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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888136

ABSTRACT

Safflower(Carthamus tinctorius), a valuable traditional Chinese medicinal plant, has attracted much attention in recent years. This study established a stable tissue culture system of safflower and analyzed the chromatogram of its secondary metabolites, providing high-quality experimental materials for further research on natural products in safflower. The calluses were established from the safflower seeds germinated in a sterile environment, and then they were differentiated into the aseptic seedlings, or cultured to obtain suspension cells in liquid medium. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), Progenesis QI, and principal component analysis(PCA) were used to detect and analyze the secondary metabolites in the suspension cells before and after induction with different elicitors(methyl jasmonate, silver nitrate, salicylic acid and yeast extract). A total of 23 secondary metabolites including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, fatty acids and aromatic glycosides were detected in safflower suspension cells. In response to the four elicitors, 11 compounds showed increased or decreased relative content. The results indicate that different elicitors have various effects on the accumulation of secondary metabolites in safflower suspension cells, and yeast extract shows more obvious positive induction. Therefore, different elicitors may play a role in the expression of related genes in the biosynthetic pathway of specific secondary metabolites. The results facilitate the discovery of targeted elicitors and the large-scale production of valuable secondary metabolites in the future.


Subject(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Flavonoids , Glycosides , Mass Spectrometry
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190216, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132175

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the last years phytosterols, natural components of plants, have received more attention due to association of their consumption with reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. There are several scientific studies about phytosterols in vegetable oils, but they are scarce in unconventional oils. The objective of this research was evaluating the content of phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol) in vegetable oils sold in São Paulo city, in Brazil. The analysis included cold alkaline saponification, derivatization with hexamethyldisilazane and trimethylchlorosilane reagents, and quantification by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection and internal standardization. The quality control parameters indicated that the method was suitable for analysis. Total sterols were between 272.3 mg kg-1 (coconut oil) to 6169.7 mg kg-1 (evening primrose oil). β-sitosterol was the component found in higher concentrations and evening primrose oil was the most representative in quantity of phytosterols.


Subject(s)
Phytosterols/analysis , Plant Oils/analysis , Sitosterols/analysis , Stigmasterol/analysis , Plant Oils/classification , Brazil , Chromatography, Gas , Flax , Carthamus tinctorius , Palm Oil/analysis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828428

ABSTRACT

The WD40 transcription factor family is a gene superfamily widely found in eukaryotes, which is closely related to plant growth and development regulation. It has been reported that the WD40 transcription factor was involved in the synthesis of anthocyanins, which is one of the vital components of safflower flavonoid compounds. In this study, 40 CtWD40 members in the safflower genome were identified though bioinformatics tools and gene expression analysis methods. According to the WD40 protein sequence and phylogenetic characteristics of Arabidopsis and other plants, the safflower CtWD40 family was classified into 7 subfamilies. Conservative motif analysis was used to reveal the specific conserved motifs and gene structures of each subfamily member, and there exist a certain degree of similarities in the conserved motifs and gene structure between the closely related family members. Subsequently, the search for cis-acting elements of gene promoters found CtWD40-specific promoter elements, revealing the metabolic pathways which may involve. Next, enrichment of function analysis was employed to analyze the functional categories and cellular localization of the CtWD40 protein. Furthermore, the interactions between CtWD40 proteins predicted its potential regulatory function. Finally, 19 members of the safflower CtWD40 subfamily were analyzed by qRT-PCR, the result showed the expression patterns of these members were different in diverse tissue and flowering period. This study provides a basis for the functional and expression research of the CtWD40 genes.


