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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928026

ABSTRACT

This study aims to establish a rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneously determining the content of strychnine and paeoniflorin in plasma and brain tissue of rats, and compare the pharmacokinetic behavior and brain tissue distribution of paeoniflorin combined with normal and toxic doses of strychnine in rats after percutaneous administration. Compared with those in the toxic-dose strychnine group, the AUC_(0-t), AUC_(0-∞), and C_(max) of strychnine decreased by 51.51%, 45.68%, and 46.03%, respectively(P<0.01), and the corresponding values of paeoniflorin increased by 91.41%, 102.31%, and 169.32%, respectively(P<0.01), in the compatibility group. Compared with the normal-dose strychnine group, the compatibility group showed insignificantly decreased C_(max), AUC_(0-t), and AUC_(0-∞) of strychnine, increased C_(max) and T_(max) of paeoniflorin(P<0.01), 66.88% increase in AUC_(0-t), and 70.55% increase in AUC_(0-∞) of paeoniflorin. In addition, the brain tissue concentration of strychnine decreased and that of paeoniflorin increased after compatibility. The combination of paeoniflorin with normal dose and toxic dose of strychnine can inhibit the percutaneous absorption of strychnine, and greatly promote the percutaneous penetration of paeoniflorin, whereas the interaction mechanism remains to be explored. The UPLC-MS/MS method established in this study is easy to operate and has good precision. It is suitable for in vivo study of pharmacokinetic behavior and brain tissue distribution of paeoniflorin and strychnine after percutaneous administration in rats, which provides reference for the safe and rational clinical use of strychnine and the combined use of drugs, and lays a solid foundation for the development of external preparations containing Strychni Semen.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Animals , Brain , Bridged-Ring Compounds/pharmacology , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Glucosides , Monoterpenes , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Strychnine , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Tissue Distribution
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18802, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403736

ABSTRACT

Abstract The flavonoids and xanthones present in the ethanol extracts of leaves and stems of Fridericia samydoides showed that anti-dengue activities in vitro were investigated qualitatively by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-mass spectrometry in series. Nineteen flavones and fifteen xanthones were detected and characterized on the basis of their fragmentation pattern in the positive and negative ion mode tandem mass spectrometry spectra and ultraviolet bands. Acacetin, chrysin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, mangiferin, 2'-O-trans-caffeoylmangiferin, 2'-O-trans-coumaroylmangiferin and 2'-O-trans-cinnamoylmangiferin were identified by comparison with authentic samples. The other compounds detected were tentatively assigned by analysis of the spectral data and by comparison with literature reports. In addition, it performed the fractionation of the leaves extract leading to the isolation of mangiferin, isovitexin and isoorientin. All extracts and isolated compounds inhibited the Dengue virus replication cycle with EC50 less than 25.0 µg/mL for extracts and 272.5, 85.6 and 79.3 µg/mL for mangiferin, isovitexin and isoorientin, respectively.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/agonists , Bignoniaceae/adverse effects , Dengue Virus , Xanthones/agonists , Mass Spectrometry/methods , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
3.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 88 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390664

ABSTRACT

Planejamento de Experimentos (DoE) permite obter e explorar conhecimentos sobre inúmeros sistemas, facilitando a coleta de informações com reduzido número de experimentos. No entanto, DoE é restrito ao delineamento do desenho experimental. Para superar essa limitação e permitir uma previsão precisa dos tempos de retenção para uma seleção de filtros UV orgânicos sob diversas condições, usamos a Relação Quantitativa entre Estrutura e Retenção combinada com o método de Monte Carlo para desenvolver uma plataforma in silico capaz de prever o perfil cromatográfico de filtros UV orgânicos. Sete analitos foram usados para estabelecer o modelo de predição: benzofenona-3, avobenzona, ethilhexil triazona, octil dimetil PABA, metoxicinamato de octila, tinosorb® S e octocrileno. Os valores residuais obtidos no modelo de análise de regressão múltipla mostraram distribuição normal, homocedasticidade e independência. Os coeficientes de determinação (R2) e predição (R2 pred) foram de 99,82% e 99,71%, respectivamente. A plataforma in silico apresentou grande potencial para predição do perfil cromatográfico de filtros UV orgânicos, da coeluição de analitos, de seus parâmetros cromatográficos, além de permitir, sem experimentação, uma visão geral do comportamento de retenção de compostos sob diversas condições cromatográficas


Design of Experiments (DoE) allows obtaining and explorer knowledge about innumerous systems, facilitating the information collection with reduced number of experiments. However, DoE is restricted to the limited range which experimental design was delineated. In order to overcome this limitation and enable accurate prediction of retention times for a selection of organic UV filters under various conditions, we used the Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships tool combined with Monte Carlo method to develop an in silico platform capable of predicting chromatographic profile of organic UV filters. Seven analytes were used to established to prediction model: benzophenone-3, butyl methoxydibenzoilmethane, ethylhexyl triazone, ethylhexyl dimetyl PABA, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, bisethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine and octocrylene. Residual values obtained from multiple regression analysis model showed normal distribution, homoscedasticity, and independence. Determination (R2) and prediction (R2 pred) coefficients were found to be 99,82% and 99,71%, respectively. In silico platform presented great potential for predicting chromatographic profile of organic UV filters, analytes coelution, chromatographic parameters and allowing, without experimentation, an overview of retention behavior of compounds under various chromatographic conditions


Subject(s)
Sunscreening Agents , Regression Analysis , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Planning , Methods , Filters , Monte Carlo Method
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 93 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392262

ABSTRACT

O número de pessoas utilizando substâncias ilícitas de forma recreativa aumenta a cada ano, chamando a atenção de estudiosos de diversas áreas do conhecimento. Com isso, a demanda de exames toxicológicos exigida para trabalhadores, vítimas de crimes e esportistas também tem crescido. A amostra biológica mais utilizada para análises toxicológicas continua sendo a urina, visto que sua obtenção é menos invasiva, possibilita coletar grande volume de amostra e pode-se detectar substâncias até dias após ter ocorrido a exposição ou consumo. Entretanto, estas amostras necessitam de um grande volume físico para serem armazenadas e transportadas aos laboratórios, devendo ser mantidas em temperatura baixa e controlada para conservação. Outro ponto a se considerar é a quantidade de amostra insuficientemente coletada, ou extravasamento do conteúdo, contaminando outras amostras e muitas vezes, inviabilizando a análise. Uma alternativa recente para tais problemas é utilizar a técnica chamada de dried urine spots (DUS), onde poucos microlitros de urina são colocados em um papel absorvente e secos sob temperatura ambiente, preservando de agentes degradantes os componentes presentes na urina. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a estabilidade das substâncias do presente estudo em alta temperatura, temperatura ambiente e em temperaturas de 4°C e -20°C. Para este fim, foi necessário desenvolver, validar e aplicar métodos de extração e determinação de anfetaminas e produtos de biotransformação de cocaína e tetraidrocanabinol carboxílico (THCCOOH) em amostras dried urine spot, utilizando cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massas. Os picos foram identificados por UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, com tempo total de 5 mins utilizando fase A- água, formiato de amônio e 0,1% ácido fórmico, e B- metanol: acetonitrila (6:4) + 0,1% de ácido fórmico. A extração foi feita utilizando acetonitrila: metanol: acetona (1:1:1) +ácido fórmico 0,1%. Não foi possível iniciar a validação de THCCOOH, visto uma possível complexação do analito com o papel. Para as outras substâncias, o método cromatográfico desenvolvido se mostrou eficiente e seletivo, com LOD e LOQ de 10 ng/mL para todos os analitos, sendo linear até 1000 ng/mL, atendeu as especificações de precisão e exatidão e carryover. As amostras permaneceram estáveis ao longo de 32 dias nas temperaturas estudadas, demonstrando a segurança em se utilizar a técnica de DUS para armazenamento e transporte de amostras biológicas dentro da faixa de temperatura do estudo até 32 dias


