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Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 145-154, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927590


The aim of this study was to investigate the harmful effects of acute hypoxia on mouse cerebral cortex and hippocampus and the underlying mechanism. Mouse model of acute hypoxia was constructed by using a sealed glass jar. Laser speckle contrast imaging was used to detect the changes of cerebral blood flow after different time duration of hypoxia. Total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assay kits were used to detect oxidative stress in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect neuroinflammatory response of microglia in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. One-step TUNEL method was used to detect neuronal apoptosis. The results showed that, compared with non-hypoxia (0 min hypoxia) group, 30 min hypoxia group exhibited decreased cerebral blood flow, higher percentage of CD68+/Iba1+ microglia, and increased neural apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Compared with 30 min group, 60 min hypoxia group showed significantly decreased cerebral blood flow, increased MDA content in the cortex, as well as greater percentage of CD68+/Iba1+ microglia and neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These results suggest that acute hypoxia damages brain tissue in a time-dependent manner and the oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are important mechanisms.

Animals , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hypoxia , Malondialdehyde , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Superoxide Dismutase/pharmacology
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 591-597, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927512


BACKGROUND@#Insufficient cerebral perfusion is suggested to play a role in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there is a lack of direct evidence indicating whether hypoperfusion causes or aggravates AD pathology. We investigated the effect of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on AD-related pathology in humans.@*METHODS@#We enrolled a group of cognitively normal patients (median age: 64 years) with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Regions of interest with the most pronounced hypoperfusion changes were chosen in the hypoperfused region and were then mirrored in the contralateral hemisphere to create a control region with normal perfusion. 11C-Pittsburgh compound-positron emission tomography standard uptake ratios and brain atrophy indices were calculated from the computed tomography images of each patient.@*RESULTS@#The median age of the 10 participants, consisting of 4 males and 6 females, was 64 years (47-76 years). We found that there were no differences in standard uptake ratios of the cortex (volume of interest [VOI]: P = 0.721, region of interest [ROI]: P = 0.241) and grey/white ratio (VOI: P = 0.333, ROI: P = 0.445) and brain atrophy indices (Bicaudate, Bifrontal, Evans, Cella, Cella media, and Ventricular index, P > 0.05) between the hypoperfused regions and contralateral normally perfused regions in patients with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that chronic hypoperfusion due to large vessel stenosis may not directly induce cerebral β-amyloid deposition and neurodegeneration in humans.

Aged , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Arteries , Atrophy , Brain/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
Acta cir. bras ; 33(6): 472-482, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949356


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of Murici extract on the brain excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD) and on brain oxidative stress. Methods: Adult and aged Wistar rats were supplemented with murici extract (150 mg/kg/day or 300 mg/kg/day) by gavage for fifteen days. Afterwards, the animals were submitted to a CSD electrophysiological recording and to brain oxidative stress evaluation. Results: Our results showed that aging decreased CSD propagation velocity, catalase activity and glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) in the brain cortex of the rats, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The highest dose (300 mg/kg/day) of murici extract accelerated CSD, whereas the lowest (150mg/kg/day) decelerated, in both adult and aged animals. In contrast, aged animals supplemented with murici extract in both doses presented low MDA levels and high GSG/GSSG ratio in comparison to the control-aged animals. Conclusion: Murici extract supplementation seems to revert detrimental effects in aged brains and could be considered as a strategy in the treatment of pathologies related to aging and cortical spreading depression.

Animals , Male , Aging/physiology , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Malpighiaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Cortical Spreading Depression/drug effects , Cortical Spreading Depression/physiology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase/analysis , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Glutathione Disulfide/analysis , Dietary Supplements , Glutathione/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(1): e6724, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889005


Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an interregional correlation analysis of the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information. Fifteen participants were scanned with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high resolution research tomography (HRRT)-PET fusion system using 18F-FDG. For detailed interregional correlation analysis, 24 subregions of the basal ganglia including pre-commissural dorsal caudate, post-commissural caudate, pre-commissural dorsal putamen, post-commissural putamen, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus and 80 cerebral regions were selected as regions of interest on the MRI image and their glucose metabolism were calculated from the PET images. Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis was conducted for the interregional correlation analysis of the basal ganglia. Functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex were not only consistent with the findings of previous studies, but also showed new functional correlation between the dorsal striatum (i.e., caudate nucleus and putamen) and insula. In this study, we established the detailed basal ganglia subregional functional correlation patterns using 18F-FDG PET/MRI fusion imaging. Our methods and results could potentially be an important resource for investigating basal ganglia dysfunction as well as for conducting functional studies in the context of movement and psychiatric disorders.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Basal Ganglia/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Glucose/metabolism , Reference Standards , Basal Ganglia/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Radiopharmaceuticals
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1362-1368, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840894


Rabies is a lethal disease caused by a neurotropic virus that produces inconspicuous morphological changes hardly observable with conventional histopathology. The fatal outcome caused by rabies could be attributed to specific biochemical changes that severely impact neuronal function. The neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN) has become a widely used neuronal marker for the research and the histopathological diagnosis of nervous system diseases. To evaluate the distribution of the protein NeuN in the motor cortex of normal and rabies-infected mice adult ICR mice were inoculated with rabies virus either intramuscularly or intracerebrally. Rabies-infected mice were sacrificed at the terminal stage of the disease. Control mice were also euthanized at the same age. The brains were removed and cut into coronal sections on a vibratome. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of NeuN in the motor area of the cerebral cortex. Neuronal counts, cellular optical densitometry and neuronal diameter measurements were performed to analyze the immunoreactivity of the protein. All parameters revealed decreased immunoreactivity for NeuN in cortical neurons of mice intracerebrally infected with rabies. In contrast, the changes were not statistically significant in mice inoculated intramuscularly. Either the immunoreactivity of NeuN or its expression is affected by the presence of rabies virus in the cerebral cortex depending on the inoculation route. These results contribute to the knowledge of the dynamics of cellular infection on rabies pathogenesis.

La rabia es una enfermedad mortal causada por un virus neurotrópico que produce discretos cambios morfológicos difícilmente observables con la histopatología convencional. El desenlace fatal causado por la rabia puede atribuirse a cambios bioquímicos específicos que afectan gravemente la función neuronal. La proteína nuclear neuronal (NeuN) es un marcador ampliamente utilizado para la investigación y el diagnóstico histopatológico de enfermedades del sistema nervioso. Este trabajo se realizó con el propósito de evaluar la distribución de la proteína NeuN en la corteza motora de ratones normales y ratones infectados con virus de la rabia. Ratones ICR adultos fueron inoculados con virus de la rabia por vía intramuscular o por vía intracerebral. Los animales infectados con rabia fueron sacrificados en la etapa terminal de la enfermedad. Ratones de la misma edad no inoculados con el virus (controles) fueron sacrificados simultáneamente. Se extrajeron los cerebros y se obtuvieron cortes coronales en un vibrátomo. Mediante inmunohistoquímica se estudió la expresión de NeuN en el área motora de la corteza cerebral. Se realizaron conteos neuronales, densitometría óptica celular y mediciones del diámetro de los perfiles neuronales para analizar la inmunorreactividad de la proteína. En los ratones inoculados por vía intracerebral hubo disminución significativa de la inmunorreactividad de NeuN manifestada en los diferentes parámetros evaluados. En contraste, estos cambios no fueron estadísticamente significativos en los cerebros de ratones inoculados por la ruta intramuscular. La inmunorreactividad de NeuN o su expresión es afectada por la presencia del virus de la rabia en la corteza cerebral pero dependiendo de la vía de inoculación. Estos resultados contribuyen al conocimiento de las dinámicas de infección celular en la patogénesis de la rabia.

Animals , Mice , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Rabies virus/pathogenicity , Rabies/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/virology , Immunohistochemistry , Nerve Tissue Proteins/analysis , Nuclear Proteins/analysis , Rabies virus/metabolism
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(9): 723-729, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796042


ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of crocin on brain oxidative damage and memory deficits in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson’s disease. Male Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral injection of 6-OHDA (16 µg) into the medial forebrain bundle and treated with crocin (30 and 60 mg/kg) for six weeks. The rats were tested for memory performance at six weeks after 6-OHDA infusion, and then were killed for the estimation of biochemical parameters. The increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitrite levels in the hippocampus were observed in the 6-OHDA lesioned rats, which was accompanied by memory deficits in a passive avoidance test at the end of week 6. Moreover, treatment with crocin decreased TBARS and nitrite levels in the hippocampus, and improved aversive memory. The present study conclusively demonstrated that crocin acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in the hippocampus of parkinsonian rats and could improve aversive memory through its properties.

RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o efeito da crocina no dano oxidativo cerebral e nos déficits de memória em um modelo 6-OHDA de doença de Parkinson. Ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à injeção unilateral de 6-OHDA (16 μg) em MFB e tratados com crocina (30 e 60 mg/kg), durante 6 semanas. Os ratos foram testados quanto ao desempenho da memória 6 semanas após a infusão de 6-OHDA, e, em seguida, foram sacrificados para a estimativa dos parâmetros bioquímicos. O aumento nos níveis de TBARS e de nitrito no hipocampo foram observados em ratos 6-OHDA lesionados, acompanhado por déficits de memória em um teste de esquiva passiva no final da semana 6. Além disso, o tratamento com crocina diminuiu os níveis de nitrito e de TBARS no hipocampo e melhorou a memória aversiva. O presente estudo demonstrou conclusivamente que a crocina age como um antioxidante e um agente anti-inflamatório no hipocampo de ratos parkinsonianos e pode melhorar a memória aversiva através de suas propriedades.

