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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(2): 123-133, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1140336

ABSTRACT

High intake of omega-3 fatty acids has been associated with synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and memory in several experimental models. To assess the efficacy of fish oil supplementation on oxidative stress markers in patients diagnosed with probable Alzheimer´s disease (AD) we conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. AD patients who met the inclusive criteria were given fish oil (containing 0.45 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1 g docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo daily for 12 months. Oxidative stress markers [lipoperoxides, nitric oxide catabolites levels, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and membrane fluidity] and fatty acid profile in erythrocytes were assessed at enrollment, and 6 and 12 months after the start of the testing period. At the end of the trial, in patients who received fish oil, we detected a decrease in the omega 6/omega 3 ratio in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. This change was parallel with decreases in plasma levels of lipoperoxides and nitric oxide catabolites. Conversely, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione was significantly increased. In addition, membrane fluidity was increased significantly in plasma membrane samples. In conclusion fish oil administration has a beneficial effect in decreasing the levels of oxidative stress markers and improving the membrane fluidity in plasma(AU)


El alto consumo de ácidos grasos omega-3 se asocia con la plasticidad sináptica, neurogénesis y memoria en varios modelos experimentales. Para evaluar la eficacia de la suplementación con aceite de pescado en los marcadores de estrés oxidativo en pacientes con diagnóstico de la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) probable realizamos un ensayo clínico doble ciego, aleatorizado, controlado con placebo. A los pacientes con la EA que cumplían los criterios de inclusión se les administró aceite de pescado (que contenía 0,45 g de ácido eicosapentaenoico y 1 g de ácido docosahexaenoico) o placebo diariamente durante 12 meses. Los marcadores de estrés oxidativo plasmático [niveles de lipoperóxidos y catabolitos del óxido nítrico, cociente de glutatión reducido a glutatiónoxidado) y fluidez de la membrana] y el perfil de ácidos grasos en los eritrocitos se evaluaron al inicio, 6 meses y alos 12 meses. Al final del ensayo, en pacientes que recibieron aceite de pescado detectamos una disminución en el cociente de ácidos grasos omega 6/omega 3 en los fosfolípidos de la membrana eritrocitaria. Este cambio ocurrió en paralelo a la disminución de los niveles plasmáticos de lipoperóxidos y catabolitos del óxido nítrico. Por el contrario, el cociente de glutatión reducido a glutatión oxidado se incrementó significativamente. Además, la fluidez de la membrana aumentó significativamente en las muestras analizadas. En conclusión, la administración de aceite de pescado tiene un efecto beneficioso al disminuir los niveles de marcadores de estrés oxidativo plasmático y mejorar la fluidez de la membrana plasmática(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Fish Oils , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Oxidative Stress , Alzheimer Disease , Cell Membrane , Chronic Disease , Neurogenesis
2.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(1): 32-36, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089272

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the cytotoxic effect and the ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) of 0.2% chitosan (CH) and 1% acetic acid (AA) compared with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell viability assay was performed according to ISO 10993-5 with mouse fibroblasts (L929). The culture was exposed to 0.2% CH, 1% AA, and 17% EDTA. The chelating agents were evaluated immediately after contact with the cells and after 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h of incubation. Cell viability was analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was evaluated by gelatin zymography. Different concentrations of CH were evaluated: 50 mM, 5 mM, 0.5 mM, and 0.05 mM. EDTA (0.5 mM) was used as a positive control. The results demonstrated that CH and AA had an initial cytotoxic effect, which decreased after 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, being statistically similar to EDTA (P > 0.05). Additionally, CH at concentrations of 50 mM, 5 mM, and 0.5 mM had an inhibitory effect on MMP-2 and MMP-9, similar to that of the control with EDTA. The chelating agents had no cytotoxic effects after 24 h. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were inhibited by the experimental solutions.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito citotóxico e a capacidade de inibição das metaloproteinases da matriz extracelular (MMP-2 e MMP-9) pela quitosana 0,2%(CH) e o ácido acético 1% (AA) em comparação com o ácido etilenodiaminotetracético 17% (EDTA). O ensaio de viabilidade celular foi realizado de acordo com a ISO 10993-5 com fibroblastos de camundongo (L929). A cultura foi exposta a CH 0,2%, AA 1% e EDTA 17%. Os agentes quelantes foram avaliados imediatamente após o contato com as células e após 6 h, 12 h e 24 h de incubação. A viabilidade celular foi analisada utilizando o ensaio de brometo de 3- (4,5-dimetitiazol-2-il) -2,5-difeniltetrazólio (MTT). A inibição da atividade gelatinolítica de MMP-2 e MMP-9 foi avaliada por zimografia de gelatina. Diferentes concentrações de CH foram avaliadas: 50 mM, 5 mM, 0,5 mM e 0,05 mM. EDTA (0,5 mM) foi usado como controlo positivo. Os resultados demonstraram que CH e AA apresentaram um efeito citotóxico inicial, que diminuiu após 6 h, 12 h e 24 h, sendo estatisticamente similar ao EDTA (P> 0,05). Adicionalmente, CH a concentrações de 50 mM, 5 mM e 0,5 mM tiveram um efeito inibidor sobre MMP-2 e MMP-9, semelhante ao controlo com EDTA. Os agentes quelantes apresentaram efeitos não citotóxicos após 24 h. MMP-2 e MMP-9 foram inibidas pelas soluções experimentais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Endodontics , Cell Membrane , Chelating Agents , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
3.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 20-26, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787278

ABSTRACT

We examined the effect of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on neuronal viability in mouse cortical near-pure neuronal cultures. Addition of fluoxetine to the media for 24 hours induced neuronal death in a concentration-dependent manner. To delineate the mechanisms of fluoxetine-induced neuronal death, we investigated the effects of trolox, cycloheximide (CHX), BDNF, z-VAD-FMK, and various metal-chelators on fluoxetine-induced neuronal death. Neuronal death was assessed by MTT assay. The addition of 20 µM fluoxetine to the media for 24 hours induced 60–70% neuronal death, which was associated with the hallmarks of apoptosis, chromatin condensation and DNA laddering. Fluoxetine-induced death was significantly attenuated by CHX, BDNF, or z-VAD-FMK. Treatment with antioxidants, trolox and ascorbate, also markedly attenuated fluoxetine-induced death. Interestingly, some divalent cation chelators (EGTA, Ca-EDTA, and Zn-EDTA) also markedly attenuated the neurotoxicity. Fluoxetine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using the fluorescent dye 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Trolox and bathocuproine disulfonic acid (BCPS), a cell membrane impermeable copper ion chelator, markedly attenuated the ROS production and neuronal death. However, deferoxamine, an iron chelator, did not affect ROS generation or neurotoxicity. We examined the changes in intracellular copper concentration using a copper-selective fluorescent dye, Phen Green FL, which is quenched by free copper ions. Fluoxetine quenched the fluorescence in neuronal cells, and the quenching effect of fluoxetine was reversed by co-treatment with BCPS, however, not by deferoxamine. These findings demonstrate that fluoxetine could induce apoptotic and oxidative neuronal death associated with an influx of copper ions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Apoptosis , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cell Death , Cell Membrane , Chelating Agents , Chromatin , Copper , Cycloheximide , Deferoxamine , DNA , Fluorescence , Fluoxetine , Ions , Iron , Mice , Neurons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Serotonin
4.
Biol. Res ; 53: 06, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The intracellular concentration of heavy-metal cations, such as copper, nickel, and zinc is pivotal for the mycobacterial response to the hostile environment inside macrophages. To date, copper transport mediated by P-type ATPases across the mycobacterial plasma membrane has not been sufficiently explored. RESULTS: In this work, the ATPase activity of the putative Mycobacterium tuberculosis P1B-type ATPase CtpB was associated with copper (I) transport from mycobacterial cells. Although CtpB heterologously expressed in M. smegmatis induced tolerance to toxic concentrations of Cu2+ and a metal preference for Cu+, the disruption of ctpB in M. tuberculosis cells did not promote impaired cell growth or heavy-metal accumulation in whole mutant cells in cultures under high doses of copper. In addition, the Cu+ ATPase activity of CtpB embedded in the plasma mem-brane showed features of high affinity/slow turnover ATPases, with enzymatic parametersKM 0.19 ± 0.04 µM and Vmax 2.29 ± 0.10 nmol/mg min. In contrast, the ctpB gene transcription was activated in cells under culture conditions that mimicked the hostile intraphagosomal environment, such as hypoxia, nitrosative and oxidative stress, but not under high doses of copper. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results suggest that M. tuberculosis CtpB is associated with Cu+ transport from mycobacterial cells possibly playing a role different from copper detoxification.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/metabolism , Copper-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolism , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/chemistry
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Galla chinensis inhibited the adherence of planktonic oral bacteria and acid production by cariogenic bacteria. However, little is known about the relevant conditions of Galla Chinensis extract (GCE) exposure time and concentration and the effect of GCE on the structural and functional activity of cariogenic bacteria. The antibacterial effects of natural G. Chinensis extract on S. mutans , S. sanguinis, and S. oralis biofilms were evaluated in vitro.METHODS: Biofilms formed on glass surfaces were treated with different concentrations of GCE at different exposure times. The effects were assessed by examining the bactericidal activity, acidogenesis, minimum inhibitory concentration, and morphology.RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in the bacterial growth inhibition depending on the concentration of the GCE, with bacterial growth being inhibited as the concentration of GCE increased. A concentration of 1.0 mg/ml GCE had similar bactericidal effects against S. mutans and S. oralis biofilms to those produced by 2.0 mg/ml CHX. In the 1.0 mg/ml GCE group, incomplete septa were also observed in the outline of the cell wall, together with disruption of the cell membrane. In addition, there was also a slight exudation of the intracellular content from the bacteria in the 1.0 mg/ml GCE and 2 mg/ml CHX groups.CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that GCE inhibits the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguinis, and S. oralis with increasing concentrations. It alters the microstructure of S. mutans biofilms. These results suggest that GCE might be a useful anti-bacterial agent for preventing dental caries.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Biofilms , Cell Membrane , Cell Wall , Dental Caries , Glass , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plankton , Streptococcus mutans
6.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 154-164, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786408

