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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(2): 89-92, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510662

ABSTRACT

El linfoma primario del sistema nervioso central es una forma de enfermedad extraganglionar originada en el cerebro, la leptomeninges, la médula espinal o los ojos. Los tumores espinales son neoplasias de baja prevalencia y pueden causar una morbimortalidad neurológica considerable. El linfoma aislado que surge dentro del conducto dural es la forma menos común de linfoma primario del sistema nervioso central: representa aproximadamente el 1% de los casos y se observa más a menudo en el contexto de diseminación secundaria que como el sitio primario de origen. Los síntomas son inespecíficos y dependen del nivel espinal involucrado. La presentación es insidiosa e incluye dorsalgia, debilidad y dificultad progresiva para la deambulación. La resonancia magnética es la modalidad de elección para búsqueda de lesiones dentro del conducto espinal/raquídeo, en pacientes que presentan síntomas neurológicos. El tratamiento quirúrgico no resulta útil, y el objetivo principal de la cirugía es conocer el diagnóstico histológico. (AU)


A primary central nervous system lymphoma is a form of extranodal disease originating in the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord, or eyes. Spinal tumors are low-prevalence neoplasms and can cause considerable neurological morbidity and mortality. An isolated lymphoma emerging within the dural canal is the rarest form of primary central nervous system lymphoma: it accounts for approximately 1% of cases occurring more often in the context of secondary dissemination than as the primary site of origin. Symptoms are nonspecific and depend on the spinal level involved. The presentation is insidious and includes dorsalgia, weakness, and progressive difficulty in ambulatory function. MRI is the modality of choice to search for lesions within the spinal/rachial canal in patients presenting with neurological symptoms. Surgical treatment is not helpful, and the main objective of surgery is to know the histological diagnosis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Central Nervous System/pathology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography , Laminectomy
3.
Rev. neuro-psiquiatr. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 68-76, ene. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1442086

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El presente artículo describe las características clínicas e imagenológicas de seis pacientes en edad pediátrica con diagnóstico de tumor cerebral atendidos en dos instituciones privadas de Lima durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de casos de tumor cerebral en pacientes menores de 18 años, atendidos en dos clínicas privadas de Lima, desde marzo 2020 a diciembre 2021. Resultados: Seis casos consecutivos de tumores intracraneales fueron detectados durante la mayor parte del primer año de la pandemia COVID-19 (periodo de octubre del 2020 a marzo del 2021), todos ellos con el diagnóstico de sarcoma intracraneal primario. Antes de la pandemia, el último sarcoma intracraneal primario en niños operado en las instituciones mencionadas ocurrió en junio del 2018 y fue el único caso de este tipo de tumor en el año. Conclusiones: Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, se encontró una inusual frecuencia de sarcoma intracraneal primario en niños en dos instituciones privadas de Lima.


SUMMARY Objective: The article describes the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of six children with the diagnosis of brain tumor attended in two private institutions from Lima, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods: Descriptive study of cases of brain tumor in patients aged 18 and younger, followed at two private institutions in in Lima, from March 2020 to December 2021. Results: Six consecutive cases of intracranial tumors were detected during a large part of the COVID-19 pandemic's first year (October 2020 to March 2021), all of them with diagnosis of primary intracranial sarcoma. Before the pandemic, the last primary intracranial sarcoma in children, operated in the mentioned institutions, occurred in June 2018 and was the only case that year. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, an unusual frequency of primary intracranial sarcoma in children was found in two private institutions from Lima.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pediatrics , Sarcoma , Brain Neoplasms , Case Reports , Central Nervous System , Patients , COVID-19
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 491-502, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971583

ABSTRACT

As prominent immune cells in the central nervous system, microglia constantly monitor the environment and provide neuronal protection, which are important functions for maintaining brain homeostasis. In the diseased brain, microglia are crucial mediators of neuroinflammation that regulates a broad spectrum of cellular responses. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the multifunctional contributions of microglia to homeostasis and their involvement in neurodegeneration. We further provide a comprehensive overview of therapeutic interventions targeting microglia in neurodegenerative diseases. Notably, we propose microglial depletion and subsequent repopulation as promising replacement therapy. Although microglial replacement therapy is still in its infancy, it will likely be a trend in the development of treatments for neurodegenerative diseases due to its versatility and selectivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microglia/physiology , Central Nervous System , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Brain/physiology , Homeostasis
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 519-530, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971575

