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1.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 1-6, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362064

ABSTRACT

Objectives To establish the success rate in endovascular internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis recanalization using the double-layer stent Casper-RX (Microvention, Inc 35 Enterprise, Aliso Viejo, California, United States of America) and to identify the main comorbidities in individuals with ICA stenosis, morphological characteristics of the stenosis, diagnostic methods, intraoperative complications, as well as morbidity and mortality within 30 days of the surgical procedure. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of 116 patients undergoing ICA angioplasty with a degree of stenosis > 70% using Casper-RX stenting who underwent this procedure from April 2015 to December 2019. Results Technical success was achieved in 99.1% of the patients. Three of them had postprocedural complications: one transient ischemic attack (TIA) and two puncture site hematomas. A cerebral protection filter was not used in only two procedures, as these consisted of dissection of the carotid. There was satisfactory recanalization and adequate accommodation of the stents in the previously stenosed arteries, with no restenosis in 99.4% of the cases. Conclusion The endovascular treatment of extracranial carotid stenoses using the Casper-RX stent showed good applicability and efficacy. Although only two cases of thromboembolic complications occurred during the procedure, fu


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Stents , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Treatment Outcome , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Angioplasty/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods
2.
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20210193, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394425

ABSTRACT

Resumo Diversas manobras já foram descritas para o acesso ao segmento distal cervical da artéria carótida interna ou à bifurcação carotídea alta; entretanto, há divergências na sistematização dessas técnicas. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar as técnicas descritas e propor um protocolo prático que auxilie na seleção da técnica mais adequada para cada caso. Para isso, foi realizada uma busca nas bases de dados PubMed Central, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde e SciELO por artigos sobre o tema, em língua inglesa ou portuguesa, publicados entre os anos de 1980 e 2021. Entre as manobras descritas, parece razoável que as duas etapas iniciais sejam a abordagem ao músculo esternocleidomastóideo, seguida pela secção/retração do ventre posterior do músculo digástrico. Caso necessário, a subluxação mandibular temporária unilateral é um recurso adicional e preferível à divisão do aparato estiloide, devido ao menor potencial de morbidade. Exposições ainda mais amplas podem ser obtidas com as osteotomias mandibulares.


Abstract Several different maneuvers have been described for obtaining access to the distal cervical segment of the internal carotid artery or to a high carotid bifurcation. However there are different approaches to systematization of these techniques. The objective of this study is to review the techniques described and propose a practical protocol to support selection of the most appropriate technique for each case. The review is based on the results of database searches on PubMed Central, the Virtual Health Library (BVSalud), and SciELO for articles on the subject published in English or Portuguese from 1980 to 2021. Among the different maneuvers described, it appears reasonable that the first two steps should be to obtain access at the sternocleidomastoid muscle, followed by section or retraction of the digastric muscle posterior belly. If needed, temporary unilateral mandibular subluxation is an additional resource that is preferable to division of the styloid apparatus process, because of its lesser potential for morbidity. Even wider exposure can be obtained using mandibular osteotomies.


Subject(s)
Vascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Temporomandibular Joint/surgery , Carotid Artery, Internal/anatomy & histology , Mandibular Osteotomy/methods
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0065, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407669

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Os aneurismas intracranianos são dilatações em segmentos arteriais que irrigam o sistema nervoso central. Acometem 2% da população e as alterações oftalmológicas podem ser as primeiras manifestações do quadro. O objetivo deste relato foi descrever um caso de aneurisma de artéria carótida interna que cursou com restrição da movimentação ocular, alteração do reflexo fotomotor, ptose palpebral, dor facial e cervical. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela identificação do aneurisma por meio do exame de angiografia cerebral. Foi realizado teste de oclusão por balão, cujo resultado positivo possibilitou a oclusão total da artéria carótida interna por meio de ligadura cirúrgica, procedimento este realizado com sucesso.