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the effects of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on novel object recognition, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampus. To facilitate penetration into the blood–brain barrier and neuronal plasma membrane, we created a Tat-HSP70 fusion protein. Eight-week-old mice received intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (10% glycerol), control-HSP70, or Tat-HSP70 protein once a day for 21 days. To elucidate the delivery efficiency of HSP70 into the hippocampus, western blot analysis for polyhistidine was conducted. Polyhistidine protein levels were significantly increased in control-HSP70- and Tat-HSP70-treated groups compared to the control or vehicle-treated group. However, polyhistidine protein levels were significantly higher in the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control-HSP70-treated group. In addition, immunohistochemical study for HSP70 showed direct evidences for induction of HSP70 immunoreactivity in the control-HSP70- and Tat-HSP70-treated groups. Administration of Tat-HSP70 increased the novel object recognition memory compared to untreated mice or mice treated with the vehicle. In addition, the administration of Tat-HSP70 significantly increased the populations of proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus compared to those in the control or vehicle-treated group based on the Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) was significantly enhanced in the dentate gyrus of the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. Western blot study also demonstrated the increases of DCX and pCREB protein levels in the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. In contrast, administration of control-HSP70 moderately increased the novel object recognition memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. These results suggest that Tat-HSP70 promoted hippocampal functions by increasing the pCREB in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Cell Membrane , Cell Proliferation , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Dentate Gyrus , Heat-Shock Proteins , Hippocampus , Hot Temperature , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Memory , Mice , Neurons , Phosphorylation
7.
Immune Network ; : 38-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785823

