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1.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 87-91, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988593

ABSTRACT

Aims@#The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chewing gum affects mask contamination.@*Methodology and results@#Two groups of participants were requested to wear a mask for 15 min with (experimental group) or without (control group) chewing gum. Then, masks were collected and CFU calculation and 16S rDNA sequencing was performed. We found that temperature, humidity and bacterial CFU inside of the mask significantly increased when wearing a mask while chewing gum. Staphylococcus epidermidis was found in both groups. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus parasanguinis and Bacillus wiedmannii were found in only the experimental group.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#Chewing gum significantly increased the temperature, humidity and bacterial CFU inside the mask. Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, S. haemolyticus, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis and B. wiedmannii were detected inside the mask after chewing gum.


Subject(s)
Chewing Gum , Food Contamination
2.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210046, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365231

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe and evaluate the xylitol products' applicability and its effects in the health area worldwide utilizing a bibliometric analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCT) with humans. Material and Methods Electronic searches were carried out in Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and VHL databases. The main data extracted were: year, area of applicability, type of treatment, country, journal, xylitol posology and concentration, presentation form, outcomes, and effects. Results From 1476 studies, 257 were included. These studies were published between 1973-2021. The majority was carried out in dentistry (73.9%) and under preventive treatment (67.4%). These studies were developed in the USA (15.4%) and published in Caries Research (6.6%). The posology and concentration ranged between 0.004-67 g/day and 0.002-100%, respectively. The xylitol is usually used in the chewing gum form (44.0%), and for antimicrobial activity evaluation (38.5%). A positive effect was observed in 204 studies (79.3%) and was associated with xylitol concentration ≥ 15(p=0.007). Side effects were reported in 8.2and were associated with posology ≥ 5 g/day (p=0.03). Conclusion Most studies with xylitol were conducted to prevent diseases in the dentistry field. The chewing gum form and antimicrobial activity evaluation were more frequent. Most xylitol products have a positive effect, and few studies report side effects.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Xylitol/therapeutic use , Bibliometrics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Chewing Gum , Anti-Infective Agents , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Oral Health/education , Data Interpretation, Statistical
3.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210252, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1386811

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of chewing gums containing CPP-ACP in remineralisation of demineralised enamel around orthodontic brackets. Material and Methods: Enamel blocks from 120 bovine incisors were used. The blocks were flattened and polished, followed by the development of incipient subsurface caries. The blocks have been subjected to a baseline microhardness analysis. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the exposed area of the blocks, reserving an area for hardness analysis. An in situ crossover (three-way crossover phases of 21 days with an interval of one week between them), controlled, randomised and blind experimental model was used, with the participation of 12 volunteers divided into groups: G1 - negative control group, without chewing gum; G2 - conventional sugar-free chewing gum, without CPP-ACP (placebo); and G3 - sugar-free chewing gum with CPP-ACP. The following parameters were analysed: superficial linear (Ra), volumetric roughness (Sa), and superficial structural loss, which was indicated by Gap measurement (difference between the healthy and treated area). Statistical tests used were the Friedman, Wilcoxon and Shapiro-Wilk, Kruskal Wallis' nonparametric tests and ANOVA. Results: There was a significant reduction in enamel microhardness after demineralisation in all the groups (p<0.05). This deleterious effect was attenuated in the three groups after the final evaluation, although there were no statistical differences (p<0.05); however, the final values did not return to the baseline values (p<0.05). Conclusion: Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP did not promote in situ remineralisation of demineralised enamel around orthodontic brackets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tooth Remineralization/instrumentation , Chewing Gum , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric
4.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 51: e20220007, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377168

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Orthodontic movement can cause painful symptoms, especially in the early stages of treatment. Objective: This study aimed to compare the performance of chewing gum and ibuprofen in pain control during the initial period of orthodontic treatment. Material and method: A randomized blind clinical trial, with an allocation ratio of 1:1, was developed with patients aged ≥18 years old. The sample size was established considering a significance level of 5% and test power of 80%, resulting in a minimum of 30 volunteers per group (n=90). Participants were paired regarding sex, age, the severity of malocclusion, defined by the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), and crowding, determined by Little's irregularity index. The sample was randomly allocated to three groups: Group I (control) placebo; Group II chewing gum; and Group III Ibuprofen. Pain perception was evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) in the first 24, 36, and 48 hours after activation of the orthodontic appliance. The data were analyzed by generalized linear models for repeated measures in time. Result: No statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was observed among the groups for the methods of pain therapy evaluated in 24, 36, and 48 hours post-activation. Conclusion: There was no difference among the method used for pain control during the orthodontic treatment.


Introdução: A movimentação ortodôntica pode causar sintomatologia dolorosa, principalmente nas fases iniciais do tratamento. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar o desempenho da goma de mascar e do ibuprofeno no controle da dor durante o período inicial do tratamento ortodôntico. Material e método: Foi desenvolvido um ensaio clínico randomizado cego, com razão de alocação de 1:1, com pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos. O tamanho da amostra foi estabelecido considerando um nível de significância de 5% e poder do teste de 80%, resultando em um mínimo de 30 voluntários por grupo (n=90). Os participantes foram pareados quanto ao sexo, idade, gravidade da má oclusão, definida pelo Componente de Saúde Bucal (DHC) do Índice de Necessidade de Tratamento Ortodôntico (IOTN), e apinhamento, determinado pelo índice de irregularidade de Little. A amostra foi distribuída aleatoriamente em três grupos: Grupo I (controle) placebo; Goma de mascar Grupo II; e Grupo III Ibuprofeno. A percepção da dor foi avaliada pela Escala Visual Analógica (EVA) nas primeiras 24, 36 e 48 horas após a ativação do aparelho ortodôntico. Os dados foram analisados por modelos lineares generalizados para medidas repetidas no tempo. Resultado Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa (p>0.05) entre os grupos para os métodos de terapia da dor avaliados em 24, 36 e 48 horas pós-ativação. Conclusão: Não houve diferença entre o método utilizado para controle da dor durante o tratamento ortodôntico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Pain , Tooth Movement Techniques , Chewing Gum , Ibuprofen , Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need , Visual Analog Scale , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed , Mathematical Computing , Analgesics
5.
RFO UPF ; 26(1): 78-83, 20210327. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1428588

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: mensurar o potencial erosivo de gomas de mascar não convencionais disponíveis no mercado brasileiro. Material e método: estudo experimental (in vitro) de caráter quantitativo. Foram adquiridos oito sabores de gomas de mascar: Poosh® (pinta língua); Plutonita® (abraço congelante, dentada ardente, baba de bruxa e língua ácida); e TNT® (sangue, lava e tumba). Para análise da acidez, foram realizadas leituras em triplicata do pH e acidez titulável (AT), utilizando um potenciômetro e eletrodo combinado de vidro em soluções obtidas após a maceração das gomas de mascar em água duplamente deionizada. Nas soluções com valores de pH inferiores a 5,5, foi mensurada a AT adicionando-se alíquotas de 100 µLNaOH 0,1 M, até alcançar pH 5,5. Os resultados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA). As comparações das médias de pH e acidez titulável foram realizadas pelo teste de Tukey, com um nível de 5% de significância (p<0,05). Resultados: os valores de pH variaram entre 2,4 (abraço congelante) e 3,5 (baba de bruxa), diferin-do significantemente do controle (água mineral/pH=6,2). Os valores de acidez titulável variaram entre 628µL de NaOH 0,1 M (sangue) e 10700µL de NaOH 0,1 M (abraço congelante). A goma de mascar sabor abraço congelante apresentou o pH mais baixo e a mais elevada acidez titulável, diferindo significantemente dos demais sabores. Conclusões: as gomas de mascar avaliadas são ácidas, mas diferem quanto ao seu potencial erosivo. Seu consumo abusivo pode constituir um fator de risco para erosão dental.(AU)


Objective: to measure the erosive potential of non- -conventional chewing gums available in the Brazilian market. Material and methods: this is an in vitro study using the following flavors of chewing gums from the Brazilian market: Poosh® (tongue cleaner); Plutonita® (freezing hug, burning bite, witch slime and acid tongue); TNT® (blood, lava and tomb). For acidity analysis, pH and titratable acidity (TA) readings were performed in triplicate using a potentiometer and combined glass electrode in solutions obtained after maceration of the chewing gums in double deionized water. In solutions with pH values below 5.5, the TA was measured by adding aliquots of 100 µL 0.1 M NaOH, until pH 5.5 was reached. The results were submitted to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Comparisons of pH and titratable acidity means were performed by Tukey test at a 5% significance level (p<0.05). Results: the pH values that ranged from 2.4 (freezing hug) to 3.5 (witch's slime) differed significantly from the control (mineral water/ pH=6.2). Titratable acidity values ranged from 628µL of 0.1 M NaOH (blood) to 10700µL of 0.1 M NaOH (freezing hug). The freezing hug flavor chewing gum had the lowest pH and the highest titratable acidity differing significantly from the other flavors. Conclusions: the evaluated chewing gums are acidic, but differ in their erosive potential. Their abusive consumption may constitute a risk factor for dental erosion.(AU)


Subject(s)
Tooth Erosion/etiology , Cariogenic Agents/chemistry , Chewing Gum/adverse effects , Cariogenic Agents/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Acidity , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180859

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the improvement in masticatory performances two weeks after posterior implant restoration. Material and Methods: Nine patients with missing first and second molars were included in the study. Masticatory performances were evaluated using subjective and objective methods utilizing color-changeable chewing gum and the visual analog scale (VAS) assessment. The subjects were asked to chew the color-changeable chewing gums before and two weeks after the posterior implant restoration. Their expectations regarding aesthetics and function were verified on the VAS before implant placement. Additionally, the VAS was used for the posttreatment completion rating two weeks after the implant restoration. Results: Significant differences in masticatory performance were noted at baseline (before implant posterior restoration) and two weeks after implant restoration (p<0.05). The posttreatment aesthetic and functional expectations ratings significantly exceeded the expectations (p<0.05). Conclusion: Masticatory performances were improved two weeks after implant restoration. In addition, the significant posttreatment ratings of the patients exceeded their initial expectations. In particular, patients with poor masticatory functions demonstrated significant improvements and satisfaction following implant restoration compared to those with good mastication. These findings indicate that a posterior implant restoration can increase the masticatory performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chewing Gum/microbiology , Patient Satisfaction , Dental Implantation/instrumentation , Molar/anatomy & histology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Visual Analog Scale , Indonesia/epidemiology , Mastication
7.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(2): 484-493, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1003451

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify and analyze the evidence on the effect of chewing gum on thirst in adults. Method: Integrative review, guided by the question: "What is the scientific evidence about the effects of chewing gum on adult's thirst?" LILACS, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were the databases consulted. Results: Of a total of 2,414 articles found, 12 papers were selected whose publications varied between 1991 and 2016. The use of chewing gum resulted in increased salivary volume (five studies), xerostomia relief (seven studies), and thirst reduction (four studies). It was not possible to establish the number of chewing gums per day, being frequent the recommendation to use as desired. There was a predominance of studies with patients under dialysis and with cancer. Conclusion: Chewing gum is an effective strategy to reduce thirst discomfort in adults.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar y analizar las evidencias en cuanto al efecto de la goma de mascar sobre la sed en adultos. Método: Revisión integrativa, orientada por la cuestión: "¿Cuáles son las evidencias científicas acerca de los efectos de la goma de mascar sobre la sed en adultos?" Las bases de datos consultadas fueron: LILACS, PubMed, Scopus y Web of Science. Resultados: De un total de 2.414 artículos encontrados, se seleccionaron 12 trabajos cuyas publicaciones variaron entre los años 1991 y 2016. El uso de la goma de mascar resultó en el aumento del volumen salivar (cinco estudios), en el alivio de la xerostomía (siete estudios) y en la reducción de la sed (cuatro estudios). No fue posible establecer el número de gomas al día, siendo frecuente la recomendación de utilizarse según lo deseado. Hubo predominio de estudios con pacientes dialíticos y con pacientes con cáncer. Conclusión: La goma de mascar es una estrategia efectiva para reducir la molestia de la sed en adultos.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar e analisar as evidências quanto ao efeito da goma de mascar sobre a sede em adultos. Método: Revisão integrativa, norteada pela questão: "Quais são as evidências científicas acerca dos efeitos da goma de mascar sobre a sede em adultos?" As bases de dados consultadas foram: LILACS, PubMed, Scopus e Web of Science. Resultados: De um total de 2.414 artigos encontrados, selecionaram-se 12 trabalhos cujas publicações variaram entre os anos de 1991 e 2016. O uso da goma de mascar resultou no aumento do volume salivar (cinco estudos), no alívio da xerostomia (sete estudos) e na redução da sede (quatro estudos). Não foi possível estabelecer o número de gomas por dia, sendo frequente a recomendação de utilizar-se conforme desejado. Houve predomínio de estudos com pacientes dialíticos e com pacientes oncológicos. Conclusão: A goma de mascar é uma estratégia efetiva para reduzir o desconforto da sede em adultos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thirst/drug effects , Chewing Gum/adverse effects
8.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 27: e3180, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1043083

ABSTRACT

Objetivo avaliar a efetividade da goma de mascar mentolada em aliviar a intensidade e o desconforto da sede do paciente cirúrgico no período pré-operatório. Método ensaio clínico controlado randomizado, com 102 pacientes em período pré-operatório, aleatorizados em grupo-controle, com cuidado usual, e grupo experimental, que recebeu goma de mascar mentolada, a variável de tratamento do estudo. O desfecho clínico primário foi a variação da intensidade da sede, avaliada pela Escala Verbal Numérica, e o secundário, a variação do desconforto da sede, avaliada pela Escala de Desconforto da Sede Perioperatória. Teste de Mann-Whitney foi usado para comparar as medidas entre os grupos. Nível de significância adotado de 0,05. Resultados a goma de mascar mentolada reduziu significativamente a intensidade (p<0,001), com d de Cohen de efeito médio, e o desconforto da sede (p<0,001), com d de Cohen de efeito grande. Conclusão a goma de mascar mentolada mostrou-se efetiva na redução da intensidade e do desconforto da sede pré-operatória. A estratégia mostrou-se uma opção inovadora, viável e segura no uso para o paciente cirúrgico, no manejo da sede pré-operatória, em cirurgias eletivas. NCT: 03200197.


Objective to evaluate the effectiveness of menthol chewing gum, in the relief of the intensity and discomfort of the surgical patient's thirst in the preoperative period. Method a randomized controlled trial, with 102 patients in the preoperative period, randomized in a control group, with usual care, and an experimental group, which received menthol gum, which was the study treatment variable. The primary clinical outcome was the variation in thirst intensity, evaluated by the Numeral Verbal Scale, and the secondary, the variation of the discomfort of thirst, evaluated by the Perioperative Thirst Discomfort Scale. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare measures between groups. The significance level adopted was of 0.05. Results menthol chewing gum significantly reduced the intensity (p <0.001), with Cohen's medium-effect d, and thirst discomfort (p <0.001), with a large-effect Cohen's d. Conclusion menthol chewing gum was effective in reducing the intensity and discomfort of preoperative thirst. The strategy proved to be an innovative, feasible and safe option in the use for the surgical patient, in the management of the preoperative thirst, in elective surgeries. NCT: 03200197.


Objetivo evaluar la efectividad de la goma de mascar mentolada en aliviar la intensidad y la incomodidad de la sed del paciente quirúrgico en el período preoperatorio. Método ensayo clínico controlado aleatorizado, con 102 pacientes en período preoperatorio, aleatorizados en grupo control, con cuidado usual, y grupo experimental, que recibió goma de mascar mentolada, la variable de tratamiento del estudio. El resultado clínico primario fue la variación de la intensidad de la sed, evaluada por la Escala Verbal Numérica, y el secundario, la variación de la incomodidad de la sed, evaluada por la Escala de Desconocimiento de la Sede Perioperatoria. La prueba de Mann-Whitney fue utilizada para comparar las medidas entre los grupos. Nivel de significancia adoptado de 0,05. Resultados la goma de mascar mentolada redujo significativamente la intensidad (p <0,001), con d de Cohen de efecto promedio, y el malestar de la sed (p <0,001), con d de Cohen de efecto grande. Conclusión la goma de mascar mentolada se mostró efectiva en la reducción de la intensidad y de la incomodidad de la sed preoperatoria. La estrategia se mostró una opción innovadora, viable y segura en el uso para el paciente quirúrgico, en el manejo de la sed preoperatoria, en cirugías electivas. NCT: 03200197.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Thirst/drug effects , Preoperative Care , Chewing Gum , Statistics , Preoperative Period , Menthol/pharmacology
9.
Rio de janeiro; s.n; 2019. 101 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1017295