ABSTRACT Intracranial aneurysms are dilations in segments of the arteries that irrigate the central nervous system. They affect 2% of the population and the ophthalmologic disorders may be the first evidence in the clinical examination. The aim of the report is to describe a case of an internal carotid artery aneurysm that showed restrictions of ocular movements, change of pupillary light reflex, palpebral ptosis, facial, and cervical pain. This diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of the aneurysm through angiography. A balloon occlusion test was performed, and its positive result made a complete occlusion of the Internal Carotid Artery possible through surgery ligation, procedure that was successful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Blepharoptosis/etiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Ophthalmoplegia/etiology , Facial Pain/etiology , Cerebral Angiography , Carotid Artery Diseases/surgery , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Neck Pain/etiology , Balloon Occlusion
5.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(3): 245-252, 15/09/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362144

ABSTRACT

Even though traumatic dissection of cervical arterial vessels is themajor cause of stroke among adults, it is still an underdiagnosed disease in neurosurgical emergencies, since most patients do not have or present subtle clinical signs in the acute phase. The authors report two interesting cases of cervical artery dissection with different traumatic mechanisms and present a broad literature review about this subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/physiopathology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/mortality , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/therapy , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/epidemiology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Vertebral Artery/anatomy & histology , Carotid Artery, Internal/anatomy & histology
7.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e907, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289537

ABSTRACT

El diagnóstico temprano de las lesiones compresivas del nervio óptico adquiere cada vez mayor importancia. La descompresión precoz de este o del quiasma puede resultar una mejora significativa de la función visual, mientras que el diagnóstico erróneo puede ocasionar pérdida visual irreversible, disfunción neurológica o la muerte. Las causas de la compresión de la vía visual anterior son increíblemente variadas. Los meningiomas, los tumores hipofisarios y los aneurismas son las lesiones comúnmente más identificadas como causa de neuropatía óptica compresiva sin edema del disco. Presentamos una paciente femenina de 50 años de edad, quien se sometió a la cirugía de catarata congénita del ojo izquierdo, sin mejoría de la función visual, a lo que se sumó el empeoramiento inespecífico de la calidad visual. La psicofísica visual, la campimetría automatizada y la tomografía de coherencia óptica aportaron hallazgos sugestivos de compresión de la vía visual intracraneal. Se indicó imagen por resonancia magnética de cráneo y órbitas para confirmar la sospecha diagnóstica. La angiografía cerebral demostró la presencia de un aneurisma de la arteria carótida interna, que se trató por vía endovascular con resultados satisfactorios(AU)


The importance of early diagnosis of compressive lesions of the optic nerve is on the increase. Timely decompression of the optic nerve or the optic chiasm may bring about significant visual function improvement, whereas erroneous diagnosis may result in irreversible visual loss, neurological dysfunction or death. The causes of compression of the anterior visual pathway are incredibly varied. Meningiomas, pituitary tumors and aneurysms are the lesions most commonly identified as causes of compressive optic neuropathy without disc edema. A case is presented of a female 50-year-old patient undergoing congenital cataract surgery of her left eye without visual function improvement, alongside unspecific visual quality worsening. Visual psychophysical testing, automated campimetry and optical coherence tomography contributed findings suggestive of intracranial visual pathway compression. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits was indicated to confirm the diagnostic suspicion. Cerebral angiography revealed the presence of an internal carotid artery aneurysm which was treated by endovascular procedure with satisfactory results(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/adverse effects , Early Diagnosis , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Visual Field Tests/methods
9.
Rev. ADM ; 78(1): 51-55, ene.-feb- 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178203

ABSTRACT

La endarterectomía carotídea es el procedimiento quirúrgico de elección para tratar la obstrucción y/o estenosis de la arteria carótida extracraneal y prevenir los eventos neurológicos. La aparición de síntomas depende de la gravedad y progresión de la lesión, del adecuado flujo colateral, de las características de la placa y de la presencia de otros factores de riesgo. Analizamos el resultado de la endarterectomía carotídea como procedimiento quirúrgico de elección para la estenosis carotídea, así como la presentación de un caso clínico de un adulto mayor con oclusión del 100% y la resolución completa de los síntomas posteriores al procedimiento quirúrgico (AU)