Animals , Male , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Memory Disorders/prevention & control , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Random Allocation , Cerebral Cortex/physiopathology , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Oxidopamine , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Memory/physiology , Memory Disorders/physiopathology , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Nitrites/analysis
Acta cir. bras ; 31(3): 198-205, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777088


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of Bg on cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Twenty eight rats were randomly distributed into four groups. The first group was kept as a control. In the second group, CP was given at the single dose of 7 mg/kg intraperitoneally. In the third group, βg was orally administered at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 14 days. In the fourth group, CP and βg were given together at the same doses. RESULTS: CP treatment caused significant oxidative damage via induction of lipid peroxidation and reductions antioxidant defense system potency in the brain tissue. In addition, histopathological damage increased with CP treatment. On the other hand, βg treatment largely prevented oxidative and histopathological negative effects of CP. CONCLUSIONS: Cisplatin has severe neurotoxic effects in rats and βg supplementation has significant beneficial effects against CP toxicity depending on its antioxidant properties. Thus, it appears that βg might be useful against CP toxicity in patients with cancer in terms of nervous system.

Animals , Male , Brain/drug effects , Brain Diseases/prevention & control , Cisplatin/adverse effects , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Brain Diseases/chemically induced , Brain Diseases/pathology , Random Allocation , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Cisplatin/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 33(2): 465-470, jun. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755496


The microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 is an integral part of the cytoskeleton and plays an important role in neural morphogenesis. This protein is an essential component of the dendritic cytoskeleton, especially in the adult brain, and its expression can be altered under experimental or pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of infection with the rabies virus on MAP-2 immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of mice. The mice were inoculated with the rabies virus and the animals were sacrificed when the disease reached its advanced stage, together with uninfected animals of the same age. The brains were extracted after being previously perfusion-fixed with paraformaldehyde; coronal sections were obtained with a vibratome. The coronal sections were processed by immunohistochemistry to reveal the presence of the MAP-2 protein in neurons of the motor area of the cerebral cortex. Rabies-infected mice showed an increase in the immunoreactivity of the somata and apical dendrites in pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex. This is an unexpected result, as dendritic pathology has been previously demonstrated in rabies, and some studies on neurological disorders associate dendritic alterations with loss of expression of the MAP-2 protein. Therefore, whatever the alteration in the expression of this protein, decrease or increase, it could be causing a biochemical imbalance in the integrity and stability of the neuronal cytoskeleton.

La proteína asociada a microtúbulos MAP-2 es una parte integral del citoesqueleto y juega un papel importante en la morfogénesis neuronal. Esta proteína es un componente esencial del citoesqueleto de las dendritas, especialmente en el cerebro adulto, y su expresión puede ser alterada en condiciones experimentales o patológicas. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la infección con el virus de la rabia sobre la inmunorreactividad de MAP-2 en la corteza cerebral de ratones. Ratones inoculados con el virus de la rabia fueron sacrificados cuando la enfermedad alcanzó su fase avanzada, junto con animales no infectados de la misma edad. Los cerebros se extrajeron después de que los animales fueron tratados con paraformaldehído mediante perfusión intracardiaca. En un vibrátomo se obtuvieron cortes coronales y estos se procesaron mediante inmunohistoquímica para revelar la presencia de la proteína MAP-2 en las neuronas de la zona motora de la corteza cerebral. Los ratones infectados con rabia mostraron un aumento en la inmunorreactividad de los somas y dendritas apicales en las neuronas piramidales de la corteza motora. Este es un resultado inesperado, ya que previamente se ha demostrado patología dendrítica en rabia, y algunos estudios sobre los trastornos neurológicos asocian las alteraciones dendríticas con pérdida de expresión de la proteína MAP-2. Por lo tanto, cualquiera que sea la alteración en la expresión de esta proteína, disminución o aumento, podría ser la causa de un desequilibrio bioquímico en la integridad y estabilidad del citoesqueleto neuronal.

