranial fossa plate causing cerebrospinal fluid leaks.1 On the other hand, injury to the intratemporal portion of the internal carotid artery has been described as a rare complication and as such may be overlooked.1 However, its potentially devastating and life-threatening sequelae necessitates a purposeful and intentional evaluation for its presence. These sequelae include brain ischemia from arterial dissection or complete vascular occlusion, exsanguinating epistaxis or otorrhagia from carotid pseudoaneurysms, and the formation of carotid-cavernous fistulas.2 The incidence of involvement of the carotid canal in skull base fractures has been reported to be around 24%, with around 11% of this group developing internal carotid artery injuries.3 As such, the presence of fractures involving the petrous carotid canal is an indication for CT or MR angiography to further evaluate the internal carotid artery.

Temporal Bone , Carotid Artery, Internal
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 1-6, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362064


Objectives To establish the success rate in endovascular internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis recanalization using the double-layer stent Casper-RX (Microvention, Inc 35 Enterprise, Aliso Viejo, California, United States of America) and to identify the main comorbidities in individuals with ICA stenosis, morphological characteristics of the stenosis, diagnostic methods, intraoperative complications, as well as morbidity and mortality within 30 days of the surgical procedure. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of 116 patients undergoing ICA angioplasty with a degree of stenosis > 70% using Casper-RX stenting who underwent this procedure from April 2015 to December 2019. Results Technical success was achieved in 99.1% of the patients. Three of them had postprocedural complications: one transient ischemic attack (TIA) and two puncture site hematomas. A cerebral protection filter was not used in only two procedures, as these consisted of dissection of the carotid. There was satisfactory recanalization and adequate accommodation of the stents in the previously stenosed arteries, with no restenosis in 99.4% of the cases. Conclusion The endovascular treatment of extracranial carotid stenoses using the Casper-RX stent showed good applicability and efficacy. Although only two cases of thromboembolic complications occurred during the procedure, fu

Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Stents , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Treatment Outcome , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Angioplasty/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0065, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407669


RESUMO Os aneurismas intracranianos são dilatações em segmentos arteriais que irrigam o sistema nervoso central. Acometem 2% da população e as alterações oftalmológicas podem ser as primeiras manifestações do quadro. O objetivo deste relato foi descrever um caso de aneurisma de artéria carótida interna que cursou com restrição da movimentação ocular, alteração do reflexo fotomotor, ptose palpebral, dor facial e cervical. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela identificação do aneurisma por meio do exame de angiografia cerebral. Foi realizado teste de oclusão por balão, cujo resultado positivo possibilitou a oclusão total da artéria carótida interna por meio de ligadura cirúrgica, procedimento este realizado com sucesso.

ABSTRACT Intracranial aneurysms are dilations in segments of the arteries that irrigate the central nervous system. They affect 2% of the population and the ophthalmologic disorders may be the first evidence in the clinical examination. The aim of the report is to describe a case of an internal carotid artery aneurysm that showed restrictions of ocular movements, change of pupillary light reflex, palpebral ptosis, facial, and cervical pain. This diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of the aneurysm through angiography. A balloon occlusion test was performed, and its positive result made a complete occlusion of the Internal Carotid Artery possible through surgery ligation, procedure that was successful.

Humans , Female , Aged , Blepharoptosis/etiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Ophthalmoplegia/etiology , Facial Pain/etiology , Cerebral Angiography , Carotid Artery Diseases/surgery , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Neck Pain/etiology , Balloon Occlusion
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20210193, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394425


Resumo Diversas manobras já foram descritas para o acesso ao segmento distal cervical da artéria carótida interna ou à bifurcação carotídea alta; entretanto, há divergências na sistematização dessas técnicas. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar as técnicas descritas e propor um protocolo prático que auxilie na seleção da técnica mais adequada para cada caso. Para isso, foi realizada uma busca nas bases de dados PubMed Central, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde e SciELO por artigos sobre o tema, em língua inglesa ou portuguesa, publicados entre os anos de 1980 e 2021. Entre as manobras descritas, parece razoável que as duas etapas iniciais sejam a abordagem ao músculo esternocleidomastóideo, seguida pela secção/retração do ventre posterior do músculo digástrico. Caso necessário, a subluxação mandibular temporária unilateral é um recurso adicional e preferível à divisão do aparato estiloide, devido ao menor potencial de morbidade. Exposições ainda mais amplas podem ser obtidas com as osteotomias mandibulares.

Abstract Several different maneuvers have been described for obtaining access to the distal cervical segment of the internal carotid artery or to a high carotid bifurcation. However there are different approaches to systematization of these techniques. The objective of this study is to review the techniques described and propose a practical protocol to support selection of the most appropriate technique for each case. The review is based on the results of database searches on PubMed Central, the Virtual Health Library (BVSalud), and SciELO for articles on the subject published in English or Portuguese from 1980 to 2021. Among the different maneuvers described, it appears reasonable that the first two steps should be to obtain access at the sternocleidomastoid muscle, followed by section or retraction of the digastric muscle posterior belly. If needed, temporary unilateral mandibular subluxation is an additional resource that is preferable to division of the styloid apparatus process, because of its lesser potential for morbidity. Even wider exposure can be obtained using mandibular osteotomies.

Vascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Temporomandibular Joint/surgery , Carotid Artery, Internal/anatomy & histology , Mandibular Osteotomy/methods
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1331-1336, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385487


SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the variations of carotid artery course on the relationship between styloid process (SP) and internal carotid artery (ICA). Carotid CT angiography scans of 170 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The variability of the course of ICA were classified. The length and medial angulation of the SP were measured on coronal 3D images. On axial images, the shortest distance between the bone edge of the SP and ICA were measured. The distance between SP and ICA among the course patterns of carotid artery were compared statistically. In the comparison of distances between SP and ICA with respect to the course of ICA, the difference between straight and curving (p <0.001) was statistically significant. Curving caused the separation of ICA and SP. The highest and the shortest distance was at the curving and coiling group, respectively. We found that SP-ICA distance has a positive and negative correlation with SP angle (p<0.001) and SP length (p<0.001), respectively. The course of ICA is one of the major determinants affecting the relationship of ICA and SP. The curving pattern of ICA has a tendency to increase the distance between SP and ICA.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el rol de las variaciones que tiene el curso de la arteria carótida en la relación entre el proceso estiloides (PE) y la arteria carótida interna (ACI). Se evaluaron retrospectivamente angiografías por tomografía computarizada carotídea de 170 pacientes. Se clasificó la variabilidad del curso de ACI. Se midieron en imágenes coronales y en 3D la longitud y la angulación medial del PE. En las imágenes axiales, se midió la distancia más corta entre el margen del PE y la ACI. Se comparó estadísticamente la distancia entre PE y la ACI entre los patrones de trayecto de la arteria carótida. La comparación de las distancias entre PE y la ACI respecto al curso de ACI, fue estadísticamente significativa, siendo la diferencia entre arterias recta y curva (p <0,001). La arteria curva provocó la separación de la ACI y del PE. Las mayores y menores distancias estaban en el grupo de arterias curvas y enrolladas, respectivamente. La distancia PE-ACI tiene una correlación positiva y negativa con el ángulo PE (p <0,001) y la longitud del PE (p <0,001), respectivamente. El curso de la arteria carótida interna es uno de los principales determinantes que afectan la relación con el proceso estiloides. El patrón de curva de la ACI tiende a aumentar la distancia entre PE y la propia arteria arteria.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/anatomy & histology , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Anatomic Variation , Computed Tomography Angiography
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(3): 245-252, 15/09/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362144


Even though traumatic dissection of cervical arterial vessels is themajor cause of stroke among adults, it is still an underdiagnosed disease in neurosurgical emergencies, since most patients do not have or present subtle clinical signs in the acute phase. The authors report two interesting cases of cervical artery dissection with different traumatic mechanisms and present a broad literature review about this subject.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/physiopathology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/mortality , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/therapy , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/epidemiology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Vertebral Artery/anatomy & histology , Carotid Artery, Internal/anatomy & histology
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e907, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289537


El diagnóstico temprano de las lesiones compresivas del nervio óptico adquiere cada vez mayor importancia. La descompresión precoz de este o del quiasma puede resultar una mejora significativa de la función visual, mientras que el diagnóstico erróneo puede ocasionar pérdida visual irreversible, disfunción neurológica o la muerte. Las causas de la compresión de la vía visual anterior son increíblemente variadas. Los meningiomas, los tumores hipofisarios y los aneurismas son las lesiones comúnmente más identificadas como causa de neuropatía óptica compresiva sin edema del disco. Presentamos una paciente femenina de 50 años de edad, quien se sometió a la cirugía de catarata congénita del ojo izquierdo, sin mejoría de la función visual, a lo que se sumó el empeoramiento inespecífico de la calidad visual. La psicofísica visual, la campimetría automatizada y la tomografía de coherencia óptica aportaron hallazgos sugestivos de compresión de la vía visual intracraneal. Se indicó imagen por resonancia magnética de cráneo y órbitas para confirmar la sospecha diagnóstica. La angiografía cerebral demostró la presencia de un aneurisma de la arteria carótida interna, que se trató por vía endovascular con resultados satisfactorios(AU)

The importance of early diagnosis of compressive lesions of the optic nerve is on the increase. Timely decompression of the optic nerve or the optic chiasm may bring about significant visual function improvement, whereas erroneous diagnosis may result in irreversible visual loss, neurological dysfunction or death. The causes of compression of the anterior visual pathway are incredibly varied. Meningiomas, pituitary tumors and aneurysms are the lesions most commonly identified as causes of compressive optic neuropathy without disc edema. A case is presented of a female 50-year-old patient undergoing congenital cataract surgery of her left eye without visual function improvement, alongside unspecific visual quality worsening. Visual psychophysical testing, automated campimetry and optical coherence tomography contributed findings suggestive of intracranial visual pathway compression. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits was indicated to confirm the diagnostic suspicion. Cerebral angiography revealed the presence of an internal carotid artery aneurysm which was treated by endovascular procedure with satisfactory results(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/adverse effects , Early Diagnosis , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Visual Field Tests/methods
Rev. ADM ; 78(1): 51-55, ene.-feb- 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178203


La endarterectomía carotídea es el procedimiento quirúrgico de elección para tratar la obstrucción y/o estenosis de la arteria carótida extracraneal y prevenir los eventos neurológicos. La aparición de síntomas depende de la gravedad y progresión de la lesión, del adecuado flujo colateral, de las características de la placa y de la presencia de otros factores de riesgo. Analizamos el resultado de la endarterectomía carotídea como procedimiento quirúrgico de elección para la estenosis carotídea, así como la presentación de un caso clínico de un adulto mayor con oclusión del 100% y la resolución completa de los síntomas posteriores al procedimiento quirúrgico (AU)

Endarterectomy of the carotid is the surgical procedure of choice to treat obstruction and/or stenosis of the extracranial carotid artery and prevent neurological events. The appearance of symptoms depends on the severity and progression of the lesion, the adequate collateral flow, the characteristics of the plaque and the presence of other risk factors. We analyze the result of carotid endarterectomy as the surgical procedure of choice for carotid stenosis as well as the presentation of a clinical case of an elderly adult patient with 100% occlusion and complete resolution of symptoms after the surgical procedure (AU)

Humans , Male , Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Carotid Stenosis , Endarterectomy , Signs and Symptoms , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Risk Factors , Constriction, Pathologic , Mexico
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200243, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250233


Abstract Isolated dissection of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is rare in young patients and is a cause for strong suspicion of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), especially when associated with artery elongation and tortuosity. The natural history of cerebrovascular FMD is unknown and management of symptomatic patients can be challenging. We report the case of a 44-year-old female patient with a history of transient ischemic attack in the absence of cardiovascular risk factors, associated with an isolated left ICA dissection and kinking. Carotid duplex ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of dissection and demonstrated severe stenosis of the left ICA. The patient underwent surgical repair and histopathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of FMD with dissection. An autogenous great saphenous vein bypass was performed and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Cervical carotid artery dissection can be related to underlying arterial pathologies such as FMD, and the presence of ICA tortuosity highlights certain peculiarities for optimal management, which might be surgical.