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter is a worldwide foodborne pathogen, associated with human gastroenteritis. The efficient translocation of Campylobacter and its ability to secrete toxins into host cells are the 2 key features of Campylobacter pathophysiology which trigger inflammation in intestinal cells and contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly diarrhoea, in humans. The purpose of conducting this literature review is to summarise the current understanding of: i) the human immune responses involved in the elimination of Campylobacter infection and ii) the resistance potential in Campylobacter against these immune responses. This review has highlighted that the intestinal epithelial cells are the preliminary cells which sense Campylobacter cells by means of their cell-surface and cytosolic receptors, activate various receptors-dependent signalling pathways, and recruit the innate immune cells to the site of inflammation. The innate immune system, adaptive immune system, and networking between these systems play a crucial role in bacterial clearance. Different cellular constituents of Campylobacter, mainly cell membrane lipooligosaccharides, capsule, and toxins, provide protection to Campylobacter against the human immune system mediated killing. This review has also identified gaps in knowledge, which are related to the activation of following during Campylobacter infection: i) cathelicidins, bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins, chemokines, and inflammasomes in intestinal epithelial cells; ii) siglec-7 receptors in dendritic cell; iii) acute phase proteins in serum; and iv) T-cell subsets in lymphoid nodules. This review evaluates the existing literature to improve the understanding of human immunity against Campylobacter infection and identify some of the knowledge gaps for future research.


Subject(s)
Acute-Phase Proteins , Antigen-Presenting Cells , Campylobacter Infections , Campylobacter , Cathelicidins , Cell Membrane , Chemokines , Cytosol , Dendritic Cells , Epithelial Cells , Gastroenteritis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Homicide , Humans , Immune System , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Toll-Like Receptors
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1162-1173, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771812

ABSTRACT

Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that can penetrate the cell membrane or tissue barrier. CPPs can deliver a variety of biomacromolecules, such as proteins, RNA and DNA, into cells to produce intracellular functional effects. Endocytosis and direct penetration have been suggested as the two major uptake mechanisms for CPPs-mediated cargo delivery. Compared with other non-natural chemical molecules-based delivery reagents, the CPPs have better biocompatibility, lower cytotoxicity, are easily degraded after cargo delivery, and can be fused and recombined expressed with bioactive proteins. Because of these advantages, the CPPs have become an important potential tool for delivery of developing drugs which targets intracellular factors. As a novel delivery tool, the CPPs also show promising application prospects in biomedical researches. This review summarized recent advances regarding the classification characteristics, the cellular uptake mechanisms and therapeutic application potentials of CPPs.


Subject(s)
Biological Transport , Cell Membrane , Cell-Penetrating Peptides , Metabolism , Endocytosis
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1463-1468, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771783

ABSTRACT

We studied the construction of fusion protein TAT-RIG-I-GFP prokaryotic expression vector and verified the function of TAT in transmembrane delivery. First, four pairs of specific primers were designed, and the RIG-I gene of Mallard Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) was cloned. Then, the pET-TAT-RIG-I-GFP and pET-RIG-I-GFP prokaryotic expression vectors were constructed. Meanwhile, they were converted to E. coli BL21 (DE3), which were induced to be expressed after culture. After the purification of His-60 nickel affinity chromatography column and the identification of SDS-PAGE, the purified TAT-RIG-I-GFP and RIG-I-GFP proteins were incubated to DF-1 cells. Finally, fluorescence microscopy was used to observe whether the corresponding fluorescence was produced in DF-1 cells. The results showed that pET-TAT-RIG-I-GFP fusion with TAT showed obvious green fluorescence in DF-1 cells. However, the pET-RIG-I-GFP without TAT cannot display green fluorescence. This shows that TAT-fused protein have successfully delivered DF-1 cells and play a key role in transmembrane delivery. In conclusion, these results provide a solid material basis for further study of antiviral drugs in poultry.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane , DNA Primers , Escherichia coli , Gene Expression , Gene Products, tat , Genetic Vectors , Recombinant Fusion Proteins
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776892