Endarterectomy of the carotid is the surgical procedure of choice to treat obstruction and/or stenosis of the extracranial carotid artery and prevent neurological events. The appearance of symptoms depends on the severity and progression of the lesion, the adequate collateral flow, the characteristics of the plaque and the presence of other risk factors. We analyze the result of carotid endarterectomy as the surgical procedure of choice for carotid stenosis as well as the presentation of a clinical case of an elderly adult patient with 100% occlusion and complete resolution of symptoms after the surgical procedure (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Carotid Stenosis , Endarterectomy , Signs and Symptoms , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Risk Factors , Constriction, Pathologic , Mexico
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942453

ABSTRACT

Objective: By summarizing the technical points and therapeutic outcomes of combing infratemporal fossa approach (IFA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) reconstruction for the colossal skull base tumor invading ICA in petrous bone, the clinical application value was discussed. Methods: Five patients (2 males, 3 females,aging from 27 to 55 years old) who received surgeries between July 2015 and May 2017 for lateral skull base pathology involved petrous ICA using technique combined IFA and pre-reconstruction, were reviewed. Results: Among the five patients, three were paraganglioma of head and neck, one was carotid aneurysms, and one was recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). The median tumor size in the largest cross-section was 60 mm × 51 mm (range, 28 mm × 22 mm-72 mm × 58 mm). Complete excision was achieved with IFA and ICA reconstruction. The median blood loss volume was 1 000 ml (range, 600-2 500 ml). Four cases showed no new long-term neurologic sequelae, while one showed hemiplegia due to graft vessel occlusion. Except for the one with ACC having facial nerve cut, others achieved good facial nerve function of HB grade Ⅰ to Ⅱ during 3 to 12 months, follow-up. No tumor recurrence was observed over the median duration of follow-up for above 36 months (range, 36-58 months). Conclusion: For lesions involved superior part of ICA, which is unable to separate from ICA, IFA and ICA reconstruction can achieve complete excision.


Subject(s)
Adult , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Female , Humans , Infratemporal Fossa , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Petrous Bone/surgery , Skull Base/surgery , Skull Base Neoplasms/surgery
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942381

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the diagnosis and clinical features of internal carotid artery aneurysm in the skull base. Methods: The data of 15 patients with internal carotid aneurysms in the skull base diagnosed and treated by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or CT angiography (CTA) in the Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University from 1995 to 2017 were collected and analyzed. Among the 15 patients, 12 were males, and 3 were females, aging from 17 to 67 years old, with a median age of 44 years. Thirteen patients were diagnosed by DSA; the other two patients were diagnosed by CTA. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with pseudoaneurysm with the first symptom of epistaxis, in which eight patients underwent head trauma and 5 underwent radiotherapy of skull base tumor. The other two patients were diagnosed with true aneurysm presented headache and cranial nerve disorder. All patients were followed up for 2 to 12 years after treatment to see whether they were cured and survived. Results: Among the eight patients with a history of trauma, five patients were cured by embolization, two patients without embolization died of massive epistaxis, one patient died of progressive cerebral infarction after embolization. Among the five patients with radiotherapy of skull base tumor, one patient died of cerebral infarction after embolization, two patients died out of the hospital due to the recurrence of the primary tumor and intracranial invasion, one patient recovered well after embolization and surgical operation, one patient gave up treatment and died of massive hemorrhage out of hospital. In the other two patients with symptom of headache, one received embolization treatment outside the hospital after receiving mistake operation, and another one gave up treatment and died due to personal reasons. In total, four patients died in hospital, four died out of the hospital, and seven patients survived. Conclusions: Internal carotid artery aneurysm is a high-risk disease of anterior and middle skull base. For patients with epistaxis with a history of trauma and radiotherapy or patients with headaches and cranial nerve disorders, the possibility of the internal carotid artery aneurysm should be considered, in which DSA or CTA examination is essentially required for ensured diagnosis and disease evaluation.. The correct diagnosis and treatment by the otolaryngologist are crucial to the prognosis of the patient.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
12.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200243, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250233