Subject(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genome, Plant , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Transcription Factors , Genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828077

ABSTRACT

Leaf miner is one of the major pests on safflower, which causes yield loss and poor quality seriously. "Weihonghua", "nine safflower varieties" and "three chemical insecticides" as materials that used to evaluate variety and regularity of leaf miner, safflower resistant level, and different proportions insecticides in field efficiency test. The results showed that Liriomyza sativae and L. huidobrensis accounted for 80%, the peak period of two pests was all in July; but Phytomyza horticola is relative less, its peak period occured in June. Three were great difference of resistance to leaf miner among safflower varieties, FQ12 and YJ65 expressed higher resistibility to leaf miner by ratio method. With abamectin 2% emulsifiable concentrate diluted for 2 000 times, or the mixture three insecticides(bifenthrin 20% water emulsions, thiamethoxam 25% water dispersible granule, abamectin 2% emulsifiable concentrate=1∶1∶1) diluted for 3 000 times, which were sprayed on leaves at squaring stage and lethal rate was 96% after 48 h in the study. Through comparative study on the variety and regularity of leaf miner, screen for resistant varieties to leaf miner and for high efficiency pesticide. The study provides theoretical basis and reference for integrated pest management of leaf miner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carthamus tinctorius , Diptera , Insecticides , Pesticides , Thiamethoxam
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828071

ABSTRACT

The screening of active components of traditional Chinese medicine has always been the focus and difficulty in modern research of Chinese medicine preparations. With the continuous development of life science, omics and computer technology, the virtual screening technology for active components of traditional Chinese medicine has gradually come into people's vision. Molecular docking technology is an important method for screening active components of traditional Chinese medicine. It not only has a short cycle and strong operability, but also avoids the disadvantage of poor stability in pharmacological experiments. Safflower extract can effectively alleviate the symptoms of myocardial ischemia, but its active components are not clear. In this study, with use of the molecular docking technology, the active components in safflower against myocardial ischemic were virtually screened based on the screening method of active components. Forty-six chemical components and 5 target proteins which showed high correlation with myocardial ischemia were obtained from the existing database and related literature reports. With the molecules of three commercially available drugs diltiazem, trimetazidine and verapamil as positive control molecules, the compomnents were docked with 5 target proteins. Active components were screened according to docking scores and interactions between molecules and targets, and then the active ingredients can be inferred. Fourteen chemical components were screened to have the most potential anti-myocardial ischemic activity, and all of them were flavonoids. Therefore, it can be inferred that the flavonoid components are the most potential anti-myocardial ischemic components in safflower. The screening of active anti-myocardial ischemia components in safflower was completed in this study, laying the foundation for subsequent researches.


Subject(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Myocardial Ischemia
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774524

ABSTRACT

Because the red and bright color of corolla is the main indicator for the quality assessment of good safflower,the dyed safflower is sometimes found at the herbal market,what is influence on this herb quality and efficacy. A total of 127 safflower samples was therefore collected from different cultivating areas and herbal markets in China to develop a rapid method to identify the dyed safflower. Near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) combined with characteristic identification,high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC),principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares regression analysis(PLS) were employed to differentiate safflower from dyed safflower samples,and further quantify the levels of the 6 dyes,i.e. tartrazine,carmine,sunset yellow,azorubine,acid red 73 and orange Ⅱ in the dyed safflower. The results indicated that the 50 safflower samples and 77 dyed safflower samples were located at different regions in PCA cluster diagram by NIR spectra. Tartrazine,carmineand and sunset yellow were found in the 77 dyed safflower samples with the amounts of 0. 60-3. 66,0. 11-1. 37,0. 10-0. 71 mg·g-1,respectively. It indicated that the three dyes were the common and main dyes in the dyed safflower. However,azorubine,acid red 73 and orange Ⅱ were not detected in all herb samples. A total of 62 dyed safflower samples were chosen as calibration samples to develop the model for estimating the amount of dyes in dyed safflower. The estimating accuracy was verified by another 15 dyed safflower samples. The values of tartrazine,carmine and sunset yellow in dyed safflower samples were compared between the NIRS and HPLC methods. Each value of mean absolute difference(MAD) was less than 5%. The correlation coefficients of tartrazine,carmineand and sunset yellow were 0. 970,0. 975,0. 971,respectively. It indicated the data quantified by NIRS and HPLC were consistence. It is concluded that NIRS can not only differentiate safflower from dyed safflower,but also quantify the amount of the dyes. NIRS is suitable for rapidly identify the quality of safflower.


Subject(s)
Azo Compounds , Benzenesulfonates , Carmine , Carthamus tinctorius , Chemistry , China , Coloring Agents , Naphthalenesulfonates , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Tartrazine
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777441

ABSTRACT

To clone bHLH( basic helix-loop-helix) gene from Carthamus tinctorius,analyze the expression level in different plant tissues and construct the plant expression vector. The bHLH1 gene was cloned by RT-PCR techniques,and the protein characteristics were analyzed by bioinformatics,and phylogenetic tree was constructed. The expression of bHLH1 gene in different tissues and the roots after inoculated by Fusarium oxysporum were analyzed using real time-PCR,and the plant expression vector p BASTA-bHLH1 was constructed. The obtained ORF sequence of bHLH1 gene was 897 bp,encoded a protein of 298 amino acids. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that C. tinctorius bHLH1 had a certain homology with other species of amino acids,and was the most similar to the amino acid sequence of tobacco. Real-time PCR results showed significant differences,CtbHLH1 gene in red flower petals in different tissues and different flowering period had remarkable difference in expression level,its high amount expressed in petals,flowers third day after blossom expressed the highest quantity,at the end of the flowering the expression quantity is low. In addition,it is expressed in the root,and the expression in the stem and leaves is extremely low. The bHLH1 gene of C. tinctorius is successfully cloned,and the expression is analyzed. The plant expression vector p BASTA-bHLH is constructed.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors , Genetics , Carthamus tinctorius , Genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Flowers , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genetic Vectors , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Genetics
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776499

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the preventive and therapeutic effects of safflower water extract on systemic scleroderma (SSc) in mice and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#Sixty BALB/C mice were randomly divided into the control group, model group, prednisone group and safflower low, middle, high dose groups, 10 mice in each group.The control group was injected with normal saline, and the other five groups were subcutaneously injected with bleomycin hydrochloride with 100 μl at the concentration of 200 μg /ml on the back, once a day for 28 days to establish the SSc models.At the same time, the control group and model group were treated with normal saline (10 ml/kg), the prednisone group was treated with prednisone 4.5 mg/kg (10 ml/kg), and the low, middle, and high dose safflower groups were treated with safflower at the doses of 1.5, 3, 6 g/kg (10 ml/kg), and all groups were treated for 28 days.After 28 days, all mice were decapitated. The blood samples and back skin of the BLM injection part were collected.After that, all the tissue slices were taken to measure the dermal thickness, and the content of hydroxyproline (HYP) in the skin tissues was detected by hydrolysis method.The contents of tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β ) in the skin tissues and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in serum were determined by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the dermal thickness of the model group was increased(P<0.05), the contents of CTGF, TGF-β and HYP in the skin tissues and the levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in the serum of the model group were increased(P<0.05); compared with the model group, the dermal thickness in the prednisone group and safflower groups was decreased (P<0.05), the levels of CTGF, TGF-β and HYP in the skin tissues and the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in the prednisone group and safflower groups were decreased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Safflower water extract can improve skin condition (or dermal thickness) in SSc mice, and its mechanism may be related to reducing immune inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bleomycin , Carthamus tinctorius , Chemistry , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hydroxyproline , Interleukin-17 , Metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Scleroderma, Systemic , Drug Therapy , Skin , Pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771561

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the effect of various production processes on the quality of Safflower Injection, the biological activities of the intermediates were evaluated by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Intermediates were produced by key processes, such as extraction, concentration, twice alcohol precipitation, water sedimentation and two sterilizations during the production of Safflower Injection. The content of main chemical components in intermediates was determined by HPLC. The results showed that with the advance of the preparation process of Safflower Injection, the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation rate of each intermediate decreased gradually, and the trend of extending APTT activity decreased first and then increased. Meanwhile, the content of hydroxy safflor yellow A (HSYA) was gradually lowered, the content of p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid was increased, and new chemical component p-hydroxybenzaldehyde was produced. In conclusion, sterilization played a key role in the biological activity and HSYA content of Safflower injection.


Subject(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Chalcone , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Aggregation
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771547

ABSTRACT

The specific PCR primer was designed base on ITS2 sequence in GenBank, and we developed a SYBRGreen real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR system for identification of Crocus sativus and Carthamus tinctorius source. Compared with Chinese herbal medicine DNA barcode technique, this method showed characteristics of shorter time, higher specificity and sensitivity. Using this method to detect 15 samples, 4 were C. sativus, 8 were C. tinctorius, and the other 3 samples were none of them. The result was in accordance with Chinese herbal medicine DNA barcode. This study lays the foundation for identification of related Chinese medical materials.


Subject(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Crocus , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3051-3066, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886847

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Water deficit is one of the major stresses affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants induce various morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes to adapt to the changing environment. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a potential oil producer, is highly adaptable to various environmental conditions, such as lack of rainfall and temperatures. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and production characteristics of six safflower lines in response to water deficit followed by rehydration. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment and consisted of 30 days of water deficit followed by 18 days of rehydration. A differential response in terms of photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, water potential, relative water content, grain yield, oil content, oil yield and water use efficiency was observed in the six lines under water stress. Lines IMA 04, IMA 10, IMA 14 showed physiological characteristics of drought tolerance, with IMA 14 and IMA 16 being the most productive after water deficit. IMA 02 and IMA 21 lines displayed intermediate characteristics of drought tolerance. It was concluded that the lines responded differently to water deficit stress, showing considerable genetic variation and influence to the environment.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/physiology , Water/physiology , Carthamus tinctorius/physiology , Water/metabolism , Principal Component Analysis , Carthamus tinctorius/growth & development , Carthamus tinctorius/metabolism , Droughts , Fluid Therapy
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186474

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease, which destroys the connective tissue and the alveolar bone. Recently, it has been suggested that the effect of natural substances could be induced into an anti-inflammatory environment. However, the effect of Safflower seed extract (SAF-M) associated with periodontitis has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of SAF-M. Cytotoxicity was assessed through MTS analysis using hGF and hPDL cells. Periodontitis was induced by injecting LPS into gingival tissue on the maxillary molars of rats (45 µg LPS/one time, 3 times a week for 3 weeks). SAF-M was administered daily at 30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Alveolar bone resorption was evaluated through the micro-CT. hGF and hPDL cells showed differential cytotoxicity in response to SAF-M at 5 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml concentrations. Micro-CT showed reduction of the alveolar bone resorption in the SAF-M treatment group. These results suggested that SAF-M is a potential therapeutic agent for periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Resorption , Carthamus tinctorius , Connective Tissue , Methanol , Molar , Periodontitis , Rats
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51984

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Borage oil (BO) and safflower oil (SO) are efficacious in reversing epidermal hyperproliferation, which is caused by the disruption of epidermal barrier. In this study, we compared the antiproliferative effect of dietary BO and SO. Altered metabolism of ceramide (Cer), the major lipid of epidermal barrier, was further determined by measurement of epidermal levels of individual Cer, glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and sphingomyelin (SM) species, and protein expression of Cer metabolizing enzymes. METHODS: Epidermal hyperproliferation was induced in guinea pigs by a hydrogenated coconut diet (HCO) for 8 weeks. Subsequently, animals were fed diets of either BO (group HCO + BO) or SO (group HCO + SO) for 2 weeks. As controls, animals were fed BO (group BO) or HCO (group HCO) diets for 10 weeks. RESULTS: Epidermal hyperproliferation was reversed in groups HCO + BO (67.6% of group HCO) and HCO + SO (84.5% of group HCO). Epidermal levels of Cer1/2, GlcCer-A/B, and beta-glucocerebrosidase (GCase), an enzyme of GlcCer hydrolysis for Cer generation, were higher in group HCO + BO than in group HCO, and increased to levels similar to those of group BO. In addition, epidermal levels of SM1, serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), and acidic sphingomyelinase (aSMase), enzymes of de novo Cer synthesis and SM hydrolysis for Cer generation, but not of Cer3-7, were higher in group HCO + BO than in group HCO. Despite an increase of SPT and aSMase in group HCO + SO to levels higher than in group HCO, epidermal levels of Cer1-7, GlcCer-A/B, and GCase were similar in these two groups. Notably, acidic ceramidase, an enzyme of Cer degradation, was highly expressed in group HCO + SO. Epidermal levels of GlcCer-C/D and SM-2/3 did not differ among groups. CONCLUSION: Dietary BO was more prominent for reversing epidermal hyperproliferation by enhancing Cer metabolism with increased levels of Cer1/2, GlcCer-A/B, and SM1 species, and of GCase proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Borago , Carthamus tinctorius , Ceramidases , Cocos , Diet , Epidermis , Glucosylceramidase , Guinea Pigs , Guinea , Hydrogen , Hydrolysis , Metabolism , Safflower Oil , Serine C-Palmitoyltransferase , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330186

ABSTRACT

Flavonol synthase (FLS) is one of the key enzymes in flavonoids metabolic pathways. In this study, middle sequence was obtained from Carthamus tinctorius transcriptome sequencing results. Full-length cDNAs of FLS was cloned from petals of C. tinctorius to FLS by using RT-PCR and RACE technology. Its full-length cDNA was 1,201 bp, with an open reading frame of 1,101 bp and 336 encoded amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis showed that, FLS gene encoded amino acids in C. tinctorius were highly homologous with amino acids in congeneric Compositae species, especially Rudbeckia laciniata. The pBASTA-FLS plant expression vector was successfully built by the molecular biology method, which lays a foundation for further studying biology functions of the gene and biosynthesis mechanism of flavonoids.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Carthamus tinctorius , Classification , Genetics , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Genetics , Metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Open Reading Frames , Oxidoreductases , Genetics , Metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
15.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1231-1234, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-352686

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the clinical efficacy and the effect mechanism of hooking therapy and safflower injection in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty patients of LDH were randomized into an observation group and a control group at ratio of 1 to 1, 30 cases in each one. In the control group, safflower injection was applied to three points of lumbar region, once a day. Seven treatments made one session, and totally 2 sessions were required. In the observation group, under local anesthesia, the big hook needle was used to stimulate the three points of lumbar region first, followed by the safflower injection, once every 6 to 7 days. If the efficacy was not satisfactory enough, the second treatment was given. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (M-JOA) scores were observed before and after treatment in the patients of the two groups and the clinical efficacy was evaluated. The levels of peripheral interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>VAS and M-JOA scores were all improved apparently after treatment as compared with those before treatment in the patients of the two groups (both P < 0.01). The improvements in the observation group were much more obvious than those in the control group (both P < 0.01). In the observation group, the curative and remarkably effective rate was 76.7% (23/30) and the total effective rate was 96.7% (29/ 30), better than 43.3% (13/30) and 70.0% (21/30) in the control group separately (both P < 0.05). After treatment, the levels of IL-6 and NO were all reduced as compared with those before treatment in the two groups; (both P < 0.01). The above indices were changed more obviously in the observation group as compared with those in the control group (both P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The combined therapy of hooking therapy and safflower injection apparently relieves pain and clinical symptoms of LDH. The effect mechanism is relevant with reducing the levels of IL-6 and NO in the peripheral blood.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Adult , Carthamus tinctorius , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Genetics , Metabolism , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Therapeutics , Male , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide , Genetics , Metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246097

ABSTRACT

The UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer was used to explore the chemical compositions in safflower. The rapid separation of the compositions was conducted by the UHPLC, following by high resolution full scan and MS2 scan, under the positive and negative ion mode. The chemical formula of compositions were deduced by full scan data in less than 5, then the potential structures were confirmed by the MS2 data. Forty-nine compounds were detected, of which 26 was identified, and 5 compounds was validated by the standard substances.