ABSTRACT

Objetivo geral consistiu em comparar a efetividade analgésica de ibuprofeno, acetaminofeno e goma de mascar na redução da dor ortodôntica. O objetivo secundário consistiu em avaliar se o uso de goma de mascar poderia ser uma alternativa não farmacológica de controle da dor após inserção do primeiro arco ortodôntico. Cento e seis pacientes foram consecutivamente selecionados, assinaram Termo de Consentimento Livre e Pós Informado e randomicamente distribuídos na proporção de 1:1:1:1 em um dos quatro grupos amostrais: a) ibuprofeno; b) acetaminofeno; c) goma de mascar; d) controle. Os pacientes alocados no grupo ibuprofeno e acetaminofeno foram orientados a ingerirem respectivamente 400 mg e 500 mg dos medicamentos imediatamente após a inserção do arco ortodôntico inicial, e de 6/6 horas por uma semana caso a dor persistisse. O grupo goma de mascar foi orientado a mascar um tablete de goma de mascar por cinco minutos após a inserção do arco ortodôntico inicial e de 6/6 horas por cinco minutos durante uma semana em caso de dor. Os pacientes do grupo controle não receberam nenhum método de controle da dor, mas também não foram proibidos de fazerem uso de analgésicos. Eles receberam orientação de informar caso algum medicamento fosse utilizado durante a pesquisa. A experiência de dor dos pacientes foi registrada em escalas visuais analógicas de 100 mm de comprimento (EVAs), que partiam de um ponto denominado "sem dor" e terminavam em "dor exagerada", nos seguintes intervalos de tempo: T1-2 horas, T2-24 horas, T3-2 dias, T4-3 dias, T5-7 dias e T6-21 dias após a consulta de colagem de bráquetes e tubos de slots 0,022"x0,028" na arcada superior até primeiros molares, prescrição edgewise Roth e inserção fio metálico de liga de níquel-titânio de calibre 0,014". O registro das experiências de dor, em cada intervalo de tempo, foi realizado em dois momentos: dor espontânea e em dor durante o apertamento, quando os dentes posteriores inferiores iam de encontro aos antagonistas. Os questionários foram recolhidos e as EVAs mensuradas por um único avaliador previamente calibrado (Sx=1,38%). Teste estatístico de Kruskall Wallis foi aplicado para análise intra grupos e teste de Mann Whitney U post hoc para análise entre os grupos, considerando-se intervalo de confiança de 95%, nível de significância de 5% e penalização de Bonferroni. Assim pôde-se concluir que ibuprofeno, acetaminofeno e controle não apresentaram entre si diferenças estatisticamente significantes no alívio da dor ortodôntica em nenhum intervalo de tempo; observou-se também que os pacientes que utilizaram goma de mascar apresentaram menor experiência de dor quando comparados com os pacientes do grupo controle que não fizeram uso de métodos de controle da dor ortodôntica.


The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of ibuprofen, actemaninophen and chewing gum on orthodontic pain reduction. The secondary objective was to assess the use of chewing gum as a non-pharmacological alternative for pain control after initial archwire placement. One hundred and six patients were consecutively selected, signed the Free and Post-Informed Term of Consent, and randomly allocated in a ratio of 1:1:1: 1 at four sample groups: a) ibuprofen; b) acetaminophen; c) chewing gum; d) control group. Patients on the ibuprofen and acetaminophen group were instructed to ingest 400 mg and 500 mg respectively of the drugs immediately after the initial archwire placement and every 6 hours for one week if the pain persisted. The subjects on the chewing gum group were instructed to chew a tablet of gum (Trident®-Mondelez, Bauru-SP, Brazil) for five minutes after the initial archwire placement and five minutes every 6 hours for one week if the pain persisted. The control group subjects received no method of pain control. They were required to report the use of any analgesic throughout the trial period. The patients registered their experienced pain while at mandible rest position (spontaneous pain) and at maximum intercuspation (pain at mastication) in 100mm Visual Analogic Scales (VAS), starting at "no pain" and ending at "unbearable pain", at T1-2 hours, T2-24 hours, T3-2 days, T4-3 days, T5-7 days, and T6-21 days after bonding of tubes and brackets 0.022"x0.028", edgewise Roth prescription from 1.6 to 2.6 and nickel-titanium 0.014"achwire placement. VAS data were collected by one previously calibrated evaluator (Sx= 1.38%). Kruskal Wallis test was applied for intragroup analysis and Mann Whitney U post hoc for between groups analysis, with a 95% interval of confidence and 5% of significance level and Bon Ferroni penalizations. Thus, there were no statistically significant differences at pain relief among subjects from ibuprofen, acetaminophen and control groups. But subjects in the chewing gum group experienced statistically significant pain relief when compared to the control group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pain Measurement , Chewing Gum , Ibuprofen , Acetaminophen , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Randomized Controlled Trial , Statistics, Nonparametric
10.
Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research ; (3): 85-93, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750234

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aim to determine the effect of chewing gum on the reduction of postoperative ileus and recovery after surgery. METHODS: The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial among 82 patients who underwent spine surgery between May 2015 and October 2015. Patients in experimental group chewed sugarless gum 3 times daily for 30 minutes each time until POD 5. Abdominal discomfort, the first defecation, and CAS score (Constipation Assessment Scale) were monitored. RESULTS: After the experiment, abdominal discomfort was significantly decreased in the experimental group compared to that of the control group (F=2.46, p=.044). However, the first defecation occurred on postoperative hour 69.6 in the chewing gum group and on hour 60.2 in the control group (t=−1.63, p=.107). CAS was significantly decreased in the experimental group compared to that of the control group (F=3.51, p=.012). CONCLUSION: Chewing gum is expected to help patient recover after surgery as safe nurse intervention which can reduce abdominal discomfort and constipation during early postoperative days after spine surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chewing Gum , Constipation , Defecation , Gingiva , Ileus , Mastication , Spine
11.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(3): 258-264, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893623

ABSTRACT

Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group) of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI - Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII - Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII - No chewing gum (control). Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day). After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm). Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results The use of chewing gum (CPP and No CPP) resulted in lower erosive enamel loss compared with the control group (p<0.05). CPP-ACP chewing gum (CPP) did not improve the protection against erosive enamel loss compared with conventional chewing gum (No CPP) (p>0.05). Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Caseins/therapeutic use , Chewing Gum , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Saliva , Tooth Remineralization , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Caseins/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cross-Over Studies , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Hardness Tests
12.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 16(1): 425-431, jan.-dez. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-912893

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate salivary flow and buffer capacity by means of mechanical and chemical-mechanical stimuli, through the use of chewing gums. Material and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study with 12 volunteers, divided into three groups, in three phases: Group A: paraffin gum; Group B: Chewing gum without sucrose, flavored (Trident®); Group C: Flavored chewing gum, without sucrose and amorphous calcium casein-phosphate phosphopeptide (Trident Total®). The stimulated total saliva was collected after 5 minutes of mastication of one of the products and the volume was expressed in mL / min. The same sample was submitted to pH measurement with the use of a digital potentiometer, where the results were classified in normal buffer capacity (final pH between 5.0 and 7.0) or low (final pH <4.0). The results were evaluated regarding the normality of the sample distribution (Shapiro-Wilk test), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. Results: Chewing gums increased the salivary flow of the volunteers, when compared to the control group (paraffin) (1.53 mL / min), differing statistically from the group, although there was no difference between Trident® (2.09 mL / Min) and Trident Total® (2.06mL / min). Regarding the buffer capacity, the values obtained were 6.94 (paraffin), 6.99 (Trident®) and 6.93 (Trident Total®), with no difference between groups (p = 0.713). Conclusion: It was concluded that chewing gums, with and without CPP-ACP, increased the salivary flow in relation to the control group. In relation to buffer capacity the values obtained for chewing gums with and without CPP-ACP, are shown to be within the normal range.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chewing Gum , Dental Caries , Salivation , Saliva/microbiology , Analysis of Variance , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods
13.
Pakistan Oral and Dental Journal. 2016; 36 (1): 79-83
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-179052

ABSTRACT

Pain is common experience in orthodontic patients that begins two hours after force application and reaches peak at 24 hours, then lasts for 5 to 7 days. The objective of this study was to compare the decrease in pain score with ibuprofen and chewing gums in orthodontic pain control during the first week after initial arch wire placement. This study was conducted at de,Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore, from April 2014 to October 2014. 250 patients with age range of 12 to 16 years of both sex were selected and divided in to ibuprofen and chewing gum groups [125 each group] using random number table. The patients in each group received pain control 24 hours after initial arch wire insertion and then at 8-hour interval till 7th day. Patients were asked to complete a Visual Analog Scale [VAS] Questionnaire, at 24 hours after arch wire insertion, then at 24 hours, and 7th day. Two-way ANOVA was used for analyzing significance of mean decrease in VAS between two groups. Results showed that decrease in pain score for ibuprofen group; baseline to 24 hours was 2.35 +/- 1.36 which was significantly lower than decrease in pain score for chewing gum group 3.34 +/- 1.34. At 7th day, ibuprofen group showed decrease in pain score as 4.07 +/- 1.43 which was significantly lower than decrease in pain score of 5.86 +/- 1.56 for chewing gum group. This was concluded that chewing gums showed more decrease in pain score for orthodontic patients as compared to ibuprofen


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Pain Measurement , Pain , Chewing Gum , Ibuprofen
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e15, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952029

ABSTRACT

Abstract This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the effect of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and parafunctional habits, both separately and cumulatively, on the likelihood of adolescents to present painful TMD. The study was conducted on a sample of 1,094 adolescents (aged 12-14). The presence of painful TMD was assessed using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, Axis I. Data on sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and parafunctional habits (nail/pen/pencil/lip/cheek biting, resting one's head on one's hand, and gum chewing) were researched by self-report. After adjusting for potential demographic confounders using logistic regression, each of the predictor variables (sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and parafunctional habits) was significantly associated with painful TMD. In addition, the odds for painful TMD were higher in the concomitant presence of two (OR=4.6, [95%CI=2.06, 10.37]) or three predictor (OR=13.7, [95%CI=5.72, 32.96]) variables. These findings indicate that the presence of concomitant muscle activities during sleep and awake bruxism and parafunctional habits increases the likelihood almost linearly of adolescents to present painful TMD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Facial Pain/physiopathology , Bruxism/physiopathology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/physiopathology , Habits , Pain Measurement , Brazil , Chewing Gum/adverse effects , Sex Factors , Epidemiologic Methods , Risk Factors , Masticatory Muscles/physiopathology
15.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 52(3): 190-194, July-Sep. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762881

ABSTRACT

BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1) while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2) after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal), in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3) final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches were seen at least once during the 20-minute base period. None of the controls had supragastric belches. In the control group, the ingestion of yogurt caused no significant alteration in the number of air swallows, saliva swallows, gastric belches and supragastric belches. In the patient group, there was an increase in the number of air swallows. If the subjects were chewing gum during this 20-minute period, there was an increase in the number of saliva swallows in both groups, without alterations of the number of air swallow, gastric belches and supragastric belches. There was no alteration in the number of the saliva swallows, air swallows, gastric belches and supragastric belches in both groups for subjects who did not chew gum in the 20-40 minute period after yogurt ingestion. When the subjects were chewing the gum, there was an increase in saliva swallows in the control and patients groups and in air swallows in the patients group.ConclusionGum chewing causes an increase in saliva swallowing in both patients with excessive belching and in controls, and an increase in air swallowing in patients with excessive belching 20 minutes after yogurt ingestion. Gum chewing did not increase or decrease the frequency of gastric or supragastric belches.


ContextoEructação é um evento fisiológico que permite a eliminação de gás presente no estômago, geralmente não percebida como sintoma, situação identificada como eructação gástrica. Eructação supragástrica ocorre quando o ar deglutido não vai ao estômago, mas retorna do esôfago imediatamente após ser deglutido; situação que causa desconforto e limitações ao paciente.ObjetivoO objetivo desta investigação foi avaliar se goma de mascar aumenta a frequência de eructação gástrica e/ou supragástrica.MétodosO trânsito de líquido e gás foi avaliado por impedância in 16 pacientes com queixas de eructação excessiva e 15 controles. O diagnóstico de eructação excessiva foi feito tendo em consideração os critérios descritos no Roma III. O trânsito pelo esôfago foi medido por sensores de impedância localizados a 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm e 20 cm do esfíncter inferior do esôfago. Os indivíduos foram avaliados sentados em uma cadeira durante um período basal de 20 minutos, outro período de 20 minutos após a ingestão de iogurte (200 mL, 190 kcal), mastigando ou não goma de mascar, e em outro período por mais 20 minutos no qual invertiam o fato de mastigarem ou não goma de mascar. Na eructação gástrica o ar vinha do estômago em direção proximal, e na eructação supragástrica o ar entrou no esôfago e foi imediatamente eliminado em direção proximal. A deglutição de ar foi caracterizada pelo aumento em pelo menos 50% do valor da impedância e a deglutição de saliva pela diminuição em pelo menos 50% do valor da impedância, que progredia da parte proximal do esôfago para a parte distal.ResultadosNo período basal a deglutição de ar foi mais frequente nos pacientes do que nos controles, e a deglutição de saliva mais frequente nos controles do que nos pacientes. Não houve diferenças na mediana entre os resultados de controles e pacientes no número de eructações gástricas e supragástricas. Em seis pacientes ocorreram eructações supragástricas, o que não aconteceu em nenhum controle. Entre os controles a ingestão de iogurte não alterou a frequência de deglutição de ar, deglutição de saliva, eructações gástricas e eructações supragástricas. No grupo de pacientes houve aumento da deglutição de ar. Mastigar a goma durante este período causou aumento da deglutição de saliva, nos dois grupos, sem alterações na frequência de deglutição de ar, eructação gástrica e eructação supragástrica. No período entre 20 e 40 minutos após a ingestão do iogurte, se a pessoa não mascava a goma, não havia mudança na frequência de deglutição de saliva, deglutição de ar, eructações gástricas e eructações supragástricas. Quando a pessoa mascava a goma, houve aumento da deglutição de saliva nos dois grupos e de deglutição de ar no grupo de pacientes.ConclusãoGoma de mascar causa aumento da deglutição de saliva em pacientes com eructações excessivas e controles, e aumento da deglutição de ar em pacientes 20 minutos após a ingestão de iogurte. Goma de mascar não aumenta ou diminui a frequência de eructação gástrica ou eructação supragástrica.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aerophagy/etiology , Chewing Gum/adverse effects , Eructation/etiology , Saliva , Case-Control Studies , Deglutition , Esophagus/physiopathology , Mastication
16.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 4(2): 129-136, abr.2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779215

ABSTRACT

Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases. The WHO has classified it as one of the major public health problems worldwide. That is why a special emphasis has been paid to developing new preventive methods and the use of gum without sugar has been included as one of them. This strategy has significant benefits on oral health due to: (1) saliva stimulation, which favors teeth clearance and regulates the pH; (2) remineralization promotion as a result of the above and incorporation of minerals to the gum;(3) mechanical control of the bacterial plaque; (4) replacement of sugar by sweeteners which are harmful for bacteria (the most commonly used is xylitol) and (5) incorporation of active agents such as bicarbonate, casein, urea, chlorhexidine and chitosan, among others. Despite these benefits, the effect of the gum is considered to be weak for dental caries prevention when used instead of brushing. Therefore, its implementation must be proposed as a complement to oral hygiene routines and not as a preventive measure by itself. It is necessary to carry out a greater amount of clinical trials to evaluate its effectiveness in a context of high biological variability in the short and long term and including patients of different sex, age, socio-economic status and systemic health...