ABSTRACT

Abstract Isolated dissection of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is rare in young patients and is a cause for strong suspicion of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), especially when associated with artery elongation and tortuosity. The natural history of cerebrovascular FMD is unknown and management of symptomatic patients can be challenging. We report the case of a 44-year-old female patient with a history of transient ischemic attack in the absence of cardiovascular risk factors, associated with an isolated left ICA dissection and kinking. Carotid duplex ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of dissection and demonstrated severe stenosis of the left ICA. The patient underwent surgical repair and histopathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of FMD with dissection. An autogenous great saphenous vein bypass was performed and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Cervical carotid artery dissection can be related to underlying arterial pathologies such as FMD, and the presence of ICA tortuosity highlights certain peculiarities for optimal management, which might be surgical.


Resumo A dissecção isolada da artéria carótida interna em pacientes jovens é rara, e a displasia fibromuscular deve ser altamente suspeitada principalmente quando estiver associada a alongamento e tortuosidade da artéria. A história natural da displasia fibromuscular cerebrovascular é desconhecida, e o manejo de pacientes sintomáticos pode ser desafiador. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente de 44 anos com histórico de ataque isquêmico transitório sem fatores de risco cardiovasculares, associado a dissecção e acotovelamento isolados da artéria carótida interna esquerda. O ultrassom duplo das carótidas confirmou o diagnóstico de dissecção e demonstrou estenose grave na artéria carótida interna esquerda. A paciente foi submetida a reparo cirúrgico, e a avaliação histopatológica confirmou o diagnóstico de displasia fibromuscular com dissecção. Foi realizada cirurgia de ressecção do segmento e reconstrução com veia safena magna autógena, e a paciente se recuperou sem complicações. A dissecção da artéria carótida cervical pode estar relacionada a doenças arteriais subjacentes, como a displasia fibromuscular, e a presença da tortuosidade da artéria carótida interna destaca algumas particularidades no manejo ideal, o qual pode ser cirúrgico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/complications , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/complications , Constriction, Pathologic , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/surgery , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/diagnostic imaging
13.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(2)2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291096

ABSTRACT

Adulto jovem de 18 anos que evoluiu após traumatismo craniencefálico leve com fístula carotídea direta. Apresentou zumbido e exoftalmia, ambos de característica pulsátil e à esquerda. Foi submetido a estudo com Doppler das carótidas, que mostrou elevadas velocidades do fluxo sanguíneo e índices de resistência reduzidos nas artérias carótidas comum e interna esquerdas, compatíveis com fístula carotídea direta. A angiotomografia computadorizada cerebral confirmou a fístula carotídea. Foi encaminhado para tratamento endovascular por embolização, com sucesso. O Doppler de carótidas pode ter papel importante no diagnóstico das fístulas carotídeas diretas e acompanhamento de pacientes submetidos à terapêutica endovascular.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Carotid Artery Diseases/physiopathology , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/therapy , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color/methods , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods
14.
Rev. méd. (La Paz) ; 26(2): 49-56, Julio - Diciembre, 2020. Ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152058

ABSTRACT

Se presenta un caso del primer Bypass cerebro vascular realizado en Bolivia por un aneurisma gigante de arteria carotida interna derecha, en segmento cavernoso tratado mediante bypass de alto flujo de arteria carótida externa a arteria cerebral media derecha, con injerto de arteria radial y posterior oclusión y exclusión del aneurisma. Se desciben los pasos de la cirugia y se destacan las dificultades de la tecnica y los beneficios de la cirugia. SE discuten los elementos a considerar en la toma de decisiones para la indicación y realización del bypass en el tratamiento de los aneurismas gigantes de la ACI.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery, Internal
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1026-1031, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124892