ABSTRACT

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is one of the most prevalent pathologic processes affecting 5% of people over 50 years of age and contributing to 45% of dementia cases. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the pathological roles of chronic hypoperfusion, impaired cerebral vascular reactivity, and leakage of the blood-brain barrier in CSVD. However, the pathogenesis of CSVD remains elusive thus far, and no radical treatment has been developed. NG2 glia, also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells, are the fourth type of glial cell in addition to astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system. Many novel functions for NG2 glia in physiological and pathological states have recently been revealed. In this review, we discuss the role of NG2 glia in CSVD and the underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Neuroglia/metabolism , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Astrocytes/metabolism , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/metabolism , Antigens/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 379-392, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971559

ABSTRACT

Glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) are composed of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. They contribute more than half of the total cells of the CNS, and are essential for neural development and functioning. Studies on the fate specification, differentiation, and functional diversification of glial cells mainly rely on the proper use of cell- or stage-specific molecular markers. However, as cellular markers often exhibit different specificity and sensitivity, careful consideration must be given prior to their application to avoid possible confusion. Here, we provide an updated overview of a list of well-established immunological markers for the labeling of central glia, and discuss the cell-type specificity and stage dependency of their expression.


Subject(s)
Neuroglia/metabolism , Central Nervous System , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Astrocytes/metabolism , Microglia
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985474

ABSTRACT

Choline is an essential nutrient that plays an integral role in all stages of the life cycle, with increasing interest in the relationship between choline and neurodevelopment. Choline is a major component in the synthesis of phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and sphingolipids, and is an essential nutrient for methyl metabolism, acetylcholine synthesis and cell signaling. Choline plays an important role in neurogenesis and neural migration during fetal development, potentially influencing the development and prognosis of neurological disorders, but its mechanism of action is not yet clear. This article reviews the source and metabolism of choline, the effects and mechanism of choline on neurodevelopment and central nervous system related disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Choline/metabolism , Phosphatidylcholines/metabolism , Central Nervous System/metabolism
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981319

ABSTRACT

Tripterygium glycosides liposome(TPGL) were prepared by thin film-dispersion method, which were optimized accor-ding to their morphological structures, average particle size and encapsulation rate. The measured particle size was(137.39±2.28) nm, and the encapsulation rate was 88.33%±1.82%. The mouse model of central nervous system inflammation was established by stereotaxic injection of lipopolysaccharide(LPS). TPGL and tripterygium glycosides(TPG) were administered intranasally for 21 days. The effects of intranasal administration of TPG and TPGL on behavioral cognitive impairment of mice due to LPS-induced central ner-vous system inflammation were estimated by animal behavioral tests, hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining of hippocampus, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) and immunofluorescence. Compared with TPG, TPGL caused less damage to the nasal mucosa, olfactory bulb, liver and kidney of mice administered intranasally. The behavioral performance of treated mice was significantly improved in water maze, Y maze and nesting experiment. Neuronal cell damage was reduced, and the expression levels of inflammation and apoptosis related genes [tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), BCL2-associated X(Bax), etc.] and glial activation markers [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1(IBA1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP)] were decreased. These results indicated that liposome technique combined with nasal delivery alleviated the toxic side effects of TPG, and also significantly ameliorated the cognitive impairment of mice induced by central nervous system inflammation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Tripterygium , Liposomes , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Administration, Intranasal , Lipopolysaccharides , Central Nervous System , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cardiac Glycosides
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the diagnostic value of the expression levels of cytokines interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-13 (CXCL-13) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for central nervous system infiltration of lymphoma.@*METHODS@#Forty patients diagnosed as lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia in General Hospital of Northern Theater Command from July 2020 to July 2021 were collected and recorded their CSF indexes, including pressure, protein, Pandy test, nucleated cell count, glucose and chlorine content in CSF. The levels of cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and CXCL-13 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#The patients were divided into CNSI (central nervous system infiltration) group and non-CNSI group, the average levels of IL-6, IL-10, CXCL-13 and IL-10/IL-6 ratio in CNSI group were higher than those in non-CNS group, but the difference of IL-10/IL-6 ratio between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Then the patients were divided into protein elevated(n=14) group and protein normal group(n=26), the levels of IL-6 [ (5.78±2.69) pg/ ml] and CXCL-13 [(0.83±0.59) pg/ml] in protein elevated group were significantly higher than those in the protein normal group [IL-6: (2.41±1.16) pg/ml; CXCL-13: (0.38±0.18) pg/ml] (P<0.05). Further analysis of the expression levels of the cytokines in non-CNSI group (n=32), IL-6, IL-10, CXCL-13 level and IL-10/IL-6 ratio in the protein elevated group (n=12) were higher than those in the protein normal group (n=20), but the difference was not statistically significant.@*CONCLUSION@#The levels of IL-6, IL-10 and CXCL-13 in CSF of lymphoma patients with CNS infiltration were higher than those in non-CNS infiltration group, and those in patients with protein elevated group are higher than those in the protein normal group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System , Cytokines , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lymphoma
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971085

