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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(7): 360-365, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358943

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de vesícula es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente del tracto biliar. Con un mal pronóstico, su enfoque terapéutico muchas veces se centra en el tratamiento paliativo debido a que los pacientes suelen recibir un diagnóstico en estadios avanzados de la neoplasia, en los cuales ya no son candidatos para tratamientos quirúrgicos curativos. Por esta razón se utilizan stents o drenajes vesiculares, a fin de reducir el principal síntoma que se presenta: la ictericia, con sus consecuencias, por obstrucción biliar maligna. Este artículo pretende hacer una revisión de la evidencia recolectada en los últimos 5 años (período 2016 - 2021) acerca de los diferentes abordajes mínimamente invasivos en el tratamiento paliativo del cáncer de vesícula, sus resultados clínicos, y las diferencias entre ellos.


Gallbladder cancer is the most common malignancy neoplasm of the bile ducts. With a poor prognosis, its therapeutic approach is often focused on palliative treatment because patients usually receive a diagnosis in advanced stages of the neoplasm, in which they are no longer candidates for curative surgical treatments. For this reason, stents or gallbladder drains are used in order to reduce the main symptom that occurs: jaundice, with its consequences, due to malignant biliary obstruction. This article aims to review the evidence collected in the last 5 years (period 2016 - 2021) about the different minimally invasive approaches in the palliative treatment of gallbladder cancer, their clinical results, and the differences between them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care , Epidemiologic Studies , Stents , Drainage/methods , Cholestasis/therapy , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Early Detection of Cancer , Gallbladder Neoplasms/therapy
2.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 75-79, 13 oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342235

ABSTRACT

Los antibióticos y analgésicos han sido descritos frecuentemente como las principales causas de toxicidad hepática. Los esteroides anabólicos se han relacionado también con alteraciones en sistemas como el cardiovascular o el hepático; en este último causan colestasis, carcinoma hepatocelular, hiperplasia regenerativa nodular y sangrado de varices, secundario a hipertensión portal. Es importante entonces considerar los esteroides anabólicos como factores de riesgo para hepatotoxicidad. Se presenta el primer caso en Colombia y uno de los pocos en Latinoamérica, de colestasis asociada únicamente al uso de estanozolol. Se trata de un paciente de 21 años, en tratamiento con el medicamento para incrementar la masa muscular, que presentó compromiso hepático de tipo colestásico. Se descartaron otras posibles causas de ictericia, mediante la escala CIOMS/RUCAM se llegó a establecer causalidad entre el consumo de estanozolol y la colestasis. El objetivo de este reporte es hacer una descripción no reportada en la literatura colombiana y poco común en la literatura mundial.


Antibiotics and pain relievers have been frequently described as the main causes of liver toxicity. Anabolic steroids have also been linked to alterations in systems such as cardio-vascular or liver. In the latter, they seem to cause cholestasis, hepatocellular carcinoma, nodular regenerative hyperplasia and variceal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension. It is important to consider them as factors associated with hepatotoxicity. The first case in Colombia and one of the few in Latin America of cholestasis associated only to the use of Stanozolol is presented in a 21-year-old patient under treatment with the drug to increase muscle mass. The patient presented with cholestatic liver involvement. Other possible causes of jaundice were ruled out. From the CIOMS / RUCAM scale, causality was established between the consumption of Stanozolol and cholestasis. The objective of this case is to report a case not found in Colombian literature and little reported in world literature.


Antibióticos e analgésicos têm sido frequentemente descritos como as principais causas de toxicidade hepática. Os esteroides anabolizantes também têm sido relacionados a alterações em sistemas como cardiovasculares ou hepáticos; neste último, causam colestase, carcinoma hepatocelular, hiperplasia nodular regenerativa e sangramento varicoso, secundário à hipertensão portal. Portanto, é importante considerar os este-roides anabolizantes como fatores de risco para hepatotoxicidade. O primeiro caso é apresentado na Colômbia e um dos poucos na América Latina, de colestase associada apenas ao uso de estanozolol. Paciente de 21 anos, em tratamento com fármaco para aumento de massa muscular, apresentou acometimento hepático colestático. Outras possíveis causas de icterícia foram descartadas, a escala CIOMS / RUCAM estabeleceu causalidade entre o consumo de estanozolol e colestase. O objetivo deste relatório é fazer uma descrição não relatada na literatura colombiana e rara na literatura mundial


