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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 989-994, Jul.-Aug. 2021. ilus, mapas
Article in English | ID: biblio-1285275

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se descrever a ocorrência do Bovine alphaherpesvirus 5 (BoHV5) como causa de meningoencefalite não supurativa em bovinos do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Para tanto, 32 amostras de sistema nervoso embebidas em parafina foram obtidas de animais acometidos por doenças neurológicas atendidos na Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (CBG-UFRPE), entre 2012 e 2016. As amostras foram analisadas quanto à presença do gene da glicoproteína C do BoHV5 por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Dois animais (6,25%) tiveram resultado positivo à PCR, e sua análise de sequenciamento indicou 100% de similaridade para o BoHV5. Os resultados histopatológicos desses dois animais revelaram lesões multifocais de meningoencefalite não supurativa associada à polioencefalomalácia, presença de corpúsculos de inclusão basofílicos, infiltração de células de Gitter e presença de manguitos perivasculares. A PCR se mostra uma importante ferramenta para diferenciação das infecções por BoHV5 de outras enfermidades neurológicas de bovinos, especialmente a raiva.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Herpesvirus 5, Bovine/isolation & purification , Meningoencephalitis/veterinary , Paraffin , Central Nervous System , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 34-43, Ene-Jun 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147878

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una investigación experimental tipo ensayo clínico controlado simple ciego con el fin de evaluar la relajación muscular y los predictores de vía aérea difícil en pacientes programados para cirugía general en el Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio María Pineda. La muestra estuvo conformada por 100 pacientes distribuidos aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de 25 pacientes cada uno. En los grupos Experimental-1 (E-1) y Control-1 (C-1) se utilizó una dosis del bloqueante neuromuscular Bromuro de Rocuronio de 0,6 mg/kg y en los grupos Experimental-2 (E-2) y Control-2 (C-2) de 1 mg/kg. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 34,8 ± 9,8 años; en los grupos E-1 y E-2, los predictores de vía aérea difícil predominantes fueron distancia esternomentoniana (32% y 42%), distancia tiromentoniana (24% y 40%), distancia interincisivos clase I (88% y 92 %), circunferencia de cuello  40 cm (16% y 8 %), Mallampati (88% y 40%), extensión atlanto-occipital (28% y 20%) y protrusión mandibular (28% y 20%). En el 72% y 80% de los pacientes de los grupos experimentales y control no hubo intento adicional de intubación orotraqueal (IOT); el tiempo invertido para alcanzar la IOT fue < 1 minuto en el grupo C-2 (64%) y E-2 (72%). Existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el número de intentos para alcanzar la IOT, la presencia de predictores de vía aérea difícil y la dosis de bloqueante neuromuscular utilizada lo que evidencia de que a medida que se aumenta la dosis del medicamento hay mayor posibilidad de éxitos en la IOT, aun cuando estén presentes predictores de vía aérea difícil(AU)


An experimental simple blind controlled clinical trial was carried out to evaluate muscle relaxation and predictors of difficult airway in patients scheduled for general surgery at the Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio María Pineda. The sample consisted of 100 patients randomly distributed into four groups of 25 patients each. Patients from the Experimental-1 (E-1) and Control-1 (C-1) groups received 0.6 mg/kg of the neuromuscular blocking agent Rocuronium Bromide while Experimetal-2 (E-2) and Control-2 (C-2) patients received a dosage of 1 mg/kg. Average age of participants was 34.8 ± 9.8 years. Predictors of difficult airway in E-1 and E-2 were sternomental distance (32% and 42%, thyromental distance (24% and 40%), interincisive distance class 1 (88% and 92%), neck circumference  40 cm (16% and 8%), Mallampati (88% and 40%), atlanto-occipital extension (28% and 20%) and mandibular protrusion (28% and 20%). In 72% and 80% of patients from the E and C groups there was not an additional attempt of orotracheal intubation (OTI); the time invested to reach the OTI was less than one minute in 64% of patients from the C-2 and 72% of the E-2. There are statistically significant differences between the number of attempts to reach the OTI, presence of predictors of difficult airway and the dose of Rocuronium Bromide which means that as the drug dosage increases, there is a greater possibility of success in the OTI, even when predictors of difficult airway are present(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Airway Management , Intubation, Intratracheal/mortality , Hypoxia , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , General Surgery , Central Nervous System , Anesthesia, Endotracheal
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1329-1334, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With current chemotherapy treatment, >90% of survival has been obtained for Burkitt lymphoma (BL). In this study, the demographic characteristics and treatment outcomes are presented for 78 children in China with central nervous system-positive (CNS+) BL.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study consecutively enrolled 78 CNS+ BL patients in Beijing Children's Hospital (BCH) from 2007 to 2019 who received the BCH B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma regimen (modified by French-American-British mature lymphoma B-cell 96 [FAB/LMB96] C1 arm ± rituximab). Clinical characteristics, methods of disease detection in the CNS, and outcomes were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess prognostic factors.@*RESULTS@#The median age of 65 boys and 13 girls at the time of diagnosis was 5.7 years (ranging from 1 to 14 years). Patients were followed up for a median time of 34 months (ranging from 1 to 72 months). Bone marrow invasion was found in 38 (48.7%) patients. There were 48 (61.5%), 44 (56.4%), and 25 (32%) patients with cranial nerve palsy, intracerebral mass (ICM), and para-meningeal extension, respectively. Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) morphology and CSF immunophenotype appeared in 15 (19.2%) and 15 (19.2%) patients, respectively. There were 69 (88.5%) patients treated with chemotherapy combined with rituximab, and nine patients were treated solely with chemotherapy. Finally, five patients died of treatment-related infection, recurrence occurred for 13, and one developed a second tumor. The 3-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 78.9% ± 4.7% and 71.4% ± 6.0%, respectively. Treatment with chemotherapy only, ICM positivity, and >4 organs involved at diagnosis were independent risk factors.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Rituximab combined with a modified LMB96 regimen has greatly increased the efficacy of treatment for Chinese children with CNS+ BL, and with the continuous collection of outcome data, treatment-related complications are decreasing. For further verification, a large sample multicentre randomized controlled study should be performed to explore a treatment scheme for Chinese children with even greater efficacy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Burkitt Lymphoma/drug therapy , Central Nervous System , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
4.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020233, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153182