ABSTRACT

The carotid canal is located in the petrous part of the temporal bone and transmits the internal carotid artery along with the venous and sympathetic nerve plexus. The shape, location and dimensions of the carotid canal are clinically very important especially in cases of skull base surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and morphometric parameters of the external aperture of the carotid canal in Serbian population. The study included 24 dry adult skulls and 36 dry adult temporal bones. Diameters and distances of the external aperture of the carotid canal from various important landmarks of the skull base were measured. The shape of the external carotid canal aperture was also noted. Digital data were processed in the ImageJ software. The average length of the external aperture of the carotid canal in all investigated specimens (skulls and temporal bones) on the right and left sides was 7.31±1.01 mm and 7.71±1.06 mm, respectively. The average width of the external aperture of the carotid canal on the right side was 5.82±0.78 mm while on the left side was 6.20±1.04 mm. The frequency of different shapes of the external aperture of the carotid canal was as follows: round in 45 (53.57 %), oval in 25 (29.76 %), and the rarest was almond shape noted in 13 (15.47 %) cases. There were no statistically significant differences in all measured parameters between genders and body sides. The only statistical significance was found in females between right and left side in relation with length (AP diameter) of the external aperture of the carotid canal. The results of this study will be useful for neurosurgeons to improve different surgical approaches to the petrous part of the internal carotid artery and prevent its complications.


El conducto carotídeo se encuentra en la parte petrosa del hueso temporal y da paso a la arteria carótida interna junto con el plexo nervioso venoso y simpático. La forma, ubicación y dimensiones del canal carotídeo son clínicamente muy importantes, especialmente en casos de cirugía de la base del cráneo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los parámetros morfológicos y morfométricos de la apertura externa del canal carotídeo en la población serbia. El estudio incluyó 24 cráneos adultoss y 36 huesos temporales adultos secos. Se midieron los diámetros y distancias de la apertura externa desde varios puntos de referencia de la base del cráneo. También se observó la forma de la apertura del canal carotídeo externo. Los datos digitales se procesaron con Software ImageJ. La longitud promedio de la apertura en todos los especímenes investigados (cráneos y huesos temporales) en los lados derecho e izquierdo fue de 7,31 ± 1,01 mm y 7,71 ± 1,06 mm, respectivamente. El ancho promedio de la apertura en el lado derecho fue de 5,82 ± 0,78 mm mientras que en el lado izquierdo fue de 6,20 ± 1,04 mm. La frecuencia de las diferentes formas de la abertura externa fue la siguiente: redonda en 45 (53,57 %), ovalada en 25 (29,76 %), y la más rara fue la forma de almendra observada en 13 (15,47 %) casos. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en todos los parámetros medidos entre sexos y lados del cuerpo. La única estadística significativa se encontró en las mujeres entre el lado derecho e izquierdo en relación con la longitud (diámetro AP) de la apertura externa del conducto carotídeo. Los resultados de este estudio serán útiles para un mejor enfoque quirúrgico de los neurocirujanos en la parte petrosa de la arteria carótida interna, y advertir posibles complicaciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Carotid Artery, Internal , Petrous Bone/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Serbia
16.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 21(1): e89, ene.-abr. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126372

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El aneurisma de la arteria carótida interna es una enfermedad muy poco frecuente. Sus complicaciones son muy graves si se tiene en cuenta la zona que irrigan estas arterias. Su incidencia es baja Objetivo: Presentar las manifestaciones clínicas de esta enfermedad y el tratamiento realizado en el paciente. Presentación del caso: paciente masculino de 58 años de edad con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y un aneurisma de la arteria carótida interna derecha desde hace cinco años; el cual aumentó su tamaño en los últimos seis meses. El diagnóstico fue confirmado por ecodoppler y angiotomografía. Se empleó el tratamiento quirúrgico convencional, la aneurismectomía e injerto por sustitución, con prótesis de politetrafluroetileno sin complicaciones. Conclusiones: El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente después de la cirugía, en la actualidad lleva tres meses intervenido sin complicaciones y mantiene el tratamiento con antiagregantes plaquetarios(AU)


