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Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(2): 211-221, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449786


Abstract Objective Extended curettage with adjuvants of giant cell tumors of bone is associated with a lower rate of recurrence of the tumor while preserving the adjacent joint. The present study was conducted to estimate the recurrence rate and functional outcome after using argon beam as an adjuvant for extended curettage. Methods We selected 50 patients with giant cell tumors, meeting all the inclusion criteria, who underwent extended curettage using high speed burr and argon beam photocoagulation between July 2016 to January 2019. On their follow-up visit, they were assessed for any complaints of pain and signs like tenderness, locally raised temperature, and decreased range of motion of the adjacent joint. Radiologically, the patients were assessed for any increased lucency around the cement mantle and uptake of the subarticular graft. Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score (MSTS) was administered to the patients, and range of motion of the adjacent joint was compared with the contralateral joint. Results Recurrence was found in 4 patients, that is, an 8% recurrence rate. Twenty-six out of 28 patients with a tumor in the lower limb had a grade-5 weight bearing status 6 months from the surgery, and their range of motion was comparable to contralateral healthy joint with an average MSTS score of 27 (18-30). Conclusion Extended curettage of giant cell tumors using argon beam coagulation is associated with low recurrence rates of the tumor and is an effective modality in the treatment of these tumors besides having a functional outcome comparable to the healthy limb.

Resumo Objetivo A curetagem estendida com adjuvantes de tumores de células gigantes do osso está associada a uma menor taxa de recidiva da neoplasia e à preservação da articulação adjacente. Este estudo foi feito para estimar a taxa de recidiva e o resultado funcional após o uso de plasma de argônio como adjuvante à curetagem estendida. Métodos Cinquenta pacientes com tumores de células gigantes que atendiam a todos os critérios de inclusão foram selecionados para o estudo e submetidos à curetagem estendida com broca de alta velocidade e fotocoagulação com plasma de argônio entre julho de 2016 e janeiro de 2019. À consulta de acompanhamento, os pacientes foram avaliados quanto a quaisquer queixas de dor e sinais como sensibilidade, aumento local da temperatura e diminuição da amplitude de movimento da articulação adjacente. Radiologicamente, os pacientes foram avaliados quanto à presença de qualquer aumento de radiotransparência ao redor do manto de cimento e incorporação do enxerto subarticular. O questionário Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score (MSTS) foi administrado aos pacientes e a amplitude de movimentação da articulação adjacente foi comparada à articulação contralateral. Resultados Quatro pacientes apresentaram recidiva, o que corresponde a uma taxa de 8%. Seis meses após a cirurgia, 26 de 28 pacientes com tumor no membro inferior tinham capacidade de sustentação de peso de grau 5 e amplitude de movimento comparável à articulação saudável contralateral, com pontuação MSTS média de 27 (intervalo de 18 a 30). Conclusão A curetagem estendida de tumores de células gigantes com coagulação por plasma de argônio está associada a baixas taxas de recidiva da neoplasia; é uma modalidade eficaz no tratamento desses tumores e o resultado funcional é comparável ao do membro saudável.

Humans , Bone Neoplasms/therapy , Giant Cell Tumor of Bone/therapy , Argon Plasma Coagulation , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 128-137, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942876


Objective: To investigate the effectiveness, safety, and prognosis of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) for Siewert type II and III adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). Methods: This study is a prospective randomized controlled clinical study (NCT01962246). AEG patients who were treated at the Third Department of Surgery of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University from February 2012 to June 2016 were included. All of the enrolled patients were diagnosed with type II or III locally advanced AEG gastric cancer (T2-4N0-3M0 or T1N1-3M0) by gastroscopy and CT before operation; the longitudinal axis of the lesion was ≤ 8 cm; no anti-tumor treatment was previously given and no contraindications of chemotherapy and surgery were found. Case exclusion criteria: serious diseases accompanied by liver and kidney, cardiovascular system and other vital organs; allergy to capecitabine or oxaliplatin drugs or excipients; receiving any form of chemotherapy or other research drugs; pregnant or lactating women; patients with diseases resulting in difficulty to take capecitabine or with concurrent tumors. Based on sample size estimation, a total of 150 AEG patients were enrolled. Using the random number table method, the enrolled patients were divided into the nCRT group and the direct operation group with 75 cases in each group. The nCRT group received XELOX chemotherapy (capecitabine+ oxaliplatin) before surgery and concurrent radiotherapy (45 Gy, 25 times, 1.8 Gy/d, 5 times/week). Clinical efficacy of the nCRT group was evaluated by the solid tumor efficacy evaluation standard (RECIST1.1) and the tumor volume reduction rate was measured on CT. After completing the preoperative examination in the direct operation group, and 8-10 weeks after the end of nCRT in the nCRT group, surgery was performed. Laparoscopic exploration was initially performed. According to the Japanese "Regulations for the Treatment of Gastric Cancer", a transabdominal radical total gastrectomy combined with perigastric lymph node dissection was performed. The primary outcome was the 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival rate (DFS); the secondary outcomes were R0 resection rate, the toxicity of chemotherapy, and surgical complications. The follow-up ended on December 31, 2019. The postoperative recurrence, metastasis and survival time of the two groups were collected. Results: After excluding patients with incomplete clinical data, patients or family members requesting to withdraw informed consent, and those failing to follow the treatment plan, 63 cases in the nCRT group and 69 cases in the direct operation group were finally enrolled in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics of the two groups (all P>0.05). Sixty-three patients in the nCRT group were evaluated by RECIST1.1 after treatment, the image based effective rate was 42.9% (27/63), and the stable disease rate was 98.4% (62/63); the tumor volume before and after nCRT measured on CT was (58.8±24.4) cm(3) and (46.6±25.7) cm(3), respectively, the effective rate of tumor volume reduction measured by CT was 47.6% (30/63). Incidences of neutrophilopenia [65.1% (41/63) vs. 40.6% (28/69), χ(2)=7.923, P=0.005], nausea [81.0% (51/63) vs. 56.5% (39/69), χ(2)=9.060, P=0.003] and fatigue [74.6% (47/63) vs. 42.0% (29/69), χ(2)=14.306, P=0.001] in the nCRT group were significantly higher than those in the direct surgery group. Radiation gastritis/esophagitis and radiation pneumonia were unique adverse reactions in the nCRT group, with incidences of 52.4% (33/63) and 15.9%(10/63), respectively. The classification of tumor regression of 63 patients in nCRT group presented as 11 cases of grade 0 (17.5%), 20 cases of grade 1 (31.7%), 28 cases of grade 2 (44.4%), and 5 cases of grade 3 (7.9%). Eleven (17.5%) patients achieved pathologic complete response. Sixty-one (96.8%) patients in the nCRT group underwent R0 resection, which was higher than 87.0% (60/69) in the direct surgery group (χ(2)=4.199, P=0.040). The mean number of harvested lymph nodes in the specimens in the nCRT group and the direct operation group was 27.6±12.4 and 26.8±14.6, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (t=-0.015, P=0.976). The pathological lymph node metastasis rate and lymph node ratio in the two groups were 44.4% (28/63) vs. 76.8% (53/69), and 4.0% (70/1 739) vs. 21.9% (404/1 847), respectively with statistically significant differences (χ(2)=14.552, P<0.001, and χ(2)=248.736, P<0.001, respectively). During a median follow-up of 52 (27-77) months, the 3-year DFS rate in the nCRT group and the direct surgery group was 52.4% and 39.1% (P=0.049), and the 3-year OS rate was 63.4% and 52.2% (P=0.019), respectively. According to whether the tumor volume reduction rate measured by CT was ≥ 12.5%, 63 patients in the nCRT group were divided into the effective group (n=30) and the ineffective group (n=33). The 3-year DFS rate of these two subgracps was 56.6% and 45.5%, respectively without significant difference (P=0.098). The 3-year OS rate was 73.3% and 51.5%,respectively with significant difference (P=0.038). The 3-year DFS rate of patients with the tumor regression grades 0, 1, 2 and 3 was 81.8%, 70.0%, 44.4%, and 20.0%, repectively (P=0.024); the 3-year OS rate was 81.8%, 75.0%, 48.1% and 40.0%, repectively (P=0.048). Conclusion: nCRT improves treatment efficacy of Siewert type II and III AEG patients, and the long-term prognosis is good.

Humans , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Capecitabine/administration & dosage , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Esophagogastric Junction/surgery , Gastrectomy , Lymph Node Excision , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Oxaliplatin/administration & dosage , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 112-117, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942873


Perioperative treatment is critical to improve the outcomes of patients with advanced gastric cancer. There are three therapeutic modes of perioperative treatment for resectable gastric cancer: neoadjuvant chemotherapy+ D1/D2 surgery+ adjuvant chemotherapy, D0/D1 surgery+ adjuvant radiochemotherapy, and D2 surgery+ adjuvant chemotherapy. Over the decades, a large number of clinical studies had been conducted to optimize the perioperative treatment mode of gastric cancer, including the postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and perioperative chemotherapy, and to explore the feasibility of preoperative radiochemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy in advanced gastric cancer. After nearly 20 years of development and exploration, although the perioperative treatment mode for advanced gastric cancer has become standardized, there are still some core issues that need to be solved urgently, including the selection of population for perioperative treatment, the limitation of efficaly evaluation criteria, insufficient emphasis on laparoscopic exploration before neoadjuvant treatment, and lack of exploration in esophagogastric junction cancer. We should fully integrate the current clinical research data into clinical practice, adopt a multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment mode, and follow the principles of standardized diagnosis and treatment based on a multi-dimensional analysis of patient characteristics, and formulate the most reasonable treatment strategy to ultimately benefit patients.

Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Combined Modality Therapy , Esophagogastric Junction , Gastrectomy , Lymph Node Excision , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Perioperative Care , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(3): 278-299, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134990


Abstract Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and is associated with a high lethality rate. Treatment is multidisciplinary, and neoadjuvant chemoradiation is recommended in locally advanced rectal cancer. About 15% of patients answer favorably to neoadjuvant chemoradiation, so it is important to determine the predictors of response. Objective: To review the results of studies that analyzes the predictors of complete pathological response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Search methods: We searched for eligible articles in data bases Pubmed and Scopus, between the 12th and the 20th of March 2020. The following key words were used: "predictors of response", "chemoradiation" and "locally advanced rectal cancer". Selection criteria: Inclusion criteria: Studies including patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation as treatment, studies including predictors of response to neodjuvant chemoradiation, overall survival as an outcome and regarding language restrictions, only articles in English were accepted, only studies published until the 31st of December 2019 were accepted. Main results: Fourteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Thirteen are cohort studies and one is a clinical trial. Four groups of predictors were defined: blood markers, tumors, histopathological and patients' characteristics. Author's conclusions: During the analysis of the articles, there were several predictors identified as potential candidates for clinical practice, such as high pre neoadjuvant chemoradiation Carcinoembryonic Antigen levels and small post neoadjuvant chemoradiation tumor size. Nevertheless, it is difficult to make definitive conclusions about the most reliable predictors. That is why it is crucial to initiate further studies with standardized cut-off values and a methodology homogenization.

Resumo Introdução: O cancro colorretal é um dos cancros mais prevalentes em Portugal e tem associada uma alta taxa de letalidade. Atualmente, o tratamento é multidisciplinar, e a quimioradioterapia neoadjuvante está indicada no Cancro do Reto Localmente Avançado. Sabe-se que cerca de 15% dos doentes responde favoravelmente à quimioradioterapia neoadjuvante, sendo por isso importante determinar quais os preditores de resposta a este tipo de tratamento. Objetivo: Rever os resultados dos estudos que analisam os preditores de resposta completa à quimioradioterapia em pacientes com Cancro do Reto Localmente Avançado. Métodos de pesquisa: Pesquisamos artigos elegíveis nos bancos de dados Pubmed e Scopus, desde o dia 12 a 20 de Março de 2020. Foram utilizadas as seguintes palavras chave: "preditores de resposta", "quimioradioterapia neoadjuvante" e "Cancro do Reto Localmente Avançado". Critérios de seleção: Critérios de inclusão: Estudos que incluam pacientes com Cancro do Reto Localmente Avançad, pacientes sujeitos a quimioradioterapia neoadjuvante, preditores de resposta à quimioradioterapia, que avaliem a sobrevivência como outcome, escritos em inglês e publicados até dia 31 de Dezembro de 2019. Resultados principais: Catorze estudos preencheram os critérios de inclusão. De todos os artigos, treze são Cohort e um é Clinical Trial. Foram definidos quatro grupos de preditores: marcadores de sangue e caraterísticas do tumor, histopatológicas e dos pacientes. Conclusões dos autores: Durante a análise dos artigos, foram identificados vários preditores como potenciais candidates para a prática clínica, tais como o valor elevado de antigénio carcinoembrionário pré- quimioradioneoaajuvância e tamanho reduzido. Contudo, é arriscado elaborar conclusões concretas relativamente aos preditores mais confiáveis. Por isso, é crucial iniciar novos estudos com valores de cut-off estandardizados e métodos com maior homogeneidade.

Humans , Male , Female , Rectal Neoplasms , Chancre/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Forecasting
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(2): 112-119, Apr.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134966


ABSTRACT Purpose Standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. This study identified predictive factors for tumour response in our series. Patients and methods Between January 2005 and December 2018, 292 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated by preoperative chemo-radiation before surgery were retrospectively analyzed. The radiation dose was 50.4 Gy with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy regimens. Patients-tumour and treatment-factors were tested for influence on tumour down staging and regression grade using Mandard scoring system on surgical specimens (TRG). Results Median age was 69 years (range 39-87); 33.9% of patients was Stage II and 54.5% Stage IIIB. Tumour down staging occurred in 211 patients (73%), including 63 patients (21.6%) with ypT0 (documented T0 at surgery) and 148 patients (50.7%) with a satisfactory tumour regression grade defined as TRG2­3. Upper rectal tumours were identified to predictive factors for pathologic complete response by univariate analysis (p = 0.002). TRG1­3 was associated with intervals from chemo-radiation to surgery (p = 0.004); TRG1­3 rates were higher with longer intervals: 1.71% in ≤ 5 weeks, 23.63% in 6-8 weeks and 46.9% in ≥ 9 weeks; and PTV 50.4 ≥ 800cc (p = 0.06); 3 and 5 years survivals were 85% and 90% for the group as a whole. Among ypT0 cases, the overall survival was 91.1% without significantly different (p = 0.25) compared with the remaining group, 87.2%. Among ypT0 cases, the relapse-free survival was 94.5%, with significantly different (p = 0.03) compared with the remaining group 78.2%. There were no treatment-associated fatalities. Thirty-two patients (10.96%) experienced Grade III/IV toxicities (proctitis, ephitelitis and neutropenia). Conclusions Tumour localization was identified as predictive factors of pathologic complete response for locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemo-radiation. Upper rectal tumours are more likely to develop complete responses. Delay in surgery was identified as a favorable predictive factor for TRG1­3. The relapse-free survival in pathologic complete response group was higher compared with non-pathologic complete response.

RESUMO Objetivo O tratamento padrão para o câncer retal localmente avançado é a quimiorradioterapia neoadjuvante, seguida de cirurgia. Este estudo identificou fatores preditivos de resposta tumoral em nossa série. Pacientes e métodos Entre janeiro de 2005 e dezembro de 2018, 292 pacientes com câncer retal localmente avançado, tratados com quimiorradiação pré-operatória, foram retrospectivamente analisados. O tratamento quimioterápico foi à base de fluoropirimidina e a dose de radiação foi de 50,4 Gy. Os tumores dos pacientes e os fatores do tratamento foram testados quanto à influência no estadiamento do tumor e no grau de regressão usando o sistema de classificação de Mandard em espécimes cirúrgicos (TRG). Resultados A mediana das idades foi 69 anos (variação de 39 a 87); 33,9% dos pacientes estavam no estágio II e 54,5% no estágio IIIB. O estadiamento do tumor ocorreu em 211 pacientes (73%), incluindo 63 pacientes (21,6%) com ypT0 (T0 documentado na cirurgia) e 148 pacientes (50,7%) com grau satisfatório de regressão do tumor, definido como TRG1­3. Os tumores retais superiores foram identificados como fatores preditivos de resposta patológica completa por análise univariada p = 0,002. TRG1­3 foi associado aos intervalos entre a quimioterapia e a cirurgia p = 0,004; As taxas de TRG1­3 foram maiores com intervalos mais longos: 1,71% em ≤ 5 semanas, 23,63% em 6-8 semanas e 46,9% em ≥ 9 semanas; e PTV 50,4 ≥ 800cc (p = 0,06); as sobrevidas de 3 e 5 anos foram de 85% e 90% para o grupo em geral. Entre os casos de ypT0, a sobrevida global foi de 91,1%, sem diferença significativa (p = 0,25) na comparação com o grupo restante (87,2%). Entre os casos de ypT0, a sobrevida livre de recidiva foi de 94,5%, com diferença significativa (p = 0,03) na comparação com o grupo restante (78,2%). Não houve fatalidades associadas ao tratamento. Trinta e dois pacientes (10,96%) apresentaram toxicidade de grau III/IV (proctite, efitelite e neutropenia). Conclusões A localização do tumor foi identificada como fator preditivo de resposta patológica completa para o câncer retal localmente avançado tratado com quimiorradiação pré-operatória. Os tumores retais superiores têm mais probabilidade de desenvolver respostas completas. O atraso da cirurgia foi identificado como um fator preditivo favorável para o TRG1­3. A sobrevida livre de recidiva no grupo com resposta patológica completa à quimiorradioterapia pré-operatória foi maior comparado ao grupo com resposta patológica incompleta.

Humans , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Rectal Neoplasms , Treatment Outcome
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(4): e2108, oct.-dez. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093256


RESUMEN Introducción: El carcinoma ameloblástico es una entidad rara que surge como una neoplasia primaria o a partir de un ameloblastoma preexistente. El colgajo de músculo temporal es una opción terapéutica frecuentemente empleada para la reconstrucción del defecto resultante luego de la exéresis quirúrgica. Objetivo: Presentar un caso clínico de restauración estética y funcional mediante reconstrucción con colgajo temporal de un defecto maxilar por exéresis de carcinoma ameloblástico, dada la infrecuente presentación de esta entidad. Caso clínico: Mujer de 49 años de edad, que refiere "una bola" en el paladar de 9 meses de evolución. Al examen físico facial presenta aumento de volumen en región infraorbitaria izquierda. Se realizó una tomografía axial computarizada en la que se constató la presencia de imagen hiperdensa en seno maxilar izquierdo con calcificación en su interior, produciendo lisis del hueso nasal y hueso cigomático infiltrando partes blandas. Se tomó muestra para biopsia que informó tumor de alto grado de malignidad correspondiente a carcinoma ameloblástico. En estudio radiográfico de tórax no se apreció presencia de metástasis pulmonar. Se realizó maxilarectomía de infra y mesoestructura, resección de la lesión con margen oncológico de seguridad y se reconstruyó el defecto palatino con colgajo pediculado del músculo temporal. Se indicó quimio y radioterapia como terapia adyuvante al tratamiento quirúrgico. Se mantuvo el chequeo posoperatorio mostrándose buena evolución clínica y una epitelización secundaria del músculo temporal en el área palatina con restauración de las funciones. Conclusiones: Se presentó un caso clínico de carcinoma ameloblástico, entidad patológica de escasa frecuencia. La cirugía constituyó el pilar de tratamiento utilizado. Una vez realizada la resección quirúrgica se reconstruyó el defecto palatino, utilizándose el colgajo del músculo temporal, opción útil para lograr el restablecimiento de las funciones estéticas y funcionales como la deglución y fonación(AU)

ABSTRACT Introduction: Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare condition emerging as a primary neoplasm or from a preexisting ameloblastoma. Temporalis muscle flap is a therapeutic option frequently used for reconstruction of the defect resulting from surgical exeresis. Objective: Present a clinical case of esthetic and functional restoration by reconstruction with temporalis muscle flap of a maxillary defect caused by exeresis of an ameloblastic carcinoma. The case is presented because of the infrequent occurrence of this condition. Clinical case: A female 49-year-old patient reports "a lump" in her palate of nine months evolution. Physical examination finds an increase in volume in the left infraorbital region. Computed axial tomography was indicated, which revealed the presence of a hyperdense image in the left maxillary sinus with internal calcification causing lysis of the nasal bone and the zygomatic bone, and infiltrating soft tissue. A sample was taken for biopsy, which reported a tumor with a high degree of malignancy corresponding to ameloblastic carcinoma. Chest radiography did not show the presence of lung metastasis. Infra- and mesostructure maxillectomy was performed, the lesion was removed with a surgical safety margin, and the palatine defect was reconstructed with a pediculated temporalis muscle flap. Chemo- and radiotherapy were indicated as adjuvants to the surgical treatment. Postoperative follow-up found good clinical evolution and secondary epithelization of the temporalis muscle in the palatine area with restoration of functions. Conclusions: A clinical case was presented of ameloblastic carcinoma, a condition with a low frequency of occurrence. Surgery was the basic component of the treatment applied. Once surgical resection was performed, the palatine defect was reconstructed by means of a temporalis muscle flap, a useful option to achieve the restoration of esthetic and biological functions, such as swallowing and speech(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Ameloblastoma/diagnostic imaging , Jaw Neoplasms/pathology , Mandibular Reconstruction/methods , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant/methods
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 39(4): 309-318, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056647


Abstract Background: Rectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract. Combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy has a sound effect on its management. Objectives: Assessment the patterns of characterizations of rectal cancer. Evaluation of the efficacy, and long-term survival of pre-/ postoperative chemoradiation. Collecting all eligible evidence articles and summarize the results. Methods: By this systematic review and meta-analysis study, we include data of chemoradiation of rectal cancer articles from 2015 until 2019. The research was carried out at Baghdad Medical City oncology centers. Accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale used. Results: Starting with gender distribution as M:F ratio of 0.94:1.06. Regarding the age, recorded mean ± SD of 48.7 ± 14.2 years. Rectosigmoid represented the most common site as 50(49.5%), and adenocarcinoma was common histopathology as 76(75.2%) of patients, with localized stage in 50(49.5%). The moderate differentiation was most grade as 65(64.4%). The distant from anal verge mostly seen was 5-10 cm in 59(58.4%). The pulmonary was commonest site of metastasis in 11(10.9%). Most patients undergo APR operation, which has done in 41(40.6%). Adjuvant chemoradiation received by 40(39.6%) patients, whereas neoadjuvant chemoradiation gave to 25 patients. A total of 2609 articles from 12 databases met our search strategies. The highest Newcastle-Ottawa score (8) demonstrated in three studies, and median score (7) calculated in five studies. Conclusions: The incidence belonged to 5th and 6th decade of life. Rectosigmoid represented the most common site. Mostly, the 5-10 cm distant of tumor from anal verge was common finding. The pulmonary was most site of metastasis. We concluded the formulation of a novel point that survival benefit found in many pre or postoperative chemoradiation trials in rectal cancer.

Resumo Introdução: O câncer retal é um dos tumores malignos mais comuns do trato gastrointestinal. A combinação de quimioterapia e radioterapia em seu tratamento é eficaz. Objetivos: Avaliar os padrões de caracterização do câncer retal. Avaliar a eficácia e sobrevida a longo prazo em pacientes submetidos a quimiorradioterapia pré- ou pós-operatória. Coletar todos os artigos de evidências qualificados e resumir os resultados. Métodos: Esta revisão sistemática e metanálise incluiu dados de ensaios clínicos randomizados por cluster de 2015 até 2019. A pesquisa foi realizada nos centros de oncologia do Baghdad Medical City. As diretrizes PRISMA e a escala de Newcastle-Ottawa foram utilizadas para avaliar os estudos. Resultados: Quanto à distribuição por sexo, observou-se uma relação homem:mulher de 0,94:1,06. Em relação à idade, a média ± DP foi de 48,7 ± 14,2 anos. O retossigmoide fpo o local mais comum em 50 pacientes (49,5%); a histopatologia mais comum foi adenocarcinoma, observada em 76 pacientes (75,2%), com estágio localizado em 50 (49,5%). Diferenciação moderada foi observada em 65 pacientes (64,4%). A distância da borda anal variou entre 5 e 10 cm em 59 pacientes (58,4%). O pulmão foi o local mais comum de metástase, sendo observado em 11 pacientes (10,9%). A maioria dos pacientes (41 [40,6%]) foi submetida à ressecção abdominoperineal. Um total de 40 pacientes (39,6%) foram submetidos a quimiorradioterapia adjuvante e 25, a quimiorradioterapia neoadjuvante. Na revisão da literatura, foram encontrados 2.609 artigos que atendiam aos critérios de pesquisa utilizados em 12 bancos de dados. Três estudos atingiram o escore máximo na escala de Newcastle-Ottawa (8); cinco estudos atingiram o escore mediano (7). Conclusões: No presente estudo, a maior incidência de câncer retal foi observada entre a quinta e sexta décadas de vida. O retossigmoide foi o sítio tumoral mais comum. A maioria dos tumores estava localizado entre 5 a 10 cm de distância da margem anal. O pulmão foi o local mais importante de metástase. No presente estudo, quimiorradioterapia pré- ou pós-operatória estava relacionada a uma maior sobrevida em casos de câncer retal.

Humans , Male , Female , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Radiotherapy , Drug Therapy , Chemoradiotherapy
São Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 104-106, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004749


ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial malignant solid tumor that occurs during childhood. It arises from primitive cells and is seen in the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. CASE REPORT: We present a rare case of a 40-year-old man who was diagnosed with the onset of neuroblastoma arising in the mediastinum. He was treated by means of surgical resection in the superior mediastinum after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The patient's surgical outcome was satisfactory. CONCLUSION: There are still no standard treatment guidelines for adult neuroblastoma patients. Although they have a poor prognosis, the main treatment option should be complete surgery at an early stage. This situation may become clarified through biological and genetic studies in the future.

Humans , Male , Adult , Mediastinal Neoplasms/surgery , Neuroblastoma/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 32(4): e1464, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054598


ABSTRACT Background: The treatment of advanced gastric cancer with curative intent is essentially surgical and chemoradiotherapy is indicated as neo or adjuvant to control the disease and prolong survival. Aim: To assess the survival of patients undergoing subtotal or total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Methods: Were retrospectively analyzed 87 gastrectomized patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma, considered stages IB to IIIC and submitted to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (protocol INT 0116). Tumors of the esophagogastric junction, with peritoneal implants, distant metastases, and those that had a compromised surgical margin or early death after surgery were excluded. They were separated according to the extention of the gastrectomy and analyzed for tumor site and histopathology, lymph node invasion, staging, morbidity and survival. Results: The total number of patients who successfully completed the adjuvant treatment was 45 (51.7%). Those who started treatment and discontinued due to toxicity, tumor-related worsening, or loss of follow-up were 10 (11.5%) and reported as incomplete adjuvant. The number of patients who refused or did not start adjuvant treatment was 33 (48.3%). Subtotal gastrectomy was indicated in 60 (68.9%) and total in 27 (31.1%) and this had a shorter survival. The mean resected lymph nodes was 30.8. Staging and number of lymph nodes affected were predictors of worse survival and the more advanced the tumor. Patients undergoing adjuvant therapy with complete chemoradiotherapy showed a longer survival when compared to those who did it incompletely or underwent exclusive surgery. On the other hand, comparing the T4b (IIIB + IIIC) staging patients who had complete adjuvance with those who underwent the exclusive operation or who did not complete the adjuvant, there was a significant difference in survival. Conclusion: Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy presents survival gain for T4b patients undergoing surgical treatment with curative intent.

RESUMO Racional: O tratamento do câncer gástrico avançado com intenção curativa é essencialmente cirúrgico e a quimiorradioterapia está indicada como neo ou adjuvância para controlar a doença e prolongar a sobrevida. Objetivos: Avaliar a sobrevida dos doentes submetidos à gastrectomia subtotal ou total com linfadenectomia D2 seguidos de quimiorradioterapia adjuvante. Métodos: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 87 gastrectomizados portadores de adenocarcinoma gástrico avançado considerandos estádios IB até IIIC e submetidos à quimiorradioterapia adjuvante (protocolo INT 0116). Foram excluídos os tumores da transição esofagogástrica, com implantes peritoneais, metástases à distância e os que após a operação apresentaram margem cirúrgica comprometida ou óbito precoce. Foram separados quanto à extensão da gastrectomia e analisados em relação ao local e histopatologia do tumor, invasão linfonodal, estadiamento, morbidade e sobrevida. Resultados: O número de doentes que conseguiu completar o esquema adjuvante na sua totalidade foi de 45 (51,7%). Os que iniciaram o tratamento e interromperam por toxicidade, piora relacionada ao tumor, ou perda de seguimento foram 10 (11,5%) e relacionados como adjuvância incompleta. O número de doentes que recusou ou não iniciou o tratamento adjuvante foi de 33 (48,3%). A gastrectomia subtotal foi indicada em 60 (68,9%) e a total em 27 (31,1%) e esta apresentou menor sobrevida. A média de linfonodos ressecados foi de 30,8. O estadiamento e o número de linfonodos acometidos foram preditores de pior sobrevida e quanto mais avançado foi o tumor. Os pacientes submetidos à terapia adjuvante com quimiorradioterapia completa mostraram sobrevida maior quando comparados àqueles que a fizeram de forma incompleta ou submetidos à operação exclusiva. Por outro lado, comparando-se os doentes estádios T4b (IIIB + IIIC) que tiveram adjuvância completa com os submetidos à operação exclusiva ou que não completaram a adjuvância, houve significativa diferença na sobrevida. Conclusão - A quimiorradioterapia adjuvante apresenta ganho de sobrevida para doentes em estádio T4b submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico com intenção curativa.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Gastrectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Staging
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 110-116, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761000


PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR) in pT3N0 rectal cancer patients who were treated with surgery alone and had negative resection margin including circumferential resection margin (CRM) for optimal indication of adjuvant radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed patients with pT3N0 rectal cancer who were treated via upfront surgery and had no other adjuvant treatment from January 2003 to December 2012. In total, 122 patients who had negative resection margin including negative CRM were included in the analysis. RESULTS: The median follow-up period after surgery was 60 months (range, 3 to 161 months). During this time, 6 patients (4.9%) experienced LRR at the anastomotic site (4 patients), and regional lymphatic area (2 patients). The estimated 5-year rates of overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and LRR-free survival were 96.7%, 84.6%, and 94.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that level of tumor ≤5 cm was a significant prognostic factor for LRR-free survival (LRRFS) (p = 0.04; hazard ratio = 7.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–47.30). Patients with level of tumor ≤5 cm had an estimated 5-year LRRFS of 66.8%, which was much higher than 2.3% in patients with level of tumor >5 cm. There was no significant factor for recurrence-free survival or overall survival. CONCLUSION: In T3N0 rectal cancer, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy should be recommended in patients with level of tumor ≤5 cm for better local control. However, in patients with pT3N0 disease, negative resection margin, and level of tumor >5 cm, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy should be carefully suggested.

Humans , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Risk Factors
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 395-399, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975602


Abstract Introduction Critical weight loss is defined as an unintentional weight loss of ≥ 5% at 1 month or ≥ 10% at 6 months from the start of treatment. Critical weight loss leads to deterioration of the immune function and reduced tolerance to treatment (surgery ± radiochemotherapy) as well as increased complication rates. Objective Critical weight loss, defined as a weight loss of ≥ 5% after 1 month or ≥ 10% after 6 months from the start of treatment, is not uncommon in head and neck cancer patients. We aimed to assess the factors associated with critical weight loss during the treatment of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed at the Aga Khan University Hospital, in Karachi, Pakistan, on 125 patients. Patients receiving adjuvant therapy were considered exposed, and the outcome was critical weight loss. Results The mean age of presentation was 46.9 ± 12.8 years in patients undergoing surgery and adjuvant therapy, with 119 (79.3%) of them being male and 31 (20.7%) female. One hundred and twelve patients (81.3%) developed critical weight loss at 6 months from the start of treatment, and the only significant variable associated with critical weight loss was the stage of the disease (p= 0.03). Conclusion A large proportion of patients with oral cancer developed critical weight loss requiring a need for intervention. The overall stage of the disease is a significant predictor of critical weight loss in patients undergoing treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Mouth Neoplasms/complications , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/complications , Weight Loss , Neck Dissection , Mouth Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Enteral Nutrition , Malnutrition/etiology , Diet , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 28(2): 103-111, Ago. 30, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000139


Introducción: La cirugía para el cáncer de colorrectal consiste en la resección en bloque del tumor y de ≥12 ganglios linfáticos regionales, debe incluir la ligadura alta del vaso principal del segmento. Este conjunto de técnicas pueden ser realizadas por vía laparoscópica y el objetivo del presente estudio es presentar los resultados de un centro único con el abordaje quirúrgico laparoscópico en un grupo de pacientes diagnosticados con cáncer de colorrectal. Métodos: En el departamento de Cirugía Oncológica del Hospital "Solón Espinosa Ayala" de Quito, durante el período Enero del 2009 a Septiembre 2012 se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se analizaron todos los casos de pacientes derivados del área con diagnóstico inicial de tumor de colorectal, a los cuales previo a realizarles marcadores tumorales, Tomografía de Tórax-abdomen, y a quienes se les realizó como método diagnóstico colonoscópico. Se excluyeron pacientes con neoplasias de origen secundario, con historias clínicas incompletas que imposibilitaron el análisis. Se estudiaron las variables sexo, edad, localización del tumor, diagnostico histopatológico y morbilidad perioperatoria. El análisis estadístico realizado fue descriptivo. Resultados: Se evaluaron 25 pacientes con diagnóstico tumor de mediastino, con una edad media de 61 años. Fueron 15 mujeres (60 %). El estudio histopatológico post-cirugía fue 10 casos (40 %) con adenocarcinoma moderadamente diferenciado, 7 casos (28 %) con adenocarcinoma bien diferenciado. La resección de ≥12 ganglios linfáticos regionales se realizó en 15 casos (75 %). En 13 casos (52 %) recibieron Adyuvancia. 1 caso requirió conversión a cirugía abierta. Morbilidad se presentó en 2 casos (8 %) con fístula y 1 caso (4 %) neumonía. Conclusión: El adenocarcinoma fue el tumor maligno más frecuente en esta serie. El manejo quirúrgico laparoscópico de tumores colorectales tuvo una baja tasa de complicaciones y un abordaje quirúrgico en el 75 % de los casos con resección de más de 12 ganglios peritumorales.

Introduction: Surgery for colorectal cancer consists of resection in the tumor block and ≥ 12 regional lymph nodes, it must include the ligation of the main vessel of the segment. This set of techniques can be laparoscopically performed and the objective of this study is to present the results of a single center with the surgical laparoscopic surgical approach in a group of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Methods: In the Department of Oncological Surgery of the Hospital "Solón Espinosa Ayala" of Quito, a descriptive, retrospective study was carried out during the period from January 2009 to September 2012. All cases of patients with the initial diagnosis of colorectal tumor, previous examinations, tumor markers, chest-abdomen tomography, and those that have been developed as a colonoscopic diagnostic method will be analyzed. We excluded patients with neoplasms of secondary origin, with incomplete clinical histories that make analysis impossible. The variables sex, age, tumor location, histopathological diagnosis and perioperative morbidity will be studied. The statistical analysis performed was descriptive). Results: 25 patients with mediastinal tumor diagnosis were evaluated, with an average age of 61 years. There were 15 women (60 %). The postoperative histopathological study had 10 cases (40 %) with moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, 7 cases (28 %) with well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Resection of ≥12 regional lymph nodes was performed in 15 cases (75 %). In 13 cases (52 %) they received adjuvant. 1 case required conversion to open surgery. Morbidity occurred in 2 cases (8 %) with fistula and 1 case (4 %) pneumonia. Conclusion: Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumor in this series. Laparoscopic surgical management of colored tumors had a low complication rate and a surgical approach in 75 % of the cases with resection of more than 12 peritumoral lymph nodes.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Surgery , Colonic Neoplasms , General Surgery , Laparoscopy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 38(1): 9-21, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014052


Objective: To assess whether extended time intervals (8-12, 13-20 and >20 weeks) between the end of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery affect overall survival, disease-free survival. Materials and methods: Retrospective study in 120 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma without evidence of metastasis (T1-4/N0-2/M0) at the time of diagnosis that underwent surgery with curative intent after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and obtained R0 or R1 resection between January 2010 to December 2014 at the National Cancer Institute of Peru. Dates were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method, log- rank test and Cox regression analysis. Results: Of the 120 patients, 70 were women (58%). The median age was 63(26-85) years. All received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. No significant difference was found between the association of the median radial (0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 cm; p=0.826) and distal edge (3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 cm; p=0.606) with time interval groups and similarly the mean resected (18.8, 19.1 and 16.0; p=0.239) and infiltrated nodules (1.05, 1.29 and 0.41); p=0.585). The median follow-up time of overall survival and desease free survival was 40 and 37 months, respectively. No significant differences were observed in overall survival (79.0%, 74.6% and 71.1%; p=0.66) and disease-free survival (73.7%, 68.1% and 73.6%; p=0.922) according to the three groups studied at the 3-year of follow-up. Conclusions: We found that widening the time intervals between the end of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery at 24 weeks does not affect the overall survival, disease-free survival and pathological outcomes. It allows to extend the intervals of time for future studies that finally will define the best time interval for the surgery

Objetivo: Evaluar si los intervalos de tiempo extendidos (8-12, 13-20 y >20 semanas) entre el fin de la quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante y la cirugía afectan la sobrevida global, y la sobrevida libre de enfermedad. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de 120 pacientes con adenocarcinoma rectal sin evidencia de metástasis (T1-4/N0-2/M0) al momento del diagnóstico que se sometieron a cirugía con intención curativa luego de quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante con capecitabina y tuvieron resección R0 o R1 entre enero 2010 y diciembre 2014 en el Instituto Nacioanal de Enfermedades Neoplásicas de Perú. El análisis se hizo con el método de Kaplan-Meier, la prueba log-rank y la regresión de Cox. Resultados: De 120 pacientes, 70 fueron mujeres (58%). La mediana de la edad fue 63 años (26-85 años). Todos recibieron quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante. No hubo diferencia significativa entre la asociación de las medianas de los bordes radial (0,6, 0.7 y 0,8 cm; p=0,826) y distal (3,0, 3,5 y 4,0 cm; p=0,606) con los intervalos de tiempo de los grupos y similarmente con la media de los ganglios resecados (18,8, 19,1 y 16,0; p=0,239) e infiltrados (1,05, 1,29 y 0,41; p=0,585). No se observaron diferencias significativas en sobrevida global (79,0%, 74,6% y 71,1%; p=0,66) y sobrevida libre de enfermedad (73,7%, 68,1% y 73,6%; p=0,922), en los tres grupos estudiados a 3 años de seguimiento. Conclusiones: Encontramos que aumentar los intervalos de tiempo entre el fin de la quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante y la cirugía hasta 24 semanas no afecta la sobrevida global, sobrevida libre de enfermedad ni los desenlaces patológicos. Esto permitiría extender los intervalos de tiempo en estudios futuros para definir el mejor intervalo de tiempo para la cirugía

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Rectum/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Capecitabine/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Rectal Neoplasms/mortality , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Capecitabine/therapeutic use , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use
Oncol. clín ; 23(1): 22-26, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-909906


Los carcinomas epidermoides de cabeza y cuello son un grupo poco frecuente de neoplasias, en los Estados Unidos representan aproximadamente el 3% de todos los tumores. El cáncer de cavum se diferencia de otros tumores de cabeza y cuello por su epidemiología, histología, historia natural y respuesta al tratamiento. Presenta una marcada variación geográfica debido a su etiología multifactorial. En las áreas endémicas, la incidencia y la mortalidad han disminuido en los últimos 30 años. Esto probablemente se deba a cambios en el estilo de vida y avances en la radioterapia (RT) y quimioterapia (QT) sistémica (AU)

Epidermoid carcinomas of the head and neck are a rare group of tumors, in the United States they account for 3% of all cancers. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma differs from others head and neck squamous cells carcinomas in epidemiology, natural history, and response to treatment. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma displays a distinct racial and geographic distribution, which is reflective of its multifactorial etiology. The incidence and mortality has declined over the past 30 years in many endemic areas. This finding is probably a result of a combination of lifestyle modification and advances in radiotherapy and effective systemic agents (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/therapy , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170172, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893733


Abstract Background: Osteoradionecrosis of the jaw (ORNJ) is the most severe and complex sequel of head and neck radiotherapy (RT) because of the bone involved, it may cause pain, paresthesia, foul odor, fistulae with suppuration, need for extra oral communication and pathological fracture. We treated twenty lesions of ORNJ using low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The objective of this study was to stimulate the affected area to homeostasis and to promote the healing of the oral mucosa. Methods: We performed aPDT on the exposed bone, while LLLT was performed around the bone exposure (red spectrum) and on the affected jaw (infrared spectrum). Monitoring and clinical intervention occurred weekly or biweekly for 2 years. Results: 100% of the sample presented clinical improvement, and 80% presented complete covering of the bone exposure by intact oral mucosa. Conclusion: LLLT and aPDT showed positive results as an adjuvant therapy to treat ORNJ.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Osteoradionecrosis/therapy , Photochemotherapy/methods , Jaw Diseases , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Osteoradionecrosis/pathology , Time Factors , Wound Healing/radiation effects , Jaw Diseases/pathology , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Homeostasis/drug effects , Homeostasis/radiation effects , Middle Aged , Mouth Mucosa/drug effects , Mouth Mucosa/radiation effects
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(3): 212-217, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959373


Resumen Objetivo Aplicar tres modelos pronósticos "online" (índice pronóstico de Nothingham (NPI), Adjuvantonline! (AO) y PREDICT utilizados en la práctica oncológica para estratificar a pacientes y definir el uso de terapias adyuvantes en pacientes con cáncer de mama (CM) precoz, para evaluar su correlación y predicción de sobrevida en nuestra población. Métodos Obtuvimos datos clínicos de pacientes con CM invasor T1N0M0, tratados en el Centro de Cáncer de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, desde enero de 1997 hasta diciembre de 2003. Resultados Analizamos datos de 125 pacientes. Edad mediana fue 55 años (35-80). La mayoría de los tumores fueron carcinomas ductales infiltrantes (72,8%), receptor de estrógeno (RE) positivos (88,8%), 80% recibieron terapia endocrina (TE). El beneficio estimado de la TE y la quimioterapia (QT) en la sobrevida global (SG), determinadas según AO y PREDICT, no fueron significativamente diferentes (1,3% y 1% para QT, p = 0,13; 0,9% y 1% para TE, p = 0,8; respectivamente). El modelo NPI estimó una mediana de SG superior (96%) a la calculada por AO (90,9%) y PREDICT (92,5%). La mortalidad específica por CM fue de 3%, similar a lo observado (3,2%). La mediana de SG estimada por todos los modelos en el grupo de pacientes fallecidos no fue estadísticamente diferente al grupo de sobrevivientes (p = 0,85). Conclusión Los modelos pronósticos predicen apropiadamente la SG en pacientes con CM precoz; sin embargo, en esta serie, no discriminaron pacientes de mal pronóstico.

Objective Apply three prognostic models "online" (Nothingham index (NPI), Adjuvantonline! (AO) and PREDICT used in routine oncology practice in order to stratify patients and define the use of adjuvant therapies in patients with stage I breast cancer (BC) to evaluate its correlation and overall survival (OS) in our population. Methods We obtained patients' medical records data with invasive BC T1N0M0, treated at the Cancer Center of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, from January 1997 to December 2003. Results We analyzed data from 125 patients. Median age was 55 years (35 80). Most tumors were infiltrating ductal carcinoma (72.8%), estrogen receptor positive (88.8%), 80% received endocrine therapy (ET). The estimated ET and chemotherapy benefit was not significantly different according to the AO and PREDICT models (1.3% and 1% for CT, p = 0.13, 0.9% and 1% for ET p = 0.8, respectively). The estimated median OS on NPI (96%) was higher than calculated by AO (90.9%) and PREDICT (92.5%). Interestingly disease specific mortality estimated was 3%, similar to that observed (3.2%). While the estimated median OS by all models in the group of deceased patients was lower than in surviving, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.85). Conclusion The prognostic models applied effectively predict OS in Chilean patients with T1N0M0 BC, but in this series, they do not sufficiently discriminate patients with poor prognosis. The addition of co -morbidities to AO does not alter the results.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prognosis , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 348-355, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719162


PURPOSE: We aimed to discuss the roles of radiation and chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment in patients with staged IB GC who were enrolled in the adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in stomach tumors (ARTIST) trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among the 458 patients who were enrolled in the ARTIST trial, 99 had stage IB disease. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either adjuvant chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine plus cisplatin (XP, n=50) or chemoradiotherapy (XPRT, n=49). Survival analyses were performed in accordance with the AJCC 2010 staging system. RESULTS: According to the AJCC 2010 system, stage migration from IB to II occurred in 71% of the patients; 98% of the T2 N0 cases were reclassified as T3 N0, and 42% of the T1 N1 cases were reclassified as T1 N2. When comparing survival outcomes between the XPRT and XP arms for stage IB cancer (AJCC 2002), no significant difference in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) between the 2 arms was found. (median 5-year DFS, not reached, P=0.256). The patients classified as having stage IB cancer (AJCC 2002) and reclassified as having stage II cancer (AJCC 2010) exhibited worse prognoses than those who remained in stage IB, although the difference was not statistically significant (5-year DFS rate, 83% vs. 93%). When we compared 5-year DFS in 70 patients with stage II (AJCC 2010), the addition of radiotherapy to XP chemotherapy did not show better outcome than XP alone (P=0.137). CONCLUSIONS: The role of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of stage IB GC (AJCC 2002) warrants further investigation.

Humans , Arm , Capecitabine , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Stomach Neoplasms , Stomach
Rev. chil. cir ; 69(2): 181-183, abr. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844353


El cáncer de recto es una enfermedad frecuente en la población, siendo un problema de salud importante a nivel nacional, con un probable aumento en la incidencia junto con la transición demográfica y epidemiológica de los últimos años. La cirugía ha sido históricamente el pilar fundamental en el tratamiento de esta patología, pero asociándose a una alta tasa de recurrencia, tanto locorregional como a distancia, como único tratamiento. Es por esto que se ha estudiado el agregar terapias adyuvantes a la cirugía, como lo es la radioterapia y quimioterapia. La evidencia ha demostrado que la adyuvancia con radioterapia más quimioterapia se asocia a mayor sobrevida global y menor recurrencia local y a distancia en comparación con la cirugía exclusiva. En el presente artículo se realiza una revisión de los principales estudios que evidencian la ventaja, tanto en sobrevida global como libre de enfermedad, del uso de la adyuvancia con radioterapia más quimioterapia, mencionando la última evidencia disponible sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de recto localmente avanzado y las perspectivas a futuro.

Rectal cancer is a common disease in general population, being a major health problem in our nation, with a likely increase in incidence associated to demographic and epidemiological transition in recent years. Historically, the surgery has been the mainstay in the treatment of this disease, but surgery alone is associated to a high rate of recurrence, both locoregional and distant. This is why it has been studied adding adjuvant therapies to surgery, as is radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The evidence has shown that adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is associated with increased overall survival and less local and distant recurrence compared to surgery alone. This article is a review of major studies that demonstrate the advantage of using adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in both overall and disease-free survival, mentioning the last evidence available in treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer.

Humans , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Rectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Rectal Neoplasms/radiotherapy
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 39-47, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156652


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical outcomes from cervical cancer and stratify patients into risk groups for prognostic factors for early-stage disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with stage IB or IIA cervical cancer treated with adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) following primary surgery at Samsung Medical Center from 2001 to 2011. Adjuvant RT was added for patients with intermediate-risk factors, and adjuvant CCRT was performed on high-risk patients after surgery. RESULTS: We reviewed 247 patients—149 in the high-risk group and 98 in intermediate-risk group. The median follow-up was 62 months. Loco-regional failure (LRF) alone occurred in 7 patients (2.8%), distant metastasis alone in 37 patients (15.0%) and LRF with DM in 4 patients (1.6%). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for both groups were 79.7% and 87.6%, respectively. In the high-risk group, the 5-year DFS and OS probabilities were 72.5% and 81.9%, respectively. Histologic type, pathologic tumor size, and the number of pelvic lymph node (PLN) metastasis were significant prognostic factors for DFS and OS. We suggest a scoring system (0–3) using these prognostic factors to predict poor prognosis in high-risk patients. Using this system, patients with higher scores have higher recurrence and lower survival rates. CONCLUSION: In the high-risk cervical-cancer group who received primary surgery and adjuvant CCRT, non-squamous type, large tumor size and the number of PLN metastasis were significant prognostic factors, and the number of these factors was associated with survival rates.

Humans , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Hysterectomy , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e42-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61164


OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of time interval (TI) from radical hysterectomy with pelvic node dissection (RHND) to adjuvant therapy on oncological outcomes in cervical cancer. METHODS: The study included 110 stage IA2–IB1 cervical cancer patients who underwent RHND and adjuvant therapy. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the cut-off points of TI of 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. The associations of TI and clinicopathologic factors with oncological outcomes were evaluated using Cox proportional-hazards regression. RESULTS: The median TI was 4.5 weeks. There were no statistical differences in 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) (89.2% vs. 81.0%, and 83.2% vs. 100.0%) or 5-year overall survival (OS) rates (90.9% vs. 97.2%, and 93.2% vs. 100.0%) between patients according to TI (≤4 vs. >4, and ≤6 vs. >6 weeks, respectively). Deep stromal invasion (p=0.037), and parametrial involvement (PI) (p=0.002) were identified as independent prognostic factors for RFS, together with the interaction between TI and squamous cell carcinoma histology (p<0.001). In patients with squamous cell carcinoma, a TI longer than 4 weeks was significantly associated with a worse RFS (hazard ratio [HR]=15.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.4–173.9; p=0.024). Univariate analysis showed that only tumor size (p=0.023), and PI (p=0.003) were significantly associated with OS. CONCLUSION: Delay in administering adjuvant therapy more than 4 weeks after RHND in early stage squamous cell cervical cancer results in poorer RFS.

Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Epithelial Cells , Hysterectomy , Prognosis , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Time Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms