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1.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 17(3): 346-355, sept. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514377

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of commercially available whitening toothpastes containing charcoal on dentin. Nine charcoal-containing toothpastes were compared with 3 whitening toothpastes (positive control) and distilled water (negative control). Periodontally hopeless molars were cleaned and washed and the occlusal table removed to expose dentin. The teeth were mounted in auto-polymerizing resin and exposed dentine surfaces polished with water-cooled decreasing grits of silica carbide paper up to 1500 grit. Baseline average roughness (Ra) measurements were taken. Specimens were then mounted in an automatic tooth-brushing machine and brushed for 5000 cycles. Repeat Ra measurements were taken. Specimens were brushed in 5000-cycle increments up to 25,000 cycles with Ra measurements being taken at each time point. Between abrasive challenges specimens were stored in distilled water. All toothpaste samples were sputter coated and examined under a scanning electron microscope to qualify the shape and size of the abrasive components of the formulations. Data were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni. The results demonstrated that the abrasive effect, in terms of increasing Ra, on dentin was noted as early as 5000 cycles for all the tested toothpastes (p<0.05). The effect of continued brushing showed an overall cumulative effect on dentine roughness up to 25000 cycles. When toothpastes were compared between groups at each time-point, dentin specimens brushed with Pursito were statistically similar to the control group. At 25,000 cycles all dentin samples were significantly rougher compared to Pursito and the control groups. It may be concluded that all the tested toothpastes have an abrasive effect on dentin surfaces.


Este estudio investigó el efecto sobre la dentina de las pastas dentales blanqueadoras disponibles en el mercado que contienen carbón vegetal. Se compararon nueve dentífricos que contenían carbón vegetal con 3 dentífricos blanqueadores (control positivo) y agua destilada (control negativo). Los molares sin material periodontal se limpiaron y lavaron y se retiró la tabla oclusal para exponer la dentina. Los dientes se montaron en resina autopolimerizable y las superficies expuestas de la dentina se pulieron con papel de carburo de sílice de grano decreciente enfriado con agua hasta grano 1500. Se tomaron medidas de rugosidad promedio (Ra) de referencia. Luego, las muestras se montaron en una máquina automática de cepillado de dientes y se cepillaron durante 5000 ciclos. Se tomaron medidas repetidas de Ra. Las muestras se cepillaron en incrementos de 5000 ciclos hasta 25 000 ciclos y se tomaron medidas de Ra en cada punto de tiempo. Entre periodos abrasivos, las muestras se almacenaron en agua destilada. Todas las muestras de pasta de dientes se recubrieron por pulverización catódica y se examinaron bajo un microscopio electrónico de barrido para calificar la forma y el tamaño de los componentes abrasivos de las formulaciones. Los datos se analizaron utilizando un análisis de varianza de dos vías de Bonferroni post hoc. Los resultados demostraron que el efecto abrasivo, en términos de aumento de Ra, sobre la dentina se notó ya en 5000 ciclos para todas las pastas dentales probadas (p<0,05). El efecto del cepillado continuo mostró un efecto acumulativo general sobre la rugosidad de la dentina hasta 25.000 ciclos. Cuando se compararon las pastas dentales entre los grupos en cada momento, las muestras de dentina cepilladas con Pursito fueron estadísticamente similares al grupo de control. A los 25.000 ciclos, todas las muestras de dentina eran significativamente más ásperas en comparación con Pursito y los grupos controles. Se puede concluir que todas las pastas dentales probadas tienen un efecto abrasivo sobre las superficies dentinarias.


Subject(s)
Toothpastes , Charcoal , Dentin , Tooth Abrasion
2.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 82: e38777, maio 2023. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, VETINDEX, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1435644

ABSTRACT

Xilooligossacarídeos (XOS) são reconhecidos pelo seu potencial prebiótico relevante para diversos setores industriais e foram obtidos após o pré-tratamento hidrotérmico da biomassa lignocelulósica residual de galhos de eucalipto. Subprodutos inibitórios são gerados durante o processo de solubilização dos oligossacarídeos e acabam comprometendo a utilização do licor em microrganismos. Neste trabalho, o processo de destoxificação, hidrólise enzimática e atividade estimulantes de crescimento da bactéria Staphylococcus xylosus foram estabelecidos. Os resultados mostraram que a adsorção com carvão ativado em pó removeu cerca de 55% do ácido acético e mais de 90% do ácido fórmico, compostos fenólicos, lignina solúvel, furfural e 5-hidroximetilfurfural, e que a soma dos oligossacarídeos xilobiose (X2) e xilotriose (X3) foram maximizadas de 0,57 g/L para 1,21 g/L com 110 U/gXOS da enzima endoxilanase e 6,3% do licor destoxificado na hidrólise enzimática. O consumo de cerca de 63% de X2 e de 46% de X3 pela bactéria em meio basal deficiente em fontes de carbono, mas acrescido com os oligômeros, proporcionou maior crescimento celular em relação aos meios basais com alta composição de carbono, com e sem XOS, revelando seu potencial prebiótico pelo efeito estimulante de crescimento. (AU)


Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are recognized for their prebiotic potential relevant to several industrial sectors and were obtained after hydrothermal pretreatment of residual lignocellulosic biomass from eucalyptus branches. Inhibitory by-products are generated during the solubilization process of oligosaccharides and end up compromising the utilization of the liquor in microorganisms. In this work, the detoxification process, enzymatic hydrolysis and growth stimulating activity of Staphylococcus xylosus bacteria were established. The results showed that adsorption with powdered activated carbon removed about 55% of acetic acid and more than 90% of formic acid, phenolic compounds, soluble lignin, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and the sum of the oligosaccharides xylobiose (X2) and xylotriose (X3) were maximized from 0.57 g/L to 1.21 g/L with 110 U/gXOS of the enzyme endoxylanase and 6.3% of the detoxified liquor in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The consumption of X2 and X3 were about 63% and 46%, respectively, by the bacteria in basal medium deficient in carbon sources, but in medium added with the oligomers, provided higher cell growth compared to basal medium with high carbon composition, with and without XOS, revealing its prebiotic potential by its growth-stimulating effect. (AU)


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides , Staphylococcus , Xylose , Charcoal , Biomass , Eucalyptus , Prebiotics
3.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(2): e309, 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1520108

ABSTRACT

La intoxicación por paracetamol de causa no intencional en niños pequeños, e intencional en adolescentes es un motivo de consulta cada vez más frecuente en los servicios de urgencia. La gravedad y el pronóstico de esta intoxicación están dados por el riesgo de falla hepática. Ante la sospecha de ingesta de paracetamol, se debe conocer el tiempo transcurrido, la cantidad de ingesta del fármaco, estimar la toxicidad de la dosis ingerida para predecir hepatotoxicidad, determinar las medidas de contaminación necesarias, dosificar paracetamol en sangre y evaluar la necesidad de administración de antídoto. Se describe el caso de una adolescente que con intención suicida presentó una intoxicación aguda por paracetamol con riesgo de daño hepático requiriendo decontaminación digestiva, administración de antídoto y abordaje interdisciplinario de sus problemas psicoemocionales.


Paracetamol intoxication due to an unintentional cause in young children, and intentional in adolescents, is an increasingly frequent cause for consultation in emergency services. The severity and prognosis of this poisoning is due to the risk of liver failure. Given the suspicion of paracetamol ingestion, the time passed since the ingestion, the amount of paracetamol ingested, the estimate of the dose ingested to predict hepatotoxicity, we must determine the necessary decontamination measures and the paracetamol dose in blood and evaluate the need to administer a paracetamol antidote. We describe the case of an adolescent who presented acute paracetamol poisoning with risk of liver damage resulting from a suicide attempt and who required digestive decontamination, antidote administration and an interdisciplinary approach to her psychological and emotional problems.


A intoxicação não intencional por paracetamol em crianças pequenas e a intoxicação intencional em adolescentes é um motivo cada vez mais comum de consulta em serviços de emergência. A gravidade e o prognóstico desse envenenamento são dados pelo risco de insuficiência hepática. Quando há suspeita de ingestão de paracetamol, o tempo decorrido desde que é ingerido, a quantidade de paracetamol ingerida, a estimação da dose ingerida para predizer hepatotoxicidade, utilizamse para determinar as medidas de contaminação necessárias, dosar paracetamol no sangue e avaliar a ne- cessidade de administração de antídoto. Descrevemos o caso de uma adolescente com intenção suicida que apresentou intoxicação aguda por paracetamol com risco de lesão hepática com necessidade de descontaminação digestiva, administração de antídoto e abordagem interdisciplinar de seus problemas psicoemocionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Poisoning/drug therapy , Charcoal/therapeutic use , Acetaminophen/poisoning
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2612-2623, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981219

ABSTRACT

Excessive levels of cadmium (Cd) in soil exert serious negative impacts on soil ecosystems. Microorganisms are a common component of soil and show great potential for mitigating soil Cd. This review summarizes the application and remediation mechanisms of microorganisms, microbial-plants, and microbial-biochar in Cd-contaminated soil. Microorganisms such as Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can change the biological validity of Cd through adsorption, mineralization, precipitation and dissolution. Different factors such as pH, temperature, biomass, concentration, and duration have significant effects on Cd bioavailability by microorganisms. Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Flavobacterium can promote the uptake of Cd2+ by hyperaccumulator through promotion and activation. Biochar, a soil amendment, possesses unique physicochemical properties and could act as a shelter for microorganisms in agriculture. The use of combined microbial-biochar can further stabilize Cd compared to using biochar alone.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Ecosystem , Soil Pollutants , Charcoal/chemistry , Soil/chemistry
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e221000, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505841

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD) is a bioactive compound with promising anti-inflammatory results but has low aqueous solubility. Complexation of drugs with this characteristic in carriers is an alternative to improve their efficiency. This study aimed to prepare and characterize CBD complexes in different carriers, and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of such preparations using an experimental model of edema induction in rat paws. The results were compared to a reference drug, ibuprofen (IBU). The carriers evaluated were beta cyclodextrin (bCD) and activated charcoal (AC). Quantification of the drugs in the complexes was determined, and different qualitative analyses were also performed. Oral treatments in single doses with CBD showed inhibitory effects similar to that of IBU, potentiating its bioactivity without significant adverse effects. CBD*bCD doses at 4.375, 8.75, 17.5, and 35 mg/kg significantly reduced the intensity of edema compared to equivalent doses of pure bioactive. In contrast, CBD*AC did not generate benefits. There was no significant inhibitory effect on myeloperoxidase activity, requiring more specific analyses to assess this parameter. The results suggest that the CBD*bCD complexation is perfectly feasible, increasing its anti-edematogenic efficacy in the experimental model used.