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal disease that commonly presents as cutaneous or rhinocerebral infections associated with immunocompromised states. It may exceptionally present as isolated involvement of the brain with a varied clinical presentation, which may be difficult to diagnose early, leading to increased mortality. Herein, we report the case of a 42-year-old immunocompetent female with left-sided limb weakness and a history of recurrent vomiting and headache for the last two years. Clinically, glioma was suspected, but histopathological examination revealed a few broad aseptate fungal hyphae. As no other organ was involved, the diagnosis of isolated cerebral mucormycosis was rendered. Reporting this case, we show an unusual presentation of a central nervous system mucormycosis masquerading a tumor in an immunocompetent patient. The case also highlights the importance of a careful histopathological examination to avoid missing the presence of occasional fungal hyphae. Ideally, recognition of fungal hyphae in the brain, during intraoperative consultation, can prompt brain tissue culture for definitive diagnosis and early empirical antifungal therapy, which may prove life-saving.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Central Nervous System/pathology , Immunocompromised Host , Mucormycosis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880125

ABSTRACT

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma outside the lymph nodes. At present, high-dose chemotherapy based on methotrexate is the standard induction therapy for newly diagnosed PCNSL, but the effective therapy of relapse/refractory and elderly PCNSL is still unclear. With the progress of clinical trials, new drugs and combined treatment method appear constantly, such as rituximab and ibrutinib, the remission rate of refractory and relapsed patients increased, while lenalidomide showed a good activity in the maintenance treatment of elderly patients. This review summarized briefly the recent advances of research on immunocheckpoint inhibitors, immunoregulatory agents, bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Central Nervous System , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/drug therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
6.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2644-2658, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150044

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La enfermedad de Parkinson según la Organización Mundial de Salud, en el año 2016, afectó una persona por cada 100 mayores de 60 años, siendo en cifras absolutas 6,3 millones de personas, y para el año 2030 serán aproximadamente 12 millones de personas en todo el mundo con dicha patología. Este desorden neurodegenerativo, caracterizado por la degradación nigro-estriatal y potenciación de la vía indirecta del circuito motor de los Ganglios Basales sumado al acúmulo de Cuerpos de Lewy en diversas estructuras del Sistema Nervioso Central, afecta progresiva e inevitablemente la calidad de vida de los pacientes, los procederes ablativos del núcleo subtalámico constituyen una alternativa que propicia efecto y seguridad probada en el control de los síntomas de esta enfermedad. Por lo cual se decide describir la ablación del Núcleo subtalámico como tratamiento de la Enfermedad de Parkinson avanzada (AU).


Summary According to the World Health Organization, in 2016 Parkinson's disease affected one person per every 100 people elder 60 years, meaning 6.3 millions of people, and by 2030 it will be around 12 million persons across the world. This neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the nigro-striatal degradation and potentiation of the indirect route of the basal ganglia motor circuit, added to the accumulation of Lewy bodies in several structures of the Central Nervous System, progressively and inevitably affects the life quality of patients. The ablative procedures of the subthalamic nucleus are an alternative that propitiates proven effect and safety in the control of this disease symptoms. Therefore, the authors decided to describe the subthalamic nucleus ablation as a treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parkinson Disease/surgery , Subthalamic Nucleus/surgery , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Therapeutics/methods , Central Nervous System/abnormalities
8.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(4): 291-297, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289333

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a vasculitic disease with an infrequent involvement of the central nervous system. This can lead, in rare cases, to hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP), which is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis that cause a thickening of dura mater. At present, it is crucial to consider GPA in the differential diagnosis of elderly patients with intracranial hypertension. The case is presented of a 60-year-old male with progressive severe headache, vomiting, and wasting syndrome. Physical examination showed pallor, weight loss, and unilateral papilloedema. A gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI scan showed sinusitis, chronic otomastoiditis, and hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Finally, a meningeal biopsy concluded a necrotising granulomatous vasculitis compatible with GPA. However, PR3- and MPO-ANCA were negative. After corticosteroid therapy was initiated, the patient had a favorable outcome during his hospital stay.