The number of people using illegal substances in a recreational way increases each year, drawing the attention of scholars from different areas of knowledge. As a result, the demand for workplaces drug tests, toxicological tests for victims of crimes and dopping has also grown. The biological sample most used for toxicological tests remains urine, since obtaining it is less invasive, it is possible to collect a large volume of sample and it is possible to detect substances up to days after exposure or consumption has occurred. However, these samples require a large physical volume to be stored and transported to the laboratories, and must be kept at a low temperature for conservation. Another point to consider is the amount of sample insufficiently collected, or leakage of the content, causing contamination of other samples and often making the analysis unfeasible. A recent alternative to such problems is to use "dried urine spots" (DUS), where few microliters of urine are placed on absorbent paper and dried at room temperature, preserving the components present in the urine from degrading agents. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the stability of the substances in this study at high temperature, room temperature and at temperatures of 4°C and -20°C. For this purpose, it was necessary to develop, validate and apply methods of extraction and determination of amphetamines and biotransformation products of cocaine and carboxylic tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in dried urine spot samples, using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The peaks were identified liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS), with a total time of 5 mins using phase A- water, ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid, and B- methanol: acetonitrile (6:4) + 0.1% formic acid. Extraction was done using acetonitrile: methanol: acetone (1:1:1) + 0.1% formic acid. It was not possible to perform the validation of THCCOOH, given a possible complexation of the analyte with the paper. To the others substances, the chromatographic method developed proved to be efficient and selective, with LOD and LOQ of 10 ng/mL for all analytes, being linear up to 1000 ng/mL, meeting the specifications of precision and accuracy and carryover. The samples remained stable for 32 days at the temperatures studied, demonstrating the safety of using the DUS technique for storage and transport of biological samples until 32 days on temperature range studied


Subject(s)
Dronabinol/adverse effects , Biotransformation , Cocaine/agonists , Amphetamines/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Urine/physiology , Chromatography, Liquid/methods
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 63 p. tab, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396298

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Meropenem (MER) e Piperacilina/Tazobactana (PTZ) são agentes antimicrobianos largamente prescritos para pacientes grandes queimados internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) com infecções nosocomiais causadas por Gram-negativos sensíveis CIM 2 mg/L, Enterobacteriaceae, EB e Non-enterobacteriaceae, NEB. A síndrome da resposta inflamatória sistêmica (SRIS) que ocorre durante o choque séptico no grande queimado pode causar alteração na farmacocinética do paciente em terapia intensiva, de modo que a dose recomendada pode não atingir o alvo desejado contra Gram-negativos de sensibilidade intermediária CIM >2 mg/L. Objetivo: Investigar a efetividade dos beta-lactâmicos piperacilina e meropenem na infusão estendida comparada à infusão intermitente recomendada, para os pacientes sépticos grandes queimados através da abordagem farmacocinética-farmacodinâmica (PK/PD). Ética, casuística e procedimentos: Autor e co-autores declararam não haver conflito de interesse. O protocolo foi aprovado, registro CAAE 07525118.3.0000.0068. No presente protocolo de estudo investigaram-se 36 pacientes sépticos grandes queimados, ambos os gêneros (12F/24M) em terapia intensiva do choque séptico com piperacilina-tazobactana 4,5g q6h ou meropenem 1g q8h. Os pacientes incluídos foram estratificados em dois grupos com base na administração através da infusão intermitente, 0,5 h (G1) ou da infusão estendida, 3 h (G2), ambos com 16 pacientes cada. Duas amostras sanguíneas (1,5mL/cada) foram coletadas no estado de equilíbrio (Steady State), 3ª e 5ª hora do início da infusão. Os níveis séricos de PTZ e MER foram mensurados através de cromatografia líquida, e a farmacocinética (PK) dos dois grupos de pacientes foi comparada aos dados reportados em voluntários sadios. A abordagem PK/PD foi aplicada para avaliação da cobertura do antimicrobiano a partir da estimativa do índice de predição de efetividade (% fΔT>CIM) e da probabilidade de alcançar o alvo terapêutico (PTA) com base no alvo PK/PD recomendado, 100%fΔT>CIM. Resultados e discussão: As características de admissão dos pacientes G1/G2 foram expressas através de mediana e interquartil: Clcr 115 (90-148) / 127 (90-170) ml/min; 30 (24-31) / 27 (24- 33,5) anos, 70 (61-75) / 71 (65-75) kg, 30 (20-42) / 33,9 (18-38,4)% área total de superfície queimada, SAPS3 53 (45-57) / 48 (37,8-59,5). Na admissão dos pacientes na UTI registrou-se G1/G2: trauma térmico (17/16), trauma elétrico (1/2), lesão inalatória (11/11), ventilação mecânica (16/9) e vasopressores foram necessários em 15/8 pacientes, G1/G2. Ocorreram diferentes alterações na farmacocinética dos dois beta-lactâmicos após a infusão estendida versus a infusão intermitente quando comparadas com dados relatados em voluntários sadios. Evidenciou-se prolongamento da meia vida decorrente do aumento do volume de distribuição. Estes resultados impactaram diferentemente a cobertura. O monitoramento de biomarcadores inflamatórios expressos em medianas (G1/G2) evidenciou aumento do PCR: 232/183mg/L e leucocitose (leucócitos 11/14 mil cel/mm3, neutrófilos 9/10 mil cel/mm3) na fase precoce do choque séptico. Relativamente à microbiologia dos isolados, a erradicação dos patógenos ocorreu para todos os pacientes após a infusão estendida contra Gram-negativos sensíveis (CIM: 2 mg/L), e de sensibilidade intermediária (CIM 4mg/L) como a K. pneumoniae e P. aeruginosa, enquanto a infusão intermitente garantiu erradicação de patógenos apenas até CIM 2 mg/L. Conclusão: Evidenciou-se a superioridade da infusão estendida frente à infusão intermitente na cobertura dos dois antimicrobianos, no alvo terapêutico considerado 100%fΔT>CIM. Registraram-se alterações na farmacocinética destes agentes nos pacientes frente aos dados reportados para voluntários sadios. Diferença significativa entre grupos (G1/G2) foi encontrada com relação meia vida biológica, e ao volume de distribuição tanto pata a piperacilina quanto para o meropenem


Background: Meropenem (MER) and Piperacillin/Tazobactam (PTZ), antimicrobial betalactam agents are widely prescribed to burn patients from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with nosocomial infections caused by Gram-negative strains. Change in the pharmacokinetics of critically ill patient occurs during the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at the course of septic shock. Then, the recommended dose administered by intermittent infusion, 0.5 hr cannot reach the target against gram-negative strains MIC > 2 mg/L. Subject: To investigate drug effectiveness of the beta-lactams piperacilin and meropenem in extended infusion compared to the recommended intermittent infusion in critically ill septic burn patients using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) approach. Ethics, Casuistry and Methods: All authors declared there is no conflict of interests. Ethical approval CAAE, register 07525118.3.0000.0068. It was investigated in the study protocol 36 septic burn patients of both genders (12M / 24F), undergoing antimicrobial therapy with PTZ 4.5 g q6h or MER 1g q8h. Based on the chosen antimicrobial therapy and drug infusion prescribed by the physician, patients were stratified in groups with intermittent 0.5h infusion (G1) or with the extended 3h infusion (G2), both groups with 16 patients each. Two blood samples were collected at the steady state (1.5mL / each), at the 3rd and 5th hrs of starting the infusion. Serum levels were measured by liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics (PK) of MER or PTZ was compared to data reported in healthy volunteers for both groups of patients. PK/PD approach was applied to estimate the drug effectiveness index (fΔT> MIC) and to assess the probability of target attained (PTA) based on the recommended PK/PD target, 100% fΔT> MIC. Results and discussion: Characteristics of patients admission G1/G2 were: Clcr 115(90- 148)/127(90-170) ml/min; 30(24-31)/27(24-34) yrs, 70(61-75)/71(65-75) kg, 30(20- 42)/33.9(18-38.4)% total burn surface area, SAPS3 53(45-57)/48(37.8-59.5), medians (interquartile): thermal trauma occurred (17/16), electric trauma (1/2), inhalation injury (11/11), mechanical ventilation (9/16) and vasopressors required in 15/8 patients. It was demonstrated that different PK changes occurred for both beta-lactam agents after the extended or intermittent infusion by comparison with data reported in healthy volunteers. PK changes were related to the prolongation of biological half-life and increases on volume of distribution with impact on pharmacodynamics. On the other hand, meropenem total body clearance reduced by 50% at the earlier period of septic shock could be explained by the reduction of MER-transporters expression in the tubular renal secretion, once only patients with renal function preserved were included in the study protocol. Inflammatory biomarkers increased at the earlier period of septic shock: C-rp 232/183mg/L; leukocytes 11/14*103cel/mm3, neutrophils 9/10*103cel/mm3, medians, G1/G2. Clinical and microbiological cure was obtained for all patients of G1 against MIC < 2mg/L after intermittent 0.5 h infusion; while PK/PD target was attained for G2 patients undergoing antimicrobial therapy with MER or PTZ by extended infusion against gram negative strains K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa up to MIC 4mg L. Conclusion: Superiority of the extended infusion over intermitent infusion was obtained for the two antimicrobials was evidenced, in the therapeutic target considered 100%fΔT>CIM. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of these agents were recorded in patients compared to data reported for healthy volunteers. A significant difference between groups (G1/G2) was found in relation to biological half-life and volume of distribution for both piperacillin and meropenem