Subject(s)
Cannabidiol/agonists , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Charcoal/pharmacology , beta-Cyclodextrins/agonists
6.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411397

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar a eficiência de filtros de tratamento de água, usando carvão ativado de diferentes fontes de resíduo de biomassa. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo experimental, descritivo, de caráter quantitativo, realizado no Centro Universitário Católica de Quixadá, Ceará-Brasil, durante o período de janeiro a junho de 2018. Foram preparados filtros de carvão ativados e, posteriomente, sua eficiência no tratamento de água foi avaliada. Resíduos de descarte de madeira, a entrecasca do coco verde, a casca do fruto do caju e do colmo de bambu foram usados como fonte de matéria-prima. O filtro de tratamento de água foi montado, usando o método coluna de cromatografia, adicionando areia e algodão como outros meios filtrantes. Parâmentros físico-químicos foram utilizados na avaliação da eficiência dos filtros construídos. Resultados: a análise de componente principal selecionou dois componentes da qualidade de água, explicando 80,081% da variância total. O coeficiente de correlação cofenética de r=0.9572 indica que o dendograma estimado foi bom, considerando os parâmetros de qualidade da água. Entre os filtros, o bambu apresentou-se como melhor resposta entre filtros testados, sendo responsável pela redução de diversos fatores como cor, turbidez, dureza total e sódio. Conclusão: os fitros de carvão ativado derivado do descarte de madeira e da entrecasca do fruto do caju obtiveram pouca influência na melhoria da qualidade da água, em relação à amostra controle.


Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of water treatment filters using activated carbon from different sources of biomass residue. Methods: this is a descriptive experimental study of a quantitative nature carried out at the Centro Universitário Católica de Quixadá, Ceará-Brazil, during the period from January to June 2018. Activated carbon filters were prepared, and subsequently, their efficiency in water treatment was evaluated. Wood waste, green coconut husk, cashew nut shell, and bamboo stem were used as a source of raw material. The water treatment filter was assembled using the column chromatography method by adding sand and cotton as other filter media. Physicochemical parameters were used to evaluate the efficiency of the built filters. Results: principal component analysis selected two water quality components, explaining 80.081% of the total variance. The cophenetic correlation coefficient of r=0.9572 indicates that the estimated dendrogram was good, considering the water quality parameters. Among the filters, bamboo showed the best response among the filters tested, being responsible for the reduction of several factors such as color, turbidity, total hardness, and sodium. Conclusion: activated carbon filters derived from discarded wood and cashew nut shells had little influence on improving water quality compared to the control sample.


Subject(s)
Water , Charcoal , Water Purification , Reference Standards , Therapeutics , Waste Products , Water Quality , Filters , Principal Component Analysis
7.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 3-11, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362378

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: este estudio busca describir los individuos evaluados por sobredosis de acetaminofén entre 2019 y 2020 en un centro de referencia de trasplante hepático en Colombia. Metodología: estudio derivado del análisis secundario de historias clínicas entre el 1.º de enero de 2019 y el 31 de diciembre de 2020. Los criterios de inclusión abarcan individuos con ingestión aguda y voluntaria de dosis tóxicas de acetaminofén (>4 g/día). Resultados: sesenta y tres casos, 68% mujeres, 67% menores de 18 años y 54% estudiantes. Reportó historia personal de enfermedad psiquiátrica el 60% y el 35% al menos un intento de suicidio previo. La mediana de dosis de acetaminofén fue 15g, 46% refirieron co-ingesta de otras sustancias y 13% estaba bajo efecto de sustancias psicoactivas. El 57% tenía la intención clara de suicidarse, así como 81% vomitó antes de acudir al servicio de urgencias, 22% recibió medidas de descontaminación y 10% no recibió N - acetilcisteína. Quince individuos desarrollaron lesión hepática aguda, nueve con criterios de severidad. Conclusiones: la población era predominantemente joven, la historia de enfermedad psiquiátrica fue muy prevalente y la mayoría refirieron un evento vital que explicara el comportamiento impulsivo de consumo. Ninguno desarrolló criterios para trasplante hepático, lo cual podría explicarse por la edad de los individuos, los episodios de vómito temprano, y la ausencia de enfermedad hepática crónica o de consumo de sustancias hepatotóxicas.


Objective: this study aims to describe patients with overdose intake of acetaminophen between 2019 and 2020 at a reference center for liver transplantation in Colombia. Methodology: study derived from a secondary analysis of the clinical records between January 1st, 2019, to December 31st, 2020. Inclusion criteria were individuals with voluntary acute ingestion of toxic doses of acetaminophen (>4 g/day). Results: sixty-three cases, 68% women, 67% <18-year-old, and 54% students. 60% had personal history of psychiatric illness and 35% reported at least one previous suicide attempt. The median dose of acetaminophen was 15g, 46% referred to co-ingestion with other substances and 13% were under the effect of any psychoactive substance. 57% had a clear intention of suicide. 81% vomited before the arrival to the emergency room, 22% received decontamination intervention with gastric lavage or activated charcoal, and 10% did not receive any dose of N-Acetylcysteine. Fifteen individuals developed an acute liver injury, nine with severity criteria. Conclusions: the population was predominantly young, the personal history of psychiatric disease was highly prevalent, and most of the cases referred a vital event that explains the impulsive behavior in acetaminophen consumption. None developed criteria for liver transplantation, and this could be explained by the young age of the individuals, the episodes of early vomiting, and the absence of chronic liver disease or hepatotoxic substance consumption.


Objetivo:este estudo busca descrever os indivíduos avaliados por sobredose de acetaminofen entre 2019 e 2020 num centro de referência de transplante hepático na Colômbia. Metodologia: estudo derivado da análise secundário de histórias clínicas entre o dia 1.º de janeiro de 2019 e 31 de dezembro de 2020. Os critérios de inclusão abrangem indivíduos com ingestão aguda e voluntária de dose tóxicas de acetaminofen (>4 g/dia).Resultados:sessenta e três casos, 68% mulheres, 67% menores de 18 anos e 54% estudantes. Reportou história pessoal de doença psiquiátrica, 60% e 35% pelo menos uma tentativa de suicídio prévio. A média de dose de acetaminofen foi de 15g, 46% referiram com ingestão de outras sustâncias e 13% estava sob efeito de sustâncias psicoativas. 57% tinham a intenção clara de suicidar-se, assim como 81% vomitou antes de acudir ao serviço de urgências, 22% receberam medidas de descontaminação e 10% não recebeu N - acetilcisteína. Quinze indivíduos desenvolveram lesão hepática aguda, nove com critérios de severidade. Conclusões: a população era predominantemente jovem, a história de doençapsiquiátrica foi muito prevalente e a maioria referiram um evento vital que explicasse o comportamento impulsivo de consumo. Nenhum desenvolveu critérios para transplantehepático, o qual se poderia explicar pela idade dos indivíduos, os episódios de vómito precoce, e a ausência de doença hepática crónica ou de consumo de sustâncias hepatotóxicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetaminophen , Acetylcysteine , Suicide, Attempted , Vomiting, Anticipatory , Charcoal , Decontamination , Emergency Service, Hospital , Dosage , Gastric Lavage , Liver Diseases , Mental Disorders
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(2): 80-89, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1339325

