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1.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 962024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550960

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los pacientes críticos pediátricos son susceptibles de presentar alteraciones del flujo sanguíneo cerebral que impliquen un deterioro de su estado de salud funcional. Objetivo: Identificar factores predictores de mayor riesgo de mala evolución funcional en pacientes pediátricos críticos con sepsis. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohortes retrospectivo con menores de 18 años de edad con sepsis, ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Se recogieron variables epidemiológicas, clínicas y del estado de salud funcional previas al ingreso, al alta y a los 6 meses. El estado de salud funcional se evaluó mediante la escala de categorías de estado global y cerebral pediátrico. Se evaluó el cambio del estado funcional entre el ingreso y a los 6 meses del alta. Se realizó un análisis univariante para comparar grupos considerando el mal pronóstico y el cambio del estado funcional y su relación con las variables. Resultados: Se incluyeron 46 pacientes. A los 6 meses del alta, cuatro (8,7 por ciento) presentaron mal pronóstico funcional y ocho (17,4 por ciento) empeoramiento funcional respecto al ingreso. No se encontraron asociaciones entre las variables predictoras y la morbilidad, aunque se observó cierta tendencia en algunas como mayor soporte inotrópico (VIS > 20: 12,5 por ciento vs. 50 por ciento, p= 0,075), extracorpóreo y de reemplazo renal (25 por ciento vs. 2,6 por ciento, p= 0,074) y estancia hospitalaria más prolongada (50 por ciento vs. 15,8 por ciento , p= 0,055). Conclusiones: El soporte en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos no fue un predictor de morbilidad funcional en la muestra(AU)


Introduction: Critically ill pediatric patients are susceptible to cerebral blood flow alterations that imply a deterioration of their functional health status. Objective: To identify predictors of a higher risk of poor functional outcome in critically ill pediatric patients with sepsis. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with children under 18 years of age with sepsis, who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Epidemiological, clinical, and functional health status variables were collected prior to admission, discharge, and after 6 months. Functional health status was assessed using the Pediatric Global State and Brain Status Category Scale. The change in performance status between admission and 6 months after discharge was assessed. A univariate analysis was performed to compare groups considering poor prognosis and change in functional status and their relationship with the variables. Results: A total of 46 patients were included. At 6 months after discharge, four (8.7 percent) had a poor functional prognosis and eight (17.4 percent) had functional worsening at admission. No associations were found between the predictor variables and morbidity, although some trends were observed in some variables, such as greater inotropic support (SIV > 20: 12.5 percent vs. 50 percent, p = 0.075), extracorporeal and renal replacement (25 percent vs. 2.6 , percent p = 0.074), and longer hospital stay (50 percent vs. 15.8 percent , p = 0.055). Conclusions: Support in the pediatric intensive care unit was not a predictor of functional morbidity in the sample(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Health Status , Risk Factors , Sepsis/epidemiology , Patients , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Critical Care/methods
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508224

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La epilepsia y la enfermedad de Parkinson han sido descritos como trastornos de redes neurales. El estudio de la conectividad por modalidades moleculares puede ser más relevante fisiológicamente que los basados en señales hemodinámicas. Objetivo: Proponer una metodología para la descripción de patrones de conectividad funcional a partir de la perfusión cerebral por tomografía por emisión de fotón único. Métodos: La metodología incluye cuatro pasos principales: preprocesamiento espacial, corrección del volumen parcial, cálculo del índice de perfusión y obtención de la matriz de conectividad funcional mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Se implementó en 25 pacientes con distintos trastornos neurológicos: 15 con epilepsia farmacorresistente y 10 con enfermedad de Parkinson. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los índice de perfusión de varias regiones de los hemisferios ipsilateral y contralateral tanto en pacientes con epilepsia del lóbulo frontal como en pacientes con epilepsia del lóbulo temporal. Igual resultado se obtuvo en los pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson con distintos estadios de la enfermedad. Para cada grupo se identificaron patrones de conectividad funcional que involucran a regiones relacionadas con la patología en estudio. Conclusiones: Con el desarrollo de esta metodología se ha demostrado que la tomografía por emisión de fotón único aporta información valiosa para estudiar la organización de las redes funcionales del cerebro. Futuras investigaciones con mayor número de pacientes contribuirían a hacer inferencias sobre los correlatos neurales de los distintos trastornos cerebrales(AU)


Introduction: Epilepsy and Parkinson's disease have been described as disorders of neural networks. The study of connectivity by molecular modalities may be more physiologically relevant than those based on hemodynamic signals. Aim: The aim of the present work is to propose a methodology for the description of functional connectivity patterns from brain perfusion by single photon emission tomography. Methods: The methodology includes four main steps: spatial preprocessing, partial volume correction, calculation of the perfusion index and obtaining the functional connectivity matrix using Pearson's correlation coefficient. It was implemented in 25 patients with different neurological disorders: 15 with drug-resistant epilepsy and 10 suffering Parkinson's disease. Results: Significant differences were found between the perfusion indexes of various regions of the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres in both patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The same result was obtained in Parkinson's disease patients with different stages of the disease. For each group, functional connectivity patterns involving regions related to the pathology under study were identified. Conclusions: With the development of this methodology, it has been demonstrated that single photon emission tomography provides valuable information to study the organization of functional brain networks. Future research with a larger number of patients would contribute to make inferences about the neural correlates of the different brain disorders(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Epilepsy , Cerebrum/blood supply , Functional Neuroimaging , Patients
3.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 31-37, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate local cerebral blood perfusion in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) based on cerebral blood flow (CBF) values of arterial spin labeling (ASL).@*METHODS@#A prospective study was conducted on 90 preterm infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks and a birth weight of <1 500 g who were born in the Department of Obstetrics and admitted to the Department of Neonatology in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from August 2021 to June 2022. All of the infants underwent cranial MRI and ASL at the corrected gestational age of 35-40 weeks. According to the presence or absence of BPD, they were divided into a BPD group with 45 infants and a non-BPD group with 45 infants. The two groups were compared in terms of the CBF values of the same regions of interest (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, thalamus, and basal ganglia) on ASL image.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the non-BPD group, the BPD group had a significantly lower 1-minute Apgar score, a significantly longer duration of assisted ventilation, and a significantly higher incidence rate of fetal distress (P<0.05). After control for the confounding factors such as corrected age and age at the time of cranial MRI by multiple linear regression analysis, compared with the non-BPD group, the BPD group still had higher CBF values of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, basal ganglia, and thalamus at both sides (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#BPD can increase cerebral blood perfusion in preterm infants, which might be associated with hypoxia and a long duration of assisted ventilation in the early stage.


Subject(s)
Infant , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant, Premature , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Gestational Age , Cerebrovascular Circulation
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 903-917, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007799

ABSTRACT

Aging is a natural process accompanied with a progressive deterioration of cognitive functions. With an aging population, more and more elderly people are suffering from cognitive impairment. Previous studies have paid more attention to the impact of inflammation and oxidative stress on cognitive function during aging. Recently, it has been discovered that neurovascular coupling (NVC), a mechanism regulating cerebral blood flow, may play a significant role in aging-related cognitive impairment. NVC responses regulate the supply of energy substances and oxygen during brain activity, which in turn enhances cognitive function. However, as people grow older, NVC responses gradually weaken, which may be one of the mechanisms underlying aging-induced cognitive impairment. Given the important role of NVC responses in the brain, it is necessary to search for intervention methods that can improve NVC responses and promote cognitive function. Exercise is an effective means to delay aging and improve cognitive function. It also has a certain promoting effect on NVC responses. This article reviews the regulatory mechanisms of NVC responses, the relationship between NVC responses and cognitive function, and explores the effects of aging and exercise intervention on NVC responses, hoping to provide new research ideas for exercise intervention to improve NVC responses and promote cognitive function in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Neurovascular Coupling/physiology , Aging , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Cognition , Brain
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 141-146, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928875

ABSTRACT

By using Doppler sensor and pressure sensor, the cerebrovascular stroke detector can be used to measure the blood flow velocity and blood pressure of the carotid artery. In this study, a variety of signal conversion and isolation processing techniques are proposed for processing and feature extraction of the output signals from the sensors. Finally, effective signal output waveforms that can be used to evaluate the cerebrovascular hemodynamics index (CVHI) are obtained, and the sound signal outputs that can reflect the change characteristics of blood flow velocity and blood pressure signals are generated, which realizes the application functional requirements of the detector.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Stroke , Technology
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 591-597, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Insufficient cerebral perfusion is suggested to play a role in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there is a lack of direct evidence indicating whether hypoperfusion causes or aggravates AD pathology. We investigated the effect of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on AD-related pathology in humans.@*METHODS@#We enrolled a group of cognitively normal patients (median age: 64 years) with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Regions of interest with the most pronounced hypoperfusion changes were chosen in the hypoperfused region and were then mirrored in the contralateral hemisphere to create a control region with normal perfusion. 11C-Pittsburgh compound-positron emission tomography standard uptake ratios and brain atrophy indices were calculated from the computed tomography images of each patient.@*RESULTS@#The median age of the 10 participants, consisting of 4 males and 6 females, was 64 years (47-76 years). We found that there were no differences in standard uptake ratios of the cortex (volume of interest [VOI]: P = 0.721, region of interest [ROI]: P = 0.241) and grey/white ratio (VOI: P = 0.333, ROI: P = 0.445) and brain atrophy indices (Bicaudate, Bifrontal, Evans, Cella, Cella media, and Ventricular index, P > 0.05) between the hypoperfused regions and contralateral normally perfused regions in patients with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that chronic hypoperfusion due to large vessel stenosis may not directly induce cerebral β-amyloid deposition and neurodegeneration in humans.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Arteries , Atrophy , Brain/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
8.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 40(1): 11-19, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388073