Subject(s)
Humans , Stanozolol , Anabolic Agents , Cholestasis , Testosterone Congeners , Jaundice , Liver
3.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3120-3132, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251930

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: las enfermedades del eje pancreático/biliar son una consecuencia en la morbimortalidad del aparato digestivo, y es la causa en ocasiones de una obstrucción biliar. La colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica es un método preciso para el diagnóstico de la obstrucción biliar, y se asocia con una elevada tasa de sensibilidad y especificidad. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de valorar el comportamiento de la colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica como medio diagnóstico y terapéutico en una muestra de 90 pacientes con dictamen presuntivo de íctero obstructivo. Resultados: predominaron las féminas en el grupo de edad superior a los 50 años. La coluria, la acolia y el íctero como representativos de una enfermedad obstructiva de las vías biliares, fueron las manifestaciones más frecuentes, corroboradas por el estudio endoscópico, donde la litiasis coledociana fue la principal causa de íctero. Conclusión: la esfinterotomía endoscópica fue el proceder terapéutico de elección, y la pancreatitis aguda postintervención fue la complicación más frecuente (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: the diseases of the pancreatic-biliary axis are a consequence in the digestive tract morbidity-mortality, and sometimes they are the cause of a biliary obstruction. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a precise method for diagnosing the biliary obstruction, and is associated to high rates of sensitivity and specificity. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study was carried out with the aim of assessing the behavior of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography as a therapeutic and diagnostic mean in a sample of 90 patients with presumptive report of obstructive jaundice. Results: women aged more than 50 years predominated. Choluria, acholia and jaundice, as representative of the biliary ducts obstructive disease, were the most frequent manifestations, corroborated by the endoscopic study, where choledocal lithiasis was the main cause of jaundice. Conclusions: endoscopic sphincterotomy was the elective therapeutic procedure, and post-intervention acute pancreatitis was the most frequent complication (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/methods , Patients , Cholestasis/therapy , Disease , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Sphincterotomy/methods
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880621

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#A variety of causes can lead to cholestasis, however, cholestasis caused by Graves' disease is usually overlooked clinically. Here we analyze the clinical characteristics of Graves' disease associated cholestasis so as to have a better understanding for the disease.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively collected 13 inpatients' data who suffered from the Graves' disease associated cholestasis in the Department of Infectious Disease of Xiangya Hospital from January 2000 to December 2018. The characteristics of the patients' age, gender, liver function, thyroid function, coagulation function, the special cardiac examination, treatment, and follow-up data were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Thirteen patients, including 10 males and 3 females with the age range from 33 to 55 (median 43) years old presented cholestasis, pruritus, and hypermetabolic symptoms. The levels of total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), glutamic-pyruvic transferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transferase, alkaline phosphosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase were 170.4-976.7 (median 388.8) µmol/L, 93.2-418.1 (median 199.2) µmol/L, 25.1-182.1 (median 106.4) U/L, 38.2-265.7 (median 59.7) U/L, 105.3-332.0 (median 184.5) U/L, and 20.7-345.1 (median 47.6) U/L, respectively. The levels of free triiodothyronine (FT@*CONCLUSIONS@#Graves' disease can cause cholestasis, with the low incidence. The symptoms of cholestasis can be improved or even eradicated with the cure of the Graves' disease. The cholestasis may be idiopathic. For patients with cholestasis and hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease should be considered for differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cholestasis/etiology , Female , Graves Disease/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880448

ABSTRACT

Biliary stent has been widely used in the treatment of biliary stricture and obstruction, it can relieve the pain of patients effectively, but bacterial infection and stent obstruction are still troublesome after surgery. We introduce the mechanism of infection and stent blockage caused by bacterial invasion after biliary stent implantation, and expound the formation mechanism of bacterial biofilm and bile sludge in this review. Antibacterial biliary stent is an effective way to inhibit biliary tract infection, the literatures on antibacterial modification of biliary stent with different antibacterial methods in domestic and abroad are reviewed, and the research prospect of antibacterial biliary stent is summarized and prospected.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bile , Biliary Tract , Cholestasis , Humans , Stents
6.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(3): e1607, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355524

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Retrograde endoscopic cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) effectively treats biliary and pancreatic disorders. Its indications are limited and precise, since its misuse delays adequate treatment, increases costs and to patient´s adverse events. Aim: To compare clinical, radiological and exploratory characteristics in relation to therapeutic success in patients undergoing ERCP in relation to age. Method: 421 patients who underwent the method were retrospectively studied; those who were not able to access the duodenal papilla were excluded. The patients were divided into two age groups: <60 years (group 1) and >60 years (group 2), and the variables of gender, examination indications, radiological findings, therapeutic success, diagnosis and the occurrence of immediate adverse events were analyzed. Results: 177 patients were allocated to group 1 and 235 to group 2. The main indication found in both groups was choledocholithiasis. In group 2, the number of cases of acute cholangitis (p=0.001), biliary stenosis (p=0.002) and papilla cancer (p=0.046) was higher. In this group, urgent indication for ERCP was higher (p=0.042), as well as the diagnosis of biliary tract dilatation (p<0.001). The placement of prostheses was the most common procedure performed in both groups, but the greatest number of patients in absolute quantity occurred in group 2. In group 1, the success in catheterization and the chance of achieving clearing of the biliary tract was significantly higher in compared to group 2 (p=0.016, OR=2.1). Conclusion: The success of catheterization and complete clearance of the bile duct was significantly higher in the group of young patients.


RESUMO Racional: A colangiopancreatografia endoscópica retrógrada (CPRE) trata eficazmente afecções biliares e pancreáticas. Suas indicações são limitadas e precisas, uma vez que seu uso indevido atrasa o tratamento adequado, aumenta os custos e submete pacientes a eventos adversos. Objetivo: Comparar as características clínicas, radiológicas e exploratórias em relação ao sucesso terapêutico em pacientes submetidos à CPRE com relação à idade. Método: Foram estudados retrospectivamente 421 pacientes submetidos ao método sendo excluídos aqueles onde não foi possível ao acesso a papila duodenal. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos etários: <60 anos (grupo 1) e >60 anos (grupo 2) e analisadas as variáveis gênero, indicações do exame, achados radiológicos, sucesso terapêutico, diagnóstico e a ocorrência de eventos adversos imediatos. Resultados: 177 pacientes foram alocados no grupo 1 e 235 no grupo 2. A principal indicação encontrada em ambos os grupos foi coledocolitíase. No grupo 2, o número de casos de colangite aguda (p=0,001), estenose biliar (p=0,002) e neoplasia de papila (p=0,046) foi superior. Nesse grupo a indicação da CPRE em caráter de urgência foi superior (p=0,042), bem como o diagnóstico de dilatação da via biliar (p<0,001). A colocação de próteses foi o procedimento mais comumente realizado nos dois grupos, mas o maior número de doentes em quantidade absoluta ocorreu no grupo 2. No grupo 1, o sucesso na cateterização e a chance de conseguir o clareamento da via biliar foi significativamente superior em relação ao grupo 2 (p=0,016, OR=2,1). Conclusão: O sucesso da cateterização e o clareamento completo da via biliar foi significativamente superior no grupo de pacientes jovens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biliary Tract , Cholestasis , Choledocholithiasis , Retrospective Studies , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Middle Aged
8.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(2): 145-150, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281112

ABSTRACT

Paciente de sexo femenino de 60 años de edad, con antecedente de carcinoma ductal de mama izquierda, presentó dolor agudo en epigastrio que se acompaña de 6 meses de dispepsia, saciedad precoz y pirosis; con una pérdida de 9 kilogramos en 2 meses. Refirió coluria, negó ictericia y acolia. Las pruebas de función hepática mostraron un patrón de colestasis con elevación de gama glutamiltrasferasa (GGT) y fosfatasa alcalina (FA). Fue diagnosticada con un Colangiocarcinoma perihiliar basado en hallazgos abdominales de tomografía y resonancia, con un nódulo parenquimatoso en el segmento 8 del hígado como un tumor infiltrante periductal. El diagnóstico presuntivo fue el de Tumor de Klatskin, pero la anatomía patológica fue compatible con metástasis de carcinoma ductal de mama (CK7 + / GATA3 +). El informe complementario mostró HER-2 negativo y estrógeno negativo (ER) y progesterona (PR) por lo que el inmunofenotipo final fue ER- / PR-; HER2- con índice de proliferación Ki67 <5%, una metástasis de cáncer de mama triple negativo.


