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1.
Educ. med. super ; 36(3): e3074, jul.-set. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1404562

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El COVID-19 es una enfermedad vírica que ha generado gran afectación en la salud de la población global. Varios estudios han demostrado que después de dos o tres meses de la infección por coronavirus los pacientes continúan refiriendo sintomatología: la fatiga, la disnea y el dolor de cabeza son los más frecuentes. Objetivo: Exponer información relevante de carácter científico sobre el síndrome pos-COVID. Desarrollo: Se hizo una revisión de la literatura entre noviembre de 2019 y febrero de 2021, que comprendió las fases de planeación, diseño y gestión, análisis, elaboración y formalización. Se realizó la búsqueda estratégica mediante ScienceDirect, PubMed/Medline, NusrginsOvid, SciELO y Google Académico, a través de la combinación de los operadores OR, AND y NOT. Se consideraron textos completos, en español, inglés y portugués, entre 2019 y 2021. Después de realizada la selección y revisión profunda se obtuvieron 38 artículos que cumplieron con el objetivo planeado, los cuales fueron sometidos a la metodología PRISMA. Conclusiones: Existe un síndrome pos-COVID, el cual se relaciona de forma directa con un proceso de inflamación multisistémico, lo que evidencia síntomas en pacientes después de tres meses de culminado el proceso infeccioso. Entre estos, la fatiga, la disnea y el dolor de cabeza resultan los más frecuentes; además de consecuencias cardíacas, psicológicas y neurobiológicas(AU)


Introduction: COVID-19 is a viral disease that has caused great affectation in the health of the global population. Several studies have shown that two to three months after coronavirus infection patients continue to report symptoms, fatigue, dyspnea and headache being the most frequent. Objective: To present relevant scientific information on post-COVID-19 syndrome. Development: A literature review was conducted between November 2020 and February 2021, consisting of the phases of planning, design and management, analysis, elaboration and formalization. The strategic search was carried out using ScienceDirect, PubMed/Medline, NusrginsOvid, SciELO and Google Scholar, through the combination of the Boolean operators OR, AND and NOT. Full texts were considered, in Spanish, English and Portuguese, from 2019 to 2021. After the selection and an in-depth review, 38 articles were obtained that met the set objective, which were processed with the PRISMA methodology. Conclusions: There is a post-COVID-19 syndrome, directly related to a multisystem inflammatory process, which shows symptoms in patients three months after the end of the infectious process. Among these, fatigue, dyspnea and headache are the most frequent, in addition to cardiac, psychological and neurobiological consequences(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Syndrome , Central Nervous System , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Impacts of Polution on Health , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Mental Health , Mast Cell Activation Syndrome/etiology
3.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 21(3): e4710, mayo.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409482

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El SARS-CoV-2 afecta principalmente al sistema respiratorio, pero el daño producido por este virus también se extiende a otros sistemas, incluido el sistema nervioso, y los mecanismos de infección neurológica pueden ser directos o indirectos. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre las manifestaciones neurológicas y la severidad de la enfermedad en pacientes sintomáticos positivos a la COVID-19. Hospital San Vicente de Paúl. 2021. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional de corte transversal, empleando el registro de historias clínicas de los pacientes hospitalizados con la COVID-19 y manifestaciones neurológicas, las cuales se clasificaron en manifestaciones del sistema nervioso central y manifestaciones del sistema nervioso periférico. Resultados: 74,1 % pacientes presentaron manifestaciones neurológicas, el mayor porcentaje se concentró en pacientes que desarrollaron enfermedad grave (15 [60 %], SNC; 91 [77,1 %], SNP; 125 [65,4 %], SNC y SNP). La presencia conjunta de manifestaciones neurológicas centrales y periféricas se asoció significativamente con la COVID-19 crítica (P valor= 0,011; OR: 2,005). El índice de mortalidad alcanzó 2,69 %. Conclusiones: Las manifestaciones neurológicas en pacientes hospitalizados con la COVID-19 son muy frecuentes, y la COVID-19 crítica tiene mayor probabilidad de presentar manifestaciones neurológicas.


ABSTRACT Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 mainly affects the respiratory system, but the damage caused by this virus also extends to other systems, including the nervous system, and the mechanisms of neurological infection can be direct or indirect. Objective: To determine the relationship between neurological manifestations and disease severity in symptomatic COVID-19 positive patients at San Vicente de Paul Hospital in 2021. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using medical records of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and neurological manifestations, which were classified into manifestations of the central nervous system and manifestations of the peripheral nervous system. Results: The results show that 74,1 % of patients presented neurological manifestations; the highest percentage was concentrated in patients who developed severe disease (15 [60 %], CNS; 91 [77,1 %], PNS; 125 [65,4 %], CNS and PNS). The joint presence of central and peripheral neurological manifestations was significantly associated with critical COVID-19 (P value= 0,011; OR: 2,005). The mortality rate reached 2,69 %. Conclusions: Neurological manifestations in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are very common, and critical COVID-19 is more likely to have neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Severity of Illness Index , Central Nervous System , Catastrophic Illness , COVID-19 , Neurologic Manifestations
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 860-866, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385670

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The study of animal neurology has historically focused on the closest descendants of humans, such as monkeys and chimpanzees. Because of this, the neurology of birds remains poorly studied and understood by humans compared to other groups of animals. Thus, the objective was to describe the central nervous system to better understand its functioning, correlating the findings with the role it plays in the physiology and biology of birds, comparing species with different behaviors between herbivores and carnivores, filling gaps in the literature serving as subsidy for future research.


RESUMEN: El estudio de la neurología animal se ha centrado históricamente en los descendientes más cercanos de los humanos, como los monos y los chimpancés. Debido a esto, la neurología de las aves sigue siendo poco estudiada y comprendida, en comparación con la de otros grupos de animales. Así, el objetivo fue describir el sistema nervioso central para comprender mejor su funcionamiento, correlacionando los hallazgos con el rol que juega en la fisiología y biología de las aves, comparando especies con diferentes comportamientos entre herbívoros y carnívoros y llenando vacíos en la literatura que sirvan como base para futuras investigaciones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parrots , Central Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Strigiformes
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 131-155, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393364

ABSTRACT

Bacopa monnieri(L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), also known as Brahmi, has been used to improve cognitive processes and intellectual functions that are related to the preservation of memory. The objective of this research is to review the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemical composition, toxicity and activity of B. monnieri in the central nervous system. It reviewed articles on B. monnieri using Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline, and PubMed. Saponins are the main compounds in extracts of B. monnieri. Pharmacological studies showed that B. monnieri improves learning and memory and presents biological effects against Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. No preclinical acute toxicity was reported. However, gastrointestinal side effects were reported in some healthy elderly individuals. Most studies with B. monnieri have been preclinical evaluations of cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system and further translational clinical research needs to be performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the plant.


Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), también conocida como Brahmi, se ha utilizado para mejorar los procesos cognitivos y las funciones intelectuales que están relacionadas con la preservación de la memoria. El objetivo de esta investigación es revisar las aplicaciones etnobotánicas, composición fitoquímica, toxicidad y actividad de B. monnieri en el sistema nervioso central. Se revisaron artículos sobre B. monnieri utilizando Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline y PubMed. Las saponinas son los principales compuestos de los extractos de B. monnieri. Los estudios farmacológicos mostraron que B. monnieri mejora el aprendizaje y la memoria y presenta efectos biológicos contra la enfermedad de Alzheimer, la enfermedad de Parkinson, la epilepsia y la esquizofrenia. No se informó toxicidad aguda preclínica. Sin embargo, se informaron efectos secundarios gastrointestinales en algunos ancianos sanos. La mayoría de los estudios con B. monnieri han sido evaluaciones preclínicas de los mecanismos celulares en el sistema nervioso central y es necesario realizar más investigaciones clínicas traslacionales para evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de la planta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Bacopa/chemistry , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Saponins/analysis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Triterpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Cognition/drug effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Phytochemicals
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 222-231, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis is the most prevalent parasitic disease of the central nervous system in Chile, where sporadic cases are reported, without information about the epidemiology or distribution of the disease. AIM: To identify the main risk zones for cysticercosis in Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of hospital discharge databases between 2002 and 2019, available at the website of the Chilean Ministry of Health. Cases with B69 code of the tenth international classification of diseases were identified. RESULTS: In the study period, there were 1752 discharges with the diagnoses of neurocysticercosis, ocular cysticercosis and cysticercosis of other sites. The ages of patients ranged from 0 to 89 years with a clustering between 30 and 59 years. Sixty two percent were males. The zone between the regions of Maule and Araucania concentrated 82% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the zone with the greatest concentration of cysticercosis in Chile, where preventive strategies should eventually be directed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cysticercosis/diagnosis , Cysticercosis/parasitology , Cysticercosis/epidemiology , Neurocysticercosis/parasitology , Neurocysticercosis/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Central Nervous System , Chile/epidemiology
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 153-160, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364374