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Antecedentes: El daño neurológico es una complicación devastadora de la cirugía con paro circulatorio del cayado aórtico y aorta ascendente. La perfusión anterógrada del encéfalo permite disminuir la incidencia de esta complicación, pero es un procedimiento engorroso que interfiere el campo quirúrgico. Para procedimientos más simples que requieran de paro circulatorio de menor duración, la Perfusión Cerebral Retrógrada (PCR) es una alternativa válida. Objetivo: Evaluar nuestros resultados en la cirugía del reemplazo total de la aorta ascendente tubular con paro circulatorio con hipotermia sistémica moderada y PCR. Material y Método: Entre enero de 2015 y enero de 2020 se identificaron los pacientes en la Base de Datos del Servicio de Cirugía Cardiaca de nuestra institución, se revisaron los protocolos operatorios, registros de perfusión y epicrisis, para obtener datos demográficos, clínicos y quirúrgicos pertinentes. La supervivencia alejada se certificó a través del "Servicio Registro Civil e Identificación de Chile". Resultados: En el periodo en estudio, 27 pacientes (21 hombres) tuvieron un reemplazo total de la aorta ascendente tubular con paro circulatorio con hipotermia moderada y PCR. Ocho pacientes tenían una cirugía previa; 7 de estos un reemplazo valvular aórtico. El 75% de los otros 20 pacientes tenía una válvula aórtica bicúspide. El diámetro máximo de la aorta ascendente fue en promedio 53,7 mm (45 a 67), y fue reemplazada en el 52% de los casos con un tubo protésico de 34 mm (promedio:32,4 mm; margen:30 a 34 mm). En 20 pacientes se efectuó un reemplazo valvular aórtico (15 con prótesis biológica). El tiempo promedio de circulación extracorpórea fue 174,6 min (97 a 243) y la temperatura sistémica mínima promedio fue 21ºC (18 a 25). El tiempo promedio de paro circulatorio fue 22,3 min (12 a 40) y de PCR 13 min (6 a 27). No hubo mortalidad operatoria. La morbilidad más frecuente fue la fibrilación auricular (33%). Una paciente presentó un episodio convulsivo aislado y otro fue reoperado por hemorragia postoperatoria. Una paciente falleció a los 48 meses de su operación. Conclusión: El paro circulatorio con hipotermia sistémica moderada y PCR para la cirugía de reemplazo total de la aorta ascendente facilitó la operación, con baja mortalidad y morbilidad en este grupo de pacientes.


Abstract: Background. Neurological damage is a devastating complication of aortic arch and ascending aorta surgery with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Antegrade cerebral perfusion significantly decreases the incidence of this complication, but it is a cumbersome procedure that interfere the surgical field. For more simple procedures, requiring a shorter period of circulatory arrest, retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) would be a valid alternative. Objective. To evaluate the results of total surgical replacement of the tubular ascending aorta with moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). Methods. Patients operated between January 2015 and January 2020 were included.Demographic, clinical and surgical information was obtained from the operatives notes, perfusion registry and discharge reports. Long-term survival was certified by the "Chilean Civil and Identification Registry". Results. 27 patients (21 men) underwent a total replacement of the tubular ascending aorta with circulatory arrest with moderate hypothermia and RCP. Eight patients had been previously operated on;7 of them had a previous aortic valve replacement. Of the remaining 20 patients, 75% had a bicuspid aortic valve. Average maximum diameter of the ascending aorta was 53.7 mm (45 - 67). Average size of the ascending aorta replacement graft was 32.4 mm (30 -34). In 20 patients a concomitant aortic valve replacement was performed (15 with a biological valve). Mean extracorporeal circulation time was 174.6 min (97 - 243) and mean minimal systemic temperature was 21ºC (18 - 25). Mean circulatory arrest time was 22.3 min (12 - 40) and mean RCP time was 13 min (6 - 27), There was no operative mortality. Atrial fibrillation was the most frequent post-operative morbidity (33%). One patient presented an isolated convulsive episode and another was re-operated due to postoperative hemorrhage. One patient died, 48 months after her operation. Conclusion. Moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest with RCP simplifies total tubular ascending aorta replacement, with low mortality and morbidity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Perfusion/methods , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced , Aneurysm, Ascending Aorta/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm/physiopathology , Postoperative Complications , Treatment Outcome , Extracorporeal Circulation , Heart Arrest, Induced , Hypothermia, Induced
9.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e957, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289533