Animals , Female , Mice , Rabies virus/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/virology , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 109-117, May-Jun/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751407


INTRODUCTION: The indirect bonding technique optimizes fixed appliance installation at the orthodontic office, ensuring precise bracket positioning, among other advantages. In this laboratory clinical phase, material and methods employed in creating the transfer tray are decisive to accuracy. OBJECTIVE: This article describes a simple, efficient and reproducible indirect bonding technique that allows the procedure to be carried out successfully. Variables influencing the orthodontic bonding are analyzed and discussed in order to aid professionals wishing to adopt the indirect bonding technique routinely in their clinical practice. .

INTRODUÇÃO: a técnica de colagem indireta prioriza a otimização do procedimento de montagem do aparelho fixo na clínica ortodôntica, assegurando, entre outras, vantagens relacionadas à precisão no posicionamento dos braquetes. Nesse procedimento clínico laboratorial, o material e o método de confecção da moldeira de transferência são determinantes no quesito precisão. OBJETIVO: este artigo descreve uma técnica de colagem indireta simples, eficiente e reprodutível, para que o procedimento possa ser realizado com sucesso. Variáveis que exercem influência sobre o procedimento são analisadas e discutidas, a fim de auxiliar o profissional a adotar, de forma rotineira, a técnica de colagem indireta em sua prática clínica. .

Humans , Ion Channels/metabolism , Patch-Clamp Techniques/methods , Cerebral Cortex/cytology , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Ion Channel Gating , Ion Channels/chemistry , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/chemistry , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 597-606, 03/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744836


Foi avaliada a associação entre menopausa e insônia e a influência de variáveis socioeconômicas e psicossociais, em estudo transversal com 2.190 funcionárias de uma universidade (Estudo Pró-Saúde), a partir de um questionário autopreenchível com variáveis sobre menopausa, insônia, transtorno mental comum, eventos de vida estressantes, apoio social e variáveis socioeconômicas. Odds ratios foram calculados por meio de regressão logística multivariada, com desfecho politômico. Após ajuste para potenciais confundidoras sociodemográficas, mulheres na menopausa há mais de 60 meses apresentaram maior chance de reportar queixas de sono frequentes (OR entre 1,53 e 1,86) do que as que estavam na menopausa há menos de 60 meses. Após os ajustes, no primeiro grupo, para as variáveis psicossociais, a magnitude dos ORs reduziu para 1,53 (IC95%: 0,92-2,52) para dificuldade em iniciar o sono, 1,81 (IC95%: 1,09-2,98) para dificuldade em manter o sono e 1,71 (IC95%: 1,08-2,73) para queixa geral de insônia. Fatores psicossociais podem mediar a manifestação da insônia em mulheres na menopausa.

This study evaluated the association between insomnia and menopausal status and the influence of socioeconomic and psychosocial variables on this association in a cross-sectional analysis of 2,190 university employees (the Pró-Saúde Study). A self-administered questionnaire was used, covering menopausal status, complaints of insomnia, common mental disorders, stressful life events, social support, and socioeconomic variables. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression with a polytomous outcome. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic confounders, women who had entered menopause more than 60 months previously were more likely to report complaints with sleep (OR 1.53-1.86) as compared to women in menopause for less than 60 months. After adjusting for psychosocial variables, in the first group the ORs decreased to 1.53 (95%CI: 0.92-2.52) for difficulty initiating sleep, 1.81 (95%CI: 1.09-2.98) for difficulty maintaining sleep, and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.08-2.73) for general complaints of insomnia. Psychosocial factors can mediate the manifestation of insomnia among menopausal women.

En este estudio se evaluó la asociación entre insomnio y menopausia y la influencia de las variables socioeconómicas y psicosociales, en un estudio transversal con 2.190 mujeres de una universidad (Estudio Pro-Salud), a partir de un cuestionario autoadministrado con variables de la menopausia, insomnio, trastornos mentales, situaciones de estrés vital, apoyo social y variables socioeconómicas. Se calcularon los odds ratio mediante regresión logística multivariante con desenlace politómico. Después de ajustar por factores de confusión sociodemográficos potenciales, las mujeres menopáusicas desde hace más de 60 meses fueron más propensas a reportar quejas frecuentes de sueño (OR entre 1,53 y 1,86) que las menopáusicas hace menos de 60 meses. Después de los ajustes, en el primer grupo, para las variables psicosociales la magnitud de los OR se redujo a 1,53 (IC95%: 0,92-2,52) para la dificultad para iniciar el sueño, un 1,81 (IC95%: 1,09-2,98) para mantener el sueño y un 1,71 (IC95%: 1,08-2,73) para las quejas de insomnio en general. Los factores psicosociales pueden mediar en la manifestación del insomnio en las mujeres menopáusicas.

