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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880869

ABSTRACT

Gap junction (GJ) has been indicated to have an intimate correlation with adhesion junction. However, the direct interaction between them partially remains elusive. In the current study, we aimed to elucidate the role of N-cadherin, one of the core components in adhesion junction, in mediating connexin 43, one of the functional constituents in gap junction, via transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) induction in osteoblasts. We first elucidated the expressions of N-cadherin induced by TGF-β1 and also confirmed the upregulation of Cx43, and the enhancement of functional gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) triggered by TGF-β1 in both primary osteoblasts and MC3T3 cell line. Colocalization analysis and Co-IP experimentation showed that N-cadherin interacts with Cx43 at the site of cell-cell contact. Knockdown of N-cadherin by siRNA interference decreased the Cx43 expression and abolished the promoting effect of TGF-β1 on Cx43. Functional GJICs in living primary osteoblasts and MC3T3 cell line were also reduced. TGF-β1-induced increase in N-cadherin and Cx43 was via Smad3 activation, whereas knockdown of Smad3 signaling by using siRNA decreased the expressions of both N-cadherin and Cx43. Overall, these data indicate the direct interactions between N-cadherin and Cx43, and reveal the intervention of adhesion junction in functional gap junction in living osteoblasts.


Subject(s)
Cadherins , Cell Communication , Connexin 43 , Osteoblasts , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880641

ABSTRACT

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a main cause of death and disability worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health. But currently, the diagnosis and treatments for TBI are still very limited. Exosomes are a group of extracellular vesicles and participate in multiple physiological processes including intercellular communication and substance transport. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) are of great abundancy as cargo of exosomes. Previous studies have shown that ncRNAs are involved in several pathophysiological processes of TBI. However, the concrete mechanisms involved in the effects induced by exosome-derived ncRNA remain largely unknown. As an important component of exosomes, ncRNA is of great significance for diagnosis, precise treatment, response evaluation, prognosis prediction, and complication management after TBI.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic/genetics , Cell Communication , Exosomes/genetics , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , RNA, Untranslated/genetics
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1812-1818, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) combined by connexin43 (Cx43) and its signal to the biobehavior of multiple myeloma (MM) cells, and its possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#The mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) cells were isolated and cultured from patients with MM and normal donors. The expression of connexin43 (Cx43) in MSC cells from different sources was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. The side population (SP) cells were sorted by flow cytometry (FCM). The effect of MSC cells from different sources to the cell cycle, Cx43 expression, colony formation in vitro, stem cell related genes expression, cytokines secretion and chemoresistance in MM SP cells as well as with or without Cx43 inhibitor 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) was observed.@*RESULTS@#There was no significantly difference between the MSC isolated from normal donor and MM patients. Western blot showed that Cx43 expression in SP cells was up-regulated when the cells were incubated with MSC, and medium containing 18α-GA could partially inhibit it, moreover, it was more significant in MSC cells of MM patients. The ability of colony formation of SP cells in vitro was higher than those of MM cells and MM-MSC could promote the colony formation in a co-culture manner. The effect of MM-MSC to SP cells was down-regulated after 18α-GA was added. RT-PCR showed that there was several important stem cell-related genes including c-myc, Oct-4 Klf-4, and Sox-2 were found in RPMI 8226 cells, but those cells were up-regulated in SP cells (P0.05). Cytometry bead array assays showed that MM-MSCs could secrete high level of IL-6, but the levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β increased significantly when the MM-MSCs were co-cultured with SP cells (P<0.05), especially the levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher than cultured alone. There was no significant change in the levels of bFGF and IL-17 before and after co-cultured. The levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β in supernatant decreased significantly after GJ inhibitor 18α-GA was added. PI/Annexin V assay showed that MM cells were sensitive to bortezomib (BTZ)-induced apoptosis, but the sensitivity for SP cells was weaker. The ratio of cell apoptosis was 75.2%±0.77% and 8.12%±0.86% (P<0.001), respectively. MM-MSC could down-regulate the cell apoptosis induced by BTZ, while the sensitivity of MM cells to BTZ could be partially recovered after GJ inhibitor was added.@*CONCLUSION@#MSC derived from MM patients can enhance GJIC to maintain its "hematopoiesis" by up-regulating the expression of Cx43 in MM cells, and at the same time promote cell proliferation and drug recistance by secreting multiple cytokines, which finally contributes to the relapse of MM.