A 60-year-old female, with a medical history of a ductal carcinoma of the left breast, presented with sharp pain in epigastrium with 6 months of dyspepsia, early satiety and pyrosis and with the loss of 9 kilograms in 2 months. She referred choluria and denied jaundice and acholia. Liver function tests showed a cholestasis pattern with only elevated Gama Glutamyl Teransferase and alkaline phosphatase. She was diagnosed with a hilar cholangiocarcinoma based on abdominal CT and MRI findings, with a parenchymal nodule in segment 8 of the liver as a periductal infiltrating tumor. The presumed diagnosis was Klatskin Tumor, but the biopsied site was compatible with breast ductal carcinoma metastasis (CK7 + / GATA3 +). The complementary report showed negative HER-2 and negative estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) so the final immunophenotype is ER- / PR-; HER2- with proliferation index Ki67 <5%, a triple-negative breast cancer metastasis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma , Cholestasis , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Dyspepsia , Alkaline Phosphatase , Acute Pain , Anatomy
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 347-353, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142344

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Biliary complications remain one of the most important causes of morbidity and graft loss after liver transplant (LT). Endoscopic therapy of biliary complications has proven to be effective over time, leaving surgical treatment restricted to only very few cases. However, we cannot yet predict which patients will have the greatest potential to benefit from endoscopic treatment. OBJECTIVE On this premise we decide to conduct this study to evaluate the role and safety of single operator cholangioscopy (SOC) in the endoscopic treatment of post-LT biliary anastomotic strictures (AS). METHODS: Between March/2016 and June/2017, 20 consecutive patients referred for endoscopic treatment for biliary anastomotic stricture were included in this prospective observational cohort study. Inclusion criteria were age over 18 years old, and a deceased LT performed within at least 30 days. Exclusion criteria were non-anastomotic biliary stricture, biliary leakage, cast syndrome, any previous endoscopic therapy, pregnancy and inability to provide informed consent. All patients underwent SOC before endoscopic therapy with fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) and after stent removal. RESULTS: At pre-treatment SOC, stricture orifice and fibrotic changes could be visualized in all patients, vascular changes and surgical sutures in 60% and acute inflammatory changes in 30%. SOC was essential for guidewire placement in five cases. FCSEMS was successfully deployed in all patients. Stricture resolution rate was 44.4% (median stent indwelling 372 days). Stricture recurrence was 12.5% (median follow-up of 543 days). Adverse events were distal (66.6%) and proximal (5.5%) stent migration, stent occlusion (16.6%), severe abdominal pain (10%) and mild acute pancreatitis (10%). SOC was repeated after FCSEMS removal. Post-treatment SOC showed fibrotic changes in all but one patient; vascular and acute inflammatory changes were less frequent in comparison to index procedure. The disappearance of suture material was remarkable. None of the cholangioscopic findings were statistically correlated to treatment outcome or stricture recurrence. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with SOC is feasible in post-LT patients with AS. Cholangioscopic findings can be classified into fibrotic, vascular and acute inflammatory changes. Cholangioscopy may be helpful to assist guidewire passage, but Its overall role for changing management is post-LT patients was not demonstrated.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: As complicações biliares continuam sendo uma das principais causas de morbidade e perda do enxerto após o transplante hepático. O tratamento endoscópico das complicações biliares provou ser eficaz ao longo do tempo, deixando o tratamento cirúrgico restrito a casos de exceção. No entanto, ainda não podemos prever quais pacientes terão maior potencial de se beneficiar da terapia endoscópica. OBJETIVO: Nesta premissa, decidimos realizar este estudo para avaliar o papel e a segurança da colangioscopia peroral de operador único (CPO) no tratamento endoscópico das estenoses anastomóticas biliares (EA) pós-transplante hepático. MÉTODOS: Entre março de 2016 e junho de 2017, 20 pacientes consecutivos encaminhados para tratamento endoscópico da EA biliar foram incluídos neste estudo prospectivo de coorte observacional. Os critérios de inclusão foram idade superior a 18 anos e um transplante hepático de doador falecido realizado há pelo menos 30 dias. Pacientes com estenose biliar não anastomótica, fístula biliar, "cast" síndrome, qualquer terapia endoscópica prévia, gravidez e incapacidade de fornecer consentimento informado foram excluídos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à CPO antes da terapia endoscópica com prótese metálica autoexpansível totalmente coberta (PMAEC) e após a sua remoção. RESULTADOS: Na CPO realizada antes do tratamento endoscópico, o orifício de estenose e alterações fibróticas foram visualizadas em todos os pacientes, alterações vasculares e a presença de suturas cirúrgicas em 60%, enquanto alterações inflamatórias agudas em 30%. A CPO foi determinante para a transposição do fio-guia através da estenose em cinco casos. Uma PMAEC foi implantada com sucesso em todos os pacientes. A taxa de resolução da estenose foi de 44,4% (tempo médio de permanência de 372 dias). A recorrência da EA foi de 12,5% (acompanhamento médio de 543 dias). Os eventos adversos foram migração distal (66,6%) e proximal (5,5%) da prótese metálica, oclusão da PMAEC (16,6%), dor abdominal intensa (10%) e pancreatite aguda leve (10%). A CPO foi repetida após a remoção da PMAEC. A colangioscopia realizada após o tratamento endoscópico mostrou alterações fibróticas em todos, exceto em um paciente; alterações vasculares e inflamatórias agudas foram menos frequentes em comparação à CPO inicial. O desaparecimento do material de sutura, observado em todos os casos, foi notável. Nenhum dos achados colangioscópicos foram estatisticamente correlacionados ao resultado do tratamento ou à recorrência de estenose. CONCLUSÃO: A colangioscopia peroral é viável nos pacientes pós-transplante hepático com estenose biliar anastomótica. Os achados colangioscópicos podem ser classificados em alterações inflamatórias agudas, fibróticas e vasculares. A colangioscopia pode ser útil para auxiliar na passagem do fio-guia, mas seu papel geral na mudança de tratamento nos pacientes pós-transplante hepático não foi demonstrado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Bile Ducts/surgery , Bile Ducts/pathology , Cholestasis/surgery , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/methods , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Constriction, Pathologic , Living Donors
10.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(2): e2020164, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131820

ABSTRACT

Emphysematous gastritis (EG) is a rare and potentially lethal process caused by invasive, gas-producing bacteria leading to inflammation and gas dissection of the stomach. The most common etiologic agents are Clostridium infections, but other organisms, including enterobacteria, staphylococcus, and fungi have also been identified. We report the first case of EG due to Sarcina ventriculi in a solid organ transplant recipient, who presented with epigastric pain and vomiting. The patient had a history of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) with recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis and systemic diabetic complications, including severe gastroparesis. CT scan studies demonstrated EG with venous air, and endoscopy showed severe gastritis and ulcerations. In the gastric biopsies, abundant Sarcina ventriculi were noted in areas of mucosal/submucosal necrosis. Antibiotic treatment was instituted at admission, and subsequent endoscopy demonstrated the disappearance of Sarcina, with some improvement of the gastric inflammation; however, the patient developed septic shock with multiorgan failure and expired. This case highlights the need to consider other infectious etiologies in transplant patients, in addition to the well-known opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Diabetes Complications , Transplant Recipients , Infections/etiology , Autopsy , Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Cholestasis , Clostridium Infections , Liver Failure , Fatal Outcome , Gastroparesis/complications , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Graft Rejection
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(5): 697-701, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139355

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hyperthyroidism can induce elevation in several liver function tests including aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatases and, less frequently, serum bilirubin. These alterations are usually mild and asymptomatic. We report a 26 year-old male presenting with palpitations, progressive jaundice, choluria and generalized itching. Laboratory tests were compatible with hyperthyroidism and a mild elevation of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatases and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. A liver biopsy showed portal hepatitis with canalicular cholestasis. The patient was treated temporarily with glucocorticoids, cholestyramine and betablockade. Thereafter, he was treated with radioactive iodine, after which serum bilirubin decreased steadily until normalization in ten weeks.


El hipertiroidismo puede producir elevación de aminotransferasas, fosfatasas alcalinas y, menos frecuentemente, de bilirrubina sérica. Habitualmente, estas alteraciones son leves y asintomáticas. Reportamos un hombre de 26 años con hipertiroidismo secundario a enfermedad de Basedow-Graves, que debutó con un cuadro colestásico, inicialmente estudiado por sospecha de patología hepática autoinmune que incluyó biopsia hepática. Posteriormente, se diagnosticó hipertiroidismo que fue tratado con glucocorticoides, colestiramina y beta bloqueo como puente a terapia definitiva con radioyodo. La evolución mostró disminución progresiva hasta la normalización de bilirrubina sérica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Graves Disease/complications , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Cholestasis/etiology , Hyperthyroidism/complications
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(2): 179-184, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131073

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Most papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) harbor excellent prognosis. Although rare, distant metastases normally occur in lungs and/or bones. Here we describe a rare case of pancreatic metastasis presenting with rapid onset cholestatic syndrome. A literature review was also performed. A 73-year-old man with a high risk PTC was submitted to total thyroidectomy (TT) followed by radioiodine therapy. After initial therapy, he persisted with progressive rising serum thyroglobulin levels but with no evidence of structural disease. Recently, the patient presented with a rapid onset and progressive cholestatic syndrome. A 4 cm lesion in pancreas was identified, with echoendoscopy fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) confirming a pancreatic metastasis from PTC. The patient was submitted to a successful pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pancreatic metastases of PTC are rare and few long-term follow-up data are available to guide management. Fourteen cases were former reported, mean age was 65.7 years-old with mean time between PTC and pancreatic metastasis diagnosis of 7.9 years. Nine of them had another distant metastasis, nine were diagnosed by FNAB and just two received sorafenib.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Cholestasis/etiology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms/secondary , Syndrome , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 102-111, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089304

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of echinochrome (Ech) on intrahepatic cholestasis in rats induced by a single (i.p.) injection of alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats were pre-treated orally for 48hr (one dose / 24hr) with Ech (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) 80 mg/kg body weight drug then, injected with ANIT. ANIT markedly increased serum activities of alanine amino transaminase (ALT), aspartate amino transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which was accompanied by a massive inflammation of epithelial cells on bile duct at 24h after ANIT injection. ANIT also increased the levels of total protein (TP), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB), indirect bilirubin (IB), however decrease albumin content (ALB). In addition ANIT increased hepatic MDA and NO level and decreased GSH level and GST activity. The Ech exerted hepatoprotective and anticholestatic effects as assessed by a significant decrease in the activities of serum AST, ALT and ALP, and the levels of TP, TB, DB and IB as well as liver MDA level and NO level. In conclusion, Ech was found to possess hepatoprotective effect against intrahepatic cholestasis induced by hepatotoxin such as ANIT.


Resumo O presente estudo destinou-se a avaliar os efeitos protetores do Ech na colestase intra-hepática em ratos induzidos por uma única injeção (i.p.) de alfa-naftilisotiocianato (ANIT) (75 mg / kg de peso corporal). Os ratos foram pré-tratados oralmente durante 48 horas (uma dose / 24 horas) com cada (1, 5 e 10 mg / kg de peso corporal) e ácido ursodeoxicólico (UDCA) 80 mg / kg de peso corporal, em seguida, injetado com ANIT. ANIT atividades de soro marcadamente aumentadas de alanina amino transaminasa (ALT), aspartato de amino transaminases (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP), que foi acompanhada por uma inflamação maciça de células epiteliais no ducto biliar às 24h após a injeção de ANIT. A ANIT também aumentou os níveis de proteína total (TP), bilirrubina total (TB), bilirrubina direta (DB), bilirrubina indireta (IB), no entanto, diminuem o teor de albumina (ALB). Além disso, a ANIT aumentou o nível de MDA hepático e NO e diminuiu o nível de GSH e a atividade de GST. O Ech exerceu efeitos hepatoprotectores e anticolestáticos como avaliado por uma diminuição significativa nas atividades de AST sérica, ALT e ALP e os níveis de TP, TB, DB e IB, bem como o nível de MDA no fígado e o nível de NO. Ech foi encontrado para possuir efeito protetor no fígado contra a colestase intra-hepática induzida por hepatotoxina, como a ANIT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cholestasis , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic , Bilirubin , 1-Naphthylisothiocyanate
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): S12-S49, 2020-02-00. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1096510

ABSTRACT

La presencia de ictericia en la etapa neonatal puede responder a diversas causas, desde situaciones fisiológicas hasta enfermedades graves. En los neonatos de término que persisten ictéricos más allá de los 14 días de vida, debe determinarse si la hiperbilirrubinemia es no conjugada o conjugada para establecer, a la brevedad, el plan de estudios etiológicos y la terapéutica correspondiente. La hiperbilirrubinemia conjugada (colestasis) refleja una disfunción hepática en la mayoría de los casos, cuyas consecuencias son alteraciones del flujo biliar secundarias a anormalidades estructurales o moleculares del hígado y/o del tracto biliar.Durante la última década, los nuevos estudios moleculares revolucionaron el abordaje de los pacientes colestáticos, lo que permitió el diagnóstico de diversas entidades genéticas. La etiología de la hiperbilirrubinemia del primer trimestre debe determinarse con urgencia, ya que, en muchos casos, el tratamiento instituido de modo precoz puede modificar sustancialmente la evolución de la enfermedad o salvar la vida del paciente.


Neonatal jaundice may be due to different causes, ranging from physiological conditions to severe diseases. In term neonates with persistent jaundice beyond 14 days of life, it should be determined whether hyperbilirubinemia is unconjugated or conjugated, in order to study the etiology and start early treatment. In the majority of cases, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (cholestasis) is a sign of liver dysfunction possibly associated with alterations in the bile flow secondary to structural or molecular abnormalities of the liver and/or the biliary tract. Over the past decade, new molecular studies have revolutionized the approach of cholestatic patients, leading to the identification of different genetic entities. It is important to determine the etilogy of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia since in many cases early treatment will substantially improve morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Cholestasis/genetics , Cholestasis/immunology , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/genetics , Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal/diagnosis , Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal/etiology , Cholestasis/etiology , Cholestasis/drug therapy , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/diagnosis , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/drug therapy
16.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(1): 76-86, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115602

ABSTRACT

Resumen La colestasis es uno de los motivos de consulta más frecuentes en hepatología. Se genera por una alteración en la síntesis, la secreción o el flujo de la bilis, a través del tracto biliar. Esta se define por una elevación de enzimas como la fosfatasa alcalina (Alkaline Phosphatase, ALP) y la gamma-glutamil transferasa, y en estadios tardíos con la hiperbilirrubinemia, al igual que con otras manifestaciones clínicas, tales como el prurito y la ictericia. El enfoque diagnóstico implica establecer el origen de dicha elevación, determinando si es intrahepática o extrahepática. Si es intrahepática, se debe esclarecer si proviene de los hepatocitos o de la vía biliar de pequeño y de gran calibre. El tratamiento dependerá de la etiología, por lo cual es importante un diagnóstico preciso. En esta revisión se presenta la fisiopatología y un enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico.


Abstract Cholestasis is one of the most frequent reasons for hepatology consultation. It is generated by altered synthesis, secretion or flow of bile through the biliary tract and is defined by elevated levels of enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase. In late stages, hyperbilirubinemia and clinical manifestations such as pruritus and jaundice develop. The diagnostic approach involves establishment of the reasons for elevated enzyme levels and determination of whether it is intrahepatic or extrahepatic. If it is intrahepatic, the source must be determined (hepatocytes, small bile ducts, or large caliber bile ducts). Treatment depends on the etiology, so accurate diagnosis is important. This review presents the pathophysiology and a diagnostic and therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Cholestasis , Diagnosis , Pruritus , Lifting , Alkaline Phosphatase , Hyperbilirubinemia , Jaundice
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828882