Animals , Mice , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Drosophila Proteins/metabolism , Microfilament Proteins/metabolism , Microtubules/metabolism , Neurogenesis , Neurons/metabolism , Pseudopodia/metabolism , Actins/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Cerebral Cortex/embryology , Drosophila , Drosophila Proteins/genetics , /metabolism , Growth Cones/metabolism , Mutation , Microfilament Proteins/genetics , RNA Interference
Clinics ; 68(9): 1231-1238, set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687768


OBJECTIVE: The role of Ulinastatin in neuronal injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation has not been elucidated. We aim to evaluate the effects of Ulinastatin on inflammation, oxidation, and neuronal injury in the cerebral cortex after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 76 adult male Wistar rats for 6 min, after which cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated. After spontaneous circulation returned, the rats were split into two groups: the Ulinastatin 100,000 unit/kg group or the PBS-treated control group. Blood and cerebral cortex samples were obtained and compared at 2, 4, and 8 h after return of spontaneous circulation. The protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mRNA levels were quantified via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Myeloperoxidase and Malondialdehyde were measured by spectrophotometry. The translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 was assayed by Western blot. The viable and apoptotic neurons were detected by Nissl and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). RESULTS: Ulinastatin treatment decreased plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6, expression of mRNA, and Myeloperoxidase and Malondialdehyde in the cerebral cortex. In addition, Ulinastatin attenuated the translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 at 2, 4, and 8 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation. Ulinastatin increased the number of living neurons and decreased TUNEL-positive neuron numbers in the cortex at 72 h after the return of spontaneous circulation. CONCLUSIONS: Ulinastatin preserved neuronal survival and inhibited neuron apoptosis after the return of spontaneous circulation in Wistar rats via attenuation of the oxidative stress response and translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the cortex. In addition, Ulinastatin decreased the production of TNF-α, ...

Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/adverse effects , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Glycoproteins/pharmacology , Trypsin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ventricular Fibrillation/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Encephalitis/drug therapy , Glycoproteins/therapeutic use , /blood , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/physiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Peroxidase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Trypsin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(10): 962-967, Oct. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-647754


Our objective was to investigate the protein level of phosphorylated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-1 at serine 897 (pNR1 S897) in both NMDA-induced brain damage and hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), and to obtain further evidence that HIBD in the cortex is related to NMDA toxicity due to a change of the pNR1 S897 protein level. At postnatal day 7, male and female Sprague Dawley rats (13.12 ± 0.34 g) were randomly divided into normal control, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) cerebral microinjection, HIBD, and NMDA cerebral microinjection groups. Immunofluorescence and Western blot (N = 10 rats per group) were used to examine the protein level of pNR1 S897. Immunofluorescence showed that control and PBS groups exhibited significant neuronal cytoplasmic staining for pNR1 S897 in the cortex. Both HIBD and NMDA-induced brain damage markedly decreased pNR1 S897 staining in the ipsilateral cortex, but not in the contralateral cortex. Western blot analysis showed that at 2 and 24 h after HIBD, the protein level of pNR1 S897 was not affected in the contralateral cortex (P > 0.05), whereas it was reduced in the ipsilateral cortex (P < 0.05). At 2 h after NMDA injection, the protein level of pNR1 S897 in the contralateral cortex was also not affected (P > 0.05). The levels in the ipsilateral cortex were decreased, but the change was not significant (P > 0.05). The similar reduction in the protein level of pNR1 S897 following both HIBD and NMDA-induced brain damage suggests that HIBD is to some extent related to NMDA toxicity possibly through NR1 phosphorylation of serine 897.

Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Animals, Newborn , Blotting, Western , Cerebral Cortex/physiopathology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/etiology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/physiopathology , N-Methylaspartate , Phosphorylation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 6(1): 4-8, abr. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-640033