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Melanocytic lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are an infrequent, broad and diverse group of entities, both benign and malignant, found in all age groups, with imaging findings ranging from well-circumscribed focal lesions to diffuse leptomeningeal involvement. On MRI, they are usually distinguished by a high signal on T1WI sequences, given the paramagnetic effect of melanin, thus making it difficult to differentiate among them. Objective: To describe the imaging and epidemiological characteristics of a retrospective series of CNS melanocytic lesions. Methods: MR images of 23 patients with CNS melanocytic lesions diagnosed between January 2012 and June 2018 were analyzed. Results: Most patients were female (14/23; 61%), with a median age of 47 years (range: 3 weeks to 72 years). The primary melanocytic lesions accounted for 8/19 cases (42.1%), which included neurocutaneous melanosis, meningeal melanocytomas and primary malignant melanomas. Secondary melanocytic lesions (metastatic) accounted for 10/19 cases (52.6%). There was one case of a tumor with secondary melanization, from a melanocytic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. There were also four cases of primary ocular melanomas. The most frequent findings were the cerebral location, high T1WI signal and marked contrast-enhancement. Conclusions: The present review describes the wide variety of melanocytic lesions that could affect the CNS, emphasizing the MRI characteristics. Knowledge of the imaging, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of CNS melanocytic lesions is essential for their correct interpretation, given the significant overlap between lesion features and the variable prognosis.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: Las lesiones melanocíticas del sistema nervioso central (SNC) corresponden a un grupo infrecuente, amplio y diverso de entidades, tanto benignas como malignas, encontradas en todos los grupos etarios, con hallazgos imagenológicos que van desde lesiones focales bien circunscritas hasta un compromiso leptomeníngeo difuso. A la RM se distinguen por la alta señal en la secuencia T1WI, dado el efecto paramagnético de la melanina, haciendo difícil la diferenciación entre ellas. Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas y de de una serie retrospectiva de lesiones melanocíticas del SNC. Métodos: Revisión de imágenes de RM de 23 pacientes con lesiones melanocíticas del SNC diagnosticadas entre enero de 2012 y junio de 2018. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fueron mujeres (14/23; 61%), con edades comprendidas entre las 3 semanas de vida hasta los 72 años. Las lesiones melanocíticas primarias representaron 8/19 (42,1%), incluyendo: melanosis neurocutáneas, melanocitomas meníngeos y melanomas malignos primarios. Las lesiones melanocíticas secundarias (metastásicas) representaron 10/19 casos (52,6%). Hubo un caso de tumor con melanización secundaria (tumor neuroectodermico melanocítico de la infancia). Se incluyeron cuatro casos de melanomas oculares primarios. Los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron la localización cerebral, el aumento de señal T1 y el acentuado realce con el gadolinio. Conclusiones: Se describe la amplia variedad de lesiones melanocíticas encontradas en el SNC, enfatizando sus características a la RM. El conocimiento de sus características imagenológicas, clínicas y epidemiológicas es fundamental para su correcta interpretación, dado la notable superposición entre las presentaciones de las lesiones y lo variable de sus pronósticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Melanosis/complications , Melanosis/pathology , Nevus, Pigmented/complications , Nevus, Pigmented/pathology , Skin Neoplasms , Central Nervous System/pathology , Retrospective Studies
8.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(6): 850-858, Fevereiro 7, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358282

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A esclerose múltipla é uma doença inflamatória, desmielinizante, progressiva e sem cura, que afeta o sistema nervoso central e gera déficits físicos e cognitivos. É geralmente na fase grave da doença que o indivíduo procura atendimento médico devido à gravidade dos sintomas. Objetivo: Caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico de pacientes com esclerose múltipla internados em hospitais públicos do Pará entre 2008-2018. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo realizado através de informações secundárias armazenadas na plataforma online SIS/DATASUS. Resultados: O número de internações por esclerose múltipla nos hospitais públicos do Pará foi de 96 casos. As regiões com mais internações foram as localidades fora da área metropolitana (73,96%), identificou-se maior prevalência no sexo feminino (55,21%), na faixa etária de 30 a 39 anos (32,29%), na raça parda (48,96%), a maioria das internações foram de urgência (95,83%), o tempo médio de internação foi de 10,5 dias e a taxa de mortalidade foi de 2,08%. Conclusão: Este estudo apresenta limitações por se tratar de dados secundários e pelo número limitado de estudos epidemiológicos para discussão, porém é um estudo pioneiro na área que abre um leque de possibilidades e norteia novas pesquisas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Epidemiologic Studies , Central Nervous System , Hospitals, Public , Multiple Sclerosis , Hospitalization
10.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 407-412, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935554

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate immunohistochemical patterns of CXorf67 and H3K27me3 proteins in central nervous system germ cell tumors (GCTs) and to assess their values in both diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods: A total of 370 cases of central nervous system GCTs were collected from 2013 to 2020 at Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. The expression of CXorf67, H3K27me3 and commonly-used GCT markers including OCT4, PLAP, CD117, D2-40, and CD30 by immunohistochemistry (EnVision method) was examined in different subtypes of central nervous system GCTs. The sensitivity and specificity of each marker were compared by contingency table and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Of the 370 cases there were 282 males and 88 females with a mean age of 19 years and a median age of 17 years (range, 2-57 years). Among the GCTs with germinoma, the proportions of male patients and the patients with GCT located in sellar region were both higher than those of GCTs without germinoma (P<0.05), respectively. CXorf67 was present in the nuclei of germinoma and normal germ cells, but not in other subtypes of GCT. H3K27me3 was negative in germinoma, but positive in the nuclei of surrounding normal cells and GCTs other than germinoma. In the 283 GCTs with germinoma components, the expression rate of CXorf67 was 90.5% (256/283), but no cases were positive for H3K27me3. There was also an inverse correlation between them (r2=-0.831, P<0.01). The expression rates of PLAP, OCT4, CD117 and D2-40 were 81.2% (231/283), 89.4% (253/283), 73.9% (209/283) and 88.3% (250/283), respectively. In 63 mixed GCTs with germinoma components, the expression rate of CXorf67 was 84.1% (53/63), while all cases were negative for H3K27me3. The expression rates of PLAP, OCT4, CD117 and D2-40 were 79.4% (50/63), 79.4% (50/63), 66.7% (42/63) and 87.3% (55/63), respectively. The 6 markers with largest area under ROC curve in ranking order were H3K27me3, CXorf67, D2-40, OCT4, PLAP and CD117 (P<0.05). Conclusions: CXorf67 and H3K27me3 have high sensitivity and high specificity in diagnosing germinoma. There is a significant inverse correlation between them. Therefore, they can both be used as new specific immunohistochemical markers for the diagnosis of GCTs.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Germinoma/pathology , Histones , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/diagnosis , Oncogene Proteins , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Young Adult
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935278

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system (CNS) fungal infections are challenging and difficult to diagnose and treat. This article introduces the high risk factors, pathogen spectrum and laboratory indicators that cause CNS fungal infection. As patients with CNS fungal infections are often accompanied by immunodeficiency, it is especially necessary for clinical early detection, early prevention, and early diagnosis, and timely and effective implementation of optimized diagnosis and treatment programs to prevent further deterioration of the disease.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Central Nervous System Infections , Fungi , Humans , Risk Factors
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935275

ABSTRACT

This paper introduces the distribution of global lithium resources and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of lithium in the human body, discussing the positive effect of lithium in the environment on the nervous system and its neuroprotective mechanism. The tiny amounts of lithium that enter the body through the food chain have been linked to beneficial health effects, such as improved cognition and reduced depression and violence. However, the safe dose range of lithium is narrow, and the health effects of drinking high concentrations of lithium water in high-lithium areas are unclear. It is necessary to study the health effects and mechanisms of different doses of lithium, especially high concentrations of lithium in the environment.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Humans , Lithium , Violence
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the prognostic value of serum and cerebrospinal fluid β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with central nervous system invasion after chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#40 patients with leukemia who had been confirmed to have central nervous system infiltration were selected for treatment at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2015 to May 2017, and the serum levels of β2-MG and CSF-β2MG were dynamically monitored and performed statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#After chemotherapy, the changes in serum β2-MG were not statistically significant (P>0.05); the absolute level of CSF-β2MG and the percentage of relative baseline changes were statistically different in different clinical outcome groups(P<0.05), and the decreasing CSF-β2MG levels suggest a better prognosis, with cut-off values of 1.505 and -25%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The best cut-off point may be a predictor of complete remission; the reduction of the absolute and relative levels of CSF-β2MG can suggest a good prognosis for patients.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Humans , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Remission Induction , beta 2-Microglobulin
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927864

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) manifestations of Rosai-Dorfman disease(RDD) in central nervous system. Method The clinical and MRI data of 5 cases of RDD in central nervous system confirmed by pathology in the PLA General Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Results The 5 cases included 4 males and 1 female,aged(39.8±21.7) years on average.Among them,4 cases were located in the intracranial area and 1 case in the thoracic spinal canal.The lesion showed isointense signal on T1 weighted image and iso,slight-hypo,and slight-hyperintense signals on T2 weighted image,and it presented intensively homogeneous enhancement in contrast-enhanced MRI.Two cases showed compressed brain area with edema around the left parietal and left frontotemporal dura,thickening and enhancement in the adjacent dura,and dural tail sign.Three cases presented bone destruction in adjacent diploe and thoracic vertebrae.One case showcased slight-hypo perfusion of the left parietal dura in arterial spin labeling. Conclusions RDD lesion usually appears as iso,slight hypo and slight hyper-intense signals on T2 weighted image and presents intensively homogeneous enhancement in contrast-enhanced MRI.The disease may involve the adjacent bone and the lesion shows slight hypo-perfusion on perfusion images.The MRI manifestations of RDD are characteristic,which are helpful for preoperative diagnosis and evaluation of RDD.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System/pathology , Female , Head , Histiocytosis, Sinus/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Retrospective Studies
15.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(1): 93-95, 2022. il.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391340

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system high-grade neuroepithelial tumors with BCOR alteration are rare. Currently, there are only 24 cases reported in the literature. These tumors are characterized by a change involving the BCOR gene and have a poor prognosis. Studies are needed to improve the current therapy and outcomes of these neoplasms. This case report describes the clinical history of a patient with this disease and aims to contribute to the current knowledge about this new entity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Central Nervous System/pathology , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial/genetics , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial/pathology , Mutation/genetics
17.
Med. lab ; 26(1): 81-89, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370963

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de pulmón es la principal causa de muerte en el mundo por cáncer, y en Colombia es la segunda. Su pronóstico es pobre cuando se ha documentado enfermedad metastásica en el sistema nervioso central. El diagnóstico se basa en el resultado definitivo de patología. Aunque los hallazgos imagenológicos pueden ser muy sugestivos de malignidad, hay reportes de otras enfermedades que pueden imitar cáncer, tales como infecciones o tumores benignos, los cuales pueden llevar a adoptar conductas terapéuticas inapropiadas. Las infecciones fúngicas como las producidas por Criptococcus neoformans, son capaces de generar lesiones que pueden imitar neoplasias. El objetivo de esta publicación es reportar el caso de un hombre a quien inicialmente se le sospechó un carcinoma pulmonar metastásico al sistema nervioso central, y finalmente se le diagnosticó una criptococosis diseminada posterior a su fallecimiento


Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in the world and the second in Colombia, its prognosis is bad when the diagnosis of metastatic disease in the central nervous system is documented. The diagnosis is based on the definitive pathologic result. Although the imaging findings can be highly suggestive of malignancy, there are reports of other conditions that can mimic lung cancer, such as infections or benign tumors, which can lead to inappropriate treatment. Fungal infections such as those caused by Criptococcus neoformans are capable of generating lesions that can mimic neoplasms. The objective of this article is to report the case of a man who was initially diagnosed with metastatic lung carcinoma to the central nervous system, and was finally diagnosed with disseminated cryptococcosis after his death


