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1.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(2): 80-89, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1339325

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study identified charcoal-based dentifrices and abrasive powders sold in Brazil and analyzed their label information. The products were searched in four online shopping platforms. The same products were searched on Instagram and their engagement metrics were investigated. Furthermore, a literature review of international publications assessing charcoal dentifrices and powders was conducted, and altmetrics were collected (Altmetric and PlumX). Thirty-six products were found with prices between $0.4-22 USD. Most frequent words in product description were sodium, stain, whitening, oil, xylitol, and coconut. Only 3 products contained fluoride. Bactericidal, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities were indicated, in addition to non-scientific claims such as calming teeth or increasing oral immunity. In total, 72% of products had Instagram profiles, which generally showed low engagement rates (81%) and medium audience quality scores (65%). Twenty-two articles were found in the literature, from which 21 were in vitro studies. The single clinical study was sponsored by a charcoal product and had no control group. In total, 23% of studies showed positive results and 55% reported negative results for the charcoal products, which included no whitening ability, increased roughness, surface alterations, and lower demineralization prevention ability. Altmetric scores for the included articles varied from 0 to 55, with 40.9% of studies mentioned online. In conclusion, charcoal-based products are using marketing strategies on Instagram but their current engagement with the public is not high. Consumers are being exposed to charcoal products whose potential risks to health are still unknown.


Resumo Este estudo identificou dentifrícios e pós abrasivos de carvão vendidos no Brasil e analisou suas informações de rótulo. Os produtos foram pesquisados em quatro plataformas de compras online. Os mesmos produtos foram pesquisados no Instagram e métricas de engajamento dos perfis foram investigadas. Além disso, foi realizada uma revisão da literatura buscando publicações internacionais que avaliaram dentifrícios e pós de carvão; dados de altmetria foram coletados (Altmetric e PlumX). Foram encontrados 36 produtos com preços entre US$ 0,4-22. As palavras mais frequentes na descrição dos produtos foram sódio, mancha, clareamento, óleo, xilitol e coco. Apenas 3 produtos continham flúor. Foram indicadas atividades bactericidas, antivirais, antifúngicas e anti-inflamatórias, além de alegações não-científicas como acalmar dentes ou aumentar a imunidade oral. No total, 72% dos produtos tinham perfis no Instagram, que geralmente apresentavam baixas taxas de engajamento (81%) e média qualidade de audiência (65%). Vinte e dois artigos foram encontrados na literatura, dos quais 21 foram estudos in vitro. O único estudo clínico foi patrocinado por um produto de carvão e não tinha grupo controle. No total, 23% dos estudos apresentaram resultados positivos e 55% relataram resultados negativos para os produtos de carvão, que incluíram incapacidade de clareamento, aumento da rugosidade, alterações superficiais e menor capacidade de prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte. A altmetria dos artigos incluídos variou de 0 a 55, com 40,9% dos estudos sendo mencionados online. Em conclusão, os produtos à base de carvão estão usando estratégias de marketing no Instagram, mas seu engajamento atual com o público não é alto. Consumidores estão sendo expostos a produtos de carvão cujos potenciais riscos à saúde ainda são desconhecidos


Subject(s)
Humans , Charcoal , Dentifrices , Powders , Brazil
2.
Rev. venez. cir ; 74(1): 407-411, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1283702

ABSTRACT

Describir la técnica quirúrgica de la disección axilar dirigida (DAD) usando carbón vegetal como marcador del ganglio linfático axilar metastásico al momento del diagnóstico conjuntamente con la biopsia del ganglio centinela en paciente con cáncer de mama tratada con quimioterapia neoadyuvante con respuesta completa clínica y ecográficamente, demostrando su seguridad y eficacia. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo. Paciente con cáncer de mama y ganglio linfático metastásico en axila ipsilateral marcado con carbón vegetal al confirmarse ese diagnóstico y tratada con quimioterapia neoadyuvante con posterior negativización tanto clínica como ecográfica del ganglio linfático metastásico. Se planificó para disección axilar dirigida (extirpación del ganglio marcado con carbón vegetal y biopsia de ganglio centinela) con el fin de demostrar la eficacia del marcador utilizado y su relación o no con el ganglio centinela. Resultados: Se comprobó la identificación certera del ganglio afectado marcado con carbón vegetal el cual no presentó migración del colorante o reacción inflamatoria local coincidiendo además con dos ganglios centinelas todos con respuesta patológica completa. El carbón permaneció 153 días desde su administración hasta la cirugía axilar. Conclusión: Esta experiencia admite el marcaje con carbón vegetal del ganglio axilar metastásico al momento de su diagnóstico como un método seguro, sencillo, económico y accesible en relación a otros métodos de marcaje, además su asociación con la biopsia del ganglio centinela nos permite prescindir de la disección axilar en caso de respuesta patológica completa, sin embargo, es importante resaltar que se necesitan evaluar más casos para obtener conclusiones determinantes(AU)


To describe the surgical technique of targeted axillary dissection using charcoal marking of the metastatic lymph node at the time of diagnosis together with sentinel node biopsy in a breast cancer patient who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with complete clinical and sonographical response, demonstrating its safety and efficacy. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study. Patient with breast cancer and metastatic lymph node in the ipsilateral axilla which was marked with charcoal upon confirmation of this diagnosis and treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with subsequent clinical and sonographical negativization of the metastatic lymph node. It was planned for targeted axillary dissection (removal of charcoal-marked lymph node and sentinel node biopsy) in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the marker used and its relationship or not with the sentinel node. Results: The correct identification of the affected lymph node marked with charcoal was verified, which did not present dye migration or local inflammatory reaction, also coinciding with two sentinel nodes, all of them with a complete pathological response. The charcoal remained 153 days from its administration until the axillary surgery. Conclusion: This experience supports charcoal marking of the metastatic lymph node at the time of diagnosis as a safe, simple, inexpensive and accessible method in relation to other marking methods, in addition its association with sentinel node biopsy allows us to dispense with axillary dissection in case of complete pathological response, however it is important to highlight that more cases need to be evaluated to obtain decisive conclusions(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Middle Aged , Axilla/pathology , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Sentinel Lymph Node , Breast Neoplasms , Charcoal , Drug Therapy , Lymph Nodes
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879148

ABSTRACT

Biochar is a kind of solid material with high aromatization and rich in carbon, which is formed by pyrolysis of biomass at high temperature(250-700 ℃) under anoxic or hypoxic conditions. It has the characteristics of large specific surface area and rich pores. In recent years, as a good soil conditioner, biochar has gradually improved its advantages in improving soil rhizosphere micro ecological environment, promoting plant growth and development, and enhancing plant resistance, etc. It has been proved that biochar can affect the growth and development of plants by improving soil physical and chemical properties, adjusting microbial community structure, participating in the metabolic process in plants, and inducing plants to enhance resistance. This paper summarized the research progress of biochar application in agriculture and introduced the ecological effects and mechanism of biochar on plant seed germination, seedling growth, crop yield and stress resistance. Combined with the characteristics of Chinese materia medica, this paper expounds the application potential of biochar in improving the content of secondary metabolites of Chinese materia medica and alleviating continuous cropping obstacles of Chinese materia medica, etc. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research of biochar in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, allelopathy and heavy metal stress of medicinal plants, so as to provide reference for the application of biochar in the cultivation of Chinese materia medica.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Charcoal , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Materia Medica
4.
Rev. argent. mastología ; 39(144): 62-77, sept. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150864

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar la tasa de identificación intra operatoria por el médico cirujano de los ganglios marcados con suspensión de carbón activado previo a la neoadyuvancia. El objetivo secundario es determinar la concordancia entre los ganglios linfáticos marcados con carbón y aquellos considerados ganglios centinelas. Material y método: Es un estudio retrospectivo desde el año 2016 hasta el año 2020. Se incluyeron 27 pacientes con cáncer de mama en estadios T1 - T3 que realizaron quimioterapia neoadyuvante y con axila con estadio N1 y N2. Los ganglios axilares biopsiados con resultado positivo fueron marcados con suspensión de carbón activado, posteriormente las pacientes realizaron quimioterapia neoadyuvante. Se evaluó la tasa de detección y concordancia del ganglio marcado con el ganglio centinela durante el procedimiento quirúrgico. Resultados: Del total de pacientes en 20 casos se realizó efectivamente la identificación por inspección visual de la suspensión de carbón activado en la cavidad axilar durante la cirugía. La tasa de detección fue del 74%. Del total de 20 pacientes en los cuales se identificó carbón visualmente en el acto quirúrgico, 16 se sometieron a biopsia de ganglio centinela. En 81% de los casos hubo una coincidencia entre el ganglio marcado con carbón y el ganglio centinela. Conclusión: En nuestro trabajo la tasa de detección intraoperatoria de los ganglios marcados con carbón está en concordancia con lo publicado en la literatura. Esto catapulta a este método de marcación como una alternativa factible para realizar una disección axilar dirigida asegurándole al médico cirujano la resección de una ganglio positivo de inicio para su análisis anatomopatológico de respuesta. Hemos comprobado que la marcación con carbón no interfiere con la técnica estándar utilizada para la biopsia de ganglio centinela sino que su uso en conjunto mejora la técnica dignóstica.


Objetive: The aim of this study was to determine the rate of identification of activated charcoal suspension during surgery in positive lymph nodes before neadjuvant chemotherapy. The secondary objetive is to determine the rate of concordance between the marked lymph nodes and the sentinel lymph nodes. Material and method: A retrospective study that goes from the year 2016 - 2020. It includes 27 patients with breast cancer (T1 - T3) and positive lymph nodes (N1 - N2). Patients with biopsy - confirmed nodal metatases were marked with activated charcoal suspension in the sampled node. After this procedure patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and axillary surgery. The rate of detection and the concordance of the marked lymph node with the sentinel lymph nodes was calculated. Results: Of the 27 patients enrolled in this study in 20, the marked node was detected during surgery. The detection rate was of 74%. Of these 20 patientes, 16 had sentinel node biopsy. There was an 81% rate of concordance between the sentinel lymph node and the tattooed lymph node. Conclusions: In our study, the detection rate of marked lymph node is concordant with the numbers publised by other studies. This shows that axillary lymph node tattooing with activated charcoal suspension is a viable, low cost and precise method when performing targeted axillary dissection. We identified that the tattooing procedure does not affect the standard sentinel node biopsy, in fact, when used together it improves its diagnostic performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Charcoal , Axilla , Tattooing , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Dissection , Sentinel Lymph Node
5.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 24(3): 7305-7313, sep.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115255

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la fermentación in vitro de consorcios bacterianos ruminales celulolíticos (CBC) conservados por liofilización usando carbón activado, maltosa y lactosa como preservadores. Materiales y métodos. Un CBC se aisló de fluido ruminal de una búfala de agua en medios selectivos celulolíticos. Los CBC se liofilizaron con carbón activado (CA), lactosa (LA) o maltosa (MA) como preservadores y sin preservador (SP). El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar para medir biogás a diferentes intervalos de tiempo; así como, un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 4x3, los factores fueron preservadores (SP, CA, LA y MA) y tiempo de fermentación (24, 48 y 72 h) para pH, nitrógeno amoniacal (N-NH3), degradación de materia seca (DMS) y de fibra detergente neutro (DFDN), actividad enzimática celulasas y la población de bacterias totales. Resultados. LA produjo mayor biogás acumulado a las 72 h y parcial a partir de las 12 h (p≤0.05). SP no mostró diferencias (p>0.05) en celulasas, conteo de bacterias total, DMS y DFDN en los tiempos de fermentación evaluados con el resto de los preservadores. Conclusiones. La producción de biogás parcial y acumulada, el aumento en la tasa de degradación de 8.3 y 91.1 % en la DMS y DFDN de las 24 a 72 h (p≤0.05) con el preservador LA, muestran que la lactosa puede usarse como preservador de bacterias celulolíticas ruminales.


ABSTRACT Objective. To determine in vitro fermentation of cellulolytic ruminal bacterial consortia (CBC) preserved by lyophilization using activated carbon, maltose and lactose as preservatives. Materials and methods. A CBC was isolated from the ruminal fluid of a female water buffalo in selective cellulolytic media. The CBC were lyophilized without preservative (SP), activated carbon (CA), lactose (LA) o maltose (MA) as preservatives. The experimental design was completely random to measure biogas at different time intervals; as well as completely random with 4x3 factorial arrangement, factors were preservative [SP, CA, LA and MA] and fermentation time (24, 48 and 72 h) for pH, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), dry matter degradation (DMD), neutral detergent fiber degradation (NDFD), enzymatic activity cellulases and total bacteria population. Results. LA produced higher accumulated biogas at 72 h and partial biogas after 12 h (p≤0.05). SP did not show differences (p>0.05) in cellulases, total bacteria population, DMD and NDFD in the fermentation times evaluated with the rest of the preservative. Conclusions. The production of partial and accumulated biogas, the increase in the degradation rate of 8.3 and 91.1% in the DMD and NDFD from 24 to 72 h (p≤0.05) in the LA preservative, show that lactose can be used as a preservative of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Charcoal , Disaccharides , Fermentation , Freeze Drying , Lactose , Maltose
6.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 268-276, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118930

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus (P) is one of the nutrients that most limits agricultural productivity, especially in tropical soils. Enriched biochar has been proposed to increase the bioavailability of P and other nutrients in the soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the availability of P in phosphate biochar (composed of biomass and soil) as a function of the triple superphosphate mixture before and after the pyrolysis process. We produced eight types of enriched biochar via pyrolysis by combining sandy or clayey soil with rice or coffee husk, and by adding triple superphosphate before or after pyrolysis. The heating of the phosphate fertilizer during the pyrolysis process resulted in a higher crystallinity of the phosphates, lower content of labile fractions of P and lower content of available P in phosphate biochars than when the superphosphate was added after pyrolysis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Phosphates/analysis , Oryza , Soil , Pyrolysis , Charcoal/analysis , Coffee , Amazonian Ecosystem
7.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 24(2): 7231-7238, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115244

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Establecer mediante experimentos por lote la capacidad de remoción, la cinética y termodinámica de adsorción del carbón activado preparado a partir de la cáscara de yuca (Manihot esculenta) en la remoción del colorante azul directo 86. Materiales y métodos. La metodología experimental consistió inicialmente en la preparación del carbón activado por activación química de la cáscara de yuca con H3PO4 y su posterior calcinación a 530°C. En la caracterización se determinaron las propiedades de textura mediante el índice de yodo e índice de azul de metileno, se cuantificaron los grupos funcionales orgánicos ácidos y básicos con el método Boehm, y se realizó el análisis próximo siguiendo las normas ASTM D-2867-70, ASTM D2866 y ASTM D2866-94. En el estudio por lote, el efecto de varios parámetros sobre la capacidad de adsorción fueron evaluados: el pH (2, 4, 8 y 10), la temperatura (25, 30 y 40°C) y la concentración inicial de colorante (20, 40, 60, 80 y 100 mg/L). Tanto las características fisicoquímicas como los ensayos de adsorción del carbón activado preparado a partir de la cáscara de yuca (CAY) fueron comparadas con otro de marca comercial (CAM). Resultados. Los resultados de la caracterización indican que ambos carbones tienen una química de superfície heterogénea, de naturaleza ácida para el CAY y básica para el CAM. La máxima capacidad obtenida fue 6.1 mg/g para el CAY y de 3.7 mg/g para el CAM. Los cálculos termodinámicos indican que la remoción es espontánea y para ambos carbones la cinética se ajusta al modelo de pseudo segundo orden. Conclusiones. El carbón activado obtenido a partir de la cáscara de yuca puede considerarse un adsorbente eficiente en la remoción de colorantes.


ABSTRACT Objective. To establish by means of experimenting by batch the capacity of removal, the kinetics and adsorption thermodynamics of activated carbon prepared from manioc husk (Manihot esculenta) in the removal of direct blue 86 dye. Materials and methods. Firstly, the experimental methodology worked on the preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation of manioc husk with H3PO4 calcined at 530°C. In the characterization the texture properties were determined by means of the blue methylene and iodine indices, the basic and acidic functional groups were quantified by the Boehm method, and the proximate analyses were done following the norms ASTM D2867-70, ASTM D2866 and ASTM D2866-94. During the batch studies, the effect of several parameters over the adsorption capacity was evaluated: pH (2, 4, 8 and 10), temperature (25, 30 and 40°C) and initial concentration of the dye (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L). Both physicochemical and adsorption characteristics of the activated carbon from manioc husk (CAY) were compared against those of a commercial brand (CAM). Results. The results of characterization showed that both carbons have a chemistry heterogeneous surface, acidic for CAY and basic for CAM. The maximum capacity obtained was 6.1 mg/g for CAY and 3.7 mg/g for CAM. The thermodynamic calculations showed that the removal was spontaneous. The kinetics for both carbon samples fits a pseudo second-order model. Conclusions. The activated carbon obtained from the manioc husk can be considered an efficient adsorbent for the removal of dyes.


Subject(s)
Thermodynamics , Kinetics , Manihot , Charcoal
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766565

ABSTRACT

Suicide is the fifth-leading cause of death in Korea, accounting for 4.4% of all deaths. Therefore, suicide is a serious medical problem, as well as a social problem. In this paper, we provide a social psychiatric perspective on suicide and recommend suicide prevention strategies based on programs with roots in the Gwangju mental health pilot project and an analysis of suicide patterns in Seoul. First, early intervention and active case management are mandatory to prevent suicide among individuals with mental illnesses such as depression, schizophrenia, and alcohol use disorder. To this end, mental health and welfare centers, addiction management centers, suicide prevention centers, and care program after a suicide attempt in the emergency department of general hospitals should collaborate via a multidisciplinary approach. Second, crisis intervention should be provided in collaboration with the police, government officials, and mental health agencies to people who are at immediate risk of suicide. Additionally, case management services should be expanded for individuals who are treated at hospitals for psychiatric illness. Third, social welfare services should be offered to low-income individuals at risk of suicide. Fourth, the mass media should restrict reporting about suicide and follow the relevant reporting guidelines. Finally, access to methods of committing suicide, such as charcoal for burning and agrichemical poisoning, should be regulated by the government. Proactive psychosocial strategies implemented with government support will prevent suicide-related deaths and decrease the suicide rate in Korea.


Subject(s)
Burns , Case Management , Cause of Death , Charcoal , Cooperative Behavior , Crisis Intervention , Depression , Early Intervention, Educational , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals, General , Humans , Korea , Mass Media , Mental Health , Occupational Groups , Pilot Projects , Poisoning , Police , Schizophrenia , Seoul , Social Problems , Social Welfare , Suicide
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180051, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975887

ABSTRACT

Abstract The efficacy of whitening toothpastes is questionable and controversial. Clinicians, patients and researchers have expressed concern with whitening toothpastes due to the risk of wearing the dental structure and the potential for disappointment if the advertised cosmetic results are not achieved. Objective: This study compared the whitening performance of toothpastes with different whitening technologies after initial and continued use. Material and Methods: Ninety bovine incisors were stained using a concentrated solution of black tea. They were randomly distributed into 6 groups, according to the toothpaste whitening technology: activated charcoal (B&W), blue covarine (WAD), hydrogen peroxide (LWA), microbeads (Oral B 3D White Perfection - 3DW) and optimized abrasives (XW4D). They were compared to a traditional toothpaste without a whitening agent (TA - control). Specimens underwent a brushing machine with controlled pressure, time and temperature. A calibrated examiner measured the color using a VITA-Classical scale before the first brushing cycle (T0), after the first brushing cycle (TI), and after a brushing cycle that simulates continuous use (TCU). Whitening performance was evaluated by the difference of shades (ΔSGU) between T0-TI and T0-TCU timepoints, using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's non-parametric test. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the cumulative effect (α=0.05). Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between toothpastes in both TI and TCU (p<0.05). The time of use also had a significant effect (p<0.05). Conclusion: Only WAD and 3DW showed whitening performance after the first use (TI). The greatest whitening performance after continuous use was obtained by WAD, followed by LWA and 3DW. The use of conventional toothpaste (TA) promotes no tooth whitening. Clinical relevance: Microbead abrasives (3DW) and blue covarine (WAD) were the active technology tested that presented the best global tooth whitening performance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Toothpastes/chemistry , Charcoal/chemistry , Isoindoles/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Metalloporphyrins/chemistry , Microspheres , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Tooth/drug effects , Toothbrushing/methods , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results
10.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 48: e20190078, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1043179

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução Historicamente, materiais abrasivos, como mármore em pó, corais e cinzas ósseas, eram utilizados para higienização dentária. Com a evolução, tais materiais foram substituídos por dentifrícios aplicados em escovas dentais, com a mesma finalidade. Objetivo Avaliar, através da Tomografia por Coerência Óptica, o desgaste do esmalte dentário, após o uso de diferentes escovas dentais e materiais utilizados na escovação com componentes abrasivos. Material e método Foram confeccionados 50 corpos de prova, distribuídos em 10 grupos (n=5), de acordo com o dentifrício/escova utilizado. Para o grupo A, foi utilizada a escova dental Curaprox® Adulto Ultra Macia, e, para o grupo B, a escova Dental K® - escova adulto macia. Foram utilizados os seguintes materiais para escovação: Curaprox® Black is White; Colgate® Luminous White Instant, Close Up® White Attraction - MenSuperpure; Carvão Ativado; Água Destilada. As imagens foram realizadas antes e depois da ciclagem de escovação e comparadas quanto às alterações de superfície. A perda da estrutura superficial foi avaliada através dos métodos qualitativo e quantitativo. Para análise estatística dos dados obtidos, foram realizadas as medidas estatísticas: média, desvio padrão, mediana e percentis, avaliados inferencialmente através dos testes estatísticos Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultado Maior índice de perda de estrutura superficial do esmalte nos grupos G2A (16,09) e G2B (11,38) e menor índice de perda estrutural nos grupos G5A (1,07) e G5B (1,20). Conclusão: Através desse estudo, observou-se que os dentifrícios clareadores e o Carvão Ativado são capazes de promover intenso desgaste do esmalte dentário.


Abstract Introduction Historically, abrasive materials such as marble powders, corals and bone ashes were used for dental hygiene. With evolution, these materials were replaced by dentifrices applied on toothbrushes for the same purpose. Objective To evaluate, through Optical Coherence Tomography, the wear of dental enamel after the use of different toothbrushes and materials used in brushing with abrasive components. Material and method 50 specimens were prepared, distributed in 10 groups (n=5) according to the toothpaste used. For group A, the Curaprox® Adult Ultra Macia toothbrush was used and for group B, the soft toothbrush K® - soft adult toothbrush. The following brushing materials were used: Curaprox® Black is White; Colgate® Luminous White Instant, Close Up® White Attraction - MenSuperpure; Activated Charcoal; Distilled Water. The images were performed before and after the brushing cycle and were compared for surface changes. The loss of the surface structure was evaluated through qualitative and quantitative methods. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the statistical methods Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, with significance level of 5%, mean, standard deviation, median and percentiles. Result A higher index of loss of enamel structure was observed in the G2A (16.09) and G2B (11.38) groups and a lower structural loss rate in the specimens corresponding to the groups G5A (1,07) and G5B (1,20). Conclusion Through this study it was observed that the whitening dentifrices and the Activated Charcoal are able to promote an intense wear of the dental enamel.


Subject(s)
Tooth Abrasion , Dental Enamel , Dentifrices , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Toothbrushing , In Vitro Techniques , Charcoal
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 225 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023159

ABSTRACT

Zeólitas e carvão ativado são materiais eficazes para o tratamento de efluentes devido a sua grande área superficial e possibilidades de funcionalização, que permitem o desenvolvimento de novos materiais derivados visando a processos de concentração/remoção de contaminantes, por exemplo, em águas. A preparação de nanocompósitos magnéticos e sua aplicação na remoção seletiva de poluentes em meio aquoso tornou-se viável devido as interações distintas que ocorrem entre zeólita e carvão ativado com compostos orgânicos, íons metálicos e compostos nitrogenados. Assim, novos materiais voltados para sistemas de tratamento de águas residuais e monitoramento ambiental foram desenvolvidos com base em materiais bem estabelecidos. Os nanocompósitos foram caracterizados estrutural e morfologicamente por técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, termogravimetria, espectroscopia no infravermelho, espalhamento de luz, difração de raios x, bem como suas capacidades de adsorção. Foi avaliado também a viabilidade de aplicações em métodos analíticos, como pré-concentração por extração em fase sólida magnética (M-SPE), e, para tratamento de efluentes em amostras reais. Contaminação por cromo (VI), outras espécies potencialmente tóxicas e amônio foram removidos de águas residuais, gerando produtos tratados com níveis de contaminantes suficientemente baixos para atenderem as recomendações da EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) e CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente), permitindo seu descarte na natureza. Os materiais demonstraram ser adequados para pré-concentração rápida, eficiente, economicamente competitiva e ambientalmente amigável de amostras por M-SPE para quantificação analítica de espécies orgânicas ou inorgânicas, por técnicas analíticas convencionais. Assim, foi demonstrado a possibilidade de determinação simultânea de elementos potencialmente tóxicos e de outros cátions metálicos em concentrações traço (ppb), diretamente no material compósito magnético, por espectroscopia de fluorescência de raios X de energia dispersiva (EDX), além da quantificação de traços de compostos orgânicos semi-voláteis por cromatografia emfase gasosa com detector por espectrometria de massas, aumentando a sensibilidade para além do limite nominal de detecção por essas técnicas


Zeolites and activated carbon are effective materials for the treatment of effluents due to their large surface area and functionalisation possibilities, which allow the development of new derived materials aiming at the concentration/removal of contaminants from water, for example. The preparation of magnetic nanocomposites and their application in the selective removal of pollutants in aqueous media has become feasible due to the distinct interactions that occur between zeolite and activated carbon with organic compounds, metal ions and nitrogen compounds. Thus, new materials for wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring systems were developed based on well-established materials. The nanocomposites were structural and morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, light scattering, x-ray diffraction, as well as their adsorption capacities, viability of applications in analytical methods such as preconcentration by extraction in magnetic solid phase, M-SPE, were evaluated, and the composite materials Cmag and Zmag applied for treatment of real samples. Chromium (VI) contamination, heavy metal cations and ammonium were removed from wastewater, generating treated products with levels of contaminants low enough to meet the EPA and CONAMA recommendations, allowing their disposal in the wild. The materials have been shown to be suitable for rapid, efficient, economically competitive and environmentally friendly preconcentration of samples per M-SPE for analytical quantification of organic or inorganic species by conventional analytical techniques. Thus, it was demonstrated the possibility of simultaneous analysis of heavy metals and other metal cations in trace concentrations (ppb), directly in the magnetic composite material, by dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDX), in addition to the quantification of traces of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detector, increasing the sensitivity beyond the nominal limit of detection by these techniques


Subject(s)
Industrial Effluent Treatment/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Solid Phase Extraction , Thermogravimetry/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Charcoal/analysis , Zeolites/analysis
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758414

ABSTRACT

Glyphosate herbicides, which are widely used worldwide, are known to have low toxicity. However, excessive intake may cause serious life-threatening complications; therefore, caution is needed when using them. A 51-year-old man visited the hospital after ingesting glyphosate herbicide. At the time of admission, his vital signs were 80/60 mmHg-115/min-20/min-37.3℃. Electrocardiogram (ECG) showed QRS widening and corrected QT (QTc) prolongation, and blood tests showed metabolic acidosis. Treatment with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, sodium bicarbonate and intravenous lipid emulsion therapy was performed. After 2 hours, his blood pressure increased to 130/90 mg, and no QRS widening was observed on ECG.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Blood Pressure , Charcoal , Electrocardiography , Gastric Lavage , Hematologic Tests , Herbicides , Humans , Middle Aged , Poisoning , Sodium Bicarbonate , Vital Signs
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 621-624, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760967

ABSTRACT

The suicide rate in Korea has been declining steadily after peaking in 2011. However, to date, time-series analyses of Korean suicide rate data have mainly addressed factors related to increases in suicide rates. This study analyzed one of the most important evidence-based public health strategies to decrease suicide, that is, preventive effects of restricting access to lethal means via a charcoal-selling procedure improvement campaign, using multivariate time series analysis. The results showed the campaign in Gyeonggi Province had a significant effect on decreasing the number of charcoal-burning suicides in this area. It is believed that the present study has important implications in terms of providing the first empirical evidence for the charcoal-selling procedure improvement campaign in Korea. Further repeated research is needed to evaluate the impact of the intervention when the more enough observational data become available.


Subject(s)
Burns , Charcoal , Korea , Public Health , Suicide
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(1): 49-58, jan./feb. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966584

ABSTRACT

Uvaia (Eugenia pyriformis) is a fruit tree of the Myrtaceae family. It has recalcitrant seeds of limited longevity, making seed propagation difficult. Micropropagation is an alternative method to obtain a large quantity of progeny plants in a short period of time, by using any part of the plant as explant. The high concentration of phenols associated with the chemical composition of the Myrtaceae, and the presence of microorganisms in the plant material or culture media, can make in vitro propagation difficult and/or impossible. The objective was to evaluate various concentrations of antioxidants affecting the control of microbial contamination and phenol oxidation in vitro in uvaia. A completely randomized design was used, with a 3 (antioxidants PVP, L-cysteine, and ascorbic acid) × 3 (antioxidant concentrations 100, 200, and 300 mg L-1) × 2 (activated charcoal at 0 and 2 g L-1) factorial arrangement + 2 additional variables (absence of antioxidants and activated charcoal; absence of antioxidants with 2 g L-1 activated charcoal), with three repetitions comprising four plants each. The percentage of bacterial and fungal contaminations, along with the number of oxidized explants, was evaluated after 7, 14 and 21 days of in vitro cultivation. It was concluded that, where bacterial and fungal contaminations were concerned, in vitro cultivation of uvaia can be performed without the use of antioxidants. PVP or ascorbic acid must, however be used in the process, at a concentration of 300 mg L-1, along with 2 g L-1 of activated charcoal. This helps to minimize phenol oxidation.


A uvaia Eugenia pyriformis é uma frutífera da família das mirtáceas cujas sementes apresentam longevidade curta e aspecto recalcitrante, fato que dificulta a propagação seminífera. A micropropagação surge como alternativa para obtenção de grande quantidade de mudas em curto período de tempo, por meio da utilização de qualquer parte da planta como explante. A elevada concentração de fenóis associados à composição química das mirtáceas e a presença de microrganismos no material vegetal ou no meio de cultura podem dificultar e/ou impossibilitar a propagação in vitro. Objetivou-se avaliar tipos e concentrações de antioxidantes no controle da contaminação microbiana e da oxidação fenólica in vitro de E. pyriformis. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 (antioxidantes ­ PVP, L-cisteína e ácido ascórbico) x 3 (concentrações - 100, 200 e 300 mg L-1) x 2 (carvão ativado ­ 0 e 2 g L-1) + 2 adicionais (ausência de antioxidantes e de carvão ativado; ausência de antioxidantes com 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado), com três repetições constituídas por quatro plantas. Após sete, 14 e 21 dias do cultivo in vitro foram avaliadas a porcentagem de contaminação bacteriana, fúngica e de explantes oxidados. Conclui-se que o cultivo in vitro de E. pyriformis, em relação as contaminações bacterianas e fúngicas, pode ser efetuado sem a utilização de agentes antioxidantes. Entretanto, para reduzir a oxidação fenólica deve ser utilizado o PVP ou ácido ascórbico, ambos na concentração de 300 mg L-1, associados a 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado.


Subject(s)
Povidone-Iodine , Ascorbic Acid , Charcoal , Myrtaceae , Eugenia , Antioxidants
15.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; ene. 2018. 62 p. ^c28 cm.ilus., tab., graf..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1223211

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo de desarrollo experimental, la Escuela de Ingeniería Química de ITCA-FEPADE se propuso comprobar la efectividad de las cáscaras y pseudotallo de guineo y el endocarpo de coco, previamente tratados, para remover la contaminación por metales pesados en una muestra de agua. Para tal objeto, se procesaron dichas biomasas para ser utilizadas como medios filtrantes, los cuales se caracterizaron por medio de pruebas físicas: densidad y tamaño de partícula. Se evaluó su efectividad para remover metales, filtrando agua contaminada con cantidades conocidas de metales pesados tales como hierro, cromo y níquel (Fe3+Cr6+ y Ni2+), variando el tiempo de contacto y el tipo de medio filtrante. La cuantificación de los metales en el agua tratada se llevó a cabo por espectrofotometria de absorción atómica: para el níquel (λ = 232.0 nm); hierro (λ = 24830 nm) y cromo hexavalente (λ = 357.9 nm). Además, se determinó el color en los filtrados por el método de platino-cobalto. Se llegó a la conclusión que las biomasas utilizadas en este estudio resultaron efectivas para la disminución de metales pesados y color en la muestra de agua sintética elaborada en el laboratorio.


In this experimental development work, the Escuela de Ingeniería Química ITCA-FEPADE set out to verify the effectiveness of previously treated banana peels and pseudostem and endocarp to remove heavy metal contamination in a water sample. For this purpose, said biomasses were processed to be used as filter media, which were characterized by means of physical tests: density and particle size. Its effectiveness to remove metals was evaluated, filtering water contaminated with known amounts of heavy metals such as iron, chromium and nickel (Fe3 + Cr6 + and Ni2 +), varying the contact time and the type of filter medium. The quantification of the metals in the treated water was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry: for nickel (λ = 232.0 nm); iron (λ = 24830 nm) and hexavalent chromium (λ = 357.9 nm). In addition, the color in the filtrates was determined by the platinum-cobalt method. It was concluded that the biomasses used in this study were effective in reducing heavy metals and color in the synthetic water sample prepared in the laboratory.


Subject(s)
Filtration Media , Metals, Heavy , Ion Exchange Resins , Water Pollution , Cations , Charcoal , Industrial Waste/analysis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715977

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) can be performed when node-positive disease is converted to node-negative status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). Tattooing nodes might improve accuracy but supportive data are limited. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of charcoal tattooing metastatic axillary lymph node (ALN) at presentation followed by SLNB after NCT in breast cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patientswith cytology-proven node metastases prospectively underwent charcoal tattooing at diagnosis. SLNB using dual tracers and axillary surgery after NCT were then performed. The detection rate of tattooed node and diagnostic performance of SLNB were analyzed. RESULTS: All patients underwent charcoal tattooingwithout significant morbidity. Sentinel and tattooed nodes could be detected during surgery after NCT. Nodal pathologic complete response was achieved in 10 patients. Overall sensitivity, false-negative rate (FNR), negative predictive value, and accuracy of hot/blue SLNB were 80.0%, 20.0%, 83.3%, and 90.0%, respectively. Retrieving more nodes and favorable nodal response were associated with improved performance. The best accuracy was observed when excised tattooed node was calculated together (FNR, 0.0%). Cold/non-blue tattooed nodes of five patients were removed during non-sentinel axillary surgery but clinicopathological parameters did not differ compared to patients with hot/blue tattooed node detected during SLNB, suggesting the importance of the tattooing procedure itself to improve performance. CONCLUSION: Charcoal tattooing of cytology-confirmed metastatic ALN at presentation is technically feasible and does not limit SLNB after NCT. The tattooing procedure without additional preoperative localization is advantageous for improving the diagnostic performance of SLNB in this setting.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Charcoal , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Tattooing
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects on mortality and cell death after biomass charcoal combustion, in which carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were reduced using a biomass combustion improver in mice. METHODS: The biomass (glycerin) charcoal (Biomass CharCoal by Pusan National University, BCCP) was generated in the Power Generation System laboratory, Pusan National University. The effects and molecular mechanisms of biomass charcoal in carbon monoxide poisoning were examined by analyzing the mouse mortality, circulating leukocytes, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and expression of the inflammation-related genes, and cleaved capase-3 using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, or Western blotting. RESULTS: The mortality rates were lower in the BCCP-exposed mice than in the raw charcoal-exposed mice. The circulating leukocytes were lower in the BCCP-exposed mice than in the raw charcoal-exposed mice. On the other hand, there was no significantly difference in the levels of COHb between both mice. Interestingly, the expression of the apoptosis-related gene, cleaved-capase 3, and the inflammation and tissue necrosis-related gene and receptor for the advanced glycation end products were reduced markedly in the BCCP-exposed mice compared to the raw charcoal-exposed mice. Decreased inflammation and tissue necrotic factors could be molecular mechanisms for the decreased mortality rates after BCCP burning. CONCLUSION: Biomass charcoal (BCCP) reduced the mortality rates and inflammation and tissue necrotic factors by 30%–40%. These results suggest that the biomass charcoal (BCCP) could reduce the incidence of suicide and CO-associated delayed symptoms after charcoal burning. Furthermore, it could extend the time for rescue in suicide attempts using charcoal burning.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomass , Blotting, Western , Burns , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning , Carbon Monoxide , Carbon , Carboxyhemoglobin , Cell Death , Charcoal , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Hand , Incidence , Inflammation , Leukocytes , Mice , Mortality , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Suicide
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718678

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The number of glyphosate and glufosinate intoxication cases are increasing in Korea. This study was undertaken is to compare the clinical manifestations of poisoning by these two herbicides and to document severities and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated cases of glyphosate or glufosinate intoxication among patients that visited our emergency department between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2017. Incidences of intoxications were analyzed over this five year period, and underlying diseases, transportation, mental state, shock occurrence, inotropics, gastric lavage, charcoal administration, intubation and ventilator therapy, and hemodialysis were investigated. In addition, we included transfer to the intensive care unit, incidences of pneumonia and of other complications, death, and hopeless discharge. RESULTS: There were 119 cases of glyphosate intoxication and 42 of glufosinate intoxication. Levels of consciousness were lower for glufosinate and vasopressor usage was higher due to a high shock rate (p=0.019). In addition, many patients were referred to the ICU for intubation and ventilation. The incidences of pneumonia and of other complications were significantly higher for glufosinate. CONCLUSION: Overall glufosinate intoxication was found to be more severe than glyphosate intoxication as determined by complication and ICU admission rates.


Subject(s)
Charcoal , Consciousness , Emergency Service, Hospital , Gastric Lavage , Herbicides , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Intubation , Korea , Pneumonia , Poisoning , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Shock , Transportation , Ventilation , Ventilators, Mechanical
19.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 416-420, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) has been widely used as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in occupationally exposed workers. The objective of this study is to investigate the concentration of urinary 1-OHP among charcoal workers as subjects and non-charcoal workers as controls. METHODS: Early morning urine samples were collected from 68 persons (25 charcoal workers in Igbo-Ora, 20 charcoal workers in Alabata, and 23 non-charcoal workers) who volunteered to participate in this study. 1-OHP determination in urine samples was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography after hydrolysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The mean urinary 1-OHP concentration (μmol/mol creatinine) among charcoal workers at Igbo-Ora and Alabata and non-charcoal workers were 2.22 ± 1.27, 1.32 ± 0.65, and 0.32 ± 0.26 (p < 0.01). There existed a relationship between respondent type and 1-OHP concentration. Charcoal workers were 3.14 times more at risk of having 1-OHP concentrations that exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guideline of 0.49 μmol/mol creatinine than non-charcoal workers (relative risk = 3.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.7–5.8, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Charcoal workers are exposed to PAHs during charcoal production and are at risk of experiencing deleterious effects of PAH exposure. Routine air quality assessment should be carried out in communities where charcoal production takes place. Assessment of urinary 1-OHP concentration and use of personal protective equipment should also be encouraged among charcoal workers.


Subject(s)
Charcoal , Chromatography, Liquid , Creatinine , Humans , Hydrolysis , Nigeria , Occupations , Personal Protective Equipment , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Statistics as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and these patients frequently overlap. Trimebutine has been known to be effective in controlling FD co-existing diarrhea-dominant IBS, however its effect on overlap syndrome (OS) patients has not been reported. Therefore, we investigated the effect of trimebutine on the model of OS in guinea pigs. METHODS: Male guinea pigs were used to evaluate the effects of trimebutine in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) induced OS model. Different doses (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) of trimebutine were administered orally and incubated for 1 hour. The next treatment of 10 μg/kg of CRF was intraperitoneally injected and stabilized for 30 minutes. Subsequently, intragastric 3 mL charcoal mix was administered, incubated for 10 minutes and the upper GI transit analyzed. Colonic transits were assessed after the same order and concentrations of trimebutine and CRF treatment by fecal pellet output assay. RESULTS: Different concentrations (1, 3, and 10 μg/kg) of rat/human CRF peptides was tested to establish the OS model in guinea pigs. CRF 10 μg/kg was the most effective dose in the experimental OS model of guinea pigs. Trimebutine (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) treatment significantly reversed the upper and lower GI transit of CRF induced OS model. Trimebutine significantly increased upper GI transit while it reduced fecal pellet output in the CRF induced OS model. CONCLUSIONS: Trimebutine has been demonstrated to be effective on both upper and lower GI motor function in peripheral CRF induced OS model. Therefore, trimebutine might be an effective drug for the treatment of OS between FD and IBS patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Charcoal , Colon , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Dyspepsia , Guinea Pigs , Guinea , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Male , Peptides , Trimebutine
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