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica tiene una elevada incidencia y prevalencia en Cuba, y constituye la tercera causa de muerte en el país. Existen diferencias anatómicas y clínicas entre el infarto de la circulación anterior y la posterior. En ocasiones, los elementos distintivos que ayudan al diagnóstico topográfico de la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica son las manifestaciones neuroftalmológicas. Con el objetivo de profundizar en el conocimiento actual sobre las alteraciones neuroftalmológicas que se asocian a la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, donde se consultaron un total de 69 fuentes de información digital de los últimos 5 años. La circulación cerebral se divide de manera general en anterior y posterior. Los síntomas y signos principales del ictus que afecta la circulación anterior son la desviación conjugada de la mirada, la afectación de las sácadas, la hemianopsia homónima, la heminegligencia y la apraxia de la apertura ocular; mientras que las alteraciones asociadas a la afectación de la circulación posterior son el nistagmo, las anormalidades en la alineación y los movimientos oculares, así como la hemianopsia homónima con conservación macular. Se concluye que en la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica aparecen síntomas y signos como consecuencia de la afectación, tanto de la vía visual aferente, como de la eferente. La hemianopsia homónima es el signo más frecuente reportado(AU)


Ischemic cerebrovascular disease has a high incidence and prevalence in Cuba, and it is the third cause of death in the country. A number of anatomical and clinical differences distinguish anterior from posterior circulation infarction. On certain occasions the distinguishing elements that aid in the topographic diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease are its neuro-ophthalmological manifestations. With the purpose of gaining insight into the current knowledge about the neuro-ophthalmological alterations associated to ischemic cerebrovascular disease, a bibliographic review was conducted based on the analysis of 69 digital information sources from the last five years. Cerebral circulation is generally divided into anterior and posterior. The main symptoms and signs of the stroke that affects anterior circulation are conjugate gaze deviation, altered saccades, homonymous hemianopsia, heminegligence and eyelid opening apraxia, whereas the alterations associated to posterior circulation involvement are nystagmus, eye movement and alignment abnormalities, and homonymous hemianopsia with macular preservation. It is concluded that ischemic cerebrovascular disease presents symptoms and signs related to both the afferent and the efferent visual pathways. Homonymous hemianopsia is the most common sign reported(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Hemianopsia/etiology , Review Literature as Topic , Neurologic Manifestations
10.
Biol. Res ; 54: 39-39, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of mild cerebral hypoxia on haemoglobin oxygenation (HbO2), cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and cardiovascular physiology. To achieve this goal, four signals were recorded simultaneously: blood pressure, heart rate / electrocardiogram, HbO2 from right hemisphere and changes of subarachnoid space (SAS) width from left hemisphere. Signals were registered from 30 healthy, young participants (2 females and 28 males, body mass index = 24.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, age 30.8 ± 13.4 years). RESULTS: We analysed the recorded signals using wavelet transform and phase coherence. We demonstrated for the first time that in healthy subjects exposed to mild poikilokapnic hypoxia there were increases in very low frequency HbO2 oscillations (< 0.052 Hz) in prefrontal cortex. Additionally, SAS fluctuation diminished in the whole frequency range which could be explained by brain oedema. CONCLUSIONS: Consequently the study provides insight into mechanisms governing brain response to a mild hypoxic challenge. Our study supports the notion that HbO2 and SAS width monitoring might be beneficial for patients with acute lung disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Lung Diseases , Hemoglobins , Prefrontal Cortex , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Hypoxia
11.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 400-404, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical curative effect on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and explore the relevant mechanism of acupuncture in treatment.@*METHODS@#A total of 100 ADHD children were randomized into an observation group (50 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (50 cases, 1 case dropped off). In the control group, the routine psychological intervention was used. In the observation group, on the base of the treatment as the control group, acupuncture was applied to Taichong (LR 3), Neiguan (PC 6), Shenmen (HT 7), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), etc., once daily, for 3 months. The Cambridge neuropsychological tests automated battery (CANTAB) was adopted to evaluate attention and response inhibition in two groups before and after treatment. Digi-Lite color transcranial Doppler was used to measure cerebral arterial blood velocity. The therapeutic effect was compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Regarding evaluation of attention, the mean delay time in the observation group after treatment was shorter than that before treatment and that in the control group separately (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture combined with psychological intervention may improve attention and response inhibition in ADHD children, which is possibly related to the regulation of cerebral blood flow.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Psychosocial Intervention
12.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 18(3): 121-132, dic. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289157

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el cerebro es un órgano altamente irrigado, y esta irrigación es suministrada por el círculo arterial cerebral: una red arterial anastomótica con frecuentes variaciones anatómicas, algunas asociadas con patologías. El objetivo es describir las características antropométricas y variaciones anatómicas del círculo arterial cerebral en una muestra de especímenes cadavéricos humanos. Materiales y métodos: se revisaron 50 encéfalos, de los cuales 24 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se realizaron medidas de diámetro y longitud y también se describieron variaciones anatómicas y variaciones morfométricas. Resultados: siete especímenes evidenciaron variaciones anatómicas (29.1 %); 3 (12.5 %), arteria cerebral anterior (ACA) ácigos; uno (4.1 %), doble ACA en el segmento A1; uno (4.1 %), triple ACA en el segmento A2 y doble arteria comunicante anterior (AcomA); uno (4.1 %), agenesia de la arteria comunicante posterior (AComP) derecha; uno (4.1 %), de la AComP izquierda. El 29.1 % presentó variaciones antropométricas; el 12.5 %, hipoplasia de la AComP derecha; el 12.5 %>, de la AComP izquierda, y el 4.1 %>, hipoplasia bilateral de la AComP. Conclusión: la presencia de variaciones anatómicas fue inferior a la hallada en otros estudios, con predominio de variantes de la circulación anterior. Se describe la presencia de triple ACA en el segmento A2 y doble arteria comunicante anterior.


Abstract Introduction: The brain is a highly irrigated organ; this irrigation is supplied by the cerebral arterial circle: an anastomotic arterial network with frequent anatomical variations, some of which are associated with pathologies. This study aimed to describe the anthropometric characteristics and anatomical variations of the cerebral arterial circle in a sample of human cadaveric specimens. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 brains were examined, 24 of which met the inclusion criteria. Diameter and length measurements were obtained, and anatomical and morphometric variations were described. Results: Seven specimens (29.1%) had anatomical variations: 3 (12.5%) had azygos anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 1 (4.1%) had double ACA in segment A1, 1 (4.1%) had triple ACA in segment A2 and double anterior communicating artery (AcomA), 1 (4.1%) had right posterior communicating artery (AComP) agenesis, and 1 (4.1%) had left AComP agenesis. Seven specimens (29.1%) had anthropometric variations: 3 (12.5%) had hypoplasia of right AComP and 3 (12.5%) of left AComP and 1 (4.1%) had bilateral hypoplasia of AComP. Conclusion: The presence of ana-tomical variations was lower than that reported in other studies, with a predominance of variations of the anterior circulation. The presence of triple ACA in segment A2 and double AcomA was described.


Resumo Introdução: o cérebro é um órgão altamente irrigado; esta irrigação é fornecida pelo círculo arterial cerebral: uma rede arterial anastomótica com frequentes variações anatómicas, algumas associadas a patologias. O objetivo é escrever as características antropométricas e variações anatômicas do círculo arterial cerebral em uma amostra de espécimenes cadavéricos humanos. Materiais e métodos: se revisaram 50 encéfalos dos quais 24 cumpriram os critérios de inclusão; realizaram-se medidas de diâmetro e longitude, descreveram-se variações anatômicas e variações morfométricas. Resultados: o 29,1% dos espécimenes apresentaram variações anatómicas (n = 7 ), 3 (12,5%) apresentaram artéria cerebral anterior (ACA) ázigos, um (4,1%) apresentou dupla ACA no segmento A1, um (4,1%) apresentou triple ACA no segmento A2 e dupla artéria comunicante anterior (AcomA), um (4,1%) apresentou agenesia da artéria comunicante posterior (AComP) direita, um (4,1%) da AComP esquerda. 29,1% apresentaram variações antropométricas, três (12,5%) apresentaram hipoplasia de AComP direita, três (12,5%) da AComP esquerda e um (4,1%) hipoplasia bilateral da AComP. Conclusão: a presença de variações anatómicas foi inferior à reportada em outros estudos, com predomínio de variantes da circulação anterior, se descreve a presença de triple ACA no segmento A2 e dupla artéria comunicante anterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Circle of Willis , Cadaver , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Anthropometry
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 465-470, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137307