Introduction: The aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery is a very rare disease. Its complications are very serious if we take into account the area that irrigates these arteries. The incidence of this disease is low. Objective: To present the clinical manifestations of this disease and the surgical treatment used in this patient. Presentation of the case: Male patient, 58 years old, with a history of arterial hypertension and presenting an aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery with five years of evolution. Such lump increased its size in the last six months; this was confirmed by ecodoppler and angiotomography, so he came to the consultation. The conventional surgical treatment was used: aneurysmectomy and grafting by substitution with polytetrafluroethylene prosthesis without complications. Conclusions: The patient developed successfully after surgery; he is currently evolving after three months of being operated on without complications and he keeps the treatment with antiplatelet agents(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Hypertension/diagnosis , Aneurysm/complications
17.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(1): 16-17, 15/03/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362410

ABSTRACT

A 79-year-old patient was admitted to the emergency room with transitory monoparesis in the left hand and dysphasia. The brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a spontaneous right convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) confirmed an asymptomatic occlusion of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) . Cases related to stenosis have already been described, but there is no similar report of a case related to occlusion, even though the pathophysiology of both entities is similar. Atraumatic SAH has been associated with intracranial and extracranial artery stenosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/surgery , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/abnormalities , Carotid Stenosis , Cerebral Angiography/methods
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 31-35, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091903

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is a rarely agentic disorder of the lipoprotein metabolism intimately related to premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease that can lead to high disability and mortality. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia typically affects not only the aortic root, compromising the coronary ostia, but also affects other territories such as the carotid, descending aorta, and renal arteries. Multi-contrast high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a validated and useful method to characterize carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques quantitatively. However, very few studies have been done on assessing plaque composition in patients with Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia using high-resolution MRI. This report is to evaluate the value of MRI in accessing carotid artery disease in patients with Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. We describe a 28-year-old patient from Beijing, China, who presented to the Neurology Clinic with intermittent blurred vision of the right eye, headache, nausea, and vomiting for eight years without obvious causes. Familial hypercholesterolemia was suspected based on medical history and laboratory examination. Carotid Doppler ultrasound showed bilateral common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, and external carotid artery wall thickening with hyperechoic signals. Subsequently, high-resolution multi-contrast MRI of the carotid showed calcification with hypo-intense areas located at the middle layer of the plaque, with moderate stenosis. The plaque located at the right bifurcation of the common carotid artery extended to the internal carotid artery, causing lumen stenosis close to occlusion. The patient was treated with right carotid artery endarterectomy. At a 6-month follow-up, there had been no recurrence of the patient's symptoms.


RESUMO A hipercolesterolemia familiar homozigótica, uma doença patogênica rara do metabolismo da lipoproteína intimamente relacionada com a doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica prematura, pode conduzir a uma elevada deficiência e mortalidade. A hipercolesterolemia familiar homozigótica afeta tipicamente não só a raiz aórtica, comprometendo os óstios coronários, mas também outros territórios, como a carótida, a aorta descendente e as artérias renais. Imagens de ressonância magnética multicontraste de alta resolução (RM) fornecem um método validado e útil para caracterizar quantitativamente as placas de aterosclerose da artéria carótida. No entanto, muito poucos estudos foram feitos sobre a avaliação da composição da placa em doentes com hipercolesterolemia familiar homozigótica utilizando ressonância magnética de alta resolução. Este trabalho deve avaliar o valor da ressonância magnética no acesso à doença da artéria carótida em doentes com hipercolesterolemia familiar homozigótica. Descrevemos um paciente de 28 anos de Pequim, China, que se apresentou à clínica neurológica com visão turva intermitente do olho direito, dor de cabeça, náuseas e vômitos por oito anos sem causas aparentes. Suspeitava-se de hipercolesterolemia familiar com base no histórico médico e no exame laboratorial. O ultrassom Doppler carotídeo mostrou uma artéria carótida bilateral comum, artéria carótida interna e parede da carótida externa espessando-se com sinais hiperecoicos. Posteriormente, a ressonância multicontraste de alta resolução da carótida mostrou calcificação com áreas hipointensas localizadas na camada média da placa, com estenose moderada. A placa localizada na bifurcação direita da artéria carótida comum estendia-se até a artéria carótida interna, causando estenose do lúmen próxima à oclusão. O paciente foi tratado com endarterectomia da artéria carótida direita. Em seis meses de acompanhamento, não houve recorrência dos sintomas do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, External/pathology , Carotid Artery, External/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/methods , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the preliminary experience of hybrid operation for the treatment of symptomatic long-segment chronic internal carotid artery occlusion (CICAO) without stump.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 12 patients of symptomatic long-segment CICAO without stump undergoing hybrid operation treatment from July 2015 to December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The safety and efficacy of hybrid operation for the treatment of symptomatic long-segment CICAO without stump were preliminarily assessed. CICAO was defined as occlusion time being more than 4 weeks. The primary outcome was defined as any stroke (including ischemic or hemorrhagic) or deaths from any cause after hybrid operation within 30 days. The secondary outcome was defined as successful revascularization and occurrence of >50% in-stent restenosis during the follow-up period.@*RESULTS@#In this group, the symptomatic long-segment CICAO of 11 patients were successfully recanalized. Technical success rate was 91.7% (11/12). The main complication rate was 8.3% (1/12). This patient encountered iatrogenic internal carotid artery cavernous sinus fistula caused by micro-guide wire in the midway of the hybrid operation, the proximal segment of this internal carotid artery was ligated and the iatrogenic internal carotid artery cavernous sinus fistula disappeared in the following digital subtraction angiography image. No patient encountered hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke. No death complications occurred. In this group 10 patients of them were followed up. The follow-up period ranged from 10 to 32 months [mean, (19±9) months]. During the follow-up period, 1 patients developed in-stent restenosis and improved after reoperation of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty by the right size balloon without stenting treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Hybrid operation for the treatment of highly screened patients with symptomatic long-segment CICAO without stump is safe and effective, could reduce the incidence of complications and improve procedural success rate.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty , Carotid Artery, Internal , Carotid Stenosis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Treatment Outcome
20.
J. vasc. bras ; 19: e20190124, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091012

ABSTRACT

RESUMO As estenoses graves e oclusões do tronco braquiocefálico (artéria inominada) são raras, e apresentam uma grande variedade de manifestações clínicas, com alterações relacionadas a isquemia cerebral hemisférica, vertebrobasilar e de membro superior direito. A causa mais comum é a aterosclerose. A ultrassonografia vascular com Doppler pode revelar inversão de fluxo na artéria vertebral direita, hipofluxo na subclávia, e vários tipos de alterações no fluxo da carótida direita, incluindo hipofluxo, inversão parcial do fluxo durante o ciclo cardíaco, e até mesmo inversão completa do fluxo na carótida interna, achado este bastante raro. Os autores descrevem o caso de paciente do sexo feminino, tabagista, com estenose grave do tronco braquiocefálico e crises de lipotimia. Além do roubo de artéria subclávia e do fluxo parcialmente invertido na carótida comum direita, a paciente apresentava exuberante fluxo invertido na carótida interna durante todo o ciclo cardíaco, achado este não encontrado na literatura em tamanha magnitude.


ABSTRACT Occlusions and severe stenoses of the innominate artery (brachiocephalic trunk) are rare and present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations, with hemispheric, vertebrobasilar and right upper limb ischemic symptoms. The most common cause is atherosclerosis. Duplex scanning may show right vertebral artery flow reversal, diminished subclavian flow, and several patterns of right carotid flow disturbance, including slow flow, partial flow reversal during the cardiac cycle and even complete reversal of flow in the internal carotid artery, which is a very uncommon finding. Herein, the authors describe the case of a female patient who was a heavy smoker, had severe stenosis of the brachiocephalic trunk, and had episodes of collapse. Besides the subclavian steal and partial flow reversal in the common carotid artery, duplex scanning also showed high-velocity reversed flow in the internal carotid artery during the entire cardiac cycle, a finding that is not reported in the literature at this magnitude.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Blood Circulation , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Brain Ischemia/blood , Subclavian Steal Syndrome , Brachiocephalic Trunk/pathology , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Constriction, Pathologic
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