ABSTRACT

Antifungal drug resistance is a significant clinical problem, and antifungal agents that can evade resistance are urgently needed. In infective niches, resistant organisms often co-existed with sensitive ones, or a subpopulation of antibiotic-susceptible organisms may evolve into resistant ones during antibiotic treatment and eventually dominate the whole population. In this study, we established a co-culture assay in which an azole-resistant Candida albicans strain was mixed with a susceptible strain labeled with green fluorescent protein to mimic in vivo conditions and screen for antifungal drugs. Fluconazole was used as a positive control to verify the validity of this co-culture assay. Five natural molecules exhibited antifungal activity against both susceptible and resistant C. albicans. Two of these compounds, retigeric acid B (RAB) and riccardin D (RD), preferentially inhibited C. albicans strains in which the efflux pump MDR1 was activated. This selectivity was attributed to greater intracellular accumulation of the drugs in the resistant strains. Changes in sterol and lipid compositions were observed in the resistant strains compared to the susceptible strain, and might increase cell permeability to RAB and RD. In addition, RAB and RD interfered with the sterol pathway, further aggregating the decrease in ergosterol in the sterol synthesis pathway in the MDR1-activated strains. Our findings here provide an alternative for combating resistant pathogenic fungi.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters , Genetics , Metabolism , Antifungal Agents , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Azoles , Pharmacology , Biosynthetic Pathways , Genetics , Candida albicans , Chemistry , Metabolism , Cell Membrane , Chemistry , Metabolism , Coculture Techniques , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Ergosterol , Metabolism , Fungal Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Lipids , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Permeability , Phenyl Ethers , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Sterols , Chemistry , Metabolism , Stilbenes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology
11.
Mycobiology ; : 242-249, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760535

ABSTRACT

Betaine derivatives are considered major ingredients of shampoos and are commonly used as antistatic and viscosity-increasing agents. Several studies have also suggested that betaine derivatives can be used as antimicrobial agents. However, the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of betaine derivatives have not yet been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity of six betaine derivatives against Malassezia restricta, which is the most frequently isolated fungus from the human skin and is implicated in the development of dandruff. We found that, among the six betaine derivatives, lauryl betaine showed the most potent antifungal activity. The mechanism of action of lauryl betaine was studied mainly using another phylogenetically close model fungal organism, Cryptococcus neoformans, because of a lack of available genetic manipulation and functional genomics tools for M. restricta. Our genome-wide reverse genetic screening method using the C. neoformans gene deletion mutant library showed that the mutants with mutations in genes for cell membrane synthesis and integrity, particularly ergosterol synthesis, are highly sensitive to lauryl betaine. Furthermore, transcriptome changes in both C. neoformans and M. restricta cells grown in the presence of lauryl betaine were analyzed and the results indicated that the compound mainly affected cell membrane synthesis, particularly ergosterol synthesis. Overall, our data demonstrated that lauryl betaine influences ergosterol synthesis in C. neoformans and that the compound exerts a similar mechanism of action on M. restricta.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Betaine , Cell Membrane , Cryptococcus , Cryptococcus neoformans , Dandruff , Ergosterol , Fungi , Gene Deletion , Genetic Testing , Genomics , Humans , Malassezia , Methods , Skin , Transcriptome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759014

ABSTRACT

The exocyst is a highly conserved eight-subunit protein complex (EXOC1–8) involved in the targeting and docking of exocytic vesicles translocating from the trans-Golgi network to various sites in renal cells. EXOC5 is a central exocyst component because it connects EXOC6, bound to the vesicles exiting the trans-Golgi network via the small GTPase RAB8, to the rest of the exocyst complex at the plasma membrane. In the kidney, the exocyst complex is involved in primary ciliognesis, cystogenesis, and tubulogenesis. The exocyst, and its regulators, have also been found in urinary extracellular vesicles, and may be centrally involved in urocrine signaling and repair following acute kidney injury. The exocyst is centrally involved in the development of other organs, including the eye, ear, and heart. The exocyst is regulated by many different small GTPases of the RHO, RAL, RAB, and ARF families. The small GTPases, and their guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, likely give the exocyst specificity of function. The recent development of a floxed Exoc5 mouse line will aid researchers in studying the role of the exocyst in multiple cells and organ types by allowing for tissue-specific knockout, in conjunction with Cre-driver mouse lines.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Animals , Cell Membrane , Ear , Exocytosis , Extracellular Vesicles , GTP Phosphohydrolases , GTPase-Activating Proteins , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors , Heart , Humans , Kidney , Mice , Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins , Sensitivity and Specificity , trans-Golgi Network
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758995