RESUMEN La granulomatosis con poliangeítis (GPA) compromete excepcionalmente el sistema nervioso central, conllevando en raras ocasiones a una paquimeningitis hipertrófica (PH), caracterizada por inflamación y fibrosis, que originan un engrosamiento de la duramadre. Actualmente, su consideración es crucial en el diagnóstico diferencial de pacientes ancianos con hipertensión endocraneana. Presentamos el caso de un adulto de 60 anos con cefalea severa progresiva, vómitos, papiledema unilateral y síndrome consuntivo en donde la resonancia magnética cerebral contrastada con gadolinio muestra sinusitis, otomastoiditis y PH. Finalmente, la biopsia de meninges reveló vasculitis granulomatosa necrosante de pequenos y medianos vasos compatible con GPA. Empero, PR3- y MPO-ANCA resultaron negativos. Se inició terapia con corticoides, presentando una evolución clínica favorable durante su hospitalización.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Meningitis , Central Nervous System , Diagnosis , Headache
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1606-1613, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134486

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Disturbances of sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity in the spinal cord as well as degenerated myelin sheaths are observed in diabetic patients and animal models. Indeed, oligodendrocytes (OLs), which are important neuroglial cells, generate myelin in the central nervous system. Spinal enlargement, including cervical and lumbar enlargements, innervates all limbs. Thus, the purposes of this study were to examine and compare the ultrastructural alterations of OLs in spinal enlargements of streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats and controls. Thirteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with STZ in citrate buffer and six control rats were injected with the same buffer solution. All rats were sacrificed after inductions at four (short-term DM) and twenty-four weeks (long-term DM). The selected spinal enlargements were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The OL alterations in both the cervical and lumbar enlargements were apparently the same. In short-term DM, the nuclei of OLs became swelled with chromatin clumping. Cytoplasmic organelles were moderately damaged. In long-term DM, OLs contained shrinkage nuclei with thick heterochromatin clumping. Severely degenerated mitochondria with disrupted cristae and broken membranes were observed. Moreover, distended and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum were observed, and large clear areas were present in the cytoplasm. Additionally, the loosening, splitting, and destruction of myelin lamellae were found. This study can provide important preliminary information about the alteration of OLs in the spinal cords of diabetic patients, which might be involve in the impairments of sensory and motor conduction velocities in these individuals.


RESUMEN: En pacientes diabéticos y modelos animales se observan alteraciones de la velocidad de conducción nerviosa sensorial y motora en la médula espinal, así como vainas de mielina degeneradas. De hecho, los oligodendrocitos (OL), que son importantes células neurogliales, generan mielina en el sistema nervioso central. La intumescencia espinal, a nivel cervical y lumbar, inerva los miembros. Por lo tanto, los propósitos de este estudio fueron examinar y comparar las alteraciones ultraestructurales de los OL en la intumescencia espinal de ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina (STZ) y controles. Se indujeron trece ratas macho Sprague-Dawley con STZ en tampón citrato y se inyectaron seis ratas de control con la misma solución tampón. Todas las ratas se sacrificaron después de la inducción a las cuatro (DM a corto plazo) y a las veinticuatro semanas (DM a largo plazo). Las ampliaciones de la columna seleccionadas se procesaron para microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Las alteraciones de OL en las intumescencias cervical y lumbar eran aparentemente las mismas. En la DM a corto plazo, los núcleos de los OL se hincharon con la acumulación de cromatina. Los orgánulos citoplasmáticos sufrieron daños moderados. En la DM a largo plazo, los OL contenían núcleos de contracción con aglutinación de heterocromatina gruesa. Se observaron mitocondrias severamente degeneradas con crestas y membranas rotas. Además, se observó un retículo endoplásmico rugoso distendido y fragmentado, y estaban presentes grandes áreas claras en el citoplasma. Además, se encontraron el aflojamiento, la división y la destrucción de las laminillas de mielina. Este estudio puede proporcionar información preliminar importante sobre la alteración de los OL en la médula espinal de los pacientes diabéticos, que podría estar involucrada en las alteraciones de las velocidades de conducción sensorial y motora en estos individuos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord/pathology , Oligodendroglia/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Spinal Cord/ultrastructure , Central Nervous System , Oligodendroglia/ultrastructure , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Myelin Sheath
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1803-1809, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134514

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La percepción del dolor resulta de múltiples y dinámicos mecanismos en el sistema nervioso central (SNC) y periférico que inhiben o facilitan el estímulo y respuesta nociceptiva. Sin embargo, la principal capacidad de modulación esta a cargo del SNC. Los estímulos nociceptivos son detectados por terminaciones nerviosas libres de neuronas periféricas que sinaptan con neuronas aferentes secundarias de la médula espinal. Luego estas fibras decusan para formar las vías nociceptivas ascendentes. Una vez alcanzadas las estructuras subcorticales, se activan las neuronas del tálamo, quienes envían el estímulo hacia la corteza somatosensorial, desencadenando la percepción consciente del dolor y activando el sistema inhibitorio descendente. Para que la modulación nociceptiva se realice, es necesaria la participación de diversas sustancias o neurotransmisores que conectan áreas del SNC especializadas. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una revisión de la literatura respecto de los mecanismos que participan en los procesos de modulación central del dolor.


SUMMARY: Pain perception results from multiple and dynamic mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system that inhibit or facilitate stimulation and nociceptive response. However, neuromodulation is mainly a function of the CNS. Nociceptive stimulus is detected by peripheral neurons receptors that synapse with the secondary afferent neurons of the spinal cord. These fibers cross to conform the ascending nociceptive pathways. Once the subcortical structures are reached, the thalamus`s neurons are activated; the thalamus send the stimulus to the somatosensory cortex, triggering the conscious perception of pain and activating the descending inhibitory system. For the nociceptive modulation to be carried out, the participation of various substances or neurotransmitters that connect specialized CNS areas is necessary. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the mechanisms involved in central pain modulation processes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain/physiopathology , Central Nervous System/physiology , Pain Perception/physiology , Chronic Pain/physiopathology , Nociceptive Pain/physiopathology , Neural Inhibition , Neuroanatomy , Neurophysiology
12.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(4): 9-19, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278136

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: glioblastoma multiforme is considered to be highly lethal, for which the optimal duration of adjuvant temozolamide chemotherapy has not been determined. Objective: to evaluate survival according to the length of adjuvant chemotherapy based on the standard Stupp platform protocol. Materials and methods: a retrospective cohort analysis of 299 high-grade central nervous system tumors seen at Oncólogos del Occidente, focused solely on glioblastoma multiforme, according to clinical, treatment and outcome variables. Results: one hundred ninety-three patients with glioblastoma; 84 (44%) received standard Stupp platform treatment; mean age 54 years; 55% males; mean tumor size 28,793 mm2; 48% right hemisphere; 21% crossed the midline; 33% had seizures and 42% neurological deficit; 55% Karnofsky less than 70% and 66% RPA IV classification; 77% received radiation with 60.00 Gy or more; 19% had complications; 79% partial resection and 12% total resection; 77% relapsed; at closure, 57% were alive, global survival of 26% and mean of 26 months, with a difference of 31 months for adjuvance of <or> 6 months and 30 months for adjuvance of <or> 12 months, without reaching a median in the 18 and 24 month groups, all of them favoring the group with the longest time. Conclusion: a clear increase in survival is shown with adjuvant temozolamide for periods longer than six months, as well as a tendency towards better results with increased duration of adjuvance.


Resumen Introducción: el glioblastoma multiforme se considera altamente letal, donde la duración óptima de quimioterapia adyuvante con base en temozolamide no ha sido definida. Objetivo: evaluar la sobrevida según la duración de quimioterapia adyuvante basada en el esquema estándar de plataforma Stupp. Material y métodos: análisis de cohorte retrospectiva de 299 tumores del sistema nervioso central de alto grado, valorados en Oncólogos del Occidente enfocado sólo a glioblastoma multiforme según variables clínicas, terapéuticas y de resultados. Resultados: ciento noventa y tres pacientes con glioblastoma, 84 (44%) recibieron manejo estándar tipo plataforma Stupp; edad media 54 años; hombres 55%; tamaño tumoral medio 28.79 mm2; hemisferio derecho 48%; 21% cruzaban línea media; 33% presentaron convulsiones y 42% déficit neurológico; 55% Karnofsky menor a 70% y 66% clasificación RPA IV; 77% recibieron radioterapia con 60.00 Gys o mayor; 19% presentaron complicaciones; resección parcial 79% y 12% total; 77% recayeron; al cierre 57% se encontraban vivos, sobrevida global de 26% y media de 26 meses con diferencia de 31 meses para adyuvancia en <o> a 6 meses y 30 meses en adyuvancia <o> a 12 meses sin alcanzar mediana en los grupos <o> de 18 y 24 meses favoreciendo en todos al grupo de mayor tiempo. Conclusión: se demuestra aumento claro en la sobrevida con el empleo de temozolamide adyuvante por periodos mayores a seis meses y una tendencia a mejores resultados mientras mayor sea el tiempo de adyuvancia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Glioblastoma , Central Nervous System , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Survivorship , Neoplasms
13.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(3): 209-215, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1120936

ABSTRACT

La Clasificación de Tumores del Sistema Nervioso Central de la OMS 2016 incorpora biomarcadores moleculares junto a las características histológicas clásicas, en un diagnóstico integrado, con el fin de definir distintas entidades de gliomas con la mayor precisión posible. Los estudios de perfiles moleculares en el genoma han revelado las alteraciones genéticas características y los perfiles epigenéticos asociados con diferentes tipos de gliomas. Estas características moleculares pueden usarse para refinar la clasificación del glioma, mejorar la predicción de los resultados obtenidos con los tratamientos actuales y futuros en los pacientes, y como guía de un tratamiento personalizado. Asimismo, tener una aproximación pronóstica en cada paciente. Este cambio de paradigma ha modificado la forma en que se diagnostica el glioma y sus implicancias en la práctica diaria en la indicación de los diferentes tratamientos al paciente. Aquí, sintéticamente, revisamos y destacamos los biomarcadores moleculares clínicamente relevantes. Intentamos dejar plasmado cómo los avances en la genética molecular de los gliomas pueden promover y allanar el camino hacia la medicina de precisión en neurooncología.


The Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System of the WHO 2016 incorporates molecular biomarkers together with the classical histological characteristics, in an integrated diagnosis, in order to define different glioma entities with the highest possible accuracy. Studies of molecular profiles in the genome have revealed characteristic genetic alterations and epigenetic profiles associated with different types of gliomas. These molecular characteristics can be used to refine the classification of gliomas, improve the prediction of the results obtained with current and future treatments in patients and as a guide for a personalized treatment. Also, have a prognostic approach in each patient. This paradigm shift has modified the way glioma is diagnosed and its implications in daily practice in the indication of different treatments to the patient. Here, synthetically, we review and highlight clinically relevant molecular biomarkers. We try to capture how advances in the molecular genetics of gliomas can promote and pave the way to precision medicine in neuro-oncology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioma , Biomarkers , Central Nervous System , Molecular Biology , Neoplasms
14.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 11(1): 1136-1141, abr.- sept. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145394

ABSTRACT

El nuevo coronavirus se origino en la ciudad de Wuhan, China, esta enfermedad afecta principalmente el sistema respiratorio, los síntomas pueden ir desde leves a severos, así también, existe otra variedad de presentaciones clínicas en otros sistemas, como es el sistema nervioso central, actualmente existe evidencia de gran cantidad de publicaciones de presentación neurológica como manifestaciones de COVID-19. Actualmente se ha descrito el potencial neurotrópico del coronavirus para invadir el sistema nervioso central y también se ha descrito diversos mecanismos de daño secundario. Las diferentes presentaciones neurológicas en niños como en adultos pueden ser variables, y estas incluyen manifestaciones del sistema nervios central, periférico y enfermedades musculares...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Peripheral Nervous System , Nervous System Diseases/complications
15.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 30(2): 160-163, May-Aug. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1114923

ABSTRACT

Judging to make a decision amidst several possibilities that rise to risks, losses, gains and uncertainties is not a simple matter. In this process, the subject needs to verify the situation considering the alternatives that are made up of several elements, among them, the analysis of how much this decision will cost and what benefit it will have in response, and what the consequences will be in the long, medium and short term. In this sense, decision-making is associated with the deliberative and affective process that relates to multiple variables that are interconnected with the flow of information assimilated by the agent who is responsible for the judgment and the decision. This process is interdependent on the subject's structure with external stimuli. Thus, the individual's forces and social pressure are important elements to be considered for decision making. For the adolescent, this issue becomes even more important, as it is a phase of human development in which the person exhibits behaviors of risk and during this stage of life there is a process of maturation of the central nervous system, which are related to decision-making and motivational processes. Therefore, decision making among adolescents is a complex issue that in addition to biological factors are directly related to social and psychological elements, depends on a maturity in development, but can be impaired if stressful situations are constant stimuli in the lives of adolescents.


Julgar para tomar uma decisão em meio a várias possibilidades que ensejam riscos, perdas, ganhos e incertezas não se configura em questão simples. Nesse processo, o sujeito precisa verificar a situação considerando as alternativas que se compõem de diversos elementos, entre eles, a análise do quanto custará essa decisão e que beneficio terá em resposta, e quais serão as consequências a longo, médio e curto prazo. Nesse sentido, a tomada de decisão está associada ao processo deliberativo e afetivo que se relaciona com múltiplas variáveis que estão interligadas com o fluxo de informações assimiladas pelo agente que é responsável pelo julgamento e pela decisão. Esse processo é interdependente da estrutura do sujeito com os estímulos externos. Dessa forma, as forças do sujeito e as forças sociais são elementos importantes a serem considerados para a tomada de decisão. Para o adolescente essa questão se torna ainda mais importante, pois é uma fase do desenvolvimento humano em que a pessoa apresenta uma série de comportamentos de risco, isso considerando que durante essa etapa da vida está ocorrendo um processo de maturação do sistema nervoso central, que estão relacionadas a tomada de decisão e processos motivacionais. Portanto, tomada de decisão entre adolescentes se configura numa questão complexa que além de fatores biológicos se relacionam diretamente com elementos sociais e psicológicos, depende de uma maturidade no desenvolvimento, mas pode estar prejudicada se as situações de estresse forem estímulos constante na vida dos adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Risk-Taking , Central Nervous System , Adolescent , Decision Making , Human Development
16.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(2): 65-75, jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123310

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Presentar los resultados de tratamiento quirúrgico obtenidos en una serie de 14 casos de malformación cavernosa, situadas en diferentes localizaciones encefálicas, además de realizar una revisión bibliográfica sobre el tema. Material y métodos: En el periodo de los años 2014-2019, se diagnosticaron y protocolizaron 14 pacientes por medio de la consulta externa de neurocirugía del Hospital Juárez de México. Todos menos 2, fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: En 12 de los 14 casos que recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico, se documentó mejoría neurológica posterior a la resección total en 10 pacientes, 1 paciente de cavernoma gigante temporal se hizo resección subtotal, en 1 paciente con lesión de localización protuberancial se le realizó únicamente drenaje de hematoma. El déficit preoperatorio tendió a mejorar progresivamente en las lesiones de mayor tamaño y en ningún caso se documentaron complicaciones, las crisis convulsivas se controlaron disminuyendo progresivamente la dosis de fármacos anticonvulsivantes en el periodo postquirúrgico de este grupo de pacientes. Y dos pacientes, uno con lesión mesencefálica y el otro con cavernomatosis solo se sometieron a observación. Conclusiones: La cirugía es el método de elección hoy en día para el tratamiento de las malformaciones cavernosas, siendo los mejores resultados a menor tamaño de la lesión y con localizaciones más superficiales. Los resultados quirúrgicos de nuestros pacientes son similares a lo reportado en la literatura mundial.


Objectives: To present the surgical outcomes obtained in a series of 14 cases of cavernous malformation, located in different brain locations, in addition to conducting a literature review on the subject. Method: Between the years, 2014 and 2019, 14 cases were diagnosed and protocolized in neurosurgery department of Hospital Juárez of México. All patients except two, were surgically treated. Results: In 12 of the 14 cases received surgical treatment, neurological improvement was documented after the total resection in ten patients, one patient with giant temporal cavernoma performed a subtotal resection, other case with a lesion in the pontine location a hematoma drainage was performed. All surgical patients the preoperative clinical deficit tended to improve progressively in larger lesions and no complications were documented. Seizures were controlled by gradually decreasing the dose of anticonvulsant drugs in the post-surgical period of this group of patients. And two patients, one with mesencephalic lesion and another with cavernomatosis, were only observe. Conclusion: Surgery is the method of choice today for the treatment of cavernous malformations, with the best outcome being the smallest size of the lesion and with more superficial locations. The surgical outcomes in our patients are similar to those reported in the world literature


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemangioma, Cavernous , Congenital Abnormalities , Central Nervous System , Neurosurgery
17.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(2): 92-99, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123336

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las recomendaciones en el manejo de metástasis superiores a 2 cm especialmente las sintomáticas sugieren cirugía como primera opción. En el presente artículo se discute el papel de radiocirugía como primer manejo de estos pacientes. Material y método: Se evaluaron 37 pacientes sintomáticos con lesiones metastásicas superiores a 8.5 cc tratados con radiocirugía entre el 2011 y el 2018. Resultados: La media de volumen fue de 12.5 cc (8.5-78.4), 9 (24%) pacientes fueron tratados utilizando LINAC, el volumen medio fue de 20 cc (9.2-70 cc). Los tratamientos con Gamma-Ray fueron administrados a 28 (76%) pacientes, 9 (32%) de ellos en protocolo de radiocirugía adaptativa, la dosis para todo el grupo fue de 13.8 Gy (7.5-18 Gy), con dosis media de 17.9 Gy, el volumen medio fue de 16.3 cc (8.5-78.4 cc) para gamma. El Karnofsky al inicio era de 60 (50-70) y de 80 (60-100) a los 30 días (P=0.0001). A los 30 días, 95% de las lesiones habían reducido su tamaño en un 74% (11-95%). La sobrevida media de la serie fue de 19 meses (4-34), el riesgo acumulado de muerte del SNC fue de 5.4%. Conclusiones: Radiocirugía en nuestra experiencia ha mostrado ser eficaz en el control de metástasis a cerebro de gran tamaño, reduciendo la necesidad de cirugí


Introduction: Current recommendations with regards to metastases larger than 2 cm specially in symptomatic patients suggest surgery as a first choice. We analyze the role of upfront radiosurgery as first line of treatment in such patients. Methods: 37 symptomatic patients that harbored tumors greater than 8.5 cc in volume were treated from 2011 to January 2018. Results: The median tumor volume was 12.5 cc (8.5-78.4), 9 (24%) patients were treated with LINAC with a volume of 20 cc (9.2-70 cc). The treatments with GammaRay were administrated to 28 (76%) patients, 9 (32%) of them with adaptive radiosurgery protocol, the prescription dose for the gamma group was 13.8 Gy (7.5-18Gy) mean dose of 17.9 Gy (13.2-23.3 Gy) with a mean volume of 16.3 cc (8.5-78.4 cc). Karnofsky score was 60 (50-70) the day of treatment and 80 (60-100) at 30 days (P=0.0001). At 30 days, 95% of the tumors had reduced in size in a 74% (11-95%) for those evaluated. Median survival was 19 months (4-34), with an accumulative risk of death from central nervous progression of 5.4%. Conclusions: Radiosurgery in our experience has shown to be effective in controlling large metastases, reducing the need for open surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Radiosurgery , Cerebrum , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms , Neurosurgery
18.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(2): 116-123, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123373

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática comparando dos estrategias de weaning de Derivación Ventricular externa (DVE) en pacientes con hidrocefalia aguda y su asociación con la proporción de derivación definitiva, infección del sistema nervioso central y duración de la estancia hospitalaria en cada una de las estrategias. Diseño: Revisión sistemática de la literatura. Fuentes de datos: Se realizaron búsquedas en PubMed, Embase, Lilacs. Se incluyò literatura gris, realizando búsquedas en Google académico, Dialnet, Open gray, Teseo y Worldcat hasta el 10 de septiembre de 2019. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva de estudios de los últimos 20 años en inglés, español y portugués, que compararan dos estrategias de weaning de DVE: rápida (WR) vs gradual (WG) en pacientes con hidrocefalia aguda. El resultado primario para esta Revisión Sistemática fue la proporción de derivación definitiva en cada uno de los regímenes. Se evaluó además, la proporción de infección del sistema nervioso central y la duración de la estancia hospitalaria. Dos investigadores extrajeron de forma independiente la información de los estudios y los resultados en concordancia con la Guía PRISMA. Resultados: La revisión arrojó en total 3 artículos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión y que se consideraron de calidad metodológica aceptable, con un número de 1198 participantes no superpuestos, 569 que fueron sometidos a weaning rápido (WR), 629 en el grupo de weaning gradual (WG). No se encontró asociación estadisticamente significativa entre las estrategias de weaning y DVP OR 0.78 (Intervalo de confianza del 95% 0.3 a 2.06; P= 0.001; I2=85%), ni para infección del sistema nervioso central OR 0.54 (IC 95% 0,07 a 4.24); P= 0,05; I2= 74%) pero si se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la duración de la estancia hospitalaria a favor de la estrategia de weaning ràpido, OR -4.34 (IC 95% -5.92 a -2.75, P= <0,00001; I2= 57%). Conclusión: Con la evidencia disponible actualmente no es posible concluir cuál es la mejor estrategia de weaning para DVE con respecto a la proporción de derivación definitiva o infecciones del sistema nervioso central; sin embargo, si se observa una tendencia clara frente a la duración de la estancia hospitalaria en la estrategia de WR. Se requiere establecer criterios claros en cuanto a la definición de WR o WG y a crear estándares en cuanto los tiempos y la definiciòn precisa de falla terapeutica respecto a estas pruebas, para posteriormente integrar y probar estos métodos en estudios idealmente prospectivos y aleatorizados.


Objective: To conduct a systematic review by comparing two strategies of external ventricular drain (EVD) in patients with acute hydrocephalus and its association with the proportion of definite drain, infection of the central nervous system, and duration of hospital stay in each strategy. Design: Systematic review of literature.Data sources: PubMed, Embase, Lilacs. Grey literature was included by conducting searches through Scholar Google, Dialnet, Open Gray, Teseo and Worldcat until the 10th September, 2019. Methods: An exhaustive search of studies was done of the last 20 years in English, Spanish and Portuguese, which compares two strategies of external ventricular drain weaning (EVD): Rapid (WR) Vs Gradual (WG)in patients with acute hydrocephalus. The primary result for this systematic review was the proportion of Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement in each of the regimes. Besides, the proportion of the infection of the central nervous system and the duration of the hospital stay was evaluated. Two researchers extracted in an independent way the information of the studies and results according to the guide PRISMA. Results: The review produced 3 articles in total which followed with the criteria of inclusion and which were considered of acceptable methodological quality, with 1198 non-superimposed participants, 569 who were subjected to rapid weaning (RW), 629 in the group of Gradual Weaning (GW). There were no significant differences between the 2 weaning ́s groups and DVP OR 0.78 (IC 95% 0.3 a 2.06; P= 0.001; I2=85%), for the infection of the Central Nervous System (CNS) OR 0.54 (IC 95% 0,07 a 4.24); P= 0,05; I2= 74%) but a significant differences was found in the duration of the hospital stay in favour of the strategy of RW, OR -4.34 (IC 95% -5.92 a -2.75, P= <0,00001; I2= 57%). Conclusion: With the current available evidence is not possible to conclude which is the best strategy of weaning for EVD regarding to the proportion of definite shunt or infections of the CNS; but if there is a clear trend regarding the length of hospital stay in the WR strategy. It is necessary to establish clear criteria as to the definition of WR or WG and to create standards as to the times and the precise definition of therapeutic failure with respect to these tests, to later integrate and test these methods in ideally prospective and randomized studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydrocephalus , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Ventriculostomy , Central Nervous System , Central Nervous System Infections
19.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 58(2): 161-170, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115481

ABSTRACT

Resumen El espectro de Neuromielitis óptica (NMOSD por su sigla en inglés) corresponde a un conjunto de manifestaciones clínicas derivadas de un proceso inflamatorio y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central, que causa lesiones primariamente en la médula espinal y nervios ópticos, pero también en otras regiones como tronco encefálico, diencéfalo o áreas cerebrales específicas. La mayoría de los pacientes con NMOSD son seropositivos para autoanticuerpos contra AQP4, el principal canal de agua de los astrocitos, sin embargo, existe un porcentaje no despreciable de pacientes, cercano al 25%, quienes son seronegativos para estos anticuerpos y en quienes la presencia de anticuerpos dirigidos contra mielina (anti-MOG) podrían tener un rol patogénico, el cual a la fecha no ha sido bien dilucidado. La evidencia científica actual, ha permitido reconocer que AQP4-IgG es patogénico en NMOSD, probablemente por un mecanismo que involucra citotoxicidad celular dependiente de la activación del complemento, generando infiltración leucocitaria, liberación de citokinas y disrupción de la barrera hemato-encefálica, lo cual lleva a muerte de oligodendrocitos, pérdida de mielina y muerte neuronal. Este artículo presenta una revisión basada en la evidencia, la cual enfatiza los principales aspectos de la patogénesis de NMOSD.


Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders (NMOSD) is a set of clinical manifestations derived from an inflammatory and demyelinating process of the central nervous system that causes lesions primarily in spinal cord and optic nerves but also in other regions such as brainstem, diencephalon or specific brain areas. Most patients with NMOSD are seropositive for autoantibodies against AQP4, the major water channel of astrocytes, however there is a non-negligible percentage of patients, close to 25%, who are seronegative for these antibodies and in whom the presence of antibodies directed against myelin (anti-MOG) could have a pathogenic role that to date has not been well elucidated. Current scientific evidence has allowed recognize that AQP4-IgG is pathogenic in NMOSD, probably by a mechanism involving complement dependent cellular cytotoxicity, causing leucocyte infiltration, cytokine release and blood-brain barrier disruption, which leads to oligodendrocyte death, myelin loss and neuron death. This article presents an evidence-based review, which emphasizes the main aspects in NMOSD pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Optic Nerve , Brain , Brain Stem , Central Nervous System , Neuromyelitis Optica
20.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 58(2): 191-197, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115484

ABSTRACT

Resumen La Granulomatosis con Poliangeitis, también conocida como granulomatosis de Wegner presenta una incidencia de 5-10 casos por millón de habitantes y solo el 2-11% de los casos presentan manifestaciones en el sistema nervioso central. No existen unos criterios diagnósticos estandarizados, sin embargo, la sospecha clínica, la serología positiva para ANCA, la evidencia histológica de vasculitis necrotizante, la glomerulonefritis necrotizante o la inflamación granulomatosa de órganos como piel, pulmón o riñón, pueden hacer pensar en dicha patología. La neurocirugía es una opción tanto diagnostica como terapéutica y debería realizarse en aquellos casos en que las lesiones se encuentren en zonas accesibles y tengan bajo riesgo de generar comorbilidades. Presentamos el caso de una paciente femenina de 39 años con cuadro de Granulomatosis con Poliangeítis con compromiso en fosa posterior a quién se le realiza un abordaje occipitocervical derecho. Posterior al manejo quirúrgico presenta infección meningea. Adicionalmente, realizamos una revisión de la literatura sobre dicha patología.


Granulomatosis with Poliangeitis or Wegner's granulomatosis has an incidence of 5-10 cases per million of habitants and only 2-11% of cases present manifestations in the central nervous system. There are no standardized diagnostic criteria, however, clinical suspicion, positive serology for ANCA 'S, histological evidence of necrotizing vasculitis, necrotizing glomerulonephritis or granulomatous inflammation of organs such as skin, lung or kidney, may suggest this pathology. Neurosurgery is a diagnostic and therapeutic option and could be a possibility in those cases in which the lesions are in accessible areas and have low risk of generating comorbidities. We present the case of a 39-year-old female patient with granulomatosis and polyangiitis with involvement in the posterior fossa. After surgical management, it presents meningeal infection. Additionally, we conducted a review of the pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Central Nervous System , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Glomerulonephritis , Neurosurgery
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