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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1171-1176, ago. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514356

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Volumetric assessment of brain structures is an important tool in neuroscience research and clinical practice. The volumetric measurement of normally functioning human brain helps detect age-related changes in some regions, which can be observed at varying degrees. This study aims to estimate the insular volume in the normally functioning human brain in both genders, different age groups, and side variations. A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted on 42 adult Sudanese participants in Al-Amal Hospital, Sudan, between May to August 2022, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and automatic brain segmentation through a software program (BrainSuite). The statistical difference in total insular volume on both sides of the cerebral hemisphere was small. The insular volume on the right side was greater in males, while the left side showed no difference between both genders. A statistically significant difference between males and females was found (p > 0.05), and no statistical difference in different age groups was found according to the one-way ANOVA test (p>0.05). Adult Sudanese males showed a larger insular volume than females. MRI can be used to morphometrically assess the insula to detect any pathological variations based on volume changes.


La evaluación volumétrica de las estructuras cerebrales es una herramienta importante en la investigación y la práctica clínica de la neurociencia. La medición volumétrica del cerebro humano, que funciona normalmente, ayuda a detectar cambios relacionados con la edad en algunas regiones, las cuales se pueden observar en diversos grados. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo estimar el volumen insular en el cerebro humano que funciona normalmente, en ambos sexos, de diferentes grupos de edad y sus variaciones laterales. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo transversal en 42 participantes sudaneses adultos en el Hospital Al-Amal, Sudán, entre mayo y agosto de 2022, utilizando imágenes de resonancia magnética y segmentación automática del cerebro a través de un software (BrainSuite). Fue pequeña la diferencia estadística en el volumen insular total, en los hemisferios cerebrales. El volumen insular del lado derecho fue mayor en los hombres, mientras que el lado izquierdo no mostró diferencia entre ambos sexos. Se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre hombres y mujeres (p > 0,05), y no se encontró diferencia estadística en los diferentes grupos de edad, según la prueba de ANOVA de una vía (p> 0,05). Los hombres sudaneses adultos mostraron un mayor volumen insular que las mujeres. La resonancia magnética se puede utilizar para evaluar morfométricamente la ínsula y para detectar cualquier variación patológica basada en cambios de volumen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Software , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Cerebral Cortex/anatomy & histology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
2.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1041-1046, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes in gray matter volume in depressive-like mice and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four 6-week-old C57 mice were randomized equally into control group and model group, and the mice in the model group were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stimulation (CUMS) for 35 days. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to examine structural changes of the grey matter volume in depressive-like mice. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the grey matter of the mice was detected using Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control mice, the mice with CUMS showed significantly decreased central walking distance in the open field test (P < 0.05) and increased immobile time in forced swimming test (P < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the volume of the frontal cortex was significantly decreased in CUMS mice (P < 0.001, when the mass level was greater than or equal to 10 756, the FDRc was corrected with P=0.05). Western blotting showed that the expression of mature BDNF in the frontal cortex was significantly decreased in CUMS mice (P < 0.05), and its expression began to decrease after the exposure to CUMS as shown by immunofluorescence staining. The volume of different clusters obtained by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was correlated with the expression level of mature BDNF detected by Western blotting (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The decrease of frontal cortex volume after CUMS is related with the reduction of mature BDNF expression in the frontal cortex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cerebral Cortex , Depression/physiopathology , Frontal Lobe/pathology
3.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 783-792, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980796

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of Tongdu Tiaoshen (promoting the circulation of the governor vessel and regulating the spirit) electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment on pyroptosis mediated by peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) and explore the potential mechanism of EA for the prevention and treatment of CIRI.@*METHODS@#A total of 110 clean-grade male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a model group, an EA group, an EA + inhibitor group and an agonist group, 22 rats in each group. In the EA group, before modeling, EA was applied to "Baihui" (GV 20), "Fengfu" (GV 16) and "Dazhui" (GV 14), with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/5 Hz in frequency, 1 to 2 mA in intensity, lasting 20 min; once a day, consecutively for 7 days. On the base of the intervention as the EA group, on the day 7, the intraperitoneal injection with the PPARγ inhibitor, GW9662 (10 mg/kg) was delivered in the EA + inhibitor group. In the agonist group, on the day 7, the PPARγ agonist, pioglitazone hydrochloride (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. At the end of intervention, except the sham-operation group, the modified thread embolization method was adopted to establish the right CIRI model in the rats of the other groups. Using the score of the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), the neurological defect condition of rats was evaluated. TTC staining was adopted to detect the relative cerebral infarction volume of rat, TUNEL staining was used to detect apoptosis of cerebral cortical nerve cells and the transmission electron microscope was used to observe pyroptosis of cerebral cortical neural cells. The positive expression of PPARγ and nucleotide-binding to oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) in the cerebral cortex was detected with the immunofluorescence staining. The protein expression of PPARγ, NLRP3, cysteinyl aspartate specific protease-1 (caspase-1), gasdermin D (GSDMD) and GSDMD-N terminal (GSDMD-N) in the cerebral cortex was detected with Western blot. Using the quantitative real-time fluorescence-PCR, the mRNA expression of PPARγ, NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD of the cerebral cortex was detected. The contents of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in the cerebral cortex of rats were determined by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, the mNSS, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were increased (P<0.01), pyroptosis was severe, the protein and mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD were elevated (P<0.01); and the protein expression of GSDMD-N and contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were increased (P<0.01) in the model group. When compared with the model group, the mNSS, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were decreased (P<0.01), pyroptosis was alleviated, the protein and mRNA expression levels of PPARγ were increased (P<0.01), the protein and mRNA expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD were decreased (P<0.01), the protein expression of GSDMD-N was reduced (P<0.01); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were lower (P<0.01) in the EA group and the agonist group; while, in the EA + inhibitor group, the protein expression of PPARγ was increased (P<0.01), the protein and mRNA expression levels of NLRP3 and GSDMD were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05), the mRNA expression of caspase-1 was reduced (P<0.01); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were lower (P<0.01). When compared with the EA + inhibitor group, the mNSS, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), pyroptosis was alleviated, the protein and mRNA expression levels of PPARγ were increased (P<0.01), the protein and mRNA expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD were decreased (P<0.01), the protein expression of GSDMD-N was reduced (P<0.01); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were declined (P<0.01) in the EA group. Compared with the agonist group, in the EA group, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), the mRNA expression of PPARγ was decreased (P<0.01) and the protein expression of GSDMD-N was elevated (P<0.05); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were higher (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Tongdu Tiaoshen EA pretreatment can attenuate the neurological impairment in the rats with CIRI, and the underlying mechanism is related to the up-regulation of PPARγ inducing the inhibition of NLRP3 in the cerebral cortex of rats so that pyroptosis is affected.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , PPAR gamma/genetics , Pyroptosis , Interleukin-18 , Electroacupuncture , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Cerebral Cortex , Cerebral Infarction/therapy , Caspases , RNA, Messenger
4.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1-7, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970667

ABSTRACT

Existing neuroregulatory techniques can achieve precise stimulation of the whole brain or cortex, but high-focus deep brain stimulation has been a technical bottleneck in this field. In this paper, based on the theory of negative permeability emerged in recent years, a simulation model of magnetic replicator is established to study the distribution of the induced electric field in the deep brain and explore the possibility of deep focusing, which is compared with the traditional magnetic stimulation method. Simulation results show that a single magnetic replicator realized remote magnetic source. Under the condition of the same position and compared with the traditional method of stimulating, the former generated smaller induced electric field which sharply reduced with distance. By superposition of the magnetic field replicator, the induced electric field intensity could be increased and the focus could be improved, reducing the number of peripheral wires while guaranteeing good focus. The magnetic replicator model established in this paper provides a new idea for precise deep brain stimulation, which can be combined with neuroregulatory techniques in the future to lay a foundation for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Computer Simulation , Electricity , Magnetic Fields
5.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 513-517, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982624

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of hydrogen gas on NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes in the cerebral cortex of rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI).@*METHODS@#120 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rates were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 24): sham operation group (S group), TBI model group (T group), TBI+NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 group (T+M group), TBI+hydrogen gas group (T+H group), TBI+hydrogen gas+MCC950 group (T+H+M group). TBI model was established by controlled cortical impact. NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected for 14 consecutive days before TBI operation in T+M and T+H+M groups. 2% hydrogen inhalation was given for 1 hour at 1 hour and 3 hours after TBI operation in T+H and T+H+M groups. At 6 hours after TBI operation, the pericontusional cortex tissues were obtained, the content of Evans blue (EB) was detected to evaluate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Water content in brain tissue was detected. The cell apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the neuronal apoptosis index was calculated. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 p20 were detected by Western blotting. The levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-18) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).@*RESULTS@#Compared with the S group, the content of EB in cerebral cortex, water content in brain tissue, apoptosis index and the expressions of Bax, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1 p20 in T group were significantly increased, the expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated, the levels of IL-1β and IL-18 were increased [the content of EB (μg/g): 87.57±6.89 vs. 10.54±1.15, water content in brain tissues: (83.79±2.74)% vs. (74.50±1.19)%, apoptotic index: (62.66±5.33)% vs. (4.61±0.96)%, Bax/β-actin: 4.20±0.44 vs. 1, NLRP3/β-actin: 3.55±0.31 vs. 1, ASC/β-actin: 3.10±0.26 vs. 1, caspase-1 p20/β-actin: 3.28±0.24 vs. 1, Bcl-2/β-actin: 0.23±0.03 vs. 1, IL-1β (ng/g): 221.58±19.15 vs. 27.15±3.27, IL-18 (ng/g): 87.26±7.17 vs. 12.10±1.85, all P < 0.05]. Compared with the T group, the T+M, T+H and T+H+M groups had significant reductions in the content of EB and water content in brain tissue, apoptotic index of the cerebral cortex, the expressions of Bax, NLRP3, and caspase-1 p20 in the brain tissue and the levels of IL-1β and IL-18, significant increases in the expression of Bcl-2. However, there was no significant difference in ASC expression. Compared with the T+H group, the content of EB in the cerebral cortex, water content in brain tissue, and apoptotic index, and the expressions of Bax, NLRP3 and caspase-1 p20 were further down-regulated in T+H+M group, the expression of Bcl-2 was further up-regulated, the levels of IL-1β and IL-18 were further decreased [the content of EB (μg/g): 40.49±3.15 vs. 51.96±4.69, water content in brain tissue: (76.58±1.04)% vs. (78.76±1.16)%, apoptotic index: (32.22±3.44)% vs. (38.54±3.89)%, Bax/β-actin: 1.92±0.16 vs. 2.56±0.21, NLRP3/β-actin: 1.94±0.14 vs. 2.37±0.24, caspase-1 p20/β-actin: 1.97±0.17 vs. 2.31±0.19, Bcl-2/β-actin: 0.82±0.07 vs. 0.52±0.04, IL-1β (ng/g): 86.23±7.09 vs. 110.44±10.48, IL-18 (ng/g): 40.18±3.22 vs. 46.23±4.02, all P < 0.05], but there were no statistical significance in all the indicators between T+M group and T+H group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The mechanism by which hydrogen gas alleviates TBI may be related to inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasomes in the cerebral cortex of rats.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Actins , Interleukin-18 , Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Cerebral Cortex , Caspases
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1050-1068, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982460

ABSTRACT

The axon initial segment (AIS) is a highly specialized axonal compartment where the action potential is initiated. The heterogeneity of AISs has been suggested to occur between interneurons and pyramidal neurons (PyNs), which likely contributes to their unique spiking properties. However, whether the various characteristics of AISs can be linked to specific PyN subtypes remains unknown. Here, we report that in the prelimbic cortex (PL) of the mouse, two types of PyNs with axon projections either to the contralateral PL or to the ipsilateral basal lateral amygdala, possess distinct AIS properties reflected by morphology, ion channel expression, action potential initiation, and axo-axonic synaptic inputs from chandelier cells. Furthermore, projection-specific AIS diversity is more prominent in the superficial layer than in the deep layer. Thus, our study reveals the cortical layer- and axon projection-specific heterogeneity of PyN AISs, which may endow the spiking of various PyN types with exquisite modulation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Axon Initial Segment , Synapses/physiology , Pyramidal Cells/physiology , Cerebral Cortex , Axons/physiology
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1131-1145, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982446

ABSTRACT

Heterozygous loss-of-function variants of FOXP4 are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) that exhibit delayed speech development, intellectual disability, and congenital abnormalities. The etiology of NDDs is unclear. Here we found that FOXP4 and N-cadherin are expressed in the nuclei and apical end-feet of radial glial cells (RGCs), respectively, in the mouse neocortex during early gestation. Knockdown or dominant-negative inhibition of Foxp4 abolishes the apical condensation of N-cadherin in RGCs and the integrity of neuroepithelium in the ventricular zone (VZ). Inhibition of Foxp4 leads to impeded radial migration of cortical neurons and ectopic neurogenesis from the proliferating VZ. The ectopic differentiation and deficient migration disappear when N-cadherin is over-expressed in RGCs. The data indicate that Foxp4 is essential for N-cadherin-based adherens junctions, the loss of which leads to periventricular heterotopias. We hypothesize that FOXP4 variant-associated NDDs may be caused by disruption of the adherens junctions and malformation of the cerebral cortex.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Ependymoglial Cells/physiology , Cadherins , Neurons/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Movement
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 793-807, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982434

ABSTRACT

Itch is an unpleasant sensation that provokes the desire to scratch. While acute itch serves as a protective system to warn the body of external irritating agents, chronic itch is a debilitating but poorly-treated clinical disease leading to repetitive scratching and skin lesions. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of chronic itch remain mysterious. Here, we identified a cell type-dependent role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in controlling chronic itch-related excessive scratching behaviors in mice. Moreover, we delineated a neural circuit originating from excitatory neurons of the ACC to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that was critically involved in chronic itch. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ACC→VTA circuit also selectively modulated histaminergic acute itch. Finally, the ACC neurons were shown to predominantly innervate the non-dopaminergic neurons of the VTA. Taken together, our findings uncover a cortex-midbrain circuit for chronic itch-evoked scratching behaviors and shed novel insights on therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Gyrus Cinguli/physiology , Pruritus/pathology , Mesencephalon , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Neurons/pathology
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 47-68, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929080

ABSTRACT

Human cortical radial glial cells are primary neural stem cells that give rise to cortical glutaminergic projection pyramidal neurons, glial cells (oligodendrocytes and astrocytes) and olfactory bulb GABAergic interneurons. One of prominent features of the human cortex is enriched with glial cells, but there are major gaps in understanding how these glial cells are generated. Herein, by integrating analysis of published human cortical single-cell RNA-Seq datasets with our immunohistochemistical analyses, we show that around gestational week 18, EGFR-expressing human cortical truncated radial glial cells (tRGs) give rise to basal multipotent intermediate progenitors (bMIPCs) that express EGFR, ASCL1, OLIG2 and OLIG1. These bMIPCs undergo several rounds of mitosis and generate cortical oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and olfactory bulb interneurons. We also characterized molecular features of the cortical tRG. Integration of our findings suggests a general picture of the lineage progression of cortical radial glial cells, a fundamental process of the developing human cerebral cortex.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astrocytes , Cell Differentiation , Cerebral Cortex , Neuroglia , Oligodendroglia
10.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 78-85, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To clarify the functional effects of differential expression of ring finger and tryptophan-aspartic acid 2 (RFWD2) on dendritic development and formation of dendritic spines in cerebral cortex neurons of mice.@*METHODS@#Immunofluorescent staining was used to identify the location and global expression profile of RFWD2 in mouse brain and determine the co-localization of RFWD2 with the synaptic proteins in the cortical neurons. We also examined the effects of RFWD2 over-expression (RFWD2-Myc) and RFWD2 knockdown (RFWD2-shRNA) on dendritic development, dendritic spine formation and synaptic function in cultured cortical neurons.@*RESULTS@#RFWD2 is highly expressed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice, and its expression level was positively correlated with the development of cerebral cortex neurons and dendrites. RFWD2 expression was detected on the presynaptic membrane and postsynaptic membrane of the neurons, and its expression levels were positively correlated with the length, number of branches and complexity of the dendrites. In cultured cortical neurons, RFWD2 overexpression significantly lowered the expressions of the synaptic proteins synaptophysin (P < 0.01) and postsynapic density protein 95 (P < 0.01), while RFWD2 knockdown significantly increased their expressions (both P < 0.05). Compared with the control and RFWD2-overexpressing cells, the neurons with RFWD2 knockdown showed significantly reduced number of dendritic spines (both P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#RFWD2 can regulate the expression of the synaptic proteins, the development of the dendrites, the formation of the dendritic spines and synaptic function in mouse cerebral cortex neurons through ubiquitination of Pea3 family members and c-Jun, which may serve as potential treatment targets for neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Aspartic Acid/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex , Dendritic Spines/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Synapses , Tryptophan/metabolism
11.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1209-1217, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970660

ABSTRACT

Control at beyond-visual ranges is of great significance to animal-robots with wide range motion capability. For pigeon-robots, such control can be done by the way of onboard preprogram, but not constitute a closed-loop yet. This study designed a new control system for pigeon-robots, which integrated the function of trajectory monitoring to that of brain stimulation. It achieved the closed-loop control in turning or circling by estimating pigeons' flight state instantaneously and the corresponding logical regulation. The stimulation targets located at the formation reticularis medialis mesencephali (FRM) in the left and right brain, for the purposes of left- and right-turn control, respectively. The stimulus was characterized by the waveform mimicking the nerve cell membrane potential, and was activated intermittently. The wearable control unit weighted 11.8 g totally. The results showed a 90% success rate by the closed-loop control in pigeon-robots. It was convenient to obtain the wing shape during flight maneuver, by equipping a pigeon-robot with a vivo camera. It was also feasible to regulate the evolution of pigeon flocks by the pigeon-robots at different hierarchical level. All of these lay the groundwork for the application of pigeon-robots in scientific researches.


Subject(s)
Animals , Columbidae/physiology , Robotics/methods , Cerebral Cortex
12.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 145-154, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927590

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the harmful effects of acute hypoxia on mouse cerebral cortex and hippocampus and the underlying mechanism. Mouse model of acute hypoxia was constructed by using a sealed glass jar. Laser speckle contrast imaging was used to detect the changes of cerebral blood flow after different time duration of hypoxia. Total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assay kits were used to detect oxidative stress in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect neuroinflammatory response of microglia in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. One-step TUNEL method was used to detect neuronal apoptosis. The results showed that, compared with non-hypoxia (0 min hypoxia) group, 30 min hypoxia group exhibited decreased cerebral blood flow, higher percentage of CD68+/Iba1+ microglia, and increased neural apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Compared with 30 min group, 60 min hypoxia group showed significantly decreased cerebral blood flow, increased MDA content in the cortex, as well as greater percentage of CD68+/Iba1+ microglia and neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These results suggest that acute hypoxia damages brain tissue in a time-dependent manner and the oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are important mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hypoxia , Malondialdehyde , Oxidative Stress , Superoxide Dismutase/pharmacology
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 591-597, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Insufficient cerebral perfusion is suggested to play a role in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there is a lack of direct evidence indicating whether hypoperfusion causes or aggravates AD pathology. We investigated the effect of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on AD-related pathology in humans.@*METHODS@#We enrolled a group of cognitively normal patients (median age: 64 years) with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Regions of interest with the most pronounced hypoperfusion changes were chosen in the hypoperfused region and were then mirrored in the contralateral hemisphere to create a control region with normal perfusion. 11C-Pittsburgh compound-positron emission tomography standard uptake ratios and brain atrophy indices were calculated from the computed tomography images of each patient.@*RESULTS@#The median age of the 10 participants, consisting of 4 males and 6 females, was 64 years (47-76 years). We found that there were no differences in standard uptake ratios of the cortex (volume of interest [VOI]: P = 0.721, region of interest [ROI]: P = 0.241) and grey/white ratio (VOI: P = 0.333, ROI: P = 0.445) and brain atrophy indices (Bicaudate, Bifrontal, Evans, Cella, Cella media, and Ventricular index, P > 0.05) between the hypoperfused regions and contralateral normally perfused regions in patients with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that chronic hypoperfusion due to large vessel stenosis may not directly induce cerebral β-amyloid deposition and neurodegeneration in humans.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Arteries , Atrophy , Brain/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
14.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 17(4): 117-121, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427365