ABSTRACT

Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are a group of structurally related polypeptides which constitute an elaborate signaling system with their receptors. Evidence accumulated in the years suggests that the FGF family plays a key role in the repair of central nervous system injury. The main protective mechanisms include activating the expression of PI3K-Akt, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) and other signals; inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis; regulating neuronal differentiation and neuronal excitability as well as participating in protection of neurovascular units and nerve function repair. This paper comprehensively summarizes the latest research progress in FGF signaling related to diseases of the central nervous system such as cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy and depression, aiming to provide scientific basis and reference for the development of innovative FGF drugs for the prevention and treatment of neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Alzheimer Disease
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for the diagnosis of fetuses with anomalies of the central nervous system (CNS) and summarize the outcome of the pregnancies and follow-up.@*METHODS@#A total of 636 fetuses from June 2014 to December 2020 who were referred to the Prenatal Diagnosis Center of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital due to abnormal CNS prompted by ultrasound were selected as the research subjects. Based on the ultrasound findings, the fetuses were divided into ventricular dilatation group (n = 441), choroid plexus cyst group (n = 41), enlarged posterior fossa group (n = 42), holoprosencephaly group (n = 15), corpus callosum hypoplasia group (n = 22), and other anomaly group (n = 75). Meanwhile, they were also divided into isolated (n = 504) and non-isolated (n = 132) groups based on the presence of additional abnormalities. Prenatal samples (amniotic fluid/chorionic villi/umbilical cord blood) or abortus tissue were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA and CMA assay. Outcome of the pregnancies and postnatal follow-up were summarized and subjected to statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#In total 636 fetuses with CNS anomalies (including 89 abortus tissues) were included, and 547 cases were followed up. The overall detection rate of CMA was 11.48% (73/636). The detection rates for the holoprosencephaly group, ACC group, choroid plexus cyst group, enlarged posterior fossa group, ventricular dilatation group and other anomaly group were 80% (12/15), 31.82% (7/22), 19.51% (8/41), 14.29% (6/42), 7.48% (33/441) and 9.33% (7/75), respectively. Compared with the isolated CNS anomaly group, the detection rate for the non-isolated CNS anomaly group was significantly higher (6.35% vs. 31.06%) (32/504 vs. 41/132) (χ² = 62.867, P < 0.001). Follow up showed that, for 52 fetuses with abnormal CMA results, 51 couples have opted induced labor, whilst 1 was delivered at full term with normal growth and development. Of the 434 fetuses with normal CMA results, 377 were delivered at full term (6 had developmental delay), and 57 couples had opted induced labor. The rate of adverse pregnancy outcome for non-isolated CNS abnormal fetuses was significantly higher than that of isolated CNS abnormal fetuses (26.56% vs. 10.54%) (17/64 vs. 39/370) (χ² = 12.463, P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Fetuses with CNS anomaly should be tested with CMA to determine the genetic cause. Most fetuses with negative CMA result have a good prognosis, but there is still a possibility for a abnormal neurological phenotype. Fetuses with CNS abnormalities in conjunct with other structural abnormalities are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Holoprosencephaly , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Central Nervous System , Fetus/abnormalities , Nervous System Malformations/genetics , Microarray Analysis , Central Nervous System Diseases , Cysts , Chromosome Aberrations , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970358