Resumo A dissecção isolada da artéria carótida interna em pacientes jovens é rara, e a displasia fibromuscular deve ser altamente suspeitada principalmente quando estiver associada a alongamento e tortuosidade da artéria. A história natural da displasia fibromuscular cerebrovascular é desconhecida, e o manejo de pacientes sintomáticos pode ser desafiador. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente de 44 anos com histórico de ataque isquêmico transitório sem fatores de risco cardiovasculares, associado a dissecção e acotovelamento isolados da artéria carótida interna esquerda. O ultrassom duplo das carótidas confirmou o diagnóstico de dissecção e demonstrou estenose grave na artéria carótida interna esquerda. A paciente foi submetida a reparo cirúrgico, e a avaliação histopatológica confirmou o diagnóstico de displasia fibromuscular com dissecção. Foi realizada cirurgia de ressecção do segmento e reconstrução com veia safena magna autógena, e a paciente se recuperou sem complicações. A dissecção da artéria carótida cervical pode estar relacionada a doenças arteriais subjacentes, como a displasia fibromuscular, e a presença da tortuosidade da artéria carótida interna destaca algumas particularidades no manejo ideal, o qual pode ser cirúrgico.

Humans , Female , Adult , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/complications , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/complications , Constriction, Pathologic , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/surgery , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/diagnostic imaging
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(2)2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291096


Adulto jovem de 18 anos que evoluiu após traumatismo craniencefálico leve com fístula carotídea direta. Apresentou zumbido e exoftalmia, ambos de característica pulsátil e à esquerda. Foi submetido a estudo com Doppler das carótidas, que mostrou elevadas velocidades do fluxo sanguíneo e índices de resistência reduzidos nas artérias carótidas comum e interna esquerdas, compatíveis com fístula carotídea direta. A angiotomografia computadorizada cerebral confirmou a fístula carotídea. Foi encaminhado para tratamento endovascular por embolização, com sucesso. O Doppler de carótidas pode ter papel importante no diagnóstico das fístulas carotídeas diretas e acompanhamento de pacientes submetidos à terapêutica endovascular.(AU)

Humans , Adolescent , Carotid Artery Diseases/physiopathology , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/therapy , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color/methods , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 206-210, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985209


Objective To retrospectively analyze the characteristics of the traumatic rupture of intracranial internal carotid artery in order to provide reference for forensic expertise examination and identification. Methods A total of 11 autopsy cases of traumatic rupture of intracranial internal carotid artery were collected. The gender, age, cause of injury, blood loss on the scene, location of internal carotid artery rupture, hardening degree of the rupture of the wall, brain injury, blood ethanol content and cause of death were also recorded. Results All 11 cases died on the scene, of which 7 died from traffic accidents, 2 falls from height and 2 from bare handed injuries. None of the 11 victims suffered serious head and body surface injury. The internal carotid artery rupture in the 9 cases of traffic injury and fall from height injury occurred in the cavernous segment. In all these cases, there were transverse fractures of the middle cranial fossa with the carotid sulcus involved, and minor intracranial hemorrhage and brain contusion. In 2 cases of bare handed injuries, internal carotid artery rupture occurred in the ophthalmic artery segment, accompanied by fatal intracranial hemorrhage and diffuse axonal injury, but no skull fracture. All 11 cases showed full-thickness rupture of the vessel wall, and the long axis of the wounds was perpendicular to those of the artery. Conclusion The incidence of intracranial internal carotid artery rupture in high-energy trauma events such as traffic accidents and high falls deserves attention. Injuries of the cavernous segment or ophthalmic segment might be more common. The main injury mechanism of intracranial internal carotid artery rupture might be that the blood vessels were pulled and the bone fragments caused damage.

Humans , Accidents, Traffic , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Skull Fractures
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 417-423, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942453


Objective: By summarizing the technical points and therapeutic outcomes of combing infratemporal fossa approach (IFA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) reconstruction for the colossal skull base tumor invading ICA in petrous bone, the clinical application value was discussed. Methods: Five patients (2 males, 3 females,aging from 27 to 55 years old) who received surgeries between July 2015 and May 2017 for lateral skull base pathology involved petrous ICA using technique combined IFA and pre-reconstruction, were reviewed. Results: Among the five patients, three were paraganglioma of head and neck, one was carotid aneurysms, and one was recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). The median tumor size in the largest cross-section was 60 mm × 51 mm (range, 28 mm × 22 mm-72 mm × 58 mm). Complete excision was achieved with IFA and ICA reconstruction. The median blood loss volume was 1 000 ml (range, 600-2 500 ml). Four cases showed no new long-term neurologic sequelae, while one showed hemiplegia due to graft vessel occlusion. Except for the one with ACC having facial nerve cut, others achieved good facial nerve function of HB grade Ⅰ to Ⅱ during 3 to 12 months, follow-up. No tumor recurrence was observed over the median duration of follow-up for above 36 months (range, 36-58 months). Conclusion: For lesions involved superior part of ICA, which is unable to separate from ICA, IFA and ICA reconstruction can achieve complete excision.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Infratemporal Fossa , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Petrous Bone/surgery , Skull Base/surgery , Skull Base Neoplasms/surgery
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 18-25, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942381


Objective: To explore the diagnosis and clinical features of internal carotid artery aneurysm in the skull base. Methods: The data of 15 patients with internal carotid aneurysms in the skull base diagnosed and treated by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or CT angiography (CTA) in the Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University from 1995 to 2017 were collected and analyzed. Among the 15 patients, 12 were males, and 3 were females, aging from 17 to 67 years old, with a median age of 44 years. Thirteen patients were diagnosed by DSA; the other two patients were diagnosed by CTA. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with pseudoaneurysm with the first symptom of epistaxis, in which eight patients underwent head trauma and 5 underwent radiotherapy of skull base tumor. The other two patients were diagnosed with true aneurysm presented headache and cranial nerve disorder. All patients were followed up for 2 to 12 years after treatment to see whether they were cured and survived. Results: Among the eight patients with a history of trauma, five patients were cured by embolization, two patients without embolization died of massive epistaxis, one patient died of progressive cerebral infarction after embolization. Among the five patients with radiotherapy of skull base tumor, one patient died of cerebral infarction after embolization, two patients died out of the hospital due to the recurrence of the primary tumor and intracranial invasion, one patient recovered well after embolization and surgical operation, one patient gave up treatment and died of massive hemorrhage out of hospital. In the other two patients with symptom of headache, one received embolization treatment outside the hospital after receiving mistake operation, and another one gave up treatment and died due to personal reasons. In total, four patients died in hospital, four died out of the hospital, and seven patients survived. Conclusions: Internal carotid artery aneurysm is a high-risk disease of anterior and middle skull base. For patients with epistaxis with a history of trauma and radiotherapy or patients with headaches and cranial nerve disorders, the possibility of the internal carotid artery aneurysm should be considered, in which DSA or CTA examination is essentially required for ensured diagnosis and disease evaluation.. The correct diagnosis and treatment by the otolaryngologist are crucial to the prognosis of the patient.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base/diagnostic imaging
Rev. méd. (La Paz) ; 26(2): 49-56, Julio - Diciembre, 2020. Ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152058


Se presenta un caso del primer Bypass cerebro vascular realizado en Bolivia por un aneurisma gigante de arteria carotida interna derecha, en segmento cavernoso tratado mediante bypass de alto flujo de arteria carótida externa a arteria cerebral media derecha, con injerto de arteria radial y posterior oclusión y exclusión del aneurisma. Se desciben los pasos de la cirugia y se destacan las dificultades de la tecnica y los beneficios de la cirugia. SE discuten los elementos a considerar en la toma de decisiones para la indicación y realización del bypass en el tratamiento de los aneurismas gigantes de la ACI.

Carotid Artery, Internal
Colomb. med ; 51(3): e504560, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142825


Abstract Case description: 37-year-old female with PCR-RT swab for COVID-19 positive, with neurological manifestation as a result of internal carotid artery occlusion. Clinical findings: Nasal congestion and sneezing of 5 days duration; pulsatile headache in the left hemicranium 3 days prior to admission, with intensity 6/10 according to the visual analogue scale, accompanied by phosphenes, photophobia and diplopia; with subsequent developing right hemiparesis over a 26-hour period. Treatment and result: She was given medical management with oral antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants (subcutaneous and oral) during his hospitalization, it was not possible to perform thrombolysis and thrombectomy due to the high risk of complications. He was discharged at 14 days, without functional limitation, symmetrical strength in upper and lower limbs, bilateral visual acuity 20/20, denying headache. Clinical relevance: The case presented here describes a pattern in how data supporting an association between COVID-19 and stroke in young populations with or without typical vascular risk factors, sometimes with only mild respiratory symptoms, is increasing. Prospective studies are required to further evaluate this association, as well as anticoagulation studies to prevent these potentially life-threatening events.

Resumen Descripción del caso: Mujer de 37 años con hisopado PCR-RT para COVID-19 positivo, con manifestación neurológica por oclusión de la arteria carótida interna. Hallazgos clínicos: Congestión nasal y estornudos de 5 días de duración; cefalea pulsátil en hemicráneo izquierdo 3 días antes del ingreso, con intensidad 6/10 según la escala visual analógica, acompañada de fosfenos, fotofobia y diplopía; con posterior desarrollo de hemiparesia derecha durante un período de 26 horas. Tratamiento y resultado: Se le brindó manejo médico con antiagregantes plaquetarios orales y anticoagulantes (subcutáneos y orales) durante su internación, no fue posible realizar trombólisis y trombectomía por alto riesgo de complicaciones. Fue dado de alta a los 14 días, sin limitación funcional, fuerza simétrica en miembros superiores e inferiores, agudeza visual bilateral 20/20, negando cefalea. Relevancia clínica: Se describe un patrón que indica cómo están aumentando los datos que apoyan una asociación entre COVID-19 y el accidente cerebrovascular en poblaciones jóvenes con o sin factores de riesgo vascular típicos, a veces con solo síntomas respiratorios leves. Se requieren estudios prospectivos para evaluar más a fondo esta asociación, así como estudios de anticoagulación para prevenir estos eventos potencialmente mortales.

Adult , Female , Humans , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/drug therapy , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19/diagnosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1026-1031, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124892


The carotid canal is located in the petrous part of the temporal bone and transmits the internal carotid artery along with the venous and sympathetic nerve plexus. The shape, location and dimensions of the carotid canal are clinically very important especially in cases of skull base surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and morphometric parameters of the external aperture of the carotid canal in Serbian population. The study included 24 dry adult skulls and 36 dry adult temporal bones. Diameters and distances of the external aperture of the carotid canal from various important landmarks of the skull base were measured. The shape of the external carotid canal aperture was also noted. Digital data were processed in the ImageJ software. The average length of the external aperture of the carotid canal in all investigated specimens (skulls and temporal bones) on the right and left sides was 7.31±1.01 mm and 7.71±1.06 mm, respectively. The average width of the external aperture of the carotid canal on the right side was 5.82±0.78 mm while on the left side was 6.20±1.04 mm. The frequency of different shapes of the external aperture of the carotid canal was as follows: round in 45 (53.57 %), oval in 25 (29.76 %), and the rarest was almond shape noted in 13 (15.47 %) cases. There were no statistically significant differences in all measured parameters between genders and body sides. The only statistical significance was found in females between right and left side in relation with length (AP diameter) of the external aperture of the carotid canal. The results of this study will be useful for neurosurgeons to improve different surgical approaches to the petrous part of the internal carotid artery and prevent its complications.