Subject(s)
Piperacillin/analysis , Burns/diagnosis , Meropenem/analysis , Patients/classification , Shock, Septic/complications , Pharmacokinetics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cross Infection/complications , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Critical Illness/classification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Pharmacologic Actions , Enterobacteriaceae , Dosage , Intensive Care Units/classification , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis
6.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 93 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396684

ABSTRACT

O número de pessoas utilizando substâncias ilícitas de forma recreativa aumenta a cada ano, chamando a atenção de estudiosos de diversas áreas do conhecimento. Com isso, a demanda de exames toxicológicos exigida para trabalhadores, vítimas de crimes e esportistas também tem crescido. A amostra biológica mais utilizada para análises toxicológicas continua sendo a urina, visto que sua obtenção é menos invasiva, possibilita coletar grande volume de amostra e pode-se detectar substâncias até dias após ter ocorrido a exposição ou consumo. Entretanto, estas amostras necessitam de um grande volume físico para serem armazenadas e transportadas aos laboratórios, devendo ser mantidas em temperatura baixa e controlada para conservação. Outro ponto a se considerar é a quantidade de amostra insuficientemente coletada, ou extravasamento do conteúdo, contaminando outras amostras e muitas vezes, inviabilizando a análise. Uma alternativa recente para tais problemas é utilizar a técnica chamada de dried urine spots (DUS), onde poucos microlitros de urina são colocados em um papel absorvente e secos sob temperatura ambiente, preservando de agentes degradantes os componentes presentes na urina. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a estabilidade das substâncias do presente estudo em alta temperatura, temperatura ambiente e em temperaturas de 4°C e -20°C. Para este fim, foi necessário desenvolver, validar e aplicar métodos de extração e determinação de anfetaminas e produtos de biotransformação de cocaína e tetraidrocanabinol carboxílico (THCCOOH) em amostras dried urine spot, utilizando cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massas. Os picos foram identificados por UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, com tempo total de 5 mins utilizando fase A- água, formiato de amônio e 0,1% ácido fórmico, e B- metanol: acetonitrila (6:4) + 0,1% de ácido fórmico. A extração foi feita utilizando acetonitrila: metanol: acetona (1:1:1) +ácido fórmico 0,1%. Não foi possível iniciar a validação de THCCOOH, visto uma possível complexação do analito com o papel. Para as outras substâncias, o método cromatográfico desenvolvido se mostrou eficiente e seletivo, com LOD e LOQ de 10 ng/mL para todos os analitos, sendo linear até 1000 ng/mL, atendeu as especificações de precisão e exatidão e carryover. As amostras permaneceram estáveis ao longo de 32 dias nas temperaturas estudadas, demonstrando a segurança em se utilizar a técnica de DUS para armazenamento e transporte de amostras biológicas dentro da faixa de temperatura do estudo até 32 dias


The number of people using illegal substances in a recreational way increases each year, drawing the attention of scholars from different areas of knowledge. As a result, the demand for workplaces drug tests, toxicological tests for victims of crimes and dopping has also grown. The biological sample most used for toxicological tests remains urine, since obtaining it is less invasive, it is possible to collect a large volume of sample and it is possible to detect substances up to days after exposure or consumption has occurred. However, these samples require a large physical volume to be stored and transported to the laboratories, and must be kept at a low temperature for conservation. Another point to consider is the amount of sample insufficiently collected, or leakage of the content, causing contamination of other samples and often making the analysis unfeasible. A recent alternative to such problems is to use "dried urine spots" (DUS), where few microliters of urine are placed on absorbent paper and dried at room temperature, preserving the components present in the urine from degrading agents. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the stability of the substances in this study at high temperature, room temperature and at temperatures of 4°C and -20°C. For this purpose, it was necessary to develop, validate and apply methods of extraction and determination of amphetamines and biotransformation products of cocaine and carboxylic tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in dried urine spot samples, using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The peaks were identified liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS), with a total time of 5 mins using phase A- water, ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid, and B- methanol: acetonitrile (6:4) + 0.1% formic acid. Extraction was done using acetonitrile: methanol: acetone (1:1:1) + 0.1% formic acid. It was not possible to perform the validation of THCCOOH, given a possible complexation of the analyte with the paper. To the others substances, the chromatographic method developed proved to be efficient and selective, with LOD and LOQ of 10 ng/mL for all analytes, being linear up to 1000 ng/mL, meeting the specifications of precision and accuracy and carryover. The samples remained stable for 32 days at the temperatures studied, demonstrating the safety of using the DUS technique for storage and transport of biological samples until 32 days on temperature range studied


Subject(s)
Dronabinol/adverse effects , Biotransformation , Cocaine/adverse effects , Amphetamines/adverse effects , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Urine , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Occupational Groups/classification
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19061, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350245

ABSTRACT

Proteins and peptides are the most diverse biomolecules found in nature and make our interest due to their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) plays a major role in controlling blood pressure. The inhibition of ACE with peptides is a main target in the regulation of hypertension. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of soy bean. This was accomplished by isolation of ACE inhibitory peptides using response surface methodology (RSM) and characterization of these bioactive peptides by mass spectrometry. 31 hydrolyzed fractions were isolated and evaluated for their ACE inhibition potential. Hydrolyzed fraction having highest ACE inhibitory activity was characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique. RSM results showed maximum ACE inhibition potential (64%) by hydrolyzate was obtained at 45 ºC temperature, pH 8.0, E/S 0.2 in 2 hours hydrolysis time. Results of LC-MS analysis revealed Ser-Gly, Ser-Pro, Met-Ala, His-Ala, Lys-Pro, Phe-Thr, Met-Leu, Pro-Arg, Ala-Pro-Val, Pro-Ala-Leu, Val-Met-Gly, Pro-Leu-Val, Pro-Pro-Gln, His-Arg-Gly, Ser-Phe-Val-Leu, Ala-Val-His-Try, Arg-Thr-Val-Arg, His-His-Tyr-Leu-Val, Asp-Gly-Ala-Cys-Ser-Ala-Asn and MetVal-Thr-Gly-Pro-Gly-Cys-His bioactive peptides in hydrolyzed fraction of soy bean. Our data provide evidence that response surface methodology is a good approach for isolation of antihypertensive bioactive peptides with more potent activity as nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals. Therefore soy bean can be use for industrial production of pharmaceutical grade natural medicines for handling high blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Peptides/pharmacology , Proteins/pharmacology , Soybean Proteins/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Protein Hydrolysates/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Process Optimization/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypertension/therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/analysis
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 110 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379145