ABSTRACT

There are a variety of post-transcriptional modifications in mRNA, which regulate the stability, splicing, translation, transport and other processes of mRNA, followed by affecting cell development, body immunity, learning and cognition and other important physiological functions. m6A modification is one of the most abundant post-transcriptional modifications widely existing in mRNA, regulating the metabolic activities of RNA and affecting gene expression. m6A modified homeostasis is critical for the development and maintenance of the nervous system. In recent years, m6A modification has been found in neurodegenerative diseases, mental diseases and brain tumors. This review summarizes the role of m6A methylation modification in the development, function and related diseases of the central nervous system in recent years, providing potential clinical therapeutic targets for neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Methylation , Central Nervous System/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA
13.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 37-42, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970122

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the clinicopathological characteristics, and further understand primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma (PCNSTCL) in children and adolescents. Methods: Five cases of PCNSTCL in children and adolescents were collected from December 2016 to December 2021 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. The clinicopathological characteristics, immunophenotypic, and molecular pathologic features were analyzed, and relevant literatures reviewed. Results: There were two male and three female patients with a median age of 14 years (range 11 to 18 years). There were two peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified, two anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive and one NK/T cell lymphoma. Pathologically, the tumor cells showed a variable histomorphologic spectrum, including small, medium and large cells with diffuse growth pattern and perivascular accentuation. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed CD3 expression in four cases, and CD3 was lost in one case. CD5 expression was lost in four cases and retained in one case. ALK and CD30 were expressed in two cases. One tumor expressed CD56 and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. All cases showed a cytotoxic phenotype with expression of TIA1 and granzyme B. Three cases had a high Ki-67 index (>50%). T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement was clonal in two cases. Conclusions: PCNSTCL is rare, especially in children and adolescents. The morphology of PCNSTCL is diverse. Immunohistochemistry and TCR gene rearrangement play important roles in the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Central Nervous System/pathology , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Lymphoma, T-Cell/pathology , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral/genetics , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982347

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are a class of extracellular vesicles with a structure of lipid bilayer-membrane. In the central nervous system (CNS), exosomes can be secreted from both neurons and glial cells. Exosomes released into the extracellular matrix can freely cross the blood-brain barrier and function as crucial carriers of cellular communication and substance exchange in the CNS. Exosomes play a key role in the pathological process of mental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder, and they have the potential to be used as a targeted carrier of antipsychotic medications. Exosomes are likely to become a new tool in the future to aid in the early prevention, accurate diagnosis, and effective treatment for people with mental disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exosomes/physiology , Extracellular Vesicles/physiology , Central Nervous System , Mental Disorders , Blood-Brain Barrier
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Glioma is the most common malignant tumor in the central nervous system, and the hypoxic microenvironment is prevalent in solid tumors. This study aims to investigate the up-regulation of genes under the condition of hypoxia and their roles in glioma growth, as well as their impact on glioma prognosis.@*METHODS@#The hypoxia-related dataset with glioma was screened in the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO), and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed between hypoxia and normoxia through bioinformatics, and chromosome 10 open reading frame 10 (C10orf10) was verified and screened in hypoxia-treated cells through real-time PCR and Western blotting. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) datasets were downloaded to analyze the mRNA expression of C10orf10 in different grades of glioma and its impact on prognosis. The glioma specimens and follow-up data of 68 gliomas who underwent surgical treatment in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from March 2017 to January 2021 were collected, and real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of C10orf10 in different grades of glioma, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the relationship between the expression C10orf10 and prognosis. The glioma cells, which could interfere the expression of C10orf10, were constructed, and the effect of C10orf10 on the proliferation of glioma cells was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the condition of normoxia, the expression levels of C10orf10 mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated in glioma cells under hypoxia (P<0.001), and the mRNA expression level of C10orf10 in glioma tissues was up-regulated with the increase of WHO grade in glioma (P<0.001). Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the higher the mRNA expression level of C10orf10 was, the shorter the survival time of the patient was (P<0.05). And the expression of C10orf10 mRNA was higher in recurrent gliomas than that in primary gliomas in the CGGA database (P<0.001). Knockdown of C10orf10 could significantly inhibit the growth of glioma cells both under hypoxia and normoxia (both P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The expression level of C10orf10 can promote the proliferation and prognosis of glioma, which is expected to become a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for glioma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System , Glioma/genetics , Hypoxia , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
16.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 188-195, Apr.-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448354

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Oncohematological patients require the evaluation for possible infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by neoplastic cells at diagnosis and/or during the monitoring of the chemotherapeutic treatment. Morphological analysis using conventional microscopy is considered the method of choice to evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, despite technical limitations. Objective This study aimed to compare the performance of the cytomorphology and flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FC) in the detection of CNS infiltration. Method We evaluated 520 CSF samples collected from 287 oncohematological patients for whom the detection of neoplastic cells was simultaneously requested by cytomorphology and FC. Results Laboratory analyses revealed 435/520 (83.7%) conclusive results by the two methods evaluated, among which 385 (88.5%) were concordant. Discordance between the methods was observed in 50/435 (11.5%) samples, 45 (90%) being positive by FC. Furthermore, the FC defined the results in 69/72 (95.8%) inconclusive samples by cytomorphology. The positivity of FC was particularly higher among hypocellular samples. Among 431 samples with a cell count of < 5/μL, the FC identified neoplastic cells in 75 (17.4%), while the cytomorphology reported positive results in 26 (6%). Among the samples that presented adequate cell recovery for evaluation by both methods (506/520), the comparative analysis between FC and cytomorphology revealed a Kappa coefficient of 0.45 (CI: 0.37-0.52), interpreted as a moderate agreement. Conclusion The data showed that the CSF analysis by FC helps in the definition of CNS infiltration by neoplastic cells, particularly in the cases with dubious morphological analysis or in the evaluation of samples with low cellularity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms , Flow Cytometry , Patients , Central Nervous System , Cerebrospinal Fluid
17.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1423753

ABSTRACT

La paracoccidiodomicosis es la micosis sistémica más frecuente en América Latina. La afectación del sistema nervioso central (SNC) está descrita en un 10-27%. El objetivo es presentar dos pacientes del sexo masculino con neuroparacoccidiodomicosis internados en el Departamento de Medicina Interna del Hospital Nacional, uno en el año 2017 y el otro en el 2021. Ambos pacientes presentaron síntomas neurológicos con mejoría de las lesiones con anfotericina B. Los granulomas cerebrales de PCM pueden tener comportamiento pseudotumoral. La regresión de las lesiones fue completa con anfotericina B y trimetoprin sulfametoxasol en el primer caso y anfotericina B e itraconazol en el segundo caso.


Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most common systemic mycosis in Latin America. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is described in 10-27%. The objective is to present two male patients with neuroparacoccidioidomycosis admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine of the National Hospital, one in 2017 and the other in 2021. Both patients presented neurological symptoms with improvement of the lesions with amphotericin B. The granulomas brain cells of PCM may have pseudotumor behavior. Regression of the lesions was complete with amphotericin B and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole in the first case and amphotericin B and itraconazole in the second case.