Subject(s)
Cell Communication , Coculture Techniques , Connexin 43 , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Multiple Myeloma
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 1035-1042, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921308

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are nanometer-sized membranous extracellular vesicles that can be secreted by almost all types of cells in the body. Exosomes are involved in cell-to-cell communication through autocrine and paracrine forms. Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are stable in plasma, urine and other body fluids, and have various biological functions. They play an irreplaceable role in the occurrence, development, immune regulation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recent studies have proposed that exosomal miRNAs have promising application prospects in the pathogenesis, early diagnosis, and treatment of SLE. Therefore, this review aims to introduce the current research progress on exosomal miRNAs in SLE and analyze their potential application value.


Subject(s)
Cell Communication , Exosomes/genetics , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 55-61, Jan. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087522

ABSTRACT

Background: Matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12), a member of MMPs, can take lots of roles including extracellular matrix component degradation, viral infection, inflammation, tissue remodeling and tumorigenesis. To explore the transcriptional regulation of MMP12 gene, a sensitive luciferase reporter HEK293 cell line for endogenous MMP12 promoter was generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Results: The HEK293-MMP12-T2A-luciferase-KI cell line was successfully established by CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The sequencing results indicated that one allele of the genome was proven to have a site-directed insertion of luciferase gene and another allele of the genome was confirmed to have additional 48 bp insertion in this cell line. The cell line was further demonstrated to be a sensitive reporter of the endogenous MMP12 promoter by applying transcription factors STAT3, AP-1 and SP-1 to the cell line. The reporter cell line was then screened with bioactive small molecule library, and a small molecule Tanshinone I was found to significantly inhibit the transcriptional activity of MMP12 gene in HEK293-MMP12-T2A-luciferase-KI cell line by luciferase activity assay, which was further confirmed to inhibit the expression of MMP12 mRNA in wild-type HEK293 cells. Conclusions: This novel luciferase knock-in reporter system will be helpful for investigating the transcriptional regulation of MMP12 gene and screening the drugs targeting MMP12 gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 12/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Luciferases/genetics , Transcription, Genetic , Cell Communication , Cell Line , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Cell Culture Techniques , Extracellular Matrix , Gene Knock-In Techniques , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
6.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 866-880, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880881

ABSTRACT

For multicellular organisms, cell-cell communication is essential to numerous biological processes. Drawing upon the latest development of single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq), high-resolution transcriptomic data have deepened our understanding of cellular phenotype heterogeneity and composition of complex tissues, which enables systematic cell-cell communication studies at a single-cell level. We first summarize a common workflow of cell-cell communication study using scRNA-seq data, which often includes data preparation, construction of communication networks, and result validation. Two common strategies taken to uncover cell-cell communications are reviewed, e.g., physically vicinal structure-based and ligand-receptor interaction-based one. To conclude, challenges and current applications of cell-cell communication studies at a single-cell resolution are discussed in details and future perspectives are proposed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Communication , Humans , RNA-Seq , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828961

