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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 167-178, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104197

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and inhibitory activities of the ethanolic extracts of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) grown in Montenegro, Quindío, Colombia, in three stages of maturation, including the edible (pulp) and inedible parts (pericarp and peduncle). The alcoholic samples were phytochemically characterized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and by Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR); the antioxidant capacities were also evaluated by the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), in addition to the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and the total content of phenols and flavonoids. The tests detected phytochemical compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and xanthones, to which the antioxidant activity and the inhibition of AChE presented, can be attributed. In conclusion, the inedible parts of mangosteen contain higher proportions of secondary metabolites, these being the most promising sources for industrial use.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue el de evaluar las actividades antioxidantes e inhibitoria de acetilcolinesterasa de los extractos etanólicos del mangostino (Garcinia mangostana L.) de Montenegro, Quíndio, Colombia, en tres estados de maduración, incluyendo las partes comestibles (pulpa) y no comestibles (pericarpio y pedúnculo). Las muestras alcohólicas fueron caracterizadas fitoquímicamente por Cromatografía de Capa Delgada (CCD), Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Eficiencia (HPLC) y Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier (FT-IR); la capacidad antioxidante fue evaluada también por el método de captación del radical libre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracilo (DPPH• dejar el radical en superíndice) y la Capacidad de Absorción de Radicales de Oxígeno (ORAC), adicionalmente la actividad inhibitoria de la acetilcolinesterasa (AchE) y el contenido total de fenoles y flavonoides. Se detectaron compuestos fitoquímicos como fenoles, flavonoides, alcaloides, quinonas y xantonas, a quienes se les puede atribuir las actividades antioxidantes y de inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa. En conclusión, las partes no comestibles del mangostino contienen una mayor proporción de metabolitos secundarios, siendo las fuentes más promisorias para uso industrial.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Garcinia mangostana/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Colombia , Clusiaceae , Ethanol , Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 65-76, ene. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102867

ABSTRACT

Due to the biological activities of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, its incorporation in methacrylate polymeric (Eudragit E100) nanoparticles (NP), physical characterization, and antimicrobial essays were evaluated. The clove bears great potential for applications in dentistry. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and oil loaded NP using the nanoprecipitation method. Particle size and polydispersity index were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, and physical morphology by electron microscopy. Loading capacity and in vitro eugenol release were evaluated by gas mass chromatography, and the antimicrobial activity of oil loaded-NP was calculated against Streptococcus mutans. Different chemical ingredients were characterized, and eugenol was the principal compound with 51.55%. Polymer content was directly related to NP homogenous size, which was around 150 nm with spherical morphology. A 73.2% loading capacity of eugenol was obtained. Oil loaded NP presented a fickian-type release mechanism of eugenol. Antimicrobial activity to 300 