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Stroke is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in surgery. In the present study, we examined the cerebral oximetry values of patients with carotid artery stenosis who did not present surgical indications and those who did not present carotid artery stenosis in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery by comparing their cerebral oximetry values with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Between January and May 2014, 40 patients who underwent isolated CABG were included in the study. Cerebral oximetry probes were placed prior to induction of anesthesia. Cerebral oximetry values were recorded before induction, in the pump (cardiopulmonary bypass) inlet period, in the post-clamp period, in the pump outlet period, and in the intensive care unit and neurological complications. Results: There was no difference between the groups in terms of demographic data and routine follow-up parameters. Intraoperative surgical data and early postoperative results were similar in both groups. When comparing the groups, there were no statistically significant results in cerebral oximetry values and CVD development. Only one patient in group 2 had postoperative CVD and this patient was discharged from the hospital with right hemiplegia. Mean arterial pressure (MAP)levels were significantly higher in Group 2 (P<0.05). Conclusion: The follow-up of cerebral perfusion with a method like near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) will ensure that MAP is adjusted with interventions that will be made according to changes in NIRS. Thus, it will be possible to avoid unnecessary medication and flow-rate increase with cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen , Oximetry , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Coronary Artery Bypass , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Margins of Excision
14.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(2): 110-117, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249880

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La cirugía de cardiopatías congénitas puede generar alteraciones perfusorias cerebrales con repercusión neurológica. Objetivo: Analizar la relación del índice de resistencia (IR) vascular cerebral periquirúrgico con funciones neurológicas mediatas posteriores a cirugía de cardiopatía congénita. Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 34 neonatos en quienes se determinó IR de la arteria basilar, niveles séricos de oxígeno, dióxido de carbono y lactato, antes y después de procedimientos paliativos o correctivos. Relacionamos el IR prequirúrgico con la capacidad posquirúrgica para iniciar la vía enteral o restablecer la respiración espontánea no asistida. Resultados: Se integraron tres grupos: 17 neonatos con IR alto > 0.73, cinco con IR normal de 0.63 a 0.73 y seis con IR bajo < 0.63. En los primeros persistió IR alto en el posquirúrgico, con hiperlactatemia e hipoxia persistentes; en 86 % no se logró iniciar la vía enteral ni retirar la ventilación asistida. En los segundos, el IR se mantuvo en valores normales. En los terceros, si bien el IR, el lactato sérico y la presión arterial de oxígeno tendieron a normalizarse, 71 % presentó daño neurológico grave. Conclusiones: Los cambios en el IR fueron frecuentes, aunque el daño neurológico parece presentarse más cuando el IR se mantiene alto, posiblemente asociado a flujos cerebrales bajos.


Abstract Introduction: Surgery for congenital heart disease can generate cerebral perfusion-associated alterations with neurological repercussions. Objective: To analyze the relationship of peri-surgical cerebrovascular resistance index (RI) with mediate neurological functions after congenital heart disease surgery. Method: Prospective cohort study of 34 neonates in whom basilar artery RI, serum oxygen, carbon dioxide and lactate levels were determined before and after palliative or corrective procedures. We related pre-surgical RI with post-surgical ability to initiate the enteral route or to restore unassisted spontaneous breathing. Results: Three groups were formed: 17 neonates with high RI (> 0.73), five with normal RI (0.63-0.73) and six with low RI (< 0.63). In the former group, high RI persisted in the postoperative period, with persistent hyperlactatemia and hypoxia; in 86%, the enteral route could not be initiated, and neither could assisted ventilation be withdrawn. In the second group, IR remained within normal values. In the third group, although RI, serum lactate and arterial oxygen pressure tended to normalize, 71% had severe neurological damage. Conclusions: RI changes were common, although neurological damage appears to occur more commonly when RI remains high, possibly associated with low cerebral blood flow.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Brain/blood supply , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Prospective Studies , Hyperlactatemia , Hypoxia
15.
Biociencias ; 15(1): 73-78, jun.2020.
Article in Spanish | COLNAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1122956

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La oximetría cerebral no invasiva utiliza la tecnología NIRS ("near infrared spectroscopy") para medir la saturación de oxígeno en una pequeña región de los vasos cerebrales corticales. Refleja el 75% volumen de oxigenación cerebral venosa y el 25% volumen de oxigenación cerebral arterial. Objetivo: Hacer una descripción breve sobre oximetría cerebral no invasiva mediante la tecnología NIRS ("near infrared spectroscopy"). Aunque esta técnica se describió hace más de 25 años, su uso es cada vez más frecuente siendo un fenómeno reciente. Comentarios: La saturación regional cerebral de oxígeno (rSO2c), al igual que la saturación pulsátil arterial periférica de oxígeno, se mide por espectrometría. Se basa en el hecho de que la hemoglobina oxigenada absorbe menos luz roja y más luz infrarroja que la hemoglobina. Es un método sencillo para identificar el límite inferior de la autorregulación, el punto por debajo del cual el flujo sanguíneo cerebral y la oxigenación tisular se hacen dependientes de la presión. Conclusiones: Los valores obtenidos de rSO2c representan el estado de oxigenación de los cromóforos del lecho vascular cerebral del compartimento venoso. Los cambios en la oximetría cerebral dependen del balance entre aporte y consumo de oxígeno.