La caries dental constituye una de las enfermedades de mayor prevalencia, siendo catalogada por la OMS como uno de los principales problemas de saludpública a nivel mundial. Por ésta razón se ha enfatizado en el desarrollo de nuevos métodos preventivos a los que se ha incorporado el uso del chicle sin azúcar. Con esta estrategia es posible obtener importantes beneficios para la salud oral producto de: (1) estimulación de la salivación, lo que favorece el aclaramiento y regula el pH; (2) promoción de la remineralización como consecuencia de lo anterior y de la incorporación de minerales a la goma de mascar; (3) control mecánico de la placa bacteriana; (4) sustitucióndel azúcar por edulcorantes nocivos para las bacterias, de los cuales el más utilizado es el xilitol; e (5) incorporaciónde agentes activos tales como bicarbonato, caseína, urea, clorhexidina y quitosano, entre otros. Pese a proporcionar ésta serie de beneficios se considera que el efecto del chiclees débil en la prevención de caries cuando éste propósito se busca en ausencia de cepillado dental y por lo tanto debe proponerse su implementación como complemento a las rutinas de higiene oral y no como una medida preventiva por sí sola, siendo necesario realizar una mayor cantidad de ensayos clínicos, a corto y largo plazo, que evalúen laefectividad en un contexto de alta variabilidad biológica, incluyendo pacientes de distinto sexo, edad, situación socioeconómica y salud sistémica...


Subject(s)
Humans , Chewing Gum , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Sweetening Agents/therapeutic use , Primary Prevention
17.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 15(1): 153-161, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796360

ABSTRACT

To determine the time required for pH buffering by saliva after use sugary(S), sugar-free (SF) and probiotic (P) chewing gums.Material and Methods:Saliva was collected from 12 volunteer dental students at UNESP São José dos Campos / SP, in order to determine salivary flow (SR) rate and initial buffering capacity (BC). Participants presenting BC>4.0 were invited to continue the research. Participants chewed different types of gum for 3 consecutive days, and saliva was collected at 0-1min, 1-5min, and 5-10min intervals. The time required to neutralize saliva pH after chewing the different types of gum was analyzed by RM ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%).Results:RM ANOVA revealed significant influence on the interaction effect (chewing gum and time) (statisticFdf(4.66)= 4.027, p = 0.0055 <0.05). According to TukeyÆs test, differences were observed in the following circumstances: for the 0-1 interval, BC of S differs from SF and P; BC of S differs from SF at 1-5 min and 5-10 min intervals; and, 0-1min interval differs from 1-5 min and 5-10 min intervals for both S and SF. Conclusion:Dentistry students showed no increased predispositionto dental caries with a specific type of chewing gum. Although time for pH recovery differed according to gum type, they were all above the critical range for enamel demineralization...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sugars , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Students, Dental , Chewing Gum , Saliva/microbiology , Analysis of Variance , Brazil
18.
Bauru; s.n; 2015. 113 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-794238

ABSTRACT

O efeito protetor da caseína fosfopeptídea fosfato de cálcio amorfo (CPP-ACP) contra a erosão dentária é controverso. Este estudo in situ teve como objetivo investigar a capacidade de uma goma de mascar com CPP-ACP em prevenir uma única desmineralização erosiva. Blocos de esmalte bovino (120) selecionados pela dureza superficial inicial foram divididos aleatoriamente entre os grupos: GI - goma de mascar com CPP-ACP, GII - goma de mascar sem CPP-ACP e GIII - controle negativo para avaliação do efeito protetor sem estimulação salivar (sem goma de mascar). Dezenove voluntários participaram do estudo durante três fases cruzadas de 2 h cada. Nas fases de GI e GII os voluntários usaram dispositivos intrabucais palatinos contendo 2 blocos de esmalte, durante 120 minutos e mascaram uma unidade da goma de mascar correspondente ao grupo nos últimos 30 minutos. No grupo controle os voluntários usaram o dispositivo intrabucal por 2h, sem uso de goma de mascar. Em cada fase, imediatamente após a utilização, os dispositivos intrabucais foram imersos em refrigerante tipo cola durante 5 minutos para promover a desmineralização erosiva. A dureza superficial final foi mensurada e os valores foram utilizados para o cálculo do percentual de perda de dureza. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA de medidas repetidas e teste Tukey (α = 5%). Menor perda de dureza do esmalte foi encontrada após a utilização de goma de mascar com (GI - 32,7%) e sem (GII - 33,5%) CPP-ACP relação ao efeito salivar sem estimulação (GIII - 39,8%) (p <0,05). Não houve diferença entre GI e GII (p> 0,05). Os resultados sugerem que a utilização de goma de mascar imediatamente antes de uma desmineralização erosiva é capaz de diminuir a perda de dureza do esmalte. No entanto, a presença de CPP-ACP na goma de mascar não foi capaz de melhorar este efeito...


The erosion-protective effect of CPP-ACP is controversial. This in situ study aimed to investigate the ability of CPP-ACP chewing gum to prevent a single event of erosive demineralization. Bovine enamel blocks (120), after selection (initial surface hardness) were randomly assigned to groups: GI-chewing gum with CPP-ACP, GIIchewing gum without CPP-ACP and Control group-salivary effect without stimulation (no gum). Nineteen volunteers participated on this study during 3 crossover phases of 2 h. On GI and GII, the volunteers wore intraoral palatal devices for 120 min and chewed a unit of the corresponding chewing gum on the last 30 min. On Control group the volunteer wore the appliance for 2 h, without chewing gum. On each phase immediately after the intraoral use, devices were extra orally immersed in cola drink for 5 minutes to promote erosive demineralization. The percentage of surface hardness loss was calculated. The data were analyzed by Repeated Measures ANOVA and Turkeys test. Less enamel hardness loss was found after the use of chewing gum with (GI-32.7 %) and without (GII-33.5%) CPP-ACP when compared to salivary effect without stimulation (control- 39.8%) (p<0.05). There was no difference between GI and GII (p>0.05). The results suggest that the use of chewing gum immediately before an erosive demineralization is able to diminish the enamel hardness loss. However, the presence of CPP-ACP in the chewing gum cannot enhance this protective effect...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Chewing Gum , Caseins/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Dental Enamel , Calcium Phosphates/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Hardness Tests , Single-Blind Method , Surface Properties , Time Factors
19.
Bauru; s.n; 2015. 113 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-867440

ABSTRACT

O efeito protetor da caseína fosfopeptídea fosfato de cálcio amorfo (CPP-ACP) contra a erosão dentária é controverso. Este estudo in situ teve como objetivo investigar a capacidade de uma goma de mascar com CPP-ACP em prevenir uma única desmineralização erosiva. Blocos de esmalte bovino (120) selecionados pela dureza superficial inicial foram divididos aleatoriamente entre os grupos: GI - goma de mascar com CPP-ACP, GII - goma de mascar sem CPP-ACP e GIII - controle negativo para avaliação do efeito protetor sem estimulação salivar (sem goma de mascar). Dezenove voluntários participaram do estudo durante três fases cruzadas de 2 h cada. Nas fases de GI e GII os voluntários usaram dispositivos intrabucais palatinos contendo 2 blocos de esmalte, durante 120 minutos e mascaram uma unidade da goma de mascar correspondente ao grupo nos últimos 30 minutos. No grupo controle os voluntários usaram o dispositivo intrabucal por 2h, sem uso de goma de mascar. Em cada fase, imediatamente após a utilização, os dispositivos intrabucais foram imersos em refrigerante tipo cola durante 5 minutos para promover a desmineralização erosiva. A dureza superficial final foi mensurada e os valores foram utilizados para o cálculo do percentual de perda de dureza. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA de medidas repetidas e teste Tukey (α = 5%). Menor perda de dureza do esmalte foi encontrada após a utilização de goma de mascar com (GI - 32,7%) e sem (GII - 33,5%) CPP-ACP relação ao efeito salivar sem estimulação (GIII - 39,8%) (p <0,05). Não houve diferença entre GI e GII (p> 0,05). Os resultados sugerem que a utilização de goma de mascar imediatamente antes de uma desmineralização erosiva é capaz de diminuir a perda de dureza do esmalte. No entanto, a presença de CPP-ACP na goma de mascar não foi capaz de melhorar este efeito.


The erosion-protective effect of CPP-ACP is controversial. This in situ study aimed to investigate the ability of CPP-ACP chewing gum to prevent a single event of erosive demineralization. Bovine enamel blocks (120), after selection (initial surface hardness) were randomly assigned to groups: GI-chewing gum with CPP-ACP, GIIchewing gum without CPP-ACP and Control group-salivary effect without stimulation (no gum). Nineteen volunteers participated on this study during 3 crossover phases of 2 h. On GI and GII, the volunteers wore intraoral palatal devices for 120 min and chewed a unit of the corresponding chewing gum on the last 30 min. On Control group the volunteer wore the appliance for 2 h, without chewing gum. On each phase immediately after the intraoral use, devices were extra orally immersed in cola drink for 5 minutes to promote erosive demineralization. The percentage of surface hardness loss was calculated. The data were analyzed by Repeated Measures ANOVA and Turkeys test. Less enamel hardness loss was found after the use of chewing gum with (GI-32.7 %) and without (GII-33.5%) CPP-ACP when compared to salivary effect without stimulation (control- 39.8%) (p<0.05). There was no difference between GI and GII (p>0.05). The results suggest that the use of chewing gum immediately before an erosive demineralization is able to diminish the enamel hardness loss. However, the presence of CPP-ACP in the chewing gum cannot enhance this protective effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Chewing Gum , Caseins/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Dental Enamel , Calcium Phosphates/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Hardness Tests , Single-Blind Method , Surface Properties , Time Factors
20.
Niger. j. clin. pract. (Online) ; 17(6): 739-742, 2015. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1267126

ABSTRACT

Background: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication following caesarean section. It impairs patients comfort; delays wound healing and prolong duration of hospital stay. Several methods have been used in the management of this condition with varying efficacy. Chewing gum postoperatively is a recent concept in the western world being advocated as a cost effective and comfortable management of POI.Aim: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of gum­chewing in reducing POI following caesarean section in Enugu.Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty women booked for elective caesarean section were randomized into gum­chewing group (n = 90) or control group (n = 90) The subjects chewed sugarless gum three times daily from 6 h postoperatively until the first passage of flatus. Each chewing session lasted 30 min. Elective cesarean section was carried out with a Pfannenstiel incision. Groups were compared primarily for time to first bowel sound, and first flatus.Secondary endpoints of comparison were time of operation to first defecation, and patient satisfaction concerning postoperative gum chewing. The Student's t­test and Pearson Chi­square test and multiple linear regression were used for statistical analysis.Results: The groups were comparable in age, body mass index (BMI) and duration of surgery. The mean time to first bowel sounds (21.9 ± 8.0 vs. 26.1 ± 10.0), mean time to first flatus (24.8 ± 6.4 vs. 30.0 ± 10.0) and mean time to defecation (30.7 ± 5.9 vs. 40.0 ± 9.0) were significantly reduced in patients that chewed gum compared with controls.P =0.02, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively. Patients were satisfied with gum chewing and no side­effect was recorded.Previous surgery and duration of surgery were predictors on duration of POI, while age, BMI and parity had no effect.Conclusion: Gum­chewing has a beneficial effect on early return of bowel function following cesarean section and should be included in the postoperative management protocol


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Chewing Gum , Ileus , Nigeria
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