ABSTRACT

The kidney collecting duct (CD) is a tubular segment of the kidney where the osmolality and final flow rate of urine are established, enabling urine concentration and body water homeostasis. Water reabsorption in the CD depends on the action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and a transepithelial osmotic gradient between the luminal fluid and surrounding interstitium. AVP induces transcellular water reabsorption across CD principal cells through associated signaling pathways after binding to arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2). This signaling cascade regulates the water channel protein aquaporin-2 (AQP2). AQP2 is exclusively localized in kidney connecting tubules and CDs. Specifically, AVP stimulates the intracellular translocation of AQP2-containing vesicles to the apical plasma membrane, increasing the osmotic water permeability of CD cells. Moreover, AVP induces transcription of the Aqp2 gene, increasing AQP2 protein abundance. This review provides new insights into the transcriptional regulation of the Aqp2 gene in the kidney CD with an overview of AVP and AQP2. It summarizes current therapeutic approaches for X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus caused by AVPR2 gene mutations.


Subject(s)
Aquaporin 2 , Arginine Vasopressin , Body Water , Cell Membrane , Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic , Gene Expression Regulation , Homeostasis , Kidney , Kidney Tubules, Collecting , Osmolar Concentration , Permeability , Phenobarbital , Receptors, Vasopressin , Water
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763045

ABSTRACT

Niacinamide (NIA) is a water-soluble vitamin that is widely used in the treatment of skin diseases. Moreover, NIA displays antioxidant effects and helps repair damaged DNA. Recent studies showed that particulate matter 2.5 (PM(2.5)) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing disruption of DNA, lipids, and protein, mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis of skin keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the protective effects of NIA on PM(2.5)-induced oxidative stress in human HaCaT keratinocytes. We found that NIA could inhibit the ROS generation induced by PM(2.5), as well block the PM(2.5)-induced oxidation of molecules, such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Furthermore, NIA alleviated PM(2.5)-induced accumulation of cellular Ca²⁺, which caused cell membrane depolarization and apoptosis, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Collectively, the findings show that NIA can protect keratinocytes from PM(2.5)-induced oxidative stress and cell damage.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Apoptosis , Cell Membrane , DNA , Humans , Keratinocytes , Mitochondrial Proteins , Niacinamide , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter , Reactive Oxygen Species , Skin Diseases , Skin , Vitamins
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763017

ABSTRACT

β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) can be cleaved by α-, and γ-secretase at plasma membrane producing soluble ectodomain fragment (sAPPα). Alternatively, following endocytosis, APP is cleaved by β-, and γ-secretase at early endosomes generating β-amyloid (Aβ), the main culprit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, APP endocytosis is critical for Aβ production. Recently, we reported that Monsonia angustifolia, the indigenous vegetables consumed in Tanzania, improved cognitive function and decreased Aβ production. In this study, we examined the underlying mechanism of justicidin A, the active compound of M. angustifolia, on Aβ production. We found that justicidin A reduced endocytosis of APP, increasing sAPPα level, while decreasing Aβ level in HeLa cells overexpressing human APP with the Swedish mutation. The effect of justicidin A on Aβ production was blocked by endocytosis inhibitors, indicating that the decreased APP endocytosis by justicidin A is the underlying mechanism. Thus, justicidin A, the active compound of M. angustifolia, may be a novel agent for AD treatment.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cell Membrane , Cognition , Endocytosis , Endosomes , HeLa Cells , Humans , Tanzania , Vegetables
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761809

ABSTRACT

Anoctamin 5 (ANO5)/TMEM16E belongs to a member of the ANO/TMEM16 family member of anion channels. However, it is a matter of debate whether ANO5 functions as a genuine plasma membrane chloride channel. It has been recognized that mutations in the ANO5 gene cause many skeletal muscle diseases such as limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L) and Miyoshi muscular dystrophy type 3 (MMD3) in human. However, the molecular mechanisms of the skeletal myopathies caused by ANO5 defects are poorly understood. To understand the role of ANO5 in skeletal muscle development and function, we silenced the ANO5 gene in C2C12 myoblasts and evaluated whether it impairs myogenesis and myotube function. ANO5 knockdown (ANO5-KD) by shRNA resulted in clustered or aggregated nuclei at the body of myotubes without affecting differentiation or myotube formation. Nuclear positioning defect of ANO5-KD myotubes was accompanied with reduced expression of Kif5b protein, a kinesin-related motor protein that controls nuclear transport during myogenesis. ANO5-KD impaired depolarization-induced [Ca²⁺]i transient and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca²⁺ storage. ANO5-KD resulted in reduced protein expression of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) and SR Ca²⁺-ATPase subtype 1. In addition, ANO5-KD compromised co-localization between DHPR and ryanodine receptor subtype 1. It is concluded that ANO5-KD causes nuclear positioning defect by reduction of Kif5b expression, and compromises Ca²⁺ signaling by downregulating the expression of DHPR and SERCA proteins.