Introduction: Non-invasive cerebral oximetry uses NIRS ("near infrared spectroscopy") technology to measure oxygen saturation in a small region of cortical cerebral vessels. It reflects 75% volume of venous cerebral oxygenation and 25% volume of arterial cerebral oxygenation. Objective: To make a brief description about non-invasive cerebral oximetry using NIRS technology ("near infrared spectroscopy"). Although this technique was described more than 25 years ago, its use is increasingly frequent being a recent phenomenon. Comments: Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2c), like peripheral arterial pulsatile oxygen saturation, is measured by spectrometry. It is based on the fact that oxygenated hemoglobin absorbs less red light and more infrared light than hemoglobin. It is a simple method to identify the lower limit of self-regulation, the point below which cerebral blood flow and tissue oxygenation become pressure dependent. Conclusions: The values ​​obtained from rSO2c represent the oxygenation state of the chromophores of the cerebral vascular bed of the venous compartment. Changes in cerebral oximetry depend on the balance between oxygen intake and consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Spectrum Analysis , Bacteria , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Environment and Public Health , Mediation Analysis
16.
Rev. chil. anest ; 49(1): 114-124, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510347

ABSTRACT

Beach chair position is require for Shoulder surgery frequently for proper resolution. The stroke associated with shoulder surgery is a rare complication and probably underreported. The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiology of the ischemic damage associated with beach chair position, learn about strategies and develop recommendations to minimize risks.


La cirugía de hombro (CH), requiere y requerirá colocar a los pacientes en la posición en silla de playa (PSP), cada vez con mayor frecuencia para su adecuada resolución. El asociado a CH, es una complicación poco frecuente y probablmente subreportada. El objetivo de esta revisión, es repasar la fisiopatología del daño isquémico asociado a PSP, conocer estrategias y elaborar recomedaciones destinadas a minimizar riesgos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroscopy/methods , Shoulder/surgery , Stroke/prevention & control , Patient Positioning , Anesthesia/methods , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Stroke/physiopathology , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Hemodynamics , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/prevention & control
17.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 327-330, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826361

ABSTRACT

To investigate cerebral autoregulation(CA)in patients with severe unilateral carotid artery stenosis by near infrared spectroscopy. Thirty patients who underwent general anesthesia in our hospital from January 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled in this study.The stenosis group included 15 patients with severe unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis,and the control group included 15 patients without carotid artery stenosis.Both groups were matched in sex and age.Cerebral tissue oxygenation index(TOI)and mean arterial pressure were recorded continuously under stable general anesthesia.The Pearson correlation coefficient()was calculated to judge the CA status. TOI was not significantly different between the stenosis side and the non-stenosis side in the stenosis group(66.52±6.50 65.23±4.50;=0.93, =0.368)or between the stenosis side in the stenosis group and the stenosis side in the control group(66.52±6.50 64.22±3.87;=1.18, =0.248).The values of stenosis side and non-stenosis side in the stenosis group were 0.36±0.12 and 0.17±0.11,respectively,and the values of the stenosis side in the stenosis group and the stenosis side of the control group were 0.36±0.12 and 0.13±0.08,respectively.In the stenosis group,5 patients had transient ischemic attack and 2 patients had a history of stroke within 3 months before operation.When an value of 0.342 was used as the judgment point of CA abnormality,the sensitivity and specificity were 0.625 and 0.909,respectively. Within the range of normal blood pressure fluctuation,cerebral blood flow is linked to blood pressure at the stenosis side in patients with severe unilateral carotid artery stenosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure , Carotid Stenosis , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Homeostasis , Ischemic Attack, Transient
18.
Med. UIS ; 32(2): 53-58, mayo-ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114968

ABSTRACT

Resumen El accidente cerebrovascular en adultos jóvenes es un evento raro presente en menos del 5% de los casos a nivel mundial, representando un reto diagnóstico debido a las múltiples etiologías posibles, entre ellas las infecciones. Del 15% al 40% de los pacientes con sífilis no tratada pueden desarrollar sífilis terciaria con manifestaciones principalmente neurodestructivas, descritas en la sífilis tardía pero con meningitis crónica y accidente cerebrovascular de tipo meningovascular en su fase temprana. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 40 años con antecedente de cambios de comportamiento, alucinaciones auditivas e insomnio, quien consulta a urgencias por presentar hemiplejia derecha, afasia motora, lesiones palmo-plantares y roseta en glande asociada a adenopatías inguinales. Dados los hallazgos imagenológicos y de líquido cefalorraquídeo se estableció diagnóstico de accidente cerebrovascular isquémico de circulación cerebral anterior izquierda secundario a neurosífilis meningovascular, con confirmación de inmunosupresión por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(2):53-8