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis , Biopsy , Bronchoscopy , Central Nervous System , Cryptococcus neoformans , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms
18.
NOVA publ. cient ; 19(37): 25-41, jul.-dic. 2021. gráficos, mapas, tablas e ilustraciones
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365189

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La Diabetes Mellitus es una enfermedad compleja que impacta la salud pública debido a su alta prevalencia, el costo que implica y complicaciones asociadas como lo es la alteración cognitiva. Metodología. Se realizó una revisión de tema consultando literatura nacional e internacional en bases de datos de ciencias sociales y ciencias de la salud entre los años 1990-2019 que exponen la posible asociación entre la diabetes mellitus y deterioro cognitivo, así como las posibles rutas que lo conllevan. Resultados. La literatura consultada plantea una relación entre la diabetes mellitus y complicaciones del sistema nervioso central, lesiones neurológicas, deficiencias en la capacidad de atención, pérdida de la memoria, deterioro cognitivo, un considerable incremento en el riesgo de desarrollar demencia y demencia tipo Alzheimer, sin embargo, no se evidencia un consenso en el grado de afectación que pueda tener sobre los procesos cognitivos. Conclusiones. La naturaleza progresiva tanto de la diabetes mellitus, así como el riesgo vascular asociado, sugieren la necesidad de realizar prevención del deterioro cognitivo en pacientes diagnosticados con diabetes mellitus, a partir de una evaluación integral que incluya pruebas neuropsicológicas dentro de los exámenes de rutina.


Abstract Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a complex and chronic disease that has an impact on public health due to its high prevalence, the implicit economic cost and associated complications like cognitive alterations. Methodology: A review of the topic was carried out across national and international literature in databases of social sciences and health sciences between the years 1990-2019 that expose the possible association between diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment, as well as the possible routes that lead to cognitive alterations. Results: The consulted literature exposed a link between diabetes mellitus and complications of the central nervous system, neurological lesions, attention capacity deficiencies, memory loss, cognitive impairment, and a considerable increase in the risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer's type dementia. Conclusions: The progressive nature of both diabetes mellitus, and associated vascular risk, suggest the need for prevention of cognitive impairment based on a comprehensive evaluation that includes neuropsychological tests within routine examinations in patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Central Nervous System , Public Health , Chronic Disease
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1116-1122, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355708

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Bleeding in hemophiliacs can cause complications in the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS). The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage has reduced after the introduction of prophylactic treatment with factor VIII or IX, but the benefits of this therapy have not yet been evaluated on PNS complications. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neurological complications in hemophiliacs and verify the effect of prophylactic therapy in these patients, including PNS disorders. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the prevalence of CNS and PNS disorders caused by bleeding in hemophiliacs seen at the Hemocentro Regional Norte, Ceará, Brazil, from 1992 to 2018, and we compared the incidence in different periods (before and after the introduction of prophylactic treatment in 2011). Results: Of 75 hemophilia A patients evaluated (4.61/100.000 population), 13.3% (n=10) had either CNS (n=5) or PNS (n=5) disorders secondary to bleeding. Patients submitted to factor VIII replacement prophylactic therapy were less likely to have CNS events: from 1992 to 2011, 5 of 63 patients had CNS disease, while from 2011 to 2018, there were no new cases (p=0.0181). From 2011 to 2018, 5 PNS events occurred in patients without prophylactic therapy, whereas none occurred in those covered by prophylactic therapy (5/20 versus 0/29, p=0.0081). Conclusions: The prevalence of neurological complications in hemophiliacs in our cohort is similar to other studies. Similar to CNS, prophylactic therapy also reduces the risk of PNS complications. This is the first report in the literature showing this benefit.