Subject(s)
Paracoccidioidomycosis , Signs and Symptoms , Paraguay , Behavior , Central Nervous System
18.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e246584, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422412

ABSTRACT

Este relato de experiência, situado no campo do cuidado a pessoas usuárias de álcool e outras drogas em contextos marcados por violência, tem como objetivo explorar os limites, desafios e caminhos possíveis, em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas (Caps AD III), para a sustentação de um cuidado orientado pela compreensão das pessoas usuárias do Caps a partir da sua existência, sofrimento e relação com o corpo social, mesmo diante de comportamentos tidos como violentos. De caráter qualitativo, o percurso de pesquisa foi conduzido por meio de dois recursos metodológicos: o relato de experiência, referente à trajetória de uma das autoras no Programa de Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde Mental do Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ), e a metodologia caso traçador ou usuário-guia. O trabalho de cuidar de pessoas expostas à necropolítica exige um posicionamento ético dos trabalhadores de saúde mental de engendrar processos de resistências e produção de vida. Pela radicalidade que é vivenciá-la, a violência comparece como um elemento dificultador desse trabalho para os profissionais, fazendo com que, diante do desamparo, por vezes utilizem lógicas disciplinares para conseguir lidar com esse fenômeno. Propõe-se abordar as cenas nomeadas como violentas nos Caps com base na noção de situação-limite, retirando a situação da malha de sentidos que acompanha a palavra e remete a práticas disciplinares e ao contexto da violência urbana. Essa mudança de paradigma abre a possibilidade de que os trabalhadores se incluam nas situações, as entendam como relacionadas à complexidade e à singularidade da existência das pessoas envolvidas e, assim, proponham soluções produtoras de vida.(AU)


This experience report, situated in the field of care for people who use alcohol and other drugs in contexts marked by violence, aims to explore the limits, challenges, and possible paths, at a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS AD III), to support care guided by the knowledge of CAPS users based on their existence, suffering, and relationship with the social body, even in the face of behaviors considered to be violent. The path of this qualitative research was conducted with two methodological resources: the experience report, referring to the trajectory of one of the authors at the Multiprofessional Residency Program in Mental Health at the Institute of Psychiatry at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ), and the methodology of case tracer or user-guide. The work of caring for people exposed to necropolitics requires an ethical positioning of mental health workers to build resistance processes and life production. Due to it is radical to experience, violence appears as a complicating element of this work for the professionals, forcing them to, due to the lack of support, occasionally use disciplinary reasoning to deal with this phenomenon. This study proposes to approach violent scenarios in the CAPS under the guise of limit-situation, withdrawing the situation from the web of meanings that accompany the word and refer to disciplinary actions and the context of urban violence. This paradigmatic change opens the path for workers to include themselves in these situations, to understand their relationship with the complexity and singularity of the existence of the implicated people, and thus offer solutions that produce life.(AU)


Este reporte de experiencia se sitúa en el área de la atención a las personas que consumen alcohol y otras drogas en contexto de violencia y tiene por objetivo explorar los límites, desafíos y caminos posibles en un Centro de Atención Psicosocial Alcohol y Drogas (Caps AD III), para ofrecer un cuidado a los usuarios basado en la comprensión de las personas usuarias del Caps considerando su existencia, sufrimiento y relación con el cuerpo social, incluso ante situaciones violentas. Esta es una investigación cualitativa que se basó en dos recursos metodológicos: el reporte de experiencia sobre la trayectoria de una de las autoras en el Programa de Residencia Multiprofesional en Salud Mental de la Universidad Federal de Río de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ) y de la metodología del caso trazador o usuario guía. La labor de asistir a las personas expuestas a la necropolítica requiere un posicionamiento ético de los profesionales de la salud mental de producir vida y procesos de resistencia. Por la radicalidad de la experiencia, la violencia es un obstáculo para el trabajo de los profesionales, lo que los llevan a actuar de forma disciplinaria para hacer frente a este fenómeno. Se propone aquí abordar las escenas violentas bajo la noción de situación límite en el Caps, sacando del contexto la red semántica que acompaña la palabra y alude a las prácticas disciplinarias y la violencia urbana. Este cambio de paradigma permite que los trabajadores se incluyan en las situaciones, las comprendan en relación con la complejidad y la singularidad de la existencia de las personas y propongan soluciones que produzcan vida.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Violence , Mental Health , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Occupied Territories , Poverty , Psychology , Public Policy , Social Change , Social Work , Tobacco , Tranquilizing Agents , Unconsciousness , World Health Organization , Emergency Feeding , Shyness , Neurosciences , Brazil , Ill-Housed Persons , Bereavement , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Central Nervous System , Crack Cocaine , Crime , Death , Harm Reduction , Vulnerable Populations , Depression , Dissociative Disorders , Disease Prevention , User Embracement , Euphoria , Exploratory Behavior , Family Relations , Pleasure , Racism , Social Discrimination , Alcohol Abstinence , Psychological Distress , Workhouses , Social Representation , Metabolism , Antidepressive Agents
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1546-1551, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421808