Abstract Stroke in young adults is a rare event present in less than 5% of cases worldwide, representing a diagnostic challenge due to the multiple possible etiologies, including infections. 15% to 40% of patients with untreated syphilis may develop tertiary syphilis; with mainly neurodestructive manifestations, described in late syphilis, but in its early stage with chronic meningitis and meningovascular stroke. The case of a 40-year-old male patient with a history of behavior changes, auditory hallucinations and insomnia is presented, who consults the emergency department for presenting right hemiplegia, motor aphasia, palmoplantar lesions and rosette in glans associated with inguinal adenopathies. Given the imaging and cerebrospinal fluid findings, a diagnosis of ischemic stroke of the left anterior cerebral circulation was established, secondary to meningovascular neurosyphilis, with confirmation of immunosuppression due to human immunodeficiency virus. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(2):53-8


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Neurosyphilis , Aphasia, Broca , Patients , Penicillins , Treponema pallidum , Wounds and Injuries , Male , Syphilis , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Adolescent , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Immunosuppression Therapy , Stroke , Young Adult , Lymphadenopathy , Hallucinations , Hemiplegia , Infections , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Meningitis
19.
Cambios rev. méd ; 18(1): 58-62, 28/06/2019. tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015162

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La medición del diámetro de la vaina del nervio óptico a través de la ventana ocular puede ser un método no invasivo para la detección de hipertensión endocraneana. OBJETIVO. De este trabajo fue validar una fórmula de cuantificación de la presión intracraneana a partir de la evaluación por ultrasonido de la vaina del nervio óptico en una ciudad de gran altitud. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio prospectivo de 27 pacientes con trauma craneoencefalico grave en quienes se les colocó un sensor de presión intracraneana intraventricular y se realizó el cálculo de la PIC no invasiva mediante correlación utilizando la evaluación de la vaina del nervio óptico a través de ultrasonido y aplicando una fórmula de cálculo. RESULTADOS. Correlación positiva débil con significancia estadística. CONCLUSIÓN. La cuantificación de la presión intracraneana no invasiva a través de la evaluación de la vaina del nervio óptico por ultrasonido podría ser una herramienta útil en ciudades de gran altitud sobre el nivel del mar.


INTRODUCTION. Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath through the eye window can be a non-invasive method for the detection of endocranial hypertension. OBJECTIVE. This work was to validate a formula for quantifying intracranial pressure from the ultrasound evaluation of the optic nerve sheath in a high-altitude city. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Prospective study of 27 patients with severe cranioencephalic trauma in whom an intraventricular intracranial pressure sensor was placed and the calculation of non-invasive ICP was performed by correlation using the evaluation of the optic nerve sheath through ultrasound and applying a formula of calculation. RESULTS. Weak positive correlation with statistical significance. CONCLUSION. Quantification of non-invasive intracranial pressure through the evaluation of the optic nerve sheath by ultrasound could be a useful tool in high altitude cities above sea level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Optic Nerve , Ultrasonic Therapy , Observational Study , Craniocerebral Trauma , Hypertension , Intracranial Pressure , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Ecuador
20.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(1): 24-33, mar 2019. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026329

ABSTRACT

La presión intracraneal elevada es una complicación devastadora de la lesión neurológica, que puede complicar el trauma, los tumores del sistema nervioso central, la hidrocefalia, la encefalopatía hepática y el flujo venoso del SNC alterado. El adecuado tratamiento consta de un rápido reconocimiento, utilizar material de monitoreo neurológico invasivo y su manejo para reducir la hipertensión intracraneal y sus múltiples causas subyacente. A continuación presentamos una revisión de sus principales características y principios de abordaje diagnóstico-terapéutico


Intracranial pressure is a devastating complication of neurological damage, which can complicate trauma, central nervous system disorders, hydrocephalus, hepatic encephalopathy, and altered CNS venous flow. The appropriate treatment consists of a rapid recognition, the use of an invasive neurological system and its management to reduce intracranial hypertension and its multiple underlying causes. Below we present a review of its main characteristics and principles of diagnostic-therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Perfusion , Intracranial Pressure , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnosis , Intracranial Hypertension/prevention & control , Intracranial Hypertension/therapy , Craniotomy , Conservative Treatment
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