ABSTRACT

Homoeostasis depends on the close connection and intimate molecular exchange between extracellular, intracellular and intercellular networks. Intercellular communication is largely mediated by gap junctions (GJs), a type of specialized membrane contact composed of variable number of channels that enable direct communication between cells by allowing small molecules to pass directly into the cytoplasm of neighbouring cells. Although considerable evidence indicates that gap junctions contribute to the functions of many organs, such as the bone, intestine, kidney, heart, brain and nerve, less is known about their role in oral development and disease. In this review, the current progress in understanding the background of connexins and the functions of gap junctions in oral development and diseases is discussed. The homoeostasis of tooth and periodontal tissues, normal tooth and maxillofacial development, saliva secretion and the integrity of the oral mucosa depend on the proper function of gap junctions. Knowledge of this pattern of cell-cell communication is required for a better understanding of oral diseases. With the ever-increasing understanding of connexins in oral diseases, therapeutic strategies could be developed to target these membrane channels in various oral diseases and maxillofacial dysplasia.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Cell Communication , Connexins , Metabolism , Physiology , Gap Junctions , Metabolism , Pathology , Homeostasis , Physiology , Humans , Mouth Diseases , Phosphorylation
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827422

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are in a size of 30-100 nm vesicles released by various cells, with a double-layered lipid membrane containing DNA, RNA, and protein. In the past, exosomes were considered to be molecular waste, and recently exosomes have been shown to be involved in many pathophysiological processes, including intercellular communication, immune response, nerve repair, and tumorigenesis. Exosomes are present in numerous body fluids, and urinary exosomes have been shown to be biomarkers of a variety of kidney diseases.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cell Communication , Exosomes , Humans , Kidney Diseases , Proteins
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740007

ABSTRACT

It is well known that trigeminal nerve injury causes hyperexcitability in trigeminal ganglion neurons, which become sensitized. Long after trigeminal nerve damage, trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord (C1/C2) nociceptive neurons become hyperactive and are sensitized, resulting in persistent orofacial pain. Communication between neurons and non-neuronal cells is believed to be involved in these mechanisms. In this article, the authors highlight several lines of evidence that neuron-glial cell and neuron macrophage communication have essential roles in persistent orofacial pain mechanisms associated with trigeminal nerve injury and/or orofacial inflammation.


Subject(s)
Cell Communication , Cervical Cord , Facial Pain , Inflammation , Macrophages , Neurons , Nociceptors , Trigeminal Ganglion , Trigeminal Nerve , Trigeminal Nerve Injuries , Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774321

ABSTRACT

Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. Apart from soluble factors and direct cell-cell contact, the extracellular vesicles (EVs) were identified as a third mediator for cell communication within BM microenvironment. Recently, more and more evidences have demonstrated that EVs are also involved in the dysregulation of the BM microenvironment in patients with hematological malignancies. Therefore this review focuses on the biological characteristics of EVs, the clinical value of EVs as biomarkers, the BM microenvironment reprogramming in hematological malignancies by EVs, and the potential role of EVs in drug resistance and therapy of hematological malignancies.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Cell Communication , Extracellular Vesicles , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans
11.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 196-204, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777196

ABSTRACT

Cell-to-cell connections provide conduits for signal exchanges, and play important functional roles in physiological and pathological processes of multicellular organisms. Membrane nanotubes are common long-distance connections between cells, not only transfer molecule signals and mitochondria, but also cooperate with gap junction and other cell-to-cell communications to transfer signals. During the last decade, there are many studies about membrane nanotubes, which focus on the similarities and differences between membrane nanotubes and other cell-to-cell communications, as well as their biological functions. In the present review, we summarized the latest findings about the structural diversity, the similarities and differences in signal transmission with other types of cell-to-cell communications, and physiological and pathological roles of membrane nanotubes.


Subject(s)
Cell Communication , Cell Membrane , Physiology , Gap Junctions , Physiology , Humans , Mitochondria , Physiology , Nanotubes
12.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 205-215, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777195

ABSTRACT

At present, it is generally believed that the paracrine effect of stem cells in the repair of myocardial injury is one of the important ways for stem cell therapy. Exosomes are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed nanovesicles that secreted by cells under physiological and pathological conditions. Cargo loaded into exosomes including protein, lipids and nucleic acids can be delivered to recipient cells. Therefore, exosomes are recognized as important mediators for intercellular communication. It has been suggested that exosomes from stem cells (eg. embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, cardiac progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and cardiosphere-derived cells) have protective effects against heart injury. In this review, we summarized recent research progresses on stem cell-derived exosomes in myocardial injury, including the therapeutic effects and mechanism.