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The anatomy study is part of the basic cycle of disciplines that composes Veterinary Medicine college curriculum, and its comprehension is essential for other courses subject understanding. However, the current student's profile, the reduced time frame of superior education programs, and the multidisciplinary approach nowadays have made anatomy teaching method outdated and ineffective. Addressing the problem we developed an interactive and multidisciplinary platform based on the blended learning methodology, which could serve as a valuable tool for bovine neuroanatomy comprehension. To produce a new study tool, photos from bovine specimens fixed in formaldehyde, platinated brain pieces sectioned in a metameric order, as well as histological slides of the bovine central nervous system were used. These materials were applied to photos and schemes production, that were correlated with image exams correlation, as well as written content and videotaped classes. The obtained content was compiled into a digital platform, that can serve as an effective additional method to bovine central nervous system study. Furthermore, our results serve as a guide for the development of other blended learning methodologies in veterinary medicine and anatomy teaching. The platform provides a great tool for those who wish to accomplish a better understanding of bovine neuroanatomy and its clinical, surgical and image diagnosis correlations.


El estudio de la anatomía forma parte del ciclo básico de disciplinas que componen el currículo de la facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, y su comprensión es fundamental para el entendimiento de las materias de otros cursos. Sin embargo, el perfil del estudiante actual, la reducción de los tiempos de los programas de educación superior y el enfoque multidisciplinario actual han hecho que el método de enseñanza de la anatomía sea obsoleto e ineficaz. Abordando el problema desarrollamos una plataforma interactiva y multidisciplinar basada en la metodología blended learning, que podría servir como una valiosa herramienta para la comprensión de la neuroanatomía bovina. Para producir una nueva herramienta de estudio, se utilizaron fotografías de especímenes bovinos fijados en formaldehído, piezas de cerebro plastinadas y seccionadas en un orden metamérico, así como láminas histológicas del sistema nervioso central bovino. Estos materiales se utilizaron en la producción de fotos y esquemas, que se correlacionaron con exámenes de imágenes, así como contenido escrito y clases grabadas en video. El contenido obtenido se compiló en una plataforma digital, que puede servir como un método adicional y eficaz para el estudio del sistema nervioso central bovino. Además, nuestros resultados sirven como guía para el desarrollo de otras metodologías de aprendizaje semipresencial en la enseñanza de la medicina veterinaria y la anatomía. La plataforma proporciona una gran herramienta para aquellos que deseen lograr una mejor comprensión de la neuroanatomía bovina y sus correlaciones clínicas, quirúrgicas y de diagnóstico por imágenes.


Subject(s)
Animals , User-Computer Interface , Cattle/anatomy & histology , Central Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Neuroanatomy/education , Software , Education, Veterinary , Plastination , Learning
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(12): 1685-1688, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515404

ABSTRACT

Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is produced by the deposit of hemosiderin within the subpial layers of the central nervous system and central parts of the cranial nerves, leading to progressive degeneration. We report a 55-year-old male who consulted for hearing loss and long-standing progressive decrease in visual acuity, associated with sudden onset of left hemiparesis. A brain CAT scan showed subacute ischemic lesions in the territory of the right posterior cerebral artery (thalamus and right subcortical temporal regions), old ischemic lesions in the right subcortical occipital regions and cerebellar atrophy. A magnetic resonance confirmed the lesions and the presence of superficial diffuse siderosis. A cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed slight xanthochromia, 26 leukocytes/mm3, glucose 51 mg/dL and proteins 1.23 g/L. He was managed with aspirin in low doses and statins. His motor function improved and was discharged two weeks after admission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Siderosis/complications , Siderosis/pathology , Siderosis/diagnostic imaging , Hearing Loss , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Central Nervous System
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