Subject(s)
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Calcium Channels, L-Type , Cell Membrane , Chloride Channels , Humans , Muscle Development , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Diseases , Muscular Dystrophies , Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle , Myoblasts , RNA, Small Interfering , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
17.
Biol. Res ; 52: 6, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pollen development is an energy-consuming process that particularly occurs during meiosis. Low levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may cause cell death, resulting in CMS (cytoplasmic male sterility). DNA sequence differences in ATP synthase genes have been revealed between the N- and S-cytoplasms in the cotton CMS system. However, very few data are available at the RNA level. In this study, we compared five ATP synthase genes in the H276A, H276B and fertile F1 (H276A/H268) lines using RNA editing, RNA blotting and quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) to explore their contribution to CMS. A molecular marker for identifying male sterile cytoplasm (MSC) was also developed. RESULTS: RNA blotting revealed the absence of any novel orf for the ATP synthase gene sequence in the three lines. Forty-one RNA editing sites were identified in the coding sequences. RNA editing showed that proteins had 32.43% higher hydrophobicity and that 39.02% of RNA editing sites had proline converted to leucine. Two new stop codons were detected in atp6 and atp9 by RNA editing. Real-time qRT-PCR data showed that the atp1, atp6, atp8, and atp9 genes had substantially lower expression levels in H276A compared with those in H276B. By contrast, the expression levels of all five genes were increased in F1 (H276A/H268). Moreover, a molecular marker based on a 6-bp deletion upstream of atp8 in H276A was developed to identify male sterile cytoplasm (MSC) in cotton. CONCLUSIONS: Our data substantially contributes to the understanding of the function of ATP synthase genes in cotton CMS. Therefore, we suggest that ATP synthase genes might be an indirect cause of cotton CMS. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship among ATP synthase genes in cotton CMS.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/genetics , RNA Editing , Adenosine Triphosphatases/genetics , Gossypium/enzymology , Plant Infertility/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Gossypium/genetics , Cytoplasm/metabolism , RNA, Mitochondrial/genetics
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 196-204, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777196

ABSTRACT

Cell-to-cell connections provide conduits for signal exchanges, and play important functional roles in physiological and pathological processes of multicellular organisms. Membrane nanotubes are common long-distance connections between cells, not only transfer molecule signals and mitochondria, but also cooperate with gap junction and other cell-to-cell communications to transfer signals. During the last decade, there are many studies about membrane nanotubes, which focus on the similarities and differences between membrane nanotubes and other cell-to-cell communications, as well as their biological functions. In the present review, we summarized the latest findings about the structural diversity, the similarities and differences in signal transmission with other types of cell-to-cell communications, and physiological and pathological roles of membrane nanotubes.


Subject(s)
Cell Communication , Cell Membrane , Physiology , Gap Junctions , Physiology , Humans , Mitochondria , Physiology , Nanotubes
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 894-904, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781385

ABSTRACT

Ion channels are a widespread class of membrane proteins that help establish and control cell membrane potential by allowing the passive diffusion of inorganic ions with high specificity through cell membrane. They are widely distributed in various cells and tissues, and their normal structure and function are of fundamental importance for all living organisms. The rapid advances in molecular cloning, protein structure analysis, patch clamp recordings and other technologies have greatly promoted the research on the biophysical and molecular properties of ion channels, and made significant progress in the study of the relationship between ion channels and pathophysiology as well. The immune system is made up of immune cells and organs that work together to protect the body and respond to infection and disease. Remarkably, recent basic and clinical research has revealed that ion channels are frequently and abundantly expressed in immune cells and have crucial roles in immune cell development and immune response. This review summarized recent progress in the roles of ion channels in immune cells, including the expression and regulation of ion channels in immune cells, the effects of ion flux mediated by ion channels on lymphocyte development, and functional roles of ion channels in both innate and adaptive immune responses. We also discussed some unresolved and insufficiently addressed issues in the current research, so as to provide an informative reference for better understanding the functional roles of ion channels in the immune system and further elucidation of their function from a physiological and pathological point of view.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane , Immunity , Physiology , Ion Channels , Allergy and Immunology , Membrane Proteins , Research
20.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(3): e145873, Outubro 25, 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-969239

ABSTRACT

Protocols for cooling or freezing goat semen usually recommend centrifugation for seminal plasma removal. However, little is known about the effect of this process on goat sperm viability and functionality. The present study evaluated the effects of centrifugation force on the plasma membrane, acrosomes, and DNA integrity of goat semen. Four ejaculates from each of the four different Anglo Nubian male goats were used. Semen samples were obtained using artificial vagina, and immediately after collection, ejaculates were diluted using Ringer's sodium lactate solution and split into three groups: Control (CG, without centrifugation), G1 (centrifugation 600 x g/10 min), G2 (centrifugation 1200 x g/10 min). After centrifugation, seminal plasma was removed, the sperm pellets were resuspended using Tris-egg yolk extender (80 x 106 spermatozoa/mL) and the sperm morphology was analyzed. Samples were cooled at 5°C for 5, 24, 36, and 48 h and then sperm plasma membrane and acrosome integrity (PMAI, %) and sperm DNA fragmentation index (SDF, %) were evaluated at each time-point, using a flow cytometer. Additionally, sperm movement was determined using computer semen analysis (CASA) after 5, 24, and 48 h of refrigeration period. The semen centrifugation did not induce additional sperm morphology defect or reduction in sperm kinetics in the experimental groups. Differences were not observed (p > 0.05) in PMAI and SDF among different groups, in any of each time-point of the cooling process. In conclusion, centrifugation, even at high speeds, did not affect goat sperm integrity and functionality when submitted to refrigeration process. (AU)


A maior parte dos protocolos de refrigeração e criopreservação do sêmen caprino recomenda o uso de centrifugação para remoção do plasma seminal. No entanto, não existe consenso sobre o risco que esse tipo de processamento pode ocasionar à viabilidade espermática. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho investigou os possíveis efeitos deletérios da centrifugação sobre a integridade estrutural e DNA de espermatozoides caprinos. Para a pesquisa foram selecionados quatro reprodutores para colheita de sêmen (n = 4 ejaculados/bode). Cada ejaculado foi fracionado em três alíquotas iguais, diluídas em ringer e divididas em três grupos: Controle (GC, não centrifugado), G1 (centrifugação a 600 g/10 minutos) e G2 (centrifugação a 1200 g/10 minutos). As amostras seminais por grupo foram diluídas em meio Tris gema respeitando-se a concentração final de 80 milhões de espermatozoides/mL e foram submetidas à avaliação de morfologia espermática. Todas as amostras foram acondicionadas a 5°C, sendo analisadas nos momentos 5, 24, 36 e 48 horas do processo de refrigeração por meio da avaliação da integridade de membrana plasmática e acrossomal (MPAI, %) e índice de fragmentação de DNA (IDF, %). Adicionalmente, a cinética espermática foi avaliada com o emprego de um sistema computadorizado de análise (CASA) nos momentos 5, 24 e 48 horas da refrigeração. A centrifugação não induziu a manifestação de defeitos morfológicos ou redução significativa da cinética de espermatozoides caprinos. Não foram observadas diferenças para a integridade de membrana plasmática e para o índice de fragmentação de DNA quando comparados, respectivamente, GC, G1 e G2 em cada um dos quatro momentos experimentais. Conclui-se que mesmo quando empregadas altas forças de rotação não ocorre lesão à ultraestrutura dos espermatozoides caprinos submetidos ao processo de refrigeração.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Spermatozoa/classification , Ruminants/embryology , Cell Membrane , Cell Survival
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