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study identified charcoal-based dentifrices and abrasive powders sold in Brazil and analyzed their label information. The products were searched in four online shopping platforms. The same products were searched on Instagram and their engagement metrics were investigated. Furthermore, a literature review of international publications assessing charcoal dentifrices and powders was conducted, and altmetrics were collected (Altmetric and PlumX). Thirty-six products were found with prices between $0.4-22 USD. Most frequent words in product description were sodium, stain, whitening, oil, xylitol, and coconut. Only 3 products contained fluoride. Bactericidal, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities were indicated, in addition to non-scientific claims such as calming teeth or increasing oral immunity. In total, 72% of products had Instagram profiles, which generally showed low engagement rates (81%) and medium audience quality scores (65%). Twenty-two articles were found in the literature, from which 21 were in vitro studies. The single clinical study was sponsored by a charcoal product and had no control group. In total, 23% of studies showed positive results and 55% reported negative results for the charcoal products, which included no whitening ability, increased roughness, surface alterations, and lower demineralization prevention ability. Altmetric scores for the included articles varied from 0 to 55, with 40.9% of studies mentioned online. In conclusion, charcoal-based products are using marketing strategies on Instagram but their current engagement with the public is not high. Consumers are being exposed to charcoal products whose potential risks to health are still unknown.


Resumo Este estudo identificou dentifrícios e pós abrasivos de carvão vendidos no Brasil e analisou suas informações de rótulo. Os produtos foram pesquisados em quatro plataformas de compras online. Os mesmos produtos foram pesquisados no Instagram e métricas de engajamento dos perfis foram investigadas. Além disso, foi realizada uma revisão da literatura buscando publicações internacionais que avaliaram dentifrícios e pós de carvão; dados de altmetria foram coletados (Altmetric e PlumX). Foram encontrados 36 produtos com preços entre US$ 0,4-22. As palavras mais frequentes na descrição dos produtos foram sódio, mancha, clareamento, óleo, xilitol e coco. Apenas 3 produtos continham flúor. Foram indicadas atividades bactericidas, antivirais, antifúngicas e anti-inflamatórias, além de alegações não-científicas como acalmar dentes ou aumentar a imunidade oral. No total, 72% dos produtos tinham perfis no Instagram, que geralmente apresentavam baixas taxas de engajamento (81%) e média qualidade de audiência (65%). Vinte e dois artigos foram encontrados na literatura, dos quais 21 foram estudos in vitro. O único estudo clínico foi patrocinado por um produto de carvão e não tinha grupo controle. No total, 23% dos estudos apresentaram resultados positivos e 55% relataram resultados negativos para os produtos de carvão, que incluíram incapacidade de clareamento, aumento da rugosidade, alterações superficiais e menor capacidade de prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte. A altmetria dos artigos incluídos variou de 0 a 55, com 40,9% dos estudos sendo mencionados online. Em conclusão, os produtos à base de carvão estão usando estratégias de marketing no Instagram, mas seu engajamento atual com o público não é alto. Consumidores estão sendo expostos a produtos de carvão cujos potenciais riscos à saúde ainda são desconhecidos


Subject(s)
Humans , Charcoal , Dentifrices , Powders , Brazil
9.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 12(2): 1279-1282, oct. 2021-marz. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1435809

ABSTRACT

La intoxicación por betabloqueadores es una situación clínica de poca frecuencia, estrechamente relacionada con trastornos depresivos mayores, con una prevalencia mayor en mujeres. Los episodios de gravedad relacio- nados a toxicidad por betabloqueadores son clasificados como episodios de moderados a severos. En el caso del carvedilol con un umbral tóxico de 50mg. Caso Clínico: Paciente de 16 años con historia de ingesta de carvedilol en niveles tóxicos y único antecedente depresión ma- yor. Discusión: Los betabloqueadores antagonizan los receptores betaadrenérgicos, la sintomatología relacio- nada con bradicardia e hipotensión es frecuente y puede generar afección a nivel del sistema nervioso central. El tratamiento de emergencia sí se capta al paciente en la primera hora consiste en realizar un lavado gástrico y aplicar carbón activado. Se propone el uso de crista- loides y el uso de epinefrina o norepinefrina como ma- nejo de primera línea, en caso de bradicardias sosteni- das debe considerarse el uso de atropina. Los pacientes asintomáticos deben ser vigilados durante seis horas...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/toxicity , Carvedilol/toxicity , Atropine/therapeutic use , Charcoal/therapeutic use
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2461-2466, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879148