Subject(s)
Cell Communication , Exosomes , Physiology , Heart Injuries , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 439-453, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777169

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are extracellular membranous vesicles with a diameter of 30-100 nm derived from a variety of eukaryocytes. The cargo of exosomes includes proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and substances of the cells from which they originate. They can transfer functional cargo to neighboring and distal cells, therefore contributing to intercellular communication in both physiological and pathological processes. In recent years, it was shown that exosomes in several neurodegenerative diseases are closely related to the transmission of disease-related misfolded proteins (such as α-synuclein, tau, amyloid β-protein, etc). These proteins are transported by exosomes, thus promoting the propagation to unaffected cells or areas and accelerating the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on the origin and composition, biological synthesis, secretion, function of exosomes, as well as their roles in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, we also discuss that exosomes can serve as biomarkers and drug delivery vehicles, and play a role in the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Amyloid beta-Peptides , Biomarkers , Cell Communication , Exosomes , Pathology , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Pathology , alpha-Synuclein , tau Proteins
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775995

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are 30-100 nm vesicles secreted from almost all types of cells.They contain various molecular constituents,including proteins,lipids,and RNA.As important mediators of cell-to-cell communication,exosomes are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as inflammatory reaction,cell proliferation and differentiation,tissue repair,immune signal transduction,and stress response.Exosomes can regulate and maintain the initiation and progression of many autoimmune diseases,especially rheumatoid arthritis.Meanwhile,exosomes may be a new biomarker for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and a potential treatment vector for this disease.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Pathology , Cell Communication , Exosomes , Humans , Signal Transduction
15.
Saúde Soc ; 27(2): 398-409, abr.-jun. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-962591

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de esta investigación fue indagar en las prácticas de sexting en un grupo de adolescentes españoles y contribuir así a su mejor comprensión a través de una investigación novedosa en España. Se pretende descubrir los conocimientos que los/las adolescentes tienen sobre el fenómeno del sexting y averiguar en sus comportamientos y motivaciones hacia el sexting, revelando si perciben consecuencias de este tipo de conducta. A través de la aproximación cualitativa se realizaron ocho focus group, conformados por 89 adolescentes, que tenían entre 14 y 18 años. Entre los resultados se destacan el desconocimiento del concepto de sexting, llegando incluso a confundirlo con el acoso y el chantaje. Aunque solo un quinto de los y las participantes reconoce practicar sexting, admiten que es una práctica muy frecuente entre la gente de sus edades, especialmente entre las chicas. Los motivos que aluden para justificar su participación en comportamientos de sexting son fundamentalmente de carácter sexual, mientras que señalan que la gente de sus edades sextea por diversión, aburrimiento o por estar de moda. Asimismo, reconocen que hay ciertos riesgos derivados de las conductas de sexting, que afectan más negativamente a las chicas. Además, la gran parte de los/las jóvenes son conocedores de situaciones entre sus iguales de coacciones y chantajes para enviar contenido erótico-sexual, así como de otras realidades como el ciberacoso y el ciberstalking.


Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the practices of sexting in a group of Spanish adolescents and thus contribute to their better understanding through a novel research in Spain. The aim is to discover the knowledge that adolescents have about the phenomenon of sexting and to investigate their behaviors and motivations towards sexting, revealing if they perceive consequences of this type of behavior. Through the qualitative approach, eight focus groups were made, composed of 89 adolescents, from 14 to 18 years old. Among the results they emphasize the ignorance of the concept of sexting, even confusing it with harassment and blackmail. Although only a fifth of the participants recognize practicing sexting, they admit that it is a very frequent practice among people of their age, especially among girls. The reasons they allude to justify their participation in sexting behaviors are fundamentally sexual in nature, while they point out that people of their age carry out sexting behavior for fun, boredom or for being fashionable. They also recognize there are certain risks derived from sexting behaviors, which affect girls more negatively. In addition, most young people are aware of situations of coercion and blackmail among their peers to send erotic-sexual content, as well as other realities such as cyberbullying and cyberstalking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Sexual Behavior , Cell Communication , Adolescent , Erotica , Video-Audio Media , Cell Phone Use , Motivation
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716596

ABSTRACT

The phosphorylation of JNK is known to induce insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. The inhibition of JNK-JIP1 interaction, which interferes JNK phosphorylation, becomes a potential target for drug development of type 2 diabetes. To discover the inhibitors of JNK-JIP1 interaction, we screened out 30 candidates from 4320 compound library with In Cell Interaction Trap method. The candidates were further confirmed and narrowed down to five compounds using the FRET method in a model cell. Among those five compounds, Acebutolol showed notable inhibition of JNK phosphorylation and elevation of glucose uptake in diabetic models of adipocyte and liver cell. Structural computation showed that the binding affinity of Acebutolol on the JNK-JIP1 interaction site was comparable to the known inhibitor, BI-78D3. Our results suggest that Acebutolol, an FDA-approved beta blocker for hypertension therapy, could have a new repurposed effect on type 2 diabetes elevating glucose uptake process by inhibiting JNK-JIP1 interaction.


Subject(s)
Acebutolol , Adipocytes , Cell Communication , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Glucose , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Methods , Phosphorylation
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773008

ABSTRACT

Microvesicles (MVs, also known as microparticles) are small vesicles that originate from plasma membrane of almost all eukaryotic cells during apoptosis or activation. MVs can serve as extracellular vehicles to transport bioactive molecules from their parental cells to recipient target cells, thereby serving as novel mediators for intercellular communication. Importantly, more and more evidence indicates that MVs could play important roles in early pathogenesis and subsequent progression of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Elevated plasma concentrations of MVs, originating from red blood cells, leukocytes, platelets, or other organs and tissues, have been reported in various cardiometabolic diseases. Circulating MVs could serve as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis or therapeutic monitoring. In this review, we summarized recently-published studies in the field and discussed the role of MVs in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. The emerging values of MVs that serve as biomarker for non-invasive diagnosis and prognosis, as well as their roles as novel therapeutic targets in cardiometabolic diseases, were also described.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases , Blood , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Cell Communication , Cell-Derived Microparticles , Metabolism , Humans , Metabolic Diseases , Blood , Diagnosis , Therapeutics
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690672