ABSTRACT

El control de la respiración comprende un componente automático involuntario y un componente voluntario, con centros de control en el tronco encefálico, principalmente en la médula oblonga y en el puente, y en la corteza cerebral. Estos centros reciben aferencias provenientes de sensores que detectan señales químicas y no químicas, interactúan entre sí y generan respuestas que llegan a las neuronas motoras inferiores a nivel de médula espinal. Estos procesos determinan el funcionamiento de los músculos implicados en la respiración, y de ese modo permite garantizar que los niveles de pO2 p CO2 y pH en la sangre arterial se mantengan en forma óptima, frente a diferentes situaciones y demandas metabólicas. Se hace una revisión actualizada del tema que permita comprender estos procesos.


The control of breathing comprises an involuntary automatic component and a voluntary component, with control centers in the brain stem, mainly in the medulla oblongata and in the bridge, and in the cerebral cortex. These centers receive afferences from sensors that detect chemical and non-chemical signals, interact with each other and generate responses that reach the lower motor neurons at the spinal cord level. These processes determine the functioning of the muscles involved in breathing, and thus ensure that the levels of pO2 p CO2 and pH in arterial blood are optimally maintained, in the face of different situations and metabolic demands. An up-to-date review of the subject is carried out to understand these processes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Respiratory Muscles/physiology , Cerebral Cortex/physiology , Chemoreceptor Cells/physiology
15.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(2): 273, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398834

ABSTRACT

El reconocimiento de los puntos craneométricos, giros y surcos cerebrales es esencial para la localización de lesio-nes, tanto superficiales como profundas, y programar es-trategias quirúrgicas que impacten en la óptima evolución de nuestros pacientes. Si bien estas destrezas y aptitudes son posibles de adquirir a través del estudio de especíme-nes anatómicos formolizados y de imágenes de resonan-cia magnética, en un escenario quirúrgico real, esto no es tan simple. Al exponer la superficie cerebral, existen va-riaciones anatómicas de los giros y surcos que, a su vez, se encuentran cubiertos de venas y aracnoides con líquido cefalorraquídeo. El desarrollo de los corredores microqui-rúrgicos trans-cisternales, trans-surcales y a través de las fisuras exige el reconocimiento preciso de estas estructu-ras anatómicas


Subject(s)
Cerebrum , Cerebral Cortex , Neurosurgery
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(4): 346-349, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278379

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The longstanding study of gross anatomy experienced a considerable improvement with the advent of the microscope in the early 17th century. The representative personality of this new era certainly was Marcello Malpighi, seen as "founder of microscopic anatomy". He studied, with a rudimentary compound microscope, numerous tissues and organs of several classes of animals, as well as plants. He described, for the first time, the microscopic structure of the nervous system, identifying in the gray matter of its various levels minute elements he took as "glands". It should be reminded that the concept of "cell" (and "nerve cell") was unknown at his time. Many researchers followed, performing microscopic studies, but without better results, and Malpighi's view was maintained until the beginning of the 19th century, when new histological processing and staining techniques appeared, as well as improved microscopes.


RESUMO O estudo de longa data da anatomia macroscópica experimentou um incremento considerável com o advento do microscópio no início do século 17. A personalidade representativa dessa nova era foi, certamente, Marcello Malpighi, considerado "fundador da anatomia microscópica". Ele estudou, com um microscópio composto rudimentar, numerosos tecidos e órgãos de diversas classes de animais, assim como plantas. Descreveu, pela primeira vez, a estrutura microscópica do sistema nervoso, identificando na substância cinzenta dos vários níveis elementos de minúsculas dimensões, que denominou "glândulas". Deve-se lembrar que o conceito de "célula" (e de "célula nervosa") era desconhecido naquele tempo. Muitos pesquisadores seguiram realizando estudos microscópicos, mas sem resultados melhores, e o entendimento de Malpighi foi mantido até o início do século 19, quando apareceram técnicas histológicas novas de processamento e de coloração, assim como microscópios mais aprimorados.


Subject(s)
Animals , History, 17th Century , Nervous System , Neurons , Staining and Labeling , Cerebral Cortex , Gray Matter , Italy
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e022, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153612

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to determine the mean distances between apexes of the maxillary posterior teeth and the maxillary sinus, between apexes of the mandibular posterior teeth and the mandibular canal, and between the root apexes of all teeth and the adjacent cortical plates. A total of 800 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans (400 maxillary and 400 mandibular) were obtained from patients indicated for several treatments. The proximity between apexes and anatomical structures, and the relationship between apexes and adjacent cortical plates were assessed together with the risk of over-instrumentation. Paired-sample comparisons were performed by using the paired t-test. The means were compared by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner tests. a) Most of the apexes classified as A (high-risk proximity) were observed in maxillary first and second molars, in mandibular first and second molars, and in second premolars in relation to near anatomical structures. b) A predominance of class A (86.42%) was noticed in the first premolars, between apexes of maxillary teeth and adjacent cortical plates. c) The distance between apexes of mandibular teeth and buccal cortical plates showed a predominance of medium-risk proximity (B) in all the groups, except the first premolars, with the highest risk (82.22%), and the second molars, with low-risk proximity (C) to distal and mesiobuccal apexes (91.77% and 89.62%). CBCT images are important for endodontic diagnosis and treatment, since many teeth have high risk proximity to near anatomical structures and adjacent cortical plates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Maxillary Sinus , Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Cortex , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
18.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(3): 220-223, 20210000. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342397

ABSTRACT

Introduction: It is well established that cortical volume are decreased in patients with schizophrenia. One possible explanation is that the increased pro-inflammatory status in schizophrenia is related to volumetric decrease of gray matter. The aim of this study was to correlate interleukin 6 (IL-6) with cortical volume in patients with schizophrenia and controls. Methods: We selected 36 patients with schizophrenia and 35 controls. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) was correlated with cortical volume in patients with schizophrenia and controls. Results: IL-6 was negatively correlated with cortical volume (p = 0.027; rho = −0.370) in patients, but not in controls (p = 0.235). Discussion: Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that chronic inflammatory activation in patients with schizophrenia could be one plausible mechanism that could contribute for the cortical volumetric decrease often seen in this population. However, this cross-sectional study with a small number of patients does not allow us to establish causal relations. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Schizophrenia , Cerebral Cortex/physiopathology , Interleukin-6 , Cerebral Cortex , Inflammation
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 1077-1087, Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1155034

ABSTRACT

The central nervous system is vulnerable to complications caused by diabetes. These complications lead to increased oxidative stress in the brain, resulting in damage to the cerebral cortex, among other regions. Insulin and hypoglycemic agents are still the most widely used treatments. However, current research with an experimental model of diabetes suggests the use of antioxidants, such as melatonin. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous melatonin may decrease or prevent the effects of diabetes in the frontal cortex of the rat brain. Fifty albino rats were allocated into five groups: GC = rats without diabetes induction, GD = diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin, GDM = streptozotocin-induced and melatonin-treated diabetic rats, GDI = diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin and treated with insulin, GDMI = diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin and treated with melatonin and insulin simultaneously. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (60mg/kg). Insulin (5U/day) was administered subcutaneously and melatonin (10mg/kg) by drinking water; both treatments last days after. We analyzed animals' weight, the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, apoptosis, glycogen, and did morphometry and histopathology of the frontal cortex were analyzed. The results showed that the cerebral cortex of the diabetic animals presented axonal degeneration, reduced number of neurons in the cortex, reduced glycogen, increased IL-6 and TNF-α expression, high apoptotic index, and reduced animal weight and the brain. Treatment with melatonin associated or not with insulin prevented such effects. Thus, we conclude that melatonin associated with insulin may be an alternative for avoiding the impact of diabetes in the brain's frontal cortex.(AU)


O sistema nervoso central é vulnerável a complicações originadas pelo diabetes estresse oxidativo no cérebro e resultando em lesões no córtex cerebral, dentre outras regiões. A insulina e hipoglicemiantes ainda são os tratamentos mais utilizados, entretanto, pesquisas atuais com modelo experimental do diabetes sugerem a utilização de antioxidantes como, por exemplo, a melatonina. Assim, testamos a hipótese de que a melatonina exógena pode diminuir ou prevenir os efeitos do diabetes no córtex frontal do cérebro de ratos. Foram utilizados 50 ratos albinos, divididos em 5 grupos: GC = ratos sem indução ao diabetes, GD = ratos induzidos ao diabetes pela estreptozotocina, GDM = ratos induzidos ao diabetes pela estreptozotocina e tratados com melatonina, GDI = ratos induzidos ao diabetes pela estreptozotocina e tratados com insulina, GDMI = ratos induzidos ao diabetes pela estreptozotocina e tratados com melatonina e insulina simultaneamente. O diabetes foi induzido pela administração intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina (60mg/kg). A insulina (5U/dia) foi administrada por via subcutânea e a melatonina (10mg/kg) pela água de beber. Ambos tratamentos foram realizados durante 30 dias após a indução. Foram analisados o peso dos animais, do cerebro, as citocinas IL-6 e TNF-α, apoptose, glicogênio, além da morfometria e histopatologia do córtex frontal. Os resultados mostraram que o córtex cerebral dos animais diabéticos apresentou degeneração axonal, redução do número de neurônios no córtex, redução do glicogênio, aumento da expressão do IL-6 e TNF-α, elevação do índice apoptótico, além da redução do peso dos animais e do cérebro. O tratamento com melatonina associada ou não a insulina preveniu tais efeitos. Assim, concluímos que a melatonina associada ou não a insulina pode ser uma alternativa na prevenção dos efeitos do diabetes no córtex frontal do cérebro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Immunohistochemistry , Cerebral Cortex , Melatonin , Rats/abnormalities , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress
20.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(4): 261-270, 15/12/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362320

ABSTRACT

In 1909, Korbinian Brodmann described 52 functional brain areas, 43 of them found in the human brain. More than a century later, his devoted functional map was incremented by Glasser et al in 2016, using functional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques to propose the existence of 180 functional areas in each hemisphere, based on their cortical thickness, degree of myelination (cortical myelin content), neuronal interconnection, topographic organization, multitask answers, and assessment in their resting state. This opens a huge possibility, through functional neuroanatomy, to understand a little more about normal brain function and its functional impairment in the presence of a disease.


Subject(s)
History, 21st Century , Brain Mapping/history , Cerebellar Cortex/anatomy & histology , Cerebral Cortex/physiology , Cerebral Cortex/injuries , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Cerebrum/physiology , Mirror Neurons/physiology , Functional Neuroimaging/methods , Neuroanatomy/history
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