INTRODUCCIÓN: La epilepsia del lóbulo temporal se desarrolla como consecuencia de insultos cerebrales como trauma, infartos, infección o convulsiones. Los circuitos neuronales del lóbulo temporal, incluyendo al hipocampo, se reorganizan generando redes hiperexcitables, el foco epiléptico, proceso denominado epileptogénesis; en cambio, la corteza cerebral es más resistente a la reorganización. La epileptogénesis en el hipocampo está mediada en parte por óxido nítrico, sintetizado por la óxido nítrico sintasa neuronal y por la neurotrofina BDNF, cuyo receptor es TrkB. Estas proteínas están localizadas en las sinapsis excitadoras y podrían estar implicadas en la sensibilidad diferencial entre el hipocampo y corteza cerebral a la epileptogénesis. OBJETIVO: Lograr un acercamiento a los mecanismos que participan en la sensibilidad diferencial a la epileptogénesis entre el hipocampo y la corteza, después de convulsiones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se indujeron convulsiones en ratas mediante inyección de kainato. Se obtuvieron membranas sinápticas reselladas (sinaptosomas) de corteza e hipocampo. En ellas, se cuantificó la co-localización de óxido nítrico sintasa neuronal, TrkB y un marcador de sinapsis excitadoras (Prosap2) mediante técnicas inmunohistoquímicas. Los resultados expresados como por ciento promedio +/- error estándar se sometieron a prueba de t-student. RESULTADOS: TrkB y óxido nítrico sintasa neuronal aumentaron de 20,6 +/- 3,5 por ciento a 35,7 +/- 2,6 por ciento (p = 0,0008) y de 32,4 +/- 3,8 por ciento a 51,5 +/- 3,5 por ciento (p = 0,0003), respectivamente, en sinaptosomas excitadores hipocampales después de convulsiones. En sinaptosomas excitadoras de cerebro corteza no se observaron cambios significativos. DISCUSIÓN: óxido nítrico sintasa neuronal y TrkB se asocian a sinapsis excitadoras hipocampales después de convulsiones, pudiendo contribuir así a la epileptogénesis. La cerebrocorteza es resistente a esta reorganización molecular.

INTRODUCTION: Temporal lobe epilepsy develops as a consequence of brain insults such as trauma, stroke, infection, or seizures. The temporal lobe circuit, including the hippocampus, reorganizes generating hyper-excitable networks and, therefore, the epileptic focus, process called epileptogenesis. Where as, the cerebral cortex is more resistant to the reorganization. Temporal lobe epileptogenesis is mediated partly by neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the neurotrophin BDNF with its receptor TrkB. These proteins are localized at excitatory synapses and might be involved in the differential sensitivity of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex to epileptogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Getting closer to mechanisms involved in epileptogenesis differential sensitivity between the hippocampus and cortex after seizures. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Seizures were induced in rats by injection of kainic acid. Resealed synaptic membranes (synaptosomes) were obtained from cortex and hippocampus. Then the co-localization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, TrkB and a marker of excitatory synapses (Prosap2/Shank3) was quantified by immunohistochemistry. The results were expressed as mean +/- standard error and subjected to t-student test. RESULTS: TrkB and neuronal nitric oxide synthase increased from 20.6 +/- 3.5 percent to 35.7 +/- 2.6 percent (p = 0.0008) and from 32.4 +/- 3.8 percent to 51.5 +/- 3.5 percent (p = 0.0003), respectively in excitatory hippocampal synaptosomes after seizures. In excitatory cerebrocortical synaptosomes no significant changes were observed. DISCUSSION: neuronal nitric oxide synthase and TrkB associate to excitatory hippocampal synapses after seizures, thereby probably contributing to epileptogenesis. The cerebral cortex is resistant to this molecular reorganization.

Male , Animals , Rats , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Epilepsy/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Receptor, trkB , Kainic Acid/administration & dosage , Carrier Proteins , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Temporal Lobe/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Synaptosomes
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(7): 688-693, July 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595704


Electrical stimulation has been used for more than 100 years in neuroscientific and biomedical research as a powerful tool for controlled perturbations of neural activity. Despite quickly driving neuronal activity, this technique presents some important limitations, such as the impossibility to activate or deactivate specific neuronal populations within a single stimulation site. This problem can be avoided by pharmacological methods based on the administration of receptor ligands able to cause specific changes in neuronal activity. However, intracerebral injections of neuroactive molecules inherently confound the dynamics of drug diffusion with receptor activation. Caged compounds have been proposed to circumvent this problem, for spatially and temporally controlled release of molecules. Caged compounds consist of a protecting group and a ligand made inactive by the bond between the two parts. By breaking this bond with light of an appropriate wavelength, the ligand recovers its activity within milliseconds. To test these compounds in vivo, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the cerebral cortex of anesthetized female mice (CF1, 60-70 days, 20-30 g) before and after infusion with caged γ-amino-butyric-acid (GABA). After 30 min, we irradiated the cortical surface with pulses of blue light in order to photorelease the caged GABA and measure its effect on global brain activity. Laser pulses significantly and consistently decreased LFP power in four different frequency bands with a precision of few milliseconds (P < 0.000001); however, the inhibitory effects lasted several minutes (P < 0.0043). The technical difficulties and limitations of neurotransmitter photorelease are presented, and perspectives for future in vivo applications of the method are discussed.