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O Meropenem é um carbapenêmico de amplo espectro, prescrito na terapia do choque séptico nos pacientes graves adultos de UTI, com infecções graves causadas por patógenos Gram-negativos susceptíveis. Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade do Meropenem em pacientes sépticos queimados, investigar a farmacocinética na fase precoce e na fase tardia durante o curso do choque séptico e o impacto no desfecho clínico. Ética, Casuística e Procedimentos: Aprovação ética, registro CAAE07525118.3.0000.0068; nenhum conflito de interesse declarado foi obtido dos autores. Após assinatura do TCLE pelo responsável legal, o paciente foi incluído no protocolo. Investigou-se a população de 15 pacientes sépticos grandes queimados, adultos de ambos os gêneros (10 M/ 5F) com função renal preservada (Clcr> 50 ml/min). As características demográficas da população de pacientes incluídos foram idade de 37(33 -41) anos, 71(59,5 - 80,0) kg e índice de massa corpórea de 24,3(20,6-24,7) kg/m2, medianas (interquartil). Registrou-se o escore SAPS*3 54(47-59) de admissão dos pacientes na UTI; a superfície corpórea total queimada foi de 33% (18,3-34,4), SCTQ medianas (interquartil). A lesão inalatória e o uso de vasopressores foram registrados em 12/15 pacientes após trauma térmico/ elétrico (10/5). Após intubação orotraqueal, a ventilação mecânica foi registrada em 13/15 pacientes. A terapia empírica do choque séptico com Meropenem no regime de 1g q8h, por infusão estendida de 3 horas, foi iniciada após a coleta das culturas. Realizou-se coleta seriada de amostras sanguíneas para dosagem sérica do antimicrobiano por cromatografia líquida. Aplicou-se o modelo aberto monocompartimental para estudo da farmacocinética e estimativa dos parâmetros, meia vida biológica, depuração total corporal e volume de distribuição. A abordagem farmacocinética-farmacodinâmica (PK-PD) foi baseada na dosagem sérica do Meropenem e na taxa de eliminação, para estimativa do índice de predição de efetividade (% ƒ Δ?T> CIM), considerando o novo alvo terapêutico de 100% ƒ Δ?T> CIM. Utilizou-se estatística não paramétrica pela aplicação do teste de Wilcoxon para dados pareados e testes de correlação linear. Resultados e Discussão: Registrou-se alteração dos parâmetros farmacocinéticos nos pacientes sépticos investigados frente aos dados reportados para voluntários sadios. Evidenciou-se redução na taxa de eliminação e da depuração total corporal; o prolongamento da meia vida biológica ocorreu pelo aumento do volume de distribuição. Estas alterações impactaram estendendo a cobertura do Meropenem, na fase precoce do choque séptico, contra os patógenos de susceptibilidade intermediária com CIM 4 mg/L. Conclusão: A cobertura do Meropenem foi garantida contra os patógenos isolados até CIM 2 mg/L para todos os pacientes. Adicionalmente, ocorreu a erradicação de patógenos de susceptibilidade intermediária CIM 4 mg/L, pela cobertura que foi atingida apenas na fase precoce do choque séptico. Então, a abordagem PK / PD contribui para a obtenção do resultado


Background: Meropenem is a carbapenêmic, agent largely prescribed to septic patients in the Intensive Care Units with severe infections caused by Gram-negative susceptible strains. Objective: To evaluate Meropenem effectiveness in ICU septic burn patients and to investigate pharmacokinetic changes that could impact the desired outcome by eradication of Gram-negative strains of intermediate susceptibility. Ethics, Casuistry and Methods: Ethical approval register CAEE 07525118.3.0000.0068was obtained; no conflicts of interest to declare were obtained from all authors. Fifteen burn adult patients of both genders (10 M/ 5F) with preserved renal function (Clcr> 50 ml/min) were investigated after TCLE signed. Demographic characteristics of patients included were: 37(33 -41) years, 71(59.5- 80.0) kg, 24.3 (20.6-24.7) kg/m2 body mass index, medians (quartiles). ICU patients admission was based on SAPS*3 score of 54(47-59), 33% (18.3-34.4) TBSA medians (quartiles). Inhalation injury and vasopressors requirements were in 12/15 patients after fire/electricity (10/5, proportion). Mechanical ventilation was necessary in 13/15 patients. Antimicrobial therapy of septic shock with meropenem 1g q8h 3 hours infusion started, after cultures collection. A serial of blood samples was collected from the central catheter after a minimum of 48 hours of Meropenem therapy for drug serum measurements by liquid chromatography. One compartment open model was applied to estimate PK data related to the elimination rate constant, biological half-life, total body clearance and volume of distribution PK/PD approach was based on serum trough levels and elimination rate constant to estimate the predictive index of drug effectiveness (% fΔT>CIM), based on the new PK/PD target 100% fΔT>CIM. Non parametric statistics was applied, Wilcoxon test for paired data and linear correlations. Results: Pharmacokinetic changes occurred in septic burn patients investigated by comparison with results reported in healthy volunteers as follows by the reduction on elimination rate constant and also on total body clearance, in spite of preserved renal function for all patients included. In addition, a prolongation of biological half-life occurred as a consequence of increases on volume of distribution. Pharmacodynamics was impacted by PK changes only at the earlier period of septic shock, once pathogens isolated of intermediate susceptibility up to MIC 4 mg/L were eradicated. Conclusion: Meropenem effectiveness was guaranteed against Gram-negative up to MIC 2 mg/L strains isolated for all patients. In addition, eradication of pathogens of intermediate susceptibility MIC 4 mg/L strains occurred only at the earlier period of septic shock. Then, PK/PD approach contributes to desired outcome achievement


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients , Wounds and Injuries/drug therapy , Burns/pathology , Pharmacokinetics , Meropenem/analysis , Shock, Septic/complications , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Inhalation , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Pharmacologic Actions , Intensive Care Units/classification
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 127 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379383

ABSTRACT

Estenose de Junção Ureteropélvica (JUP) é uma doença caracterizada pelo bloqueio do fluxo de urina da pelve renal (porção proximal do ureter no rim) ao ureter, tubo que liga o rim à bexiga. Essa formação congênita é uma das maiores causas de dilatação do rim (hidronefrose) em recém-nascidos e, em alguns casos, pode causar danos mais severos ao órgão. A hidronefrose causada pela estenose de JUP pode desaparecer espontaneamente sem perda da função renal, entretanto, é preciso um acompanhamento clínico. Por outro lado, em casos mais severos, onde a dilatação pode causar danos maiores ao rim, um tratamento cirúrgico se faz necessário. Embora existam métodos para o diagnóstico da estenose de JUP, como ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância e cintilografia, é um grande desafio diferenciar os pacientes que requerem um tratamento cirúrgico e os que necessitam apenas de um acompanhamento convencional. A metabolômica global, que investiga de modo comparativo o conjunto de metabólitos de baixa massa molecular expressos em indivíduos em condições pré-selecionadas, tem o potencial de servir como ferramenta diagnóstica para os pacientes com estenose de JUP e, consequentemente, auxiliar na tomada de decisão entre um acompanhamento clínico ou tratamento cirúrgico. Assim sendo, no presente trabalho, três grupos de pacientes com estenose de JUP, pré-diagnosticados por métodos convencionais, foram investigados sob a perspectiva da metabolômica global, por meio de análises de urina, utilizando cromatografia gasosa e cromatografia líquida, ambas acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC-MS e RPLC10 MS, respectivamente): pacientes que requerem tratamento cirúrgico (CIR), pacientes que requerem acompanhamento clínico (CLI), e indivíduos sãos (CON). Os resultados mostram que é possível encontrar metabólitos discriminantes entre todas as comparações (CON x CLI, CON x CIR e CLI x CIR); os metabólitos encontrados nas análises multivariada e univariada foram utilizados para construção da curva ROC, para confirmar a possibilidade de utilização desses compostos como biomarcadores. Foram observadas alterações em rotas metabólicas importantes para o bom funcionamento das funções renais, principalmente entre a comparação mais desafiadora (CLI x CIR), como o metabolismo da fenilalanina, da tirosina, da beta-alanina, dos aminoaçúcares e dos nucleotídeos. Há indícios de que o ciclo de Krebs também sofre alteração. Os resultados obtidos podem servir como ponto de partida para uma futura análise alvo e validação biológica


Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) stenosis is a disease characterized by the interruption of the flow of urine from the renal pelvis (proximal part of ureter in the kidney) to the ureter, tube that links the kidney to bladder. That congenital formation is one of the main causes of kidney dilation (hydronephrosis) in newborns and, sometimes, can cause more serious damage to the organ. The hydronephrosis caused by UPJ stenosis can disappear spontaneously without compromising renal function, although a clinical follow-up is required. On the other hand, in more serious cases, when dilation can induce larger damage to the kidney, surgery intervention is necessary. Although there are methods to diagnose UPJ stenosis, such as ultrasound, computed tomography, resonance and scintigraphy, it is still a great challenge to distinguish patients that require surgery from those whose a clinical follow-up suffices. Global metabolomics, a method that investigates in a comparative manner the set of low molecular mass metabolites expressed by an individual in pre-selected conditions, has the potential to function as a diagnostic tool for patients with UPJ stenosis to support decisions about patient treatment, i.e., surgery versus clinical follow-up. In this work, three groups of UPJ stenosis patients were investigated with the aid of global metabolomics using urine analysis by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and RPLC-MS, respectively): one group consisted of UPJ stenosis patients requiring clinical follow-up (CLI), other group UPJ stenosis patients requiring surgery intervention (CIR) and a third group comprising healthy individuals, the control group (CON).12 The results show that it was possible to find discriminant metabolites among all pairwise comparisons (CON versus CLI, CON versus CIR and CLI versus CIR). The metabolites found by multivariate and univariate analyses were used to build ROC curves, to confirm whether it is possible to use them as biomarkers. Alterations in metabolic pathways that are important for the good maintenance of kidney functions were found, especially in the most challenged comparison (CLI versus CIR), such as the metabolism of phenylalanine, tyrosine, beta-alanine, amino acids and nucleotides. There are evidences that Krebs cycle was also impacted. The results obtained here can serve as a starting point to future targeted analysis and biological validation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Metabolomics/classification , Phenylalanine/agonists , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Urinary Bladder/abnormalities , Biomarkers/chemistry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods
10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 112 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396688

ABSTRACT

A guanitoxina (GNT) é uma neurotoxina produzida por algumas cepas de cianobactérias dos gêneros Dolichospermum e Sphaerospermopsis>. A GNT é o único organofosforado natural, capaz de causar a morte de animais selvagens e domésticos devido à inibição irreversível da acetilcolinesterase. Apesar de sua alta toxicidade, o diagnóstico da GNT em amostras biológicas ainda é um grande desafio. A dificuldade para sua detecção está diretamente ligada à sua instabilidade em altas temperaturas e pH alcalino, tornando difícil seu monitoramento em corpos d'água. Por isso, esta pesquisa objetivou estudar a estabilidade e biodisponibilidade da GNT em amostras aquosas, com intuito de obter mais informações sobre a natureza química e biológica dessa potente neurotoxina. Para realizar este estudo, a cepa ITEP-24 (S. torques-reginae) produtora de GNT foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas, para obter biomassa para os experimentos de extração, semi-isolamento, estabilidade, ensaio in vitro e identificação por LC-MS/MS. Primeiramente foram realizados testes de extração da GNT partir de células liofilizadas da cepa ITEP-24 utilizando água, metanol e etanol em pH ácido. Depois utilizou-se dois métodos de extração em fase sólida (SPE) com cartuchos preenchidos com fases estacionarias C18 em fase reversa e sílica gel em fase normal, com objetivo de avaliar qual método de SPE seria melhor para extrair e concentrar a GNT. Nós também testamos métodos para lisar as células com sondas de ultrassom, misturador e centrifugação. Além dos métodos de extração, nós avaliamos a estabilidade da toxina em diferentes temperaturas, para isso a biomassa seca contendo a GNT ficou condicionada a 4 °C, 23 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C durantes seis meses, e análises de identificação foram realizadas dentro período de 150 dias em uma sequência de 30 dias. A estabilidade da toxina foi analisada também a partir de extrações em soluções com diferentes valores de pH (1,5; 3,0; 5,0; 7,0; 8,5; 10,5) e temperatura (23 ºC e 37 ºC). Depois, analisou-se a biodisponibilidade da GNT em células frescas da linhagem ITEP-24 através de teste de dissolução in vitro. O objetivo deste teste foi avaliar a liberação da toxina intracelular em meio simulado do conteúdo gástrica e intestinal com e sem enzimas digestivas para compreender e estimar a disponibilidade da GNT in vivo. Os resultados de todos experimentos descritos neste estudo, foram obtidos a partir de análises por cromatografia líquida de interação hidrofílica (HILIC) acoplado ao espectrômetro de massas do tipo triplo quadrupolo LC-QqQ-MS/MS utilizando as transições 253>58, 253>159 e 159>58 [M+H]+ utilizando coluna com fase estacionária zwitteriônica (ZIC). A identificação da GNT foi realizada também por cromatografia líquida acoplada ao espectrômetro de massas de alta resolução (LC-HR-QTOF-MS) com coluna Luna C18, Hydro-RP C18 e ZIC-HILIC. Dos protocolos de extração testados, a combinação de metanol/água (70:30 v/v) com ácido acético (0.3%) extraiu maior quantidade relativa da GNT a partir de células frescas e liofilizadas da cepa ITEP-24 e a concentração da toxina foi maior em amostras de células frescas. Em relação aos métodos de lise celular, as extrações realizadas em sonda de ultrassom com banho-maria e centrifugação por 1h foram estatisticamente significantes para liberar a toxina intracelular. Não houve diferença significativa entre os testes de SPE, no entanto, a semipurificação da toxina foi melhor com cartucho preenchido com sílica gel em fase normal e adaptação desse método em coluna aberta permitiu obter uma fração enriquecida com GNT. A GNT mostrou ser mais estável em pH ácido, sendo o pH 3,0 o melhor para manter e extrair a toxina em amostras aquosas e a toxina intracelular presente em células secas podem degradar em temperatura de 23 °C por um período de 150 dias mesmo em solução com pH 3,0. Durante os testes de extração e purificação foi observado também a degradação da toxina em processos de secagem e ressuspensão. As análises realizadas no LC-HR-QTOF-MS com diferentes métodos cromatográficos possibilitou a identificação da GNT, porém o método realizado com coluna ZIC-HILIC mostrou melhor resolução cromatográfica dos picos relativos m/z e tempo de retenção de toxina. Os resultados obtidos nos testes de dissolução in vitro mostraram que a GNT fica mais disponível no simulado gástrico com e sem a enzima pepsina, mas também pode ser absorvida no intestino. Portanto, o teste de dissolução in vitro pode ser uma ferramenta útil para a avaliação de risco de cianotoxinas in vivo, devido ao seu potencial de monitorar qualitativa e quantitativamente substâncias dissolvidas em fluidos gastrointestinais. Os resultados apresentados neste estudo fornecem informações valiosas para uma melhor compreensão da estabilidade e biodisponibilidade do GNT. Além disso, os métodos apresentados neste estudo podem ser úteis para diversas aplicações projetadas para identificar a toxina em amostras ambientais, bem como orientações para procedimentos de purificação da GNT


Guanitoxin (GNT) is a neurotoxin produced by some strains of cyanobacteria of the genus Dolichospermum and Sphaerospermopsis. GNT is the only natural organophosphate, capable of causing the death of animals from wild and domestic animals due to irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Despite its high toxicity, the diagnosis of GNT in biological samples is still a significant challenge. The difficulty in its detection is directly linked to its instability at high temperatures and alkaline pH, making it difficult to monitor in bodies of water. Therefore, this research aimed to study the stability and bioavailability of GNT in aqueous samples to provide more information about the chemical and biological nature of this molecule. The strain ITEP-24 (S. torques-reginae) producing GNT was grown in the laboratory under controlled conditions to obtain biomass for the extraction, semi-isolation, stability, in vitro tests, and toxin identification by LC-MS/MS. Firstly, tests were carried out to extract GNT from lyophilized cells strain ITEP-24 using water, methanol, and ethanol at acidic pH and, two SPE methods in cartridges with stationary phases of C18 reverse phase and normal phase gel silica, to evaluate which would be better to extract and concentrate the GNT. We also tested different methods of cell lysis, such as ultrasound probes, mixers, and centrifugation. In addition to the extraction methods, the stability of the toxin was evaluated at different temperatures, for this, the dry biomass containing the toxin was conditioned at 4 °C, 23 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C for 150 days and analysis of the identification of the GNT was carried out within that period in a sequence of 30 days. The toxin stability was also analyzed from extractions in solutions with different pH values (1.5; 3.0; 5.0; 7.0; 8.5; 10.5) and temperature (23 ºC and 37 ºC). In addition, we performed dissolution tests with fresh cells of the ITEP-24 strain to evaluate the bioavailability of GNT in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with and without digestive enzymes to understand and estimate the availability of GNT in vivo. The results of all experiments described in this study were obtained from analyzes by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to the LC-QqQ-MS/MS triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using the transitions m/z 253> 58, m/z 253> 159 and m/z 159> 58 [M + H]+ using a column with the zwitterionic stationary phase (ZIC). Liquid chromatography coupled to the high-resolution mass spectrometer (LC-HR-QTOF-MS) with Luna column C18, Hydro-RP C18, and ZIC-HILIC carried out the identification of the GNT. From the extraction protocols tested, the combination of methanol/water (70:30 v/v) with acetic acid (0.3%) extracted a greater relative amount of GNT from fresh and lyophilized ITEP-24 cells, and the concentration of the toxin is higher previously fresh. Concerning cellular methods, the ultrasound probe with a water bath and centrifugation for 1h ware statistically significant to release the intracellular toxin. There was no significant difference between the SPE tests. However, the semi-purification of the toxin was better with a cartridge filled with gel silica in the normal phase and adaptation of this method in an open column allowed to obtain a fraction enriched with GNT. GNT was more stable at acid pH, with pH 3.0 being the best to maintain and the intracellular toxin present in dry cells can degrade at a temperature at 23 °C for 150 days even in pH 3.0 solution. The toxin can also hydrolyze in the drying and resuspension processes. The analyzes carried out in LC-HR-QTOF-MS with different chromatographic methods made it possible to identify the GNT itself, however, the ZIC-HILIC column method showed excellent chromatographic resolution of the relative m/z peaks and toxin retention time. The results obtained in the in vitro dissolution tests showed that GNT is more available in the gastric simulation with and without the enzyme pepsin, but it can also be absorbed in the intestine. Thus, in vitro dissolution tests can be used as a useful tool for the risk assessment of cyanotoxins in vivo due to their potential to qualitatively and quantitatively monitor substances dissolved in gastrointestinal fluids. The results presented in this study provide valuable information for a better understanding of the stability and bioavailability of GNT. Besides, the methods presented in this study can be useful for various applications designed to identify the toxin in environmental samples, as well as guidance on procedures for purifying GNT


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Diagnosis , Methods , Organophosphorus Compounds/antagonists & inhibitors , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Cyanobacteria/metabolism , Solid Phase Extraction/instrumentation , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200163, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153296

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Isolate, fractionate and characterize extracts obtained from soursop leaves. Use of emerging green technologies such as microwave-ultrasound hybridization. The extracts contain kaempferol, procyanidins, catechin, and quercetin. The total ethanolic extract demonstrates cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells.


Abstract Cervical cancer is classified as the fourth most common malignancy in women. Natural compounds are a therapeutic alternative in cancer therapy. The aim of the study is to isolate, fractionate, and characterize extracts obtained from soursop leaves (Annona muricata L.) and determine their cytotoxic effect against HeLa cervical cancer cells and non-carcinogenic fibroblast 3T3 cells. The phytochemicals of soursop leaves were extracted through emerging green technologies such as the novel use of microwave-ultrasound hybridization and the use of environmentally friendly solvents (water and ethanol), in addition to the purification of extracts enriched in polyphenols by liquid chromatography with Amberlite XAD-16. Total aqueous and ethanolic extract were purified, as well as the fraction one of each extract. The extracts recovered from soursop leaves contained kaempferol and its isomers, procyanidins, catechin, and quercetin. The viability of the cells was determined with the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. HeLa and 3T3 cells were exposed to concentrations of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm of a solution of soursop leaf extract powder. The MTT assay showed that soursop leaf extracts were toxic to both cell lines in general, however, the ethanolic extract at 25 and 50 ppm demonstrated inhibition in cell viability against the HeLa cancer line and low cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblast cells. In conclusion, the novel microwave-ultrasound hybridization technology allows the extraction of polyphenols that may have a potential cytotoxic effect on cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , HeLa Cells , Annona/chemistry , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Catechin/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Ethanol , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Glyphosate and its salt formulations are nonselective herbicides that have been extensively used worldwide, both for residential and agricultural purposes. The possible carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of glyphosate remain to be elucidated. We developed a sensitive and high-throughput analytical method for urinary glyphosate using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with the aim of contributing to glyphosate exposure assessment in epidemiological studies.@*METHODS@#After urine dilution (creatinine matching dilution to 0.05 g creatinine/L), glyphosate was extracted using two types of solid phase extraction columns (SCX and NH2) with automated sample preparation instruments. The eluate was dried and dissolved in the mobile phase, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The optimized method was applied to urine samples obtained from 54 Japanese adults and children.@*RESULTS@#The results from the validation study demonstrated good recoveries (91.0-99.6%), within- and between-run precisions (< 15%), low detection limits (0.1 μg/L), and lower limit of quantification (0.3 μg/L). The detection frequency and median concentration of the urinary glyphosate in Japanese subjects were 59% and 0.25 μg/L (0.34 μg/g creatinine).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our reliable determination method was successful in measuring urinary glyphosate concentration. Moreover, this is the first biomonitoring report of urinary glyphosate levels in the Japanese general population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Female , Glycine/urine , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Solid Phase Extraction/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18420, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249160

ABSTRACT

A new stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of glycopyrrolate in pharmaceutical formulations. A contemporary approach to analytical life-cycle management was followed to develop a robust and reliable chromatographic method. Scouted method variables such as % methanol, the strength of tetra butyl ammonium hydrogen sulfate and mobile phase flow rate were optimized using the design of experiment approach and their effect on critical quality attributes was studied. The critical quality attributes viz. retention time, theoretical plate count and symmetry factor were highly influenced by the three critical method variables. Optimum chromatography was attained on a C-18 column with a mobile phase methanol: 10 mM tetra butyl ammonium hydrogen sulfate (80:20, v/v) flowing at 1.0 mL.min-1. Chromatographic method specificity was ensured by degrading the drug forcefully. Validation studies postulated method acceptability and suitability for estimating glycopyrrolate in both bulk as well as injection formulation. Results for parameters viz. linearity (5-250 µg.mL-1), accuracy (>99%) and precision (<2%) advocated method reliability. Overall the method was reliable and of optimum quality and, possess the potential of application in routine and bio-analytical purposes


Subject(s)
Chromatography/instrumentation , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Validation Study , Glycopyrrolate/agonists , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Sensitivity and Specificity , Total Quality Management , Characidae/classification , Injections/adverse effects , Methods
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18583, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132052

ABSTRACT

Imatinib mesylate is a small molecule used in cancer therapy as a thyrosine kinase inhibitor. Dexketoprofen trometamol is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has seen use in cancer therapy in combination with an anticancer drug to minimize tumor size and to reduce pain in patients. In the present study, imatinib mesylate and dexketoprofen trometamol were selected as potential model drugs to be used in combination. A new, simple and selective Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography method was developed and validated to determine the drug substances in distilled water, in a pH 7.4 phosphate buffer and in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium. The proposed method was developed using a BEH C-18 column with isocratic elution. A mixture of methanol:acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) and pH 9.5, 0.05 M ammonium acetate were (70:30, v/v) used as a mobile phase. Detection was carried out with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min, a column temperature of 30°C and an injection volume of 20 µL. The method was validated considering linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, detection limit and quantitation limit values, and was found to be linear in a range from 0.05 to 20.0 µg/mL for the three different media


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Validation Study , Imatinib Mesylate/antagonists & inhibitors , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Acetates/adverse effects , Neoplasms
15.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(5): 120-124, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054911

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Current evidence suggests that upregulation of polyamines system plays a role both in cognitive deficit and synaptic loss observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective The aim of this study was to determine the plasmatic concentration of polyamines in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients in comparison with healthy controls (HC). Methods Plasmatic polyamines were quantified using the AbsoluteIDQ® p180 and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Results The study group comprised 34 AD patients, 20 MCI and 25 HC. All individuals were followed for 4 years. During this period 8 amnestic MCI patients (40% of the MCI sample at baseline) converted to AD. Spermidine level was lower in both patient groups (AD; MCI) compared to HC (p = 0.007). Plasma levels of spermine were higher in the MCI group (p < 0.001), but decreased in the sub-sample of MCI patients who converted to AD (p = 0.043). No statistically significant differences were found in ornithine and putrescine levels (p = 0.056 and p = 0.126, respectively). Discussion Our results suggest dynamic changes in the expression of polyamines in the MCI-AD continuum.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Polyamines/blood , Spermine/blood , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Ornithine/blood , Polyamines/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Putrescine/blood , Spermidine/blood , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Metabolomics/methods , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis
16.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 4001/01/2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100195

ABSTRACT

Fenticonazole is an antifungal drug widely used in a cream formulation including as a generic medicine. Stability studies of fenticonazole in a cream formulation are very scarce. In this research, we intent to contribute to generic medicines quality control and provide reliable data seeking for insertion of fenticonazole monograph in official compendia. Therefore, in this work it was studied the behavior of fenticonazole under several conditions and developed a stability-indicating LC method to separate the degradation products and quantify the drug in presence of them, using the Design of Experiments (DoE) as tool to achieve robust and easy transferable method. Fenticonazole stability was evaluated under aqueous, alkaline (0.1 M NaOH), acidic (0.1 M HCL) and oxidative (3% v/v, H2O2) at ambient temperature and heating at 90°C, over 6 hours. The drug shows to be unstable under all stressed test conditions. It was completely degraded under acid medium with arising of degradation products. The robust and stability indicating LC method was validated. It is able to reveal the fenticonazole instability and to separate its degradation product with accuracy and precision (CV ˂ 2%) and without any placebo interferences.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Imidazolines/analysis , Skin Cream/metabolism , Quality Control , Drug Stability
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 93 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese, French | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025676

ABSTRACT

Os aldeídos são espécies reativas que podem ser produzidos endogenamente por processos como a lipoperoxidação, podendo reagir com lipídios, proteínas e DNA. Diversas evidências apontam para o envolvimento de aldeídos reativos na progressão de patologias como doenças cardiovasculares, arteriosclerose e doenças neurodegenerativas. Uma meta central do CEPIDRedoxoma é estudar a reatividade química de intermediários redox em ambientes biológicos e consequentes mudanças na estrutura e função de biomoléculas, entender como cada intermediário redox reage com biomoléculas específicas e os efeitos resultantes, essenciais para a concepção de biomarcadores e antioxidantes. O nosso grupo estuda os mecanismos de formação, detoxificação e reação com biomoléculas de aldeídos reativos endógenos e exógenos e seu papel em patologias como a esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ALS). Um dos mecanismos de detoxificação desses aldeídos é através da conjugação com a carnosina. Recentemente, foi observado que a suplementação de animais transgênicos ALS SOD G93A com carnosina via oral resultou em retardo da perda de peso e tendência de aumento da sobrevida dos animais. O presente projeto buscou investigar o possível papel da carnosina em animais modelo para ALS. Para isso as modificações em DNA induzidas por aldeídos reativos e a formação de adutos de carnosina-aldeídos foram analisadas através de metodologia HPLC-MS/MS. Assim observamos que ratos suplementados com carnosina apresentaram níveis significativamente menores de proteína carbonilada em músculo e fígado. Em fígadoforam vistos níveis menores de dois adutos de DNA, 8-oxodGuo e1,N2-HO-propanodGuo, em animais suplementados. Em cérebro foram detectados níveis menores de 1, N2-εdGuo. Com relação aos adutos carnosina-aldeídos, foi observado níveis significativamente maiores do aduto CAR-HHE na medula. Com embasamento nos resultados aqui apresentados, sugere-se a utilização de sequestradores de aldeídos como uma estratégia terapêutica em condições fisiopatológicas nas quais ao acúmulo dessas espécies está comprovado


Aldehydes are reactive species that can be produced endogenously by processes such as lipid peroxidation, which can react with lipids, proteins and DNA. Several evidences point to the involvement of reactive aldehydes in the progression of pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. A central goal of CEPID-Redoxoma is to study the chemical reactivity of redox intermediates in biological environments and consequent changes in the structure and function of biomolecules, to understand how each redox intermediate reacts with specific biomolecules and the resulting effects, essential for the design of biomarkers and antioxidants. Our group studies the mechanisms of formation, detoxification and reaction with biomolecules of endogenous and exogenous reactive aldehydes and their role in pathologies such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One of the detoxification mechanisms of these aldehydes is through carnosine conjugation. Recently, we observed that oral carnosine supplementation in transgenic ALS SODG93A animals resulted in delayed weight loss and a tendency to increase the survival of the animals. The present project investigated the potential role of carnosine in animal models for ALS. Thus, reactive aldehydes induced DNA modifications and carnosine aldehyde adducts were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. We observed that rats supplemented with carnosine presented significantly lower levels of protein carbonylation in muscle and liver. Lower levels of two DNA adducts, 8-oxodGuo and 1, N2-HO-propanodGuo, were observed in liver of the supplemented animals. Lower levels of 1, N2-εdGuo were detected in the brain. Regarding the carnosine-aldehydeadducts, significantly higher levels of the CAR-HHE adduct were observed in spinal cord. The results presented here suggest the use of aldehyde scavengers as a therapeutic strategy under pathological conditions in which is proven the accumulation of these species


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Biological Phenomena , Carnosine/adverse effects , Aldehydes/analysis , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/pathology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , DNA Adducts
18.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(1): 19-31, mayo 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973613

ABSTRACT

Los piretroides son insecticidas ampliamente usados no sólo en el ámbito agropecuario y doméstico sino también en salud pública. Una vez absorbidos, son rápidamente metabolizados a compuestos polares eliminados por vía renal. Uno de los metabolitos común a un gran número de piretroides es el ácido 3-fenoxibenzoico (3-PBA) el cual es utilizado como marcador de exposición. Se presenta en este trabajo, la validación de una metodología analítica para la determinación del 3-PBA utilizando QuEChERS acoplado a microextracción líquido-líquido dispersiva con tricloroetileno como disolvente extractivo y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución con detector de foto-arreglo de diodos. La validación se realizó con muestras aisladas de orina de voluntarios adultos de ambos sexos sin exposición conocida y orina sintética. El método resultó lineal en el intervalo 9 μg L-1-79 μg L-1; los límites de detección y cuantificación fueron de 3 μg L-1 y 9 μg L-1, respectivamente. No se observaron señales de interferentes a los tiempos de retención del 3-PBA y del ácido 2-fenoxibenzoico (2-PBA), estándar interno, en las muestras de orina blanco. Las señales cromatográficas en las muestras enriquecidas fueron espectralmente homogéneas. Las precisiones intradiarias (RSDr%) (n= 5) para 9 μg L-1 estuvieron comprendidas entre 9,3%-9,9% y para 27 μg L-1 entre 5,9%-10,6%. Las precisiciones interdiarias (RSDint%) (n=15) para los mismos niveles de concentración fueron de 11,8% y 9,1%, respectivamente. El rango de porcentajes de recuperación para 9 μg L-1 fue de 87%-119% y para 27 μg L-1 de 70%-91%. Se evaluó la estabilidad del analito en la muestra y en el extracto. El analito resultó estable a -20 °C durante 7 días en la muestra y durante 1 día en el extracto. Los valores de incertidumbre relativa e incertidumbre expandida fueron evaluados mediante la ecuación de Horwitz, los resultados obtenidos fueron para el nivel 9 μg L-1 de 33% y 65% y para el nivel 27 μg L-1 de 28% y 55%. La aplicabilidad del método validado fue evaluada con muestras reales de personas sin exposición laboral conocida, quienes declararon haber usado insecticidas piretroides. El método resultó sensible y selectivo.


Pyrethroid insecticides are used not only in the agricultural and domestic environment, but also in public health. Once absorbed, they are rapidly metabolized into polar compounds eliminated by the kidneys. One of the metabolites common to many pyrethroids is 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) which are used to evaluate exposure. We present in this paper the validation of an analytical methodology for the determination of 3-PBA using QuEChERS coupled to dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with trichloroethylene as an extractive solvent and high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. Validation was carried out with isolated samples of urine from adult volunteers of both sexes without exposure and synthetic urine. The method was linear in the interval 9 μg L-1-79 μg L-1; the limit of detection and quantitation were 3 μg L-1 and 9 μg L-1, respectively. Interfering signals were not observed in the blank urine samples and the chromatographic signals in the enriched samples were spectrally homogeneous. The within-run precision (RSDr%) (n = 5) for 9 μg L-1 were between 9.3%-9.9% and for 27 μg L-1 between 5.9%-10.6%. The between-run precision (RSDint%) (n = 15) for the same concentration levels were 11.8% and 9.1%, respectively. The recovery for 9 μg L-1 ranged from 87%-119% and for 27 μg L-1 from 70%-91 %. The stability of the analyte was evaluated in the sample and in the extract. The analyte in the sample was stable at -20 °C for 7 days and in the extract was stable for 1 day. The values of relative uncertainty and expanded uncertainty obtained by the Horwitz equation were 33% and 65% for 9 μg L-1, and 28% and 55% for 27 μg L-1. The applicability of the validated method was evaluated with real samples of people without known occupational exposure, who declared having used pyrethroid insecticides. The method was sensitive and selective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pyrethrins/poisoning , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Biomarkers/urine , Biomarkers/analysis , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Insecticides/poisoning , Insecticides/toxicity
19.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 55(1): 43-56, mar. 2018. graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248114

ABSTRACT

Esta revisión fue realizada con el fin de evaluar nuestros resultados de laboratorio así como aquellos de la literatura que constituyen, a nuestro entender, aportes significativos en el síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos (SOP). Nuestro especial énfasis será presentar las limitaciones de las metodologías empleadas por nuestro grupo, comparativamente a las reportadas por otros investigadores. La determinación de andrógenos, en particular de Testosterona (TT), es quizá la de mayor complejidad dado que los resultados con los diferentes inmunoensayos empleados en nuestro medio producen resultados muy variables por los diferentes métodos y aún entre laboratorios que usan la misma metodología. La técnica de referencia es la cromatografía líquida en tándem con espectrometría de masa (LC-MSMS), de difícil aplicación en laboratorios de análisis clínicos debido a su alto costo y la imposibilidad de resolver numerosas muestras. En estudios previos demostramos que de los métodos habitualmente usados para evaluar la TT circulante, solo en 2 inmunoensayos los resultados obtenidos fueron satisfactoriamente validados indirectamente según el criterio del Consenso de los Centros para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC, USA) contra LC-MSMS, los cuales fueron comparables a dicha metodología con niveles superiores a 0,5 ng/ml. El SOP puede presentar factores de riesgo aumentados para la enfermedad cardiovascular y la diabetes II. Estos factores no están debidamente categorizados en función de los distintos fenotipos del SOP. Se evaluarán los principales analitos empleados con este objetivo y los nuevos que aporten elementos de mayor especificidad en este sentido


This review was performed in order to evaluate our laboratory results as well as those of the literature that constitute, in our opinion, significant contributions in these pathophysiologies. Our special emphasis will be on presenting the limitations of the methodologies used by our group, compared to those reported by other researchers. The determination of androgens, in particular Testosterone (TT), is perhaps the most complex since the results with the different immunoassays used in our environment produce very variable results by the different methods and even between laboratories that use the same methodology. The reference technique is LC-MSMS, difficult to apply in clinical analysis laboratories because of its high cost and the inability to solve numerous samples. In previous studies, we demonstrated that, in comparison to LC-MSMS with the usual methods for evaluating circulating TT, the results obtained in only 2 immunoassays were satisfactorily validated indirectly according to the criteria of CDC against LC-MSMS, which were comparable to that methodology with levels higher than 0.5 ng/ml. PCOS may have increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes II. These factors are not properly categorized according to the different phenotypes of PCOS. The main analytes used for this purpose will be evaluated and new ones that contribute elements of greater specificity in this sense


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/etiology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/physiopathology , Testosterone/analysis , Phenotype , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Immunoassay/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods
20.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 44(1): 1-11, ene.-mar. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978441

ABSTRACT

La macroprolactinemia se define como la presencia de cantidades elevadas de esta isoforma de la prolactina en suero, en conjunto con concentraciones normales de prolactina monomérica. Se trata de una entidad bastante común, considerada entre las tres primeras causas de hiperprolactinemia. Su origen parece responder a mecanismos autoinmunes y el seguimiento de los pacientes afectos durante periodos de 10 años ha demostrado que es una condición crónica. La prueba de elección para el diagnóstico es la cromatografía líquida en columna de gel, pero este es un método costoso que generalmente es suplido por la prueba de precipitación con polietinglicol. Por mucho tiempo ha prevalecido el concepto de que estos pacientes son esencialmente asintomáticos, pero reportes recientes señalan la presencia de síntomas de hiperprolactinemia como parte significativa del cuadro, aunque la literatura actual muestra criterios divergentes. En estos pacientes la realización de resonancia magnética nuclear hipofisaria parece ser un procedimiento innecesario, basado en la escasa frecuencia de resultados positivos. El tratamiento farmacológico con agonistas dopaminérgicos muestran respuestas contradictorias en cuanto a la desaparición de los síntomas y la normalización de los niveles de prolactina. Por tanto, la inexistencia de un consenso en la literatura científica en lo referente a las manifestaciones clínicas y el manejo, obliga a una conveniente valoración individual de cada caso(AU)


Macroprolactinemia is defined as the presence of high quantities of this prolactin isoform in serum, together with normal concentrations of monomeric prolactin. It is a common entity, considered among the three first causes of hyperprolactinaemia. The origin seems to respond to autoimmune mechanisms and the affected patients follow-up during ten years periods has shown that it is a chronic condition. The standard gold test to the diagnostic is gel-filtration chromatography, but it is an expensive method that is generally supplied by the polyethylene glycol precipitation test. During a long time, the concept that these patients are essentially asymptomatic has prevailed, but recent reports stamps the presence of hyperprolactinemia symptoms as a significant part of the entity, although current literature shows divergent criteria. In these patients, performing pituitary magnetic resonance seems to be an unnecessary procedure, based on the rare frequency of positive results. Pharmacological treatment with dopamine agonists shows contradictory responses with regard to symptoms disappearance and prolactin levels normalization. Therefore, the lack of consensus in the scientific literature with regard to the clinical manifestations and the management, requires a convenient individual assessment of each case(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prolactin/analysis , Chromatography, Liquid/methods
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