Subject(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1052-1059, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257027

ABSTRACT

The safflower floret is a traditional Chinese medicine used to promote blood circulation and remove obstruction in the channels. The spines on its bracts are considered a handicap when manual harvest is involved. In this study, cDNA-SRAP was used to systematically investigate which genes are associated with the spines. Sixty pairs of possible primer combinations were used on two cDNA pools representing spininess and spinelessness. Six transcript-derived fragments were identified, of which two with low recombination were sequenced successfully and named as GPY-1 and GPY-2. By using the RACE method, the full-length cDNA of GPY-2 is cloned and named as CTL-spn. The full-length cDNA of CTL-spn was 1 679 bp long with a 1 524 bp ORF encoding a 508 aminoacid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of the CTL-spn gene shared a high homology (97%) with other known ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunits. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA of GPY-1 and GPY-2 accumulated in only spiny lines. Considering the important role of ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit in plants, it may directly take part in the formation process of spininess and enhancing resistance reaction of spiny safflower. Also, our results provide the important insights for breeding spineless cultivars of safflower.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Amino Acid Sequence , Carthamus tinctorius , Genetics , Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases , Genetics , DNA Primers , DNA, Complementary , Plant Proteins , Genetics
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1135-1141, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257016

ABSTRACT

Chinese traditional patent medicine for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis(PBCRBS) originated from traditional Chinese medicine theory and had approved efficacy and safety standards. However, its compatibility regularity and anti-thrombotic mechanism is not clear. To analyze the compatibility regularity and anti-thrombotic mechanism of Chinese traditional patent medicine for PBCRBS, a statistical and bioinformatics analysis was carried out using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TICMISS, V2.0) and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The compatibility regularity analysis shows that the most commonly used herb combinations are Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), Chuanxiong (Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.) and Honghua (Carthamustinctorius L.). The anti-thrombotic mechanism analysis reveals that 25 ingredients have an effect on 29 thrombosis related molecules which 23 molecules are related to inflammation response. Furthermore, there are 5 inflammation molecules (NOS2, PTGS2, IL6, TNF, IL1β) served as major targets. At the same time, Danshen, Chuangxiong and Honghua mainly used as sovereign herb or minister herb in the application of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, Chinese traditional patent medicine for PBCRBS probably has an effect on anti-thrombotic activity through inhibiting the inflammatory response. In summary, the most commonly used herb combinations of Chinese traditional patent medicine for PBCRBS are Danshen, Chuanxiong and Honghua. Inhibiting inflammatory response, especially inflammation related molecules (NOS2, PTGS2, IL6, TNF and IL1β), is probably a new starting point to clarify the anti-thrombotic mechanism of Chinese patent medicine for PBCRBS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Carthamus tinctorius , Computational Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents , Pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279278

ABSTRACT

The eight heavy metals and two essential constitutes of safflowers planted in linzhi which lies in Southern Tibet were analyzed by ICP-MS and by HPLC respectively. Heavy metals of safflower in the region were at the lower level and the essential constitutes were at the higher level. The better quality of safflower here was assisted by the excellent climate in tibet.


Subject(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flowers , Chemistry , Metals, Heavy , Tibet
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279010

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of safflower injection on the proliferation and apoptosis of human leukemia cell line HEL and the relevant molecular mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>HEL cells were treated with different concentrations of safflower injection. HEL cells without safflower injection treatment were used as the control group. MTT method was used to detect the inhibitory rate of the HEL cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours after various concentrations of safflower injection treatment (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/mL). The cell cycle and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry and the HOXB3-mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR at 48 hours after safflower injection treatment (10, 20 and 30 mg/mL).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, various concentrations of safflower injection inhibited HEL cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). At 48 hours after various concentrations of safflower injection treatment, the number of treated cells in the G2/M phase increased, but that in the S phase decreased, and the apoptosis rate was significantly higher than that in the control group, with a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The expression of HOXB3-mRNA in safflower injection-treated cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Safflower injection can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of HEL cells in vitro, and its underlying mechanisms may involve down-regulation of the HOXB3-mRNA expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Carthamus tinctorius , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Homeodomain Proteins , Genetics , Humans , Injections , Leukemia , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology
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