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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928875

ABSTRACT

By using Doppler sensor and pressure sensor, the cerebrovascular stroke detector can be used to measure the blood flow velocity and blood pressure of the carotid artery. In this study, a variety of signal conversion and isolation processing techniques are proposed for processing and feature extraction of the output signals from the sensors. Finally, effective signal output waveforms that can be used to evaluate the cerebrovascular hemodynamics index (CVHI) are obtained, and the sound signal outputs that can reflect the change characteristics of blood flow velocity and blood pressure signals are generated, which realizes the application functional requirements of the detector.


Subject(s)
Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Stroke , Technology
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 591-597, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Insufficient cerebral perfusion is suggested to play a role in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there is a lack of direct evidence indicating whether hypoperfusion causes or aggravates AD pathology. We investigated the effect of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on AD-related pathology in humans.@*METHODS@#We enrolled a group of cognitively normal patients (median age: 64 years) with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Regions of interest with the most pronounced hypoperfusion changes were chosen in the hypoperfused region and were then mirrored in the contralateral hemisphere to create a control region with normal perfusion. 11C-Pittsburgh compound-positron emission tomography standard uptake ratios and brain atrophy indices were calculated from the computed tomography images of each patient.@*RESULTS@#The median age of the 10 participants, consisting of 4 males and 6 females, was 64 years (47-76 years). We found that there were no differences in standard uptake ratios of the cortex (volume of interest [VOI]: P = 0.721, region of interest [ROI]: P = 0.241) and grey/white ratio (VOI: P = 0.333, ROI: P = 0.445) and brain atrophy indices (Bicaudate, Bifrontal, Evans, Cella, Cella media, and Ventricular index, P > 0.05) between the hypoperfused regions and contralateral normally perfused regions in patients with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that chronic hypoperfusion due to large vessel stenosis may not directly induce cerebral β-amyloid deposition and neurodegeneration in humans.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Arteries , Atrophy , Brain/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
4.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e957, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289533

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica tiene una elevada incidencia y prevalencia en Cuba, y constituye la tercera causa de muerte en el país. Existen diferencias anatómicas y clínicas entre el infarto de la circulación anterior y la posterior. En ocasiones, los elementos distintivos que ayudan al diagnóstico topográfico de la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica son las manifestaciones neuroftalmológicas. Con el objetivo de profundizar en el conocimiento actual sobre las alteraciones neuroftalmológicas que se asocian a la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, donde se consultaron un total de 69 fuentes de información digital de los últimos 5 años. La circulación cerebral se divide de manera general en anterior y posterior. Los síntomas y signos principales del ictus que afecta la circulación anterior son la desviación conjugada de la mirada, la afectación de las sácadas, la hemianopsia homónima, la heminegligencia y la apraxia de la apertura ocular; mientras que las alteraciones asociadas a la afectación de la circulación posterior son el nistagmo, las anormalidades en la alineación y los movimientos oculares, así como la hemianopsia homónima con conservación macular. Se concluye que en la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica aparecen síntomas y signos como consecuencia de la afectación, tanto de la vía visual aferente, como de la eferente. La hemianopsia homónima es el signo más frecuente reportado(AU)


Ischemic cerebrovascular disease has a high incidence and prevalence in Cuba, and it is the third cause of death in the country. A number of anatomical and clinical differences distinguish anterior from posterior circulation infarction. On certain occasions the distinguishing elements that aid in the topographic diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease are its neuro-ophthalmological manifestations. With the purpose of gaining insight into the current knowledge about the neuro-ophthalmological alterations associated to ischemic cerebrovascular disease, a bibliographic review was conducted based on the analysis of 69 digital information sources from the last five years. Cerebral circulation is generally divided into anterior and posterior. The main symptoms and signs of the stroke that affects anterior circulation are conjugate gaze deviation, altered saccades, homonymous hemianopsia, heminegligence and eyelid opening apraxia, whereas the alterations associated to posterior circulation involvement are nystagmus, eye movement and alignment abnormalities, and homonymous hemianopsia with macular preservation. It is concluded that ischemic cerebrovascular disease presents symptoms and signs related to both the afferent and the efferent visual pathways. Homonymous hemianopsia is the most common sign reported(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Hemianopsia/etiology , Review Literature as Topic , Neurologic Manifestations
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical curative effect on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and explore the relevant mechanism of acupuncture in treatment.@*METHODS@#A total of 100 ADHD children were randomized into an observation group (50 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (50 cases, 1 case dropped off). In the control group, the routine psychological intervention was used. In the observation group, on the base of the treatment as the control group, acupuncture was applied to Taichong (LR 3), Neiguan (PC 6), Shenmen (HT 7), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), etc., once daily, for 3 months. The Cambridge neuropsychological tests automated battery (CANTAB) was adopted to evaluate attention and response inhibition in two groups before and after treatment. Digi-Lite color transcranial Doppler was used to measure cerebral arterial blood velocity. The therapeutic effect was compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Regarding evaluation of attention, the mean delay time in the observation group after treatment was shorter than that before treatment and that in the control group separately (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture combined with psychological intervention may improve attention and response inhibition in ADHD children, which is possibly related to the regulation of cerebral blood flow.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Child , Humans , Psychosocial Intervention
6.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 18(3): 121-132, dic. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289157

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el cerebro es un órgano altamente irrigado, y esta irrigación es suministrada por el círculo arterial cerebral: una red arterial anastomótica con frecuentes variaciones anatómicas, algunas asociadas con patologías. El objetivo es describir las características antropométricas y variaciones anatómicas del círculo arterial cerebral en una muestra de especímenes cadavéricos humanos. Materiales y métodos: se revisaron 50 encéfalos, de los cuales 24 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se realizaron medidas de diámetro y longitud y también se describieron variaciones anatómicas y variaciones morfométricas. Resultados: siete especímenes evidenciaron variaciones anatómicas (29.1 %); 3 (12.5 %), arteria cerebral anterior (ACA) ácigos; uno (4.1 %), doble ACA en el segmento A1; uno (4.1 %), triple ACA en el segmento A2 y doble arteria comunicante anterior (AcomA); uno (4.1 %), agenesia de la arteria comunicante posterior (AComP) derecha; uno (4.1 %), de la AComP izquierda. El 29.1 % presentó variaciones antropométricas; el 12.5 %, hipoplasia de la AComP derecha; el 12.5 %>, de la AComP izquierda, y el 4.1 %>, hipoplasia bilateral de la AComP. Conclusión: la presencia de variaciones anatómicas fue inferior a la hallada en otros estudios, con predominio de variantes de la circulación anterior. Se describe la presencia de triple ACA en el segmento A2 y doble arteria comunicante anterior.


Abstract Introduction: The brain is a highly irrigated organ; this irrigation is supplied by the cerebral arterial circle: an anastomotic arterial network with frequent anatomical variations, some of which are associated with pathologies. This study aimed to describe the anthropometric characteristics and anatomical variations of the cerebral arterial circle in a sample of human cadaveric specimens. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 brains were examined, 24 of which met the inclusion criteria. Diameter and length measurements were obtained, and anatomical and morphometric variations were described. Results: Seven specimens (29.1%) had anatomical variations: 3 (12.5%) had azygos anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 1 (4.1%) had double ACA in segment A1, 1 (4.1%) had triple ACA in segment A2 and double anterior communicating artery (AcomA), 1 (4.1%) had right posterior communicating artery (AComP) agenesis, and 1 (4.1%) had left AComP agenesis. Seven specimens (29.1%) had anthropometric variations: 3 (12.5%) had hypoplasia of right AComP and 3 (12.5%) of left AComP and 1 (4.1%) had bilateral hypoplasia of AComP. Conclusion: The presence of ana-tomical variations was lower than that reported in other studies, with a predominance of variations of the anterior circulation. The presence of triple ACA in segment A2 and double AcomA was described.


Resumo Introdução: o cérebro é um órgão altamente irrigado; esta irrigação é fornecida pelo círculo arterial cerebral: uma rede arterial anastomótica com frequentes variações anatómicas, algumas associadas a patologias. O objetivo é escrever as características antropométricas e variações anatômicas do círculo arterial cerebral em uma amostra de espécimenes cadavéricos humanos. Materiais e métodos: se revisaram 50 encéfalos dos quais 24 cumpriram os critérios de inclusão; realizaram-se medidas de diâmetro e longitude, descreveram-se variações anatômicas e variações morfométricas. Resultados: o 29,1% dos espécimenes apresentaram variações anatómicas (n = 7 ), 3 (12,5%) apresentaram artéria cerebral anterior (ACA) ázigos, um (4,1%) apresentou dupla ACA no segmento A1, um (4,1%) apresentou triple ACA no segmento A2 e dupla artéria comunicante anterior (AcomA), um (4,1%) apresentou agenesia da artéria comunicante posterior (AComP) direita, um (4,1%) da AComP esquerda. 29,1% apresentaram variações antropométricas, três (12,5%) apresentaram hipoplasia de AComP direita, três (12,5%) da AComP esquerda e um (4,1%) hipoplasia bilateral da AComP. Conclusão: a presença de variações anatómicas foi inferior à reportada em outros estudos, com predomínio de variantes da circulação anterior, se descreve a presença de triple ACA no segmento A2 e dupla artéria comunicante anterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Circle of Willis , Cadaver , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Anthropometry
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 465-470, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137307

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Stroke is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in surgery. In the present study, we examined the cerebral oximetry values of patients with carotid artery stenosis who did not present surgical indications and those who did not present carotid artery stenosis in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery by comparing their cerebral oximetry values with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Between January and May 2014, 40 patients who underwent isolated CABG were included in the study. Cerebral oximetry probes were placed prior to induction of anesthesia. Cerebral oximetry values were recorded before induction, in the pump (cardiopulmonary bypass) inlet period, in the post-clamp period, in the pump outlet period, and in the intensive care unit and neurological complications. Results: There was no difference between the groups in terms of demographic data and routine follow-up parameters. Intraoperative surgical data and early postoperative results were similar in both groups. When comparing the groups, there were no statistically significant results in cerebral oximetry values and CVD development. Only one patient in group 2 had postoperative CVD and this patient was discharged from the hospital with right hemiplegia. Mean arterial pressure (MAP)levels were significantly higher in Group 2 (P<0.05). Conclusion: The follow-up of cerebral perfusion with a method like near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) will ensure that MAP is adjusted with interventions that will be made according to changes in NIRS. Thus, it will be possible to avoid unnecessary medication and flow-rate increase with cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen , Oximetry , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Coronary Artery Bypass , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Margins of Excision
8.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(2): 110-117, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249880

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La cirugía de cardiopatías congénitas puede generar alteraciones perfusorias cerebrales con repercusión neurológica. Objetivo: Analizar la relación del índice de resistencia (IR) vascular cerebral periquirúrgico con funciones neurológicas mediatas posteriores a cirugía de cardiopatía congénita. Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 34 neonatos en quienes se determinó IR de la arteria basilar, niveles séricos de oxígeno, dióxido de carbono y lactato, antes y después de procedimientos paliativos o correctivos. Relacionamos el IR prequirúrgico con la capacidad posquirúrgica para iniciar la vía enteral o restablecer la respiración espontánea no asistida. Resultados: Se integraron tres grupos: 17 neonatos con IR alto > 0.73, cinco con IR normal de 0.63 a 0.73 y seis con IR bajo < 0.63. En los primeros persistió IR alto en el posquirúrgico, con hiperlactatemia e hipoxia persistentes; en 86 % no se logró iniciar la vía enteral ni retirar la ventilación asistida. En los segundos, el IR se mantuvo en valores normales. En los terceros, si bien el IR, el lactato sérico y la presión arterial de oxígeno tendieron a normalizarse, 71 % presentó daño neurológico grave. Conclusiones: Los cambios en el IR fueron frecuentes, aunque el daño neurológico parece presentarse más cuando el IR se mantiene alto, posiblemente asociado a flujos cerebrales bajos.