RESUMO Antecedentes: O sangramento em hemofílicos causa complicações no sistema nervoso central e periférico (SNC e SNP). A incidência de hemorragia intracraniana diminuiu após a introdução da profilaxia com fator VIII ou IX, entretanto esse benefício ainda não foi avaliado no SNP. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de complicações neurológicas em hemofílicos, verificando o efeito da terapia profilática também no SNP. Métodos: Avaliamos retrospectivamente a prevalência de complicações neurológicas causadas ​​por sangramentos em hemofílicos atendidos no Hemocentro Regional Norte, Ceará, Brasil, de 1992 a 2018, comparando a incidência em diferentes períodos (antes e depois da introdução do tratamento profilático em 2011). Resultados: Foram avaliados 75 pacientes com hemofilia A (4,61/100 mil habitantes). Deles, 13,3% (n=10) tinham distúrbios do SNC (n=5) ou do SNP (n=5) secundários a hemorragias. Os pacientes submetidos à terapia profilática com fator VIII apresentaram menor probabilidade de eventos do SNC: de 1992 a 2011, cinco de 63 pacientes apresentaram hemorragia no SNC, enquanto de 2011 a 2018 não ocorreram novos casos (p=0,0181). De 2011 a 2018, cinco eventos no SNP ocorreram entre pacientes sem terapia profilática, e nenhum ocorreu entre aqueles cobertos pela profilaxia (5/20 × 0/29, p=0,0081). Conclusões: A prevalência de complicações neurológicas em hemofílicos em nossa coorte é similar à de outros estudos. Assim como no SNC, a terapia profilática também reduz o risco de complicações no SNP. Este é o primeiro relato na literatura a mostrar esse benefício.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemophilia A/complications , Nervous System Diseases/prevention & control , Brazil , Factor VIII , Central Nervous System , Retrospective Studies , Peripheral Nervous System/physiopathology , Hemorrhage , Nervous System Diseases/etiology
20.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 585-590, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357682

ABSTRACT

La poliomielitis emergió en Europa como enfermedad epidémica a finales del siglo XIX. Durante los años treinta del siglo XX alcanzó gran intensidad en los Estados Unidos y Canadá, pero fue tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial cuando la enfermedad se convirtió en un grave problema de salud pública mundial que castigó terriblemente a varios países del mundo, incluyendo a México. La poliomielitis es una enfermedad viral muy contagiosa que invade el sistema nervioso central (destruye las neuronas motoras) que atemorizó a la población mexicana en la primera mitad del siglo XX, no tanto por las altas cifras de mortalidad y morbilidad sino por sus secuelas paralíticas, como la invalidez, y por el hecho de que afectó a uno de los grupos poblacionales más vulnerables: los niños. La enfermedad afectaba principalmente a los niños menores de cinco años, siendo poco frecuente en los primeros meses de vida del recién nacido debido al efecto protector de la inmunidad que le transfiere la madre al hijo a través de la leche materna; después de ocho meses, al término de la alimentación, el infante podía ser infectado por el poliovirus invadiendo la medula espinal y produciendo la parálisis, más comúnmente de las piernas o tronco. Asimismo, ocasionaba una parálisis en los músculos respiratorios (diafragma) de los niños, a quienes había que auxiliarlos a respirar ya que, si no, se asfixiaban, por lo que se les introducía en unas máquinas conocidas comúnmente como pulmones de acero o pulmotores de tipo Emerson (máquina que permite a una persona respirar cuando esta perdió el control de sus músculos respiratorios, como el diafragma, inventada en 1928 por el ingeniero estadounidense Philip Drinker).


Poliomyelitis emerged in Europe as an epidemic disease at the end of the 19th century. During the thirties of the twentieth century it reached great intensity in the United States and Canada, but it was after the Second World War when the disease became a serious world public health problem, which punished several countries of the world, including Mexico. Poliomyelitis is a very contagious viral disease that invades the central nervous system (destroys motor neurons) that frightened the Mexican population in the first half of the twentieth century, not so much by high mortality and morbidity figures but by its paralytic sequels, like the disability, and by the fact that it affected one of the most vulnerable population groups: children. The disease mainly affected children under five years of age, being rare in the first months of life of the newborn due to the protective effect of immunity that the mother transfers to the son through breast milk; After eight months, at the end of the feed, the infant could be infected by poliovirus by invading the spinal cord and producing paralysis, most commonly of the legs or trunk. Likewise, it caused a paralysis in the respiratory muscles (diaphragm) of children, who had to help them to breathe since, if not, they were suffocated, so they were introduced in machines commonly known as steel lungs or lungs of Emerson type (machine that allows a person to breathe when he lost control of his respiratory muscles, such as the diaphragm, invented in 1928 by the American engineer Philip Drinker).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Poliomyelitis , Public Health , Epidemics , Mexico , Virus Diseases , Central Nervous System , Vulnerable Populations
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