ABSTRACT

Biochar is a kind of solid material with high aromatization and rich in carbon, which is formed by pyrolysis of biomass at high temperature(250-700 ℃) under anoxic or hypoxic conditions. It has the characteristics of large specific surface area and rich pores. In recent years, as a good soil conditioner, biochar has gradually improved its advantages in improving soil rhizosphere micro ecological environment, promoting plant growth and development, and enhancing plant resistance, etc. It has been proved that biochar can affect the growth and development of plants by improving soil physical and chemical properties, adjusting microbial community structure, participating in the metabolic process in plants, and inducing plants to enhance resistance. This paper summarized the research progress of biochar application in agriculture and introduced the ecological effects and mechanism of biochar on plant seed germination, seedling growth, crop yield and stress resistance. Combined with the characteristics of Chinese materia medica, this paper expounds the application potential of biochar in improving the content of secondary metabolites of Chinese materia medica and alleviating continuous cropping obstacles of Chinese materia medica, etc. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research of biochar in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, allelopathy and heavy metal stress of medicinal plants, so as to provide reference for the application of biochar in the cultivation of Chinese materia medica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agriculture , Charcoal , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica
11.
Rev. venez. cir ; 74(1): 407-411, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1283702

ABSTRACT

Describir la técnica quirúrgica de la disección axilar dirigida (DAD) usando carbón vegetal como marcador del ganglio linfático axilar metastásico al momento del diagnóstico conjuntamente con la biopsia del ganglio centinela en paciente con cáncer de mama tratada con quimioterapia neoadyuvante con respuesta completa clínica y ecográficamente, demostrando su seguridad y eficacia. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo. Paciente con cáncer de mama y ganglio linfático metastásico en axila ipsilateral marcado con carbón vegetal al confirmarse ese diagnóstico y tratada con quimioterapia neoadyuvante con posterior negativización tanto clínica como ecográfica del ganglio linfático metastásico. Se planificó para disección axilar dirigida (extirpación del ganglio marcado con carbón vegetal y biopsia de ganglio centinela) con el fin de demostrar la eficacia del marcador utilizado y su relación o no con el ganglio centinela. Resultados: Se comprobó la identificación certera del ganglio afectado marcado con carbón vegetal el cual no presentó migración del colorante o reacción inflamatoria local coincidiendo además con dos ganglios centinelas todos con respuesta patológica completa. El carbón permaneció 153 días desde su administración hasta la cirugía axilar. Conclusión: Esta experiencia admite el marcaje con carbón vegetal del ganglio axilar metastásico al momento de su diagnóstico como un método seguro, sencillo, económico y accesible en relación a otros métodos de marcaje, además su asociación con la biopsia del ganglio centinela nos permite prescindir de la disección axilar en caso de respuesta patológica completa, sin embargo, es importante resaltar que se necesitan evaluar más casos para obtener conclusiones determinantes(AU)


To describe the surgical technique of targeted axillary dissection using charcoal marking of the metastatic lymph node at the time of diagnosis together with sentinel node biopsy in a breast cancer patient who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with complete clinical and sonographical response, demonstrating its safety and efficacy. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study. Patient with breast cancer and metastatic lymph node in the ipsilateral axilla which was marked with charcoal upon confirmation of this diagnosis and treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with subsequent clinical and sonographical negativization of the metastatic lymph node. It was planned for targeted axillary dissection (removal of charcoal-marked lymph node and sentinel node biopsy) in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the marker used and its relationship or not with the sentinel node. Results: The correct identification of the affected lymph node marked with charcoal was verified, which did not present dye migration or local inflammatory reaction, also coinciding with two sentinel nodes, all of them with a complete pathological response. The charcoal remained 153 days from its administration until the axillary surgery. Conclusion: This experience supports charcoal marking of the metastatic lymph node at the time of diagnosis as a safe, simple, inexpensive and accessible method in relation to other marking methods, in addition its association with sentinel node biopsy allows us to dispense with axillary dissection in case of complete pathological response, however it is important to highlight that more cases need to be evaluated to obtain decisive conclusions(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Middle Aged , Axilla/pathology , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Sentinel Lymph Node , Breast Neoplasms , Charcoal , Drug Therapy , Lymph Nodes
12.
Rev. argent. mastología ; 39(144): 62-77, sept. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150864

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar la tasa de identificación intra operatoria por el médico cirujano de los ganglios marcados con suspensión de carbón activado previo a la neoadyuvancia. El objetivo secundario es determinar la concordancia entre los ganglios linfáticos marcados con carbón y aquellos considerados ganglios centinelas. Material y método: Es un estudio retrospectivo desde el año 2016 hasta el año 2020. Se incluyeron 27 pacientes con cáncer de mama en estadios T1 - T3 que realizaron quimioterapia neoadyuvante y con axila con estadio N1 y N2. Los ganglios axilares biopsiados con resultado positivo fueron marcados con suspensión de carbón activado, posteriormente las pacientes realizaron quimioterapia neoadyuvante. Se evaluó la tasa de detección y concordancia del ganglio marcado con el ganglio centinela durante el procedimiento quirúrgico. Resultados: Del total de pacientes en 20 casos se realizó efectivamente la identificación por inspección visual de la suspensión de carbón activado en la cavidad axilar durante la cirugía. La tasa de detección fue del 74%. Del total de 20 pacientes en los cuales se identificó carbón visualmente en el acto quirúrgico, 16 se sometieron a biopsia de ganglio centinela. En 81% de los casos hubo una coincidencia entre el ganglio marcado con carbón y el ganglio centinela. Conclusión: En nuestro trabajo la tasa de detección intraoperatoria de los ganglios marcados con carbón está en concordancia con lo publicado en la literatura. Esto catapulta a este método de marcación como una alternativa factible para realizar una disección axilar dirigida asegurándole al médico cirujano la resección de una ganglio positivo de inicio para su análisis anatomopatológico de respuesta. Hemos comprobado que la marcación con carbón no interfiere con la técnica estándar utilizada para la biopsia de ganglio centinela sino que su uso en conjunto mejora la técnica dignóstica.


Objetive: The aim of this study was to determine the rate of identification of activated charcoal suspension during surgery in positive lymph nodes before neadjuvant chemotherapy. The secondary objetive is to determine the rate of concordance between the marked lymph nodes and the sentinel lymph nodes. Material and method: A retrospective study that goes from the year 2016 - 2020. It includes 27 patients with breast cancer (T1 - T3) and positive lymph nodes (N1 - N2). Patients with biopsy - confirmed nodal metatases were marked with activated charcoal suspension in the sampled node. After this procedure patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and axillary surgery. The rate of detection and the concordance of the marked lymph node with the sentinel lymph nodes was calculated. Results: Of the 27 patients enrolled in this study in 20, the marked node was detected during surgery. The detection rate was of 74%. Of these 20 patientes, 16 had sentinel node biopsy. There was an 81% rate of concordance between the sentinel lymph node and the tattooed lymph node. Conclusions: In our study, the detection rate of marked lymph node is concordant with the numbers publised by other studies. This shows that axillary lymph node tattooing with activated charcoal suspension is a viable, low cost and precise method when performing targeted axillary dissection. We identified that the tattooing procedure does not affect the standard sentinel node biopsy, in fact, when used together it improves its diagnostic performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Charcoal , Axilla , Tattooing , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Dissection , Sentinel Lymph Node
14.
Medisan ; 23(6)nov.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1091144

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las intoxicaciones exógenas agudas son tan antiguas como la humanidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con intoxicación exógena aguda atribuible a intento suicida. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 26 pacientes con el citado diagnóstico, atendidos en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital General Docente Orlando Pantoja Tamayo de Contramaestre, provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2017. Las variables analizadas fueron: grupos etarios, sexo, ocupación, tóxicos utilizados por estos pacientes, escala de Glasgow al ingreso, uso del carbón activado y tiempo de empleo, así como tipo de tratamiento. Resultados: En la serie prevalecieron los pacientes de 20-39 y 40-59 años de edad, así como los psicofármacos, seguidos por organofosforados, antiinflamatorios y antihistamínicos como los tóxicos más usados. En más de la mitad de los afectados la escala de Glasgow osciló entre 9 y 13 puntos. El lavado gástrico y el carbón activado fueron los métodos de desintoxicación más empleados. Conclusiones: Las intoxicaciones exógenas constituyen una verdadera urgencia médica, por tanto, es importante tener en cuenta el tiempo trascurrido entre el accidente y el tratamiento. Cuanto más precoz sea la intervención médica requerida, mejor será el pronóstico final de estos pacientes; por ello las acciones en el nivel primario de atención son determinantes.


Introduction: The acute exogenous intoxications are as old as humanity. Objective: To characterize the patients with acute exogenous intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. Method: A descriptive and retrospective study of 26 patients with this diagnosis, assisted in the Intensive Cares Unit of Orlando Pantoja Tamayo Teaching General Hospital in Contramaestre, Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January to December, 2017. The analyzed variables were: age groups, sex, occupation, toxics used by these patients, Glasgow scale at admission, use of charcoal and time of use, as well as type of treatment. Results: In the series the 20-39 and 40-59 years patients prevailed, as well as the psycho drugs, followed by organophosphorus compounds, anti-inflammatory and histamine antagonists as the most used toxics. In more than half of those affected patients the Glasgow scale oscillated between 9 and 13 points. The gastric lavage and charcoal were the most used detoxification methods. Conclusions: The exogenous intoxications constitute a true medical emergency, therefore, it is important to keep in mind the time between the accident and the treatment. The earlier the required medical intervention, the better will be the final prognosis of these patients; reason why the actions in the primary care level are determining.


Subject(s)
Poisoning , Psychotropic Drugs , Suicide, Attempted , Charcoal/poisoning , Glasgow Coma Scale
15.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 24(3): 7305-7313, sep.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115255

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la fermentación in vitro de consorcios bacterianos ruminales celulolíticos (CBC) conservados por liofilización usando carbón activado, maltosa y lactosa como preservadores. Materiales y métodos. Un CBC se aisló de fluido ruminal de una búfala de agua en medios selectivos celulolíticos. Los CBC se liofilizaron con carbón activado (CA), lactosa (LA) o maltosa (MA) como preservadores y sin preservador (SP). El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar para medir biogás a diferentes intervalos de tiempo; así como, un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 4x3, los factores fueron preservadores (SP, CA, LA y MA) y tiempo de fermentación (24, 48 y 72 h) para pH, nitrógeno amoniacal (N-NH3), degradación de materia seca (DMS) y de fibra detergente neutro (DFDN), actividad enzimática celulasas y la población de bacterias totales. Resultados. LA produjo mayor biogás acumulado a las 72 h y parcial a partir de las 12 h (p≤0.05). SP no mostró diferencias (p>0.05) en celulasas, conteo de bacterias total, DMS y DFDN en los tiempos de fermentación evaluados con el resto de los preservadores. Conclusiones. La producción de biogás parcial y acumulada, el aumento en la tasa de degradación de 8.3 y 91.1 % en la DMS y DFDN de las 24 a 72 h (p≤0.05) con el preservador LA, muestran que la lactosa puede usarse como preservador de bacterias celulolíticas ruminales.


ABSTRACT Objective. To determine in vitro fermentation of cellulolytic ruminal bacterial consortia (CBC) preserved by lyophilization using activated carbon, maltose and lactose as preservatives. Materials and methods. A CBC was isolated from the ruminal fluid of a female water buffalo in selective cellulolytic media. The CBC were lyophilized without preservative (SP), activated carbon (CA), lactose (LA) o maltose (MA) as preservatives. The experimental design was completely random to measure biogas at different time intervals; as well as completely random with 4x3 factorial arrangement, factors were preservative [SP, CA, LA and MA] and fermentation time (24, 48 and 72 h) for pH, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), dry matter degradation (DMD), neutral detergent fiber degradation (NDFD), enzymatic activity cellulases and total bacteria population. Results. LA produced higher accumulated biogas at 72 h and partial biogas after 12 h (p≤0.05). SP did not show differences (p>0.05) in cellulases, total bacteria population, DMD and NDFD in the fermentation times evaluated with the rest of the preservative. Conclusions. The production of partial and accumulated biogas, the increase in the degradation rate of 8.3 and 91.1% in the DMD and NDFD from 24 to 72 h (p≤0.05) in the LA preservative, show that lactose can be used as a preservative of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Charcoal , Disaccharides , Fermentation , Freeze Drying , Lactose , Maltose
16.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 268-276, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118930

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus (P) is one of the nutrients that most limits agricultural productivity, especially in tropical soils. Enriched biochar has been proposed to increase the bioavailability of P and other nutrients in the soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the availability of P in phosphate biochar (composed of biomass and soil) as a function of the triple superphosphate mixture before and after the pyrolysis process. We produced eight types of enriched biochar via pyrolysis by combining sandy or clayey soil with rice or coffee husk, and by adding triple superphosphate before or after pyrolysis. The heating of the phosphate fertilizer during the pyrolysis process resulted in a higher crystallinity of the phosphates, lower content of labile fractions of P and lower content of available P in phosphate biochars than when the superphosphate was added after pyrolysis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Phosphates/analysis , Oryza , Soil , Pyrolysis , Charcoal/analysis , Coffee , Amazonian Ecosystem
17.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 24(2): 7231-7238, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115244

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Establecer mediante experimentos por lote la capacidad de remoción, la cinética y termodinámica de adsorción del carbón activado preparado a partir de la cáscara de yuca (Manihot esculenta) en la remoción del colorante azul directo 86. Materiales y métodos. La metodología experimental consistió inicialmente en la preparación del carbón activado por activación química de la cáscara de yuca con H3PO4 y su posterior calcinación a 530°C. En la caracterización se determinaron las propiedades de textura mediante el índice de yodo e índice de azul de metileno, se cuantificaron los grupos funcionales orgánicos ácidos y básicos con el método Boehm, y se realizó el análisis próximo siguiendo las normas ASTM D-2867-70, ASTM D2866 y ASTM D2866-94. En el estudio por lote, el efecto de varios parámetros sobre la capacidad de adsorción fueron evaluados: el pH (2, 4, 8 y 10), la temperatura (25, 30 y 40°C) y la concentración inicial de colorante (20, 40, 60, 80 y 100 mg/L). Tanto las características fisicoquímicas como los ensayos de adsorción del carbón activado preparado a partir de la cáscara de yuca (CAY) fueron comparadas con otro de marca comercial (CAM). Resultados. Los resultados de la caracterización indican que ambos carbones tienen una química de superfície heterogénea, de naturaleza ácida para el CAY y básica para el CAM. La máxima capacidad obtenida fue 6.1 mg/g para el CAY y de 3.7 mg/g para el CAM. Los cálculos termodinámicos indican que la remoción es espontánea y para ambos carbones la cinética se ajusta al modelo de pseudo segundo orden. Conclusiones. El carbón activado obtenido a partir de la cáscara de yuca puede considerarse un adsorbente eficiente en la remoción de colorantes.


ABSTRACT Objective. To establish by means of experimenting by batch the capacity of removal, the kinetics and adsorption thermodynamics of activated carbon prepared from manioc husk (Manihot esculenta) in the removal of direct blue 86 dye. Materials and methods. Firstly, the experimental methodology worked on the preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation of manioc husk with H3PO4 calcined at 530°C. In the characterization the texture properties were determined by means of the blue methylene and iodine indices, the basic and acidic functional groups were quantified by the Boehm method, and the proximate analyses were done following the norms ASTM D2867-70, ASTM D2866 and ASTM D2866-94. During the batch studies, the effect of several parameters over the adsorption capacity was evaluated: pH (2, 4, 8 and 10), temperature (25, 30 and 40°C) and initial concentration of the dye (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L). Both physicochemical and adsorption characteristics of the activated carbon from manioc husk (CAY) were compared against those of a commercial brand (CAM). Results. The results of characterization showed that both carbons have a chemistry heterogeneous surface, acidic for CAY and basic for CAM. The maximum capacity obtained was 6.1 mg/g for CAY and 3.7 mg/g for CAM. The thermodynamic calculations showed that the removal was spontaneous. The kinetics for both carbon samples fits a pseudo second-order model. Conclusions. The activated carbon obtained from the manioc husk can be considered an efficient adsorbent for the removal of dyes.


Subject(s)
Thermodynamics , Kinetics , Manihot , Charcoal
18.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1119-1123, abr.-maio 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482111

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a utilização de carvão ativo na redução de compostos voláteis responsáveis pelo off-odor de carnes bovinas irradiadas. Para tal, contrafilés bovinos, embalados a vácuo, com e sem carvão ativo, e irradiados (1, 2 e 3 kGy), foram analisados quanto a formação de compostos de enxofre e quanto a percepção sensorial de off-odor. O único composto de enxofre identificado nas amostras foi o dimetil sulfeto (DMS), sendo encontrado em menor concentração nas amostras irradiadas com carvão ativo na embalagem. Independentemente da utilização do carvão, os painelistas perceberam o off-odor das carnes irradiadas em qualquer dose quando comparado à carne não-irradiada. Quando foi comparado as carnes irradiadas com carvão em relação àquelas irradiadas sem carvão, os painelistas foram capazes de identificar o off-odor apenas nas amostras irradiadas com 1 kGy. Conclui-se que o carvão ativo reduziu a concentração de DMS na embalagem de carnes irradiadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Red Meat/radiation effects , Charcoal , Odorants , Olfactory Perception , Sulfides/analysis , Sulfur Compounds/analysis , Chromatography
19.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 225 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023159