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relationship between plasma miR-93-5p and the risk of esophageal cancer, as well as the influence of miR-93-5p on the biological function of esophageal cancer cells, exerted through exosomes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The expression of plasma miR-93-5p in esophageal cancer patients and healthy controls was analysed by real-time quantitative PCR. The influence of miR-93-5p on the risk and prognosis of esophageal carcinoma was analyzed by conditional logistic regression and survival analysis. The effect of miR-93-5p on the biological function of recipient cells was investigated by establishing an in vitro donor cell co-culture model. The target gene of miR-93-5p was validated by luciferase reporter assay and Western Blotting.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Upregulation of plasma miR-93-5p expression significantly increases the risk of esophageal cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. miR-93-5p transferred by exosomes promotes the proliferation of recipient esophageal cancer cells and affects the expression of PTEN and its downstream proteins p21 and cyclin D1.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our study provides a reference for the identification of biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of esophageal cancer.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Cell Communication , China , Esophageal Neoplasms , Exosomes , Physiology , Female , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs , Metabolism , Middle Aged , PTEN Phosphohydrolase , Genetics , Metabolism , Risk
19.
Biol. Res ; 51: 41, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) can be defined as degradation of articular cartilage of the joint, and is the most common degenerative disease. To regenerate the damaged cartilage, different experimental approaches including stem cell therapy have been tried. One of the major limitations of stem cell therapy is the poor post-transplantation survival of the stem cells. Anoikis, where insufficient matrix support and adhesion to extracellular matrix causes apoptotic cell death, is one of the main causes of the low post-transplantation survival rate of stem cells. Therefore, enhancing the initial interaction of the transplanted stem cells with chondrocytes could improve the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell therapy for OA. Previously, protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- induced increase of mesenchymal stem cell adhesion via activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been reported. In the present study, we examine the effect PMA on the adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) adhesion and spreading to culture substrates, and further on the initial interaction between ADSC and chondrocytes. RESULTS: PMA treatment increased the initial adhesion of ADSC to culture substrate and cellular spreading with increased expression of adhesion molecules, such as FAK, vinculin, talin, and paxillin, at both RNA and protein level. Priming of ADSC with PMA increased the number of ADSCs attached to confluent layer of cultured chondrocytes compared to that of untreated ADSCs at early time point (4 h after seeding). CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results of this study suggest that priming ADSCs with PMA can increase the initial interaction with chondrocytes, and this proof of concept can be used to develop a non-invasive therapeutic approach for treating OA. It may also accelerate the regeneration process so that it can relieve the accompanied pain faster in OA patients. Further in vivo studies examining the therapeutic effect of PMA pretreatment of ADSCs for articular cartilage damage are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stem Cells/drug effects , Protein Kinase C/pharmacology , Cartilage, Articular/cytology , Chondrocytes/cytology , Cell Adhesion , Cell Communication , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Blotting, Western , Cell Culture Techniques , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Actual. osteol ; 13(1): 58-66, Ene - Abr. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118913

ABSTRACT

Connexins (Cxs) are a family of transmembrane proteins that form gap junctions and hemi-channels, which mediate cell-cell communication between neighboring cells and the respective extracellular milieu in different tissues. Most tissues and cell types throughout the body express one or more Cx proteins, highlighting its importance in regulating cell growth, differentiation, adhesion, migration, cell death and others. Moreover, Cx can propagate intracellular signals through its C-terminus domain, and thus function beyond a mere channel. Cx43 is the most highly expressed and most well studied Cx in bone and musculoskeletal tissues, although Cx40, Cx45, Cx46 and more recently, the Cx37 have been described in bone tissue, along with Cx26, Cx32 and Cx39 in other musculoskeletal tissues. Here, we discuss the basic structure of gap junctions and the role of the Cxs in musculoskeletal tissue, with special focus on Cx37. (AU)


Las conexinas (Cxs) son una familia de proteínas transmembrana que forman uniones en hendidura y hemicanales encargados de mediar la comunicación entre células vecinas y el respectivo medio extracelular en diferentes tejidos. La mayoría de los tejidos y células expresan una o más proteínas conexina, jugando un papel importante en la regulación de la proliferación celular, diferenciación, adhesión, migración y muerte celular, entre otras funciones. Además de actuar como un canal, las conexinas pueden propagar señales intracelulares a través del dominio C-terminal. La Cx43 es la conexina mas expresada y mejor estudiada en el tejido óseo y el músculo, aunque las Cx40, Cx45, Cx46, y mas recientemente Cx37, son también detectadas en el hueso. A su vez la expresión de la Cx26, Cx32 y Cx39 ha sido observada en otros tejidos músculoesqueléticos. En este manuscrito describimos la estructura básica de las uniones tipo gap y el papel que las Cxs, y en especial la Cx37, tienen en tejidos músculo-esqueléticos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone Resorption/prevention & control , Connexins/physiology , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Osteocytes/metabolism , Tendons/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Cartilage/metabolism , Cell Communication/physiology , Cell Physiological Phenomena , Gap Junctions/drug effects , Gap Junctions/physiology , Connexin 43/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Ligaments/metabolism , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects
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