El conducto carotídeo se encuentra en la parte petrosa del hueso temporal y da paso a la arteria carótida interna junto con el plexo nervioso venoso y simpático. La forma, ubicación y dimensiones del canal carotídeo son clínicamente muy importantes, especialmente en casos de cirugía de la base del cráneo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los parámetros morfológicos y morfométricos de la apertura externa del canal carotídeo en la población serbia. El estudio incluyó 24 cráneos adultoss y 36 huesos temporales adultos secos. Se midieron los diámetros y distancias de la apertura externa desde varios puntos de referencia de la base del cráneo. También se observó la forma de la apertura del canal carotídeo externo. Los datos digitales se procesaron con Software ImageJ. La longitud promedio de la apertura en todos los especímenes investigados (cráneos y huesos temporales) en los lados derecho e izquierdo fue de 7,31 ± 1,01 mm y 7,71 ± 1,06 mm, respectivamente. El ancho promedio de la apertura en el lado derecho fue de 5,82 ± 0,78 mm mientras que en el lado izquierdo fue de 6,20 ± 1,04 mm. La frecuencia de las diferentes formas de la abertura externa fue la siguiente: redonda en 45 (53,57 %), ovalada en 25 (29,76 %), y la más rara fue la forma de almendra observada en 13 (15,47 %) casos. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en todos los parámetros medidos entre sexos y lados del cuerpo. La única estadística significativa se encontró en las mujeres entre el lado derecho e izquierdo en relación con la longitud (diámetro AP) de la apertura externa del conducto carotídeo. Los resultados de este estudio serán útiles para un mejor enfoque quirúrgico de los neurocirujanos en la parte petrosa de la arteria carótida interna, y advertir posibles complicaciones.

Humans , Male , Female , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Carotid Artery, Internal , Petrous Bone/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Serbia
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 21(1): e89, ene.-abr. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126372


Introducción: El aneurisma de la arteria carótida interna es una enfermedad muy poco frecuente. Sus complicaciones son muy graves si se tiene en cuenta la zona que irrigan estas arterias. Su incidencia es baja Objetivo: Presentar las manifestaciones clínicas de esta enfermedad y el tratamiento realizado en el paciente. Presentación del caso: paciente masculino de 58 años de edad con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y un aneurisma de la arteria carótida interna derecha desde hace cinco años; el cual aumentó su tamaño en los últimos seis meses. El diagnóstico fue confirmado por ecodoppler y angiotomografía. Se empleó el tratamiento quirúrgico convencional, la aneurismectomía e injerto por sustitución, con prótesis de politetrafluroetileno sin complicaciones. Conclusiones: El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente después de la cirugía, en la actualidad lleva tres meses intervenido sin complicaciones y mantiene el tratamiento con antiagregantes plaquetarios(AU)

Introduction: The aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery is a very rare disease. Its complications are very serious if we take into account the area that irrigates these arteries. The incidence of this disease is low. Objective: To present the clinical manifestations of this disease and the surgical treatment used in this patient. Presentation of the case: Male patient, 58 years old, with a history of arterial hypertension and presenting an aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery with five years of evolution. Such lump increased its size in the last six months; this was confirmed by ecodoppler and angiotomography, so he came to the consultation. The conventional surgical treatment was used: aneurysmectomy and grafting by substitution with polytetrafluroethylene prosthesis without complications. Conclusions: The patient developed successfully after surgery; he is currently evolving after three months of being operated on without complications and he keeps the treatment with antiplatelet agents(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Hypertension/diagnosis , Aneurysm/complications