ABSTRACT

Zeólitas e carvão ativado são materiais eficazes para o tratamento de efluentes devido a sua grande área superficial e possibilidades de funcionalização, que permitem o desenvolvimento de novos materiais derivados visando a processos de concentração/remoção de contaminantes, por exemplo, em águas. A preparação de nanocompósitos magnéticos e sua aplicação na remoção seletiva de poluentes em meio aquoso tornou-se viável devido as interações distintas que ocorrem entre zeólita e carvão ativado com compostos orgânicos, íons metálicos e compostos nitrogenados. Assim, novos materiais voltados para sistemas de tratamento de águas residuais e monitoramento ambiental foram desenvolvidos com base em materiais bem estabelecidos. Os nanocompósitos foram caracterizados estrutural e morfologicamente por técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, termogravimetria, espectroscopia no infravermelho, espalhamento de luz, difração de raios x, bem como suas capacidades de adsorção. Foi avaliado também a viabilidade de aplicações em métodos analíticos, como pré-concentração por extração em fase sólida magnética (M-SPE), e, para tratamento de efluentes em amostras reais. Contaminação por cromo (VI), outras espécies potencialmente tóxicas e amônio foram removidos de águas residuais, gerando produtos tratados com níveis de contaminantes suficientemente baixos para atenderem as recomendações da EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) e CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente), permitindo seu descarte na natureza. Os materiais demonstraram ser adequados para pré-concentração rápida, eficiente, economicamente competitiva e ambientalmente amigável de amostras por M-SPE para quantificação analítica de espécies orgânicas ou inorgânicas, por técnicas analíticas convencionais. Assim, foi demonstrado a possibilidade de determinação simultânea de elementos potencialmente tóxicos e de outros cátions metálicos em concentrações traço (ppb), diretamente no material compósito magnético, por espectroscopia de fluorescência de raios X de energia dispersiva (EDX), além da quantificação de traços de compostos orgânicos semi-voláteis por cromatografia emfase gasosa com detector por espectrometria de massas, aumentando a sensibilidade para além do limite nominal de detecção por essas técnicas


Zeolites and activated carbon are effective materials for the treatment of effluents due to their large surface area and functionalisation possibilities, which allow the development of new derived materials aiming at the concentration/removal of contaminants from water, for example. The preparation of magnetic nanocomposites and their application in the selective removal of pollutants in aqueous media has become feasible due to the distinct interactions that occur between zeolite and activated carbon with organic compounds, metal ions and nitrogen compounds. Thus, new materials for wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring systems were developed based on well-established materials. The nanocomposites were structural and morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, light scattering, x-ray diffraction, as well as their adsorption capacities, viability of applications in analytical methods such as preconcentration by extraction in magnetic solid phase, M-SPE, were evaluated, and the composite materials Cmag and Zmag applied for treatment of real samples. Chromium (VI) contamination, heavy metal cations and ammonium were removed from wastewater, generating treated products with levels of contaminants low enough to meet the EPA and CONAMA recommendations, allowing their disposal in the wild. The materials have been shown to be suitable for rapid, efficient, economically competitive and environmentally friendly preconcentration of samples per M-SPE for analytical quantification of organic or inorganic species by conventional analytical techniques. Thus, it was demonstrated the possibility of simultaneous analysis of heavy metals and other metal cations in trace concentrations (ppb), directly in the magnetic composite material, by dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDX), in addition to the quantification of traces of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detector, increasing the sensitivity beyond the nominal limit of detection by these techniques


Subject(s)
Industrial Effluent Treatment/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Solid Phase Extraction , Thermogravimetry/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Charcoal/analysis , Zeolites/analysis
20.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180051, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975887

ABSTRACT

Abstract The efficacy of whitening toothpastes is questionable and controversial. Clinicians, patients and researchers have expressed concern with whitening toothpastes due to the risk of wearing the dental structure and the potential for disappointment if the advertised cosmetic results are not achieved. Objective: This study compared the whitening performance of toothpastes with different whitening technologies after initial and continued use. Material and Methods: Ninety bovine incisors were stained using a concentrated solution of black tea. They were randomly distributed into 6 groups, according to the toothpaste whitening technology: activated charcoal (B&W), blue covarine (WAD), hydrogen peroxide (LWA), microbeads (Oral B 3D White Perfection - 3DW) and optimized abrasives (XW4D). They were compared to a traditional toothpaste without a whitening agent (TA - control). Specimens underwent a brushing machine with controlled pressure, time and temperature. A calibrated examiner measured the color using a VITA-Classical scale before the first brushing cycle (T0), after the first brushing cycle (TI), and after a brushing cycle that simulates continuous use (TCU). Whitening performance was evaluated by the difference of shades (ΔSGU) between T0-TI and T0-TCU timepoints, using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's non-parametric test. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the cumulative effect (α=0.05). Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between toothpastes in both TI and TCU (p<0.05). The time of use also had a significant effect (p<0.05). Conclusion: Only WAD and 3DW showed whitening performance after the first use (TI). The greatest whitening performance after continuous use was obtained by WAD, followed by LWA and 3DW. The use of conventional toothpaste (TA) promotes no tooth whitening. Clinical relevance: Microbead abrasives (3DW) and blue covarine (WAD) were the active technology tested that presented the best global tooth whitening performance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Toothpastes/chemistry , Charcoal/chemistry , Isoindoles/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Metalloporphyrins/chemistry , Microspheres , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Tooth/drug effects , Toothbrushing/methods , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results
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