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Abnormalities of liver-related indices are common in ICU patients, but the effects of cholestasis and hypoxic hepatitis in critically ill patients remains unclarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cholestasis and hypoxic liver dysfunction on the prognosis of ICU patients.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted based on the data of patients admitted to the ICU for the first time between 2001 and 2011 archived in the MIMIC-Ⅲ database. The patients were divided into cholestasis, hypoxic hepatitis and control groups, and their 28-day case fatality rate as the primary outcome was compared among the groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 5852 ICU patients were included in the analysis. The incidence of cholestasis and hypoxic liver dysfunction was 31.9% (1869/5852) and 17.9% (1046/5852), respectively. There was no significant difference in 28-day case fatality rate between cholestasis group and the control group. Compared with the control group, the patients with hypoxic hepatitis had a significantly higher 28-day case fatality rate (46% 35%, < 0.01), a higher hospital case fatality rate (40% 31%, < 0.01), and a higher ICU case fatality rate (35.7% 22.2%, < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that lactic acid (LAC), aspartate transaminase (AST), and international standard ratio (INR) were independent risk factors for 28-day case fatality rate.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The incidence of cholestatic liver dysfunction is higher than that of hypoxic hepatitis, but it does not increase the 28-day case fatality rate of the ICU patients, suggesting that cholestatic liver dysfunction may be the early adaptation of the liver to critical diseases.


Subject(s)
Cholestasis , Hepatitis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811413

ABSTRACT

We present an 8 years old girl who was diagnosed at 6 months of age of Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis type 2. Although liver transplantation (LT) was classically considered curative for these patients, cholestasis recurrence with normal gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), mediated by anti-bile salt export pump (BSEP) antibodies after LT (auto-antibody Induced BSEP Deficiency, AIBD) has been recently reported. Our patient underwent LT at 14 months. During her evolution, patient presented three episodes of acute rejection. Seven years after the LT, the patient presented pruritus with cholestasis and elevation of liver enzymes with persistent normal GGT. Liver biopsy showed intrahepatic cholestasis and giant-cell transformation with very low BSEP activity. Auto-antibodies against BSEP were detected therefore an AIBD was diagnosed. She was treated with Rituximab and immunoadsorption with resolution of the AIBD. As a complication of the treatment she developed a pneumocystis infection successfully treated with corticoids, cotrimoxazol and anidulafungin.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Antibodies , Bile , Biopsy , Child , Cholestasis , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic , Female , gamma-Glutamyltransferase , Humans , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Pneumocystis Infections , Pruritus , Recurrence , Rituximab
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(5): 1217-1229, sept.-oct. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094124

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El médico asistencial debe evaluar a diario las pruebas hepáticas en personas con afecciones del hígado, o en los llamados controles a personas supuestamente normales. El objetivo fue facilitar la reflexión práctica en la interpretación de las pruebas hepáticas. Se realizó una revisión de las publicaciones más importantes en base de datos como MEDLINE, EMBASE y Scielo en los últimos años para facilitar la interpretación de las pruebas de laboratorio en el estudio de las lesiones del hígado. En la práctica diaria la elevación de las aminotransferasas, ha sido asociada con un incremento en la mortalidad total y está relacionada con disfunción hepática. Los estudios imagenológicos al igual que la biopsia hepática pueden ser considerados cuando las pruebas hepáticas no definen el diagnóstico, para estudiar al enfermo o cuando los posibles diagnósticos sean múltiples, por lo que definir el valor de la elevación de los niveles de alanino aminotransferasas, aspartato aminotransferasas, junto a la los niveles de fosfatasa alcalina y bilirrubina en la lesión colestática, unidas al uso de pruebas que miden el metabolismo celular en la enfermedad hepatocelular o la colestasis son de vital importancia la práctica médica diaria (AU).


SUMMARY The physician providing health care should daily evaluate hepatic testes in persons with liver diseases, or in the so-called controls to persons supposedly healthy. The aim of this work was facilitating practical reflection in the interpretation of hepatic testes. The most important works published in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scielo during the last years were reviewed for understanding laboratory tests in the study of hepatic lesions. In the regular practice the increase of aminotransferases has been associated to a growth of total mortality, and this one related to hepatic dysfunction. The imaging studies and also hepatic biopsy should be taking into consideration when hepatic testes do not define the diagnosis, to study the patient, or when there are many possible diagnoses; therefore defining the growth of the alaninotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels together with the levels of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin in the cholestasis lesion and the use of testes measuring the cell metabolism in the hepatocellular disease or cholestasis are very important in the day-to-day medical practice (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Diseases/blood , Metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Cholestasis/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Liver Diseases/metabolism
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