Animals , Female , Mice , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/physiopathology , Neural Inhibition/physiology , Neurons/physiology , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism , Photolysis , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/chemistry
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48419


The possibility that P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) expression in microglia would mediate neuronal damage via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was examined in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). P2X7R was predominantly expressed in CD11b-immunopositive microglia from 3 months of age before Abeta plaque formation. In addition, gp91phox, a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, and ethidium fluorescence were detected in P2X7R-positive microglial cells of animals at 6 months of age, indicating that P2X7R-positive microglia could produce ROS. Postsynaptic density 95-positive dendrites showed significant damage in regions positive for P2X7R in the cerebral cortex of 6 month-old mice. Taken together, up-regulation of P2X7R activation and ROS production in microglia are parallel with Abeta increase and correlate with synaptotoxicity in AD.

Aging , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Animals , CD11b Antigen/immunology , Blotting, Western , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Plaque, Amyloid , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/analysis , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/genetics
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 3(2): 24-27, dic. 2009. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-613269


En la epilepsia del lóbulo temporal (ELT), el hipocampo y estructuras temporales adyacentes se convierten en foco epiléptico, lo que ocurre después de un insulto cerebral, como una convulsión prolongada (o Status Epilepticus [SE]). Posterior al insulto, en el hipocampo ocurre muerte neuronal por excitotoxicidad, es decir, por sobre estimulación de receptores glutamatérgicos tipo NMDA (R-NMDA) y síntesis de óxido nítrico (NO) por la óxido nítrico sintasa neuronal (nNOS), una enzima dependiente de calcio. Sin embargo, otras estructuras cerebrales, como la corteza cerebral, son más resistentes al daño excitotóxico. Postulamos que esta menor susceptibilidad de la corteza cerebral a la excitotoxicidad, se debería a neuroprotección dependiente de la neurotrofina BDNF, que se sabe estimula la sobrevida neuronal. Se utilizaron cultivos neuronales primarios de hipocampo y corteza cerebral. Para evaluar excitotoxicidad, se agregó NMDA 30 uM. Se utilizaron estrategias farmacológicas para poner a prueba esta hipótesis, como el uso de L-NNA (inhibidor NOS), y TrkB-Fc (atrapador de BDNF). Se evaluó el porcentaje de sobrevida celular mediante el test de exclusión de Azul de Tripán. La viabilidad de los cultivos después de agregar NMDA fueron: corticales 71,2 +/- 2,8 por ciento, hipocampales 24,6 +/- 2,2 por ciento (p<0,01). Al inhibir la NOS, la viabilidad fue: corticales 31 +/- 6,5 por ciento, hipocampales 79,2 +/- 5,4 por ciento (p<0,01). En ausencia de BDNF fue: corticales 28,7+/- 7,9 por ciento, hipocampales 88,9 +/- 3 por ciento (p<0,01). Concluimos que después de un insulto excitotóxico, BDNF/NO son neuroprotectores en neuronas corticales pero no hipocampales. La potenciación de mecanismos neuroprotectores podría ser una alternativa terapéutica en patologías que involucran muerte neuronal por excitotoxicidad.

In temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE), the hippocampus and adjacent temporal structures become an epileptic focus following a brain insult, such as a prolonged seizure (or Status Epilepticus). After the insult, neuronal death by excitotoxicity ocurrs, this is, by over stimulation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (R-NMDA) and nitric oxide sinthesis by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), a calcium-dependant enzyme. However, other brain structures, such as the cerebral cortex, are much more resistant to an excitotoxic challenge. We propose that the decreased susceptibility of the cerebral cortex could be explained by neuroprotection mediated by the neurotrophin BDNF, which is known to stimulate neuronal survival. Primary hippocampal and cortical neuronalcultures were used. To evaluate excitotoxicity, 30 uM NMDA was added. The signaling pathways to be tested were inhibited by using pharmacological inhibitors: L-NNA (NOS inhibitor), and TrkB-Fc, a BDN-scavenger. Percentages of cellular survival were evaluated using the Trypan Blue exclusion test. The viability of the cultures after adding NMDA was: larger in cortical than in hippocampal cultures, 71,2 +/- 2,8 percent for cortical and 24,6 +/- 2,2 percent hippocampal cells (p<0,01). When inhibiting NOS, the viability was: 31 +/- 6,5 percent for cortical and 79,2 +/- 5,4 percent for hippocampal cells (p<0,01). In absence of BDNF, 28,7 +/- 7,9 percent of the cortical cells survived, while in the hippocampal cultures it was of 88,9 +/- 3 percent (p<0,01). We conclude that after an excitotoxic insult, BDNF/NO are neuroprotective in cortical but not hippocampal neurons. The potentiation of such neuroprotective mecanisms could be used as a therapeutic alternative in pathologies that involve neuronal death by excitotoxicity.

Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/physiology , Neuroprotective Agents/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/metabolism , Cell Survival , Cytoprotection , Status Epilepticus/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Neurons/physiology , Neurotoxins/toxicity , Organ Culture Techniques , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/physiology
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Apr; 46(2): 166-171
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135190


Hypoxia is one of the major causes of damage to the fetal and neonatal brain and cardiac functions. In earlier studies, we have reported the brain damage caused by hypoxia and resuscitation with oxygen and epinephrine and have found that glucose treatment to hypoxic rats and hypoxic rats treated with oxygen shows a reversal of brain damage. The neonatal rats are shown to be deficient in free radical scavenging system, which offers a high risk of oxidative stress. In the present study, we induced hypoxia in neonatal Wistar rats and resuscitated with glucose, oxygen and epinephrine. Heart tissue and cerebral cortex were used to study the kinetics of superoxide dismutase activity in experimental groups of rats to assess the free radical status. Results showed that glucose supplementation in hypoxia (Hx + G) and hypoxic + oxygen (Hx + O) had an efficient free radical scavenging capability, compared to all other experimental groups. The observation was ascertained by studying the activity of catalase, another antioxidant enzyme in the body. Our results suggested that in neonatal rats during hypoxic condition, damage to heart and brain was more prominent in all groups, except when supplemented with glucose. These findings may have clinical significance in the proper management of heart and brain function.

Animals , Animals, Newborn , Hypoxia/enzymology , Catalase/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/enzymology , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Glucose/administration & dosage , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucose/therapeutic use , Heart/drug effects , Myocardium/enzymology , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/pharmacology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Resuscitation , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2009 Mar; 47(3): 193-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62101


The involvement of adenosinergic pathway in the anti-nociceptive effect of duloxetine, a balanced 5-HT/NE reuptake inhibitor, was evaluated in streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino mice of Laca strain. After four weeks of single injection of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg, ip), mice were tested in the tail immersion and hot-plate assays. Cerebral adenosine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/PDA detector). Diabetic mice exhibited significant hyperalgesia along with increased plasma glucose, decreased body weights and reduced cerebral adenosine levels. Administration of duloxetine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, ip) to diabetic mice produced dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effect in both tail-immersion and hot-plate assays. Adenosine levels were also significantly and dose-dependently increased by different doses of duloxetine. The results demonstrated the involvement of adenosinergic pathway in duloxetine mediated anti-hyperalgesia in diabetic neuropathic pain.

Adenosine/metabolism , Animals , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetic Neuropathies/drug therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hot Temperature , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy , Hyperalgesia/etiology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Pain Measurement , Pain Threshold/drug effects , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Streptozocin , Thiophenes/administration & dosage , Thiophenes/pharmacology , Thiophenes/therapeutic use , Touch
Biol. Res ; 41(2): 129-136, 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-495746


We have previously characterized a number of small molecule organic compounds that prevent the aggregation of the β-amyloid peptide and its neurotoxicity in hippocampal neuronal cultures. We have now evaluated the effects of such compounds on amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation in the CTb immortalized cell line derived from the cerebral cortex of a trisomy 16 mouse, an animal model of Down's syndrome. Compared to a non-trisomic cortical cell line (CNh), CTb cells overexpress APP and exhibit slightly elevated resting intracellular Ca2+ levéis ([Ca2+]¡). Here, we show that the compounds 2,4-dinitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol and 4-anisidine decreased intracellular accumulation of APP in CTb cells. Those compounds were non-toxic to the cells, and slightly increased the basal [Ca2+]¡. Results indícate that the compounds tested can be leads for the development of drugs to decrease intracellular vesicular accumulation of APP in trisomic cells.

Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/antagonists & inhibitors , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Down Syndrome/metabolism , Nitrophenols/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Cell Line , Cerebral Cortex/cytology , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal
Biol. Res ; 39(1): 103-104, 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-430703


Brain cells have a highly active oxidative metabolism, yet they contain only low to moderate superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Thus, their antioxidant defenses rely mainly on cellular reduced glutathione levels. In this work, in cortical neurons we characterized viability and changes in reduced and oxidized glutathione levels in response to a protocol of iron accumulation. We found that massive death occurred after 2 days in culture with 10 mM Fe. Surviving cells developed an adaptative response that included increased synthesis of GSH and the maintenance of a glutathione-based reduction potential. These results highlight the fundamental role of glutathione homeostasis in the antioxidant response and provide novel insights into the adaptative mechanisms of neurons subjected to progressive iron loads.

Animals , Rats , Cerebral Cortex/cytology , Glutathione/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Cell Death/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Glutathione Disulfide/metabolism , Homeostasis , Iron/pharmacology , Neurons/chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction , Time Factors