Abstract Introduction: Surgery for congenital heart disease can generate cerebral perfusion-associated alterations with neurological repercussions. Objective: To analyze the relationship of peri-surgical cerebrovascular resistance index (RI) with mediate neurological functions after congenital heart disease surgery. Method: Prospective cohort study of 34 neonates in whom basilar artery RI, serum oxygen, carbon dioxide and lactate levels were determined before and after palliative or corrective procedures. We related pre-surgical RI with post-surgical ability to initiate the enteral route or to restore unassisted spontaneous breathing. Results: Three groups were formed: 17 neonates with high RI (> 0.73), five with normal RI (0.63-0.73) and six with low RI (< 0.63). In the former group, high RI persisted in the postoperative period, with persistent hyperlactatemia and hypoxia; in 86%, the enteral route could not be initiated, and neither could assisted ventilation be withdrawn. In the second group, IR remained within normal values. In the third group, although RI, serum lactate and arterial oxygen pressure tended to normalize, 71% had severe neurological damage. Conclusions: RI changes were common, although neurological damage appears to occur more commonly when RI remains high, possibly associated with low cerebral blood flow.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Brain/blood supply , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Prospective Studies , Hyperlactatemia , Hypoxia
9.
Biociencias ; 15(1): 73-78, jun.2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1122956

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La oximetría cerebral no invasiva utiliza la tecnología NIRS ("near infrared spectroscopy") para medir la saturación de oxígeno en una pequeña región de los vasos cerebrales corticales. Refleja el 75% volumen de oxigenación cerebral venosa y el 25% volumen de oxigenación cerebral arterial. Objetivo: Hacer una descripción breve sobre oximetría cerebral no invasiva mediante la tecnología NIRS ("near infrared spectroscopy"). Aunque esta técnica se describió hace más de 25 años, su uso es cada vez más frecuente siendo un fenómeno reciente. Comentarios: La saturación regional cerebral de oxígeno (rSO2c), al igual que la saturación pulsátil arterial periférica de oxígeno, se mide por espectrometría. Se basa en el hecho de que la hemoglobina oxigenada absorbe menos luz roja y más luz infrarroja que la hemoglobina. Es un método sencillo para identificar el límite inferior de la autorregulación, el punto por debajo del cual el flujo sanguíneo cerebral y la oxigenación tisular se hacen dependientes de la presión. Conclusiones: Los valores obtenidos de rSO2c representan el estado de oxigenación de los cromóforos del lecho vascular cerebral del compartimento venoso. Los cambios en la oximetría cerebral dependen del balance entre aporte y consumo de oxígeno.


Introduction: Non-invasive cerebral oximetry uses NIRS ("near infrared spectroscopy") technology to measure oxygen saturation in a small region of cortical cerebral vessels. It reflects 75% volume of venous cerebral oxygenation and 25% volume of arterial cerebral oxygenation. Objective: To make a brief description about non-invasive cerebral oximetry using NIRS technology ("near infrared spectroscopy"). Although this technique was described more than 25 years ago, its use is increasingly frequent being a recent phenomenon. Comments: Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2c), like peripheral arterial pulsatile oxygen saturation, is measured by spectrometry. It is based on the fact that oxygenated hemoglobin absorbs less red light and more infrared light than hemoglobin. It is a simple method to identify the lower limit of self-regulation, the point below which cerebral blood flow and tissue oxygenation become pressure dependent. Conclusions: The values ​​obtained from rSO2c represent the oxygenation state of the chromophores of the cerebral vascular bed of the venous compartment. Changes in cerebral oximetry depend on the balance between oxygen intake and consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Spectrum Analysis , Bacteria , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Environment and Public Health
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826361

ABSTRACT

To investigate cerebral autoregulation(CA)in patients with severe unilateral carotid artery stenosis by near infrared spectroscopy. Thirty patients who underwent general anesthesia in our hospital from January 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled in this study.The stenosis group included 15 patients with severe unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis,and the control group included 15 patients without carotid artery stenosis.Both groups were matched in sex and age.Cerebral tissue oxygenation index(TOI)and mean arterial pressure were recorded continuously under stable general anesthesia.The Pearson correlation coefficient()was calculated to judge the CA status. TOI was not significantly different between the stenosis side and the non-stenosis side in the stenosis group(66.52±6.50 65.23±4.50;=0.93, =0.368)or between the stenosis side in the stenosis group and the stenosis side in the control group(66.52±6.50 64.22±3.87;=1.18, =0.248).The values of stenosis side and non-stenosis side in the stenosis group were 0.36±0.12 and 0.17±0.11,respectively,and the values of the stenosis side in the stenosis group and the stenosis side of the control group were 0.36±0.12 and 0.13±0.08,respectively.In the stenosis group,5 patients had transient ischemic attack and 2 patients had a history of stroke within 3 months before operation.When an value of 0.342 was used as the judgment point of CA abnormality,the sensitivity and specificity were 0.625 and 0.909,respectively. Within the range of normal blood pressure fluctuation,cerebral blood flow is linked to blood pressure at the stenosis side in patients with severe unilateral carotid artery stenosis.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Carotid Stenosis , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Homeostasis , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient
11.
Med. UIS ; 32(2): 53-58, mayo-ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114968

ABSTRACT

Resumen El accidente cerebrovascular en adultos jóvenes es un evento raro presente en menos del 5% de los casos a nivel mundial, representando un reto diagnóstico debido a las múltiples etiologías posibles, entre ellas las infecciones. Del 15% al 40% de los pacientes con sífilis no tratada pueden desarrollar sífilis terciaria con manifestaciones principalmente neurodestructivas, descritas en la sífilis tardía pero con meningitis crónica y accidente cerebrovascular de tipo meningovascular en su fase temprana. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 40 años con antecedente de cambios de comportamiento, alucinaciones auditivas e insomnio, quien consulta a urgencias por presentar hemiplejia derecha, afasia motora, lesiones palmo-plantares y roseta en glande asociada a adenopatías inguinales. Dados los hallazgos imagenológicos y de líquido cefalorraquídeo se estableció diagnóstico de accidente cerebrovascular isquémico de circulación cerebral anterior izquierda secundario a neurosífilis meningovascular, con confirmación de inmunosupresión por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(2):53-8


Abstract Stroke in young adults is a rare event present in less than 5% of cases worldwide, representing a diagnostic challenge due to the multiple possible etiologies, including infections. 15% to 40% of patients with untreated syphilis may develop tertiary syphilis; with mainly neurodestructive manifestations, described in late syphilis, but in its early stage with chronic meningitis and meningovascular stroke. The case of a 40-year-old male patient with a history of behavior changes, auditory hallucinations and insomnia is presented, who consults the emergency department for presenting right hemiplegia, motor aphasia, palmoplantar lesions and rosette in glans associated with inguinal adenopathies. Given the imaging and cerebrospinal fluid findings, a diagnosis of ischemic stroke of the left anterior cerebral circulation was established, secondary to meningovascular neurosyphilis, with confirmation of immunosuppression due to human immunodeficiency virus. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(2):53-8


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Neurosyphilis , Aphasia, Broca , Patients , Penicillins , Treponema pallidum , Wounds and Injuries , Male , Syphilis , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Adolescent , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Immunosuppression Therapy , Stroke , Young Adult , Lymphadenopathy , Hallucinations , Hemiplegia , Infections , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Meningitis
12.
Cambios rev. méd ; 18(1): 58-62, 28/06/2019. tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015162

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La medición del diámetro de la vaina del nervio óptico a través de la ventana ocular puede ser un método no invasivo para la detección de hipertensión endocraneana. OBJETIVO. De este trabajo fue validar una fórmula de cuantificación de la presión intracraneana a partir de la evaluación por ultrasonido de la vaina del nervio óptico en una ciudad de gran altitud. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio prospectivo de 27 pacientes con trauma craneoencefalico grave en quienes se les colocó un sensor de presión intracraneana intraventricular y se realizó el cálculo de la PIC no invasiva mediante correlación utilizando la evaluación de la vaina del nervio óptico a través de ultrasonido y aplicando una fórmula de cálculo. RESULTADOS. Correlación positiva débil con significancia estadística. CONCLUSIÓN. La cuantificación de la presión intracraneana no invasiva a través de la evaluación de la vaina del nervio óptico por ultrasonido podría ser una herramienta útil en ciudades de gran altitud sobre el nivel del mar.


INTRODUCTION. Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath through the eye window can be a non-invasive method for the detection of endocranial hypertension. OBJECTIVE. This work was to validate a formula for quantifying intracranial pressure from the ultrasound evaluation of the optic nerve sheath in a high-altitude city. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Prospective study of 27 patients with severe cranioencephalic trauma in whom an intraventricular intracranial pressure sensor was placed and the calculation of non-invasive ICP was performed by correlation using the evaluation of the optic nerve sheath through ultrasound and applying a formula of calculation. RESULTS. Weak positive correlation with statistical significance. CONCLUSION. Quantification of non-invasive intracranial pressure through the evaluation of the optic nerve sheath by ultrasound could be a useful tool in high altitude cities above sea level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Optic Nerve , Ultrasonic Therapy , Observational Study , Craniocerebral Trauma , Hypertension , Intracranial Pressure , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Ecuador
13.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(1): 24-33, mar 2019. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026329

ABSTRACT

La presión intracraneal elevada es una complicación devastadora de la lesión neurológica, que puede complicar el trauma, los tumores del sistema nervioso central, la hidrocefalia, la encefalopatía hepática y el flujo venoso del SNC alterado. El adecuado tratamiento consta de un rápido reconocimiento, utilizar material de monitoreo neurológico invasivo y su manejo para reducir la hipertensión intracraneal y sus múltiples causas subyacente. A continuación presentamos una revisión de sus principales características y principios de abordaje diagnóstico-terapéutico


Intracranial pressure is a devastating complication of neurological damage, which can complicate trauma, central nervous system disorders, hydrocephalus, hepatic encephalopathy, and altered CNS venous flow. The appropriate treatment consists of a rapid recognition, the use of an invasive neurological system and its management to reduce intracranial hypertension and its multiple underlying causes. Below we present a review of its main characteristics and principles of diagnostic-therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Perfusion , Intracranial Pressure , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnosis , Intracranial Hypertension/prevention & control , Intracranial Hypertension/therapy , Craniotomy , Conservative Treatment
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941802

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with comorbid hypertension in depression using 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (3D pcASL) and to compare the differences of CBF values in depression, hypertension, and comorbid hypertension between depression and healthy control groups. To investigate the correlation between CBF values and degrees of depression.@*METHODS@#Sixteen patients with depression (depression group, 3 males and 13 females, age range of 42-72 years old), sixteen patients with hypertension (hypertension group, 3 males and 13 females, age range of 41-68 years old), sixteen patients with comorbid hypertension in depression (comorbidity group, 3 males and 13 females, age range of 45-74 years old), and sixteen healthy controls (control group, 3 males and 13 females, age range of 43-68 years old) were recruited. 3D pcASL sequence was performed by GE 3.0T magnetic resonance scanner and CBF map was generated automatically. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) was performed to preprocess the CBF map, which was spatially normalized and smoothed. Comparison of the CBF values among the four groups was conducted by ANOVA. Correlation between the average CBF values in areas of decreased CBF and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD-17) was investigated.@*RESULTS@#The patients with comorbid hypertension in depression demonstrated lower CBF in bilateral superior frontal gyri, middle frontal gyri, inferior frontal gyri, right superior parietal gyrus, right inferior parietal gyrus, right supramarginal gyrus, left caudate nucleus and left insula lobe in comparison with the controls. Compared with control group, CBF values decreased in bilateral frontal lobes, but did not reach statistical significance. There were no significant differences of CBF values between the patients with hypertension and control subjects. Compared with depression, the patients with comorbid hypertension in depression showed lower CBF values in bilateral frontal lobes and right supramarginal gyrus. Compared with hypertension, lower CBF values in left middle frontal gyrus in the patients with comorbid hypertension in depression were shown. Correlation analysis indicated that no correlation between CBF values and scores of HAMD-17 was shown.@*CONCLUSION@#Although there were no significant decreases of CBF values in patients with depression and hypertension, regional hypoperfusions were observed in patients with comorbid hypertension in depression. Hypertension might play a synergistic action on cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with comorbid hypertension in depression.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Brain , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Comorbidity , Depression , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742329

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of lung transplantation in a patient with profound preoperative hypercapnia, focusing on the cardiopulmonary bypass strategy used for brain perfusion during the operation. We applied the pH-stat method for acid-base regulation, and thereby achieved the desired outcome without any neurologic deficit.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Humans , Hypercapnia , Lung Transplantation , Lung , Methods , Neurologic Manifestations , Perfusion
16.
Neurointervention ; : 43-52, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741674

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cigarette smoking (CS) is one of the major risk factors of cerebral atherosclerotic disease, however, its level of contribution to extracranial and intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ECAS and ICAS) was not fully revealed yet. The purpose of our study was to assess the association of CS to cerebral atherosclerosis along with other risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients who were angiographically confirmed with severe symptomatic cerebral atherosclerotic disease between January 2002 and December 2012 were included in this study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for ECAS and ICAS. Thereafter, CS group were compared to non-CS group in the entire study population and in a propensity-score matched population with two different age-subgroups. RESULTS: Of 1709 enrolled patients, 794 (46.5%) had extracranial (EC) lesions and the other 915 (53.5%) had intracranial (IC) lesions. CS group had more EC lesions (55.8% vs. 35.3%, P<0.001) whereas young age group (<50 years) had more IC lesion (84.5% vs. 47.6%, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, seven variables including CS, male, old age, coronary heart disease, higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate, multiple lesions, and anterior lesion were independently associated with ECAS. In the propensity-score matched CS group had significant more EC lesion compared to non-CS group (65.7% vs. 47.9%) only in the old age subgroup. CONCLUSION: In contrast to a significant association between CS and severe symptomatic ECAS shown in old population, young patients did not show this association and showed relatively higher preference of ICAS.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Blood Sedimentation , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Disease , Humans , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Smoking , Tobacco Products
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN) is a novel arterial spin labeling technique that does not require a separate spin preparation pulse. We sought to compare the normalized cerebral blood flow (nCBF) values obtained by ALADDIN and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with primary brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with primary brain tumors underwent MRI scans including contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, DSC perfusion MRI, and ALADDIN. The nCBF values of normal gray matter (GM) and tumor areas were measured by both DSC perfusion MRI and ALADDIN, which were compared by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Subgroup analyses according to pathology were performed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS: Higher mean nCBF values of GM regions in the bilateral frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and caudate were detected by ALADDIN than by DSC perfusion MRI (p <0.05). In terms of the mean or median nCBF values and the mean of the top 10% nCBF values from tumors, DSC perfusion MRI and ALADDIN did not statistically significantly differ either overall or in each tumor group. CONCLUSION: ALADDIN tended to detect higher nCBF values in normal GM, as well as higher perfusion portions of primary brain tumors, than did DSC perfusion MRI. We believe that the high perfusion signal on ALADDIN can be beneficial in lesion detection and characterization.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Frontal Lobe , Glioma , Gray Matter , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pathology , Perfusion , Temporal Lobe
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) has been known to increase in response to acute hypoxia. However, how CBFV might respond to exercise in hypoxic conditions and be associated with electroencephalogram (EEG) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise in hypoxic conditions corresponding to altitudes of 4,000 m on CBFV and EEG. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, balanced crossover study, ten healthy volunteers (19.8±0.4 years) were asked to perform the incremental bicycle ergometer exercise twice in hypoxic and control (sea level) conditions with a 1-week interval, respectively. Exercise intensity was set initially at 50 W and increased by 25 W every 2 minutes to 125 W. Acute normobaric hypoxic condition was maintained for 45 minutes using low oxygen gas mixture. CBFV in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and EEG were measured at rest 5 minutes, rest 15 minutes, immediately after exercise, and 15 minutes recovery using transcranial-Doppler sonography and EEG signal was recorded from 6 scalp sites leading to analysis of alpha and beta wave relative activities. All data were analyzed using two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: CBFV in the MCA in the hypoxic condition was significantly higher than that in the control condition at rest 5 minutes (83±9 vs. 69±9 cm/s, P<0.01), rest 15 minutes (87±8 vs. 67±7 cm/s, P<0.001), immediately after exercise (112±9 vs. 97±9 cm/s, P<0.01), and 15 minutes recovery (91±11 vs. 74±7 cm/s, P<0.01). However, no significant correlation was found between the changes of CBFV and EEG wave activities. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the drastic change of CBFV observed during exercise with hypoxia might appear independently with EEG wave activities.


Subject(s)
Altitude , Hypoxia , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Cross-Over Studies , Electroencephalography , Healthy Volunteers , Middle Cerebral Artery , Oxygen , Scalp
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765340

ABSTRACT

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a progressive cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology, characterized by bilateral stenoocclusive changes at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network formation at the base of the brain. MMD has an intrinsic nature to convert the vascular supply for the brain from internal carotid (IC) system to the external carotid (EC) system, as indicated by Suzuki’s angiographic staging. Insufficiency of this ‘IC-EC conversion system’ could result not only in cerebral ischemia, but also in intracranial hemorrhage from inadequate collateral anastomosis, both of which represent the clinical manifestation of MMD. Surgical revascularization prevents cerebral ischemic attack by improving cerebral blood flow, and recent evidence further suggests that extracranial-intracranial bypass could powerfully reduce the risk of re-bleeding in MMD patients with posterior hemorrhage, who were known to have extremely high re-bleeding risk. Although the exact mechanism underlying the hemorrhagic presentation in MMD is undetermined, most recent angiographic analysis revealed the characteristic angio-architecture related to high re-bleeding risk, such as the extension and dilatation of choroidal collaterals and posterior cerebral artery involvement. We sought to update the current management strategy for hemorrhagic MMD, including the outcome of surgical revascularization for hemorrhagic MMD in our institute. Further investigations will clarify the optimal surgical strategy to prevent hemorrhagic manifestation in patients with MMD.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Brain , Brain Ischemia , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Choroid , Dilatation , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Moyamoya Disease , Posterior Cerebral Artery
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Shift work disrupts the body's circadian rhythms and increases the risk of health problems. Despite evidence of neuropsychological disturbances in shift workers (SW), the brain functional status as measured by brain perfusion in chronic shift work has not been evaluated previously. We investigated the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in SW using perfusion MRI (pMRI) and evaluated the relationships between altered rCBF and sleep, mood, psychometric measures, and quality of life. METHODS: Fifteen rotational SW and 15 day workers (DW) were enrolled. The participants were all female nurses working at a university-affiliated hospital. During 2 weeks of actigraphy they underwent pMRI scanning and psychometric testing on the last day immediately after working. Demographic characteristics, insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and mood were compared between the groups. RESULTS: The participants were aged 35.3±2.9 years (mean±SD) and had been performing their current work for more than 2 years. The demographic characteristics did not differ between SW and DW, but the levels of insomnia, anxiety, depression, and hyperactivity-restlessness in psychometric measures were higher in SW than in DW. Cerebral perfusion in SW was significantly decreased in the cuneus, fusiform/parahippocampal gyri, and cerebellum of the right hemisphere, while it was increased in the inferior occipital gyrus of the left hemisphere. Perfusion changes in SW were significantly correlated with depression and insomnia severity. The onset and duration irregularity of sleep among SW were related to insomnia, mood, hyperactivity/ restlessness, and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: SW experience considerably more insomnia and mood disturbances than do DW, and this is significantly related to perfusion changes in multiple brain areas.


Subject(s)
Actigraphy , Anxiety , Brain , Cerebellum , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Circadian Rhythm , Depression , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Occipital Lobe , Perfusion , Psychometrics , Psychomotor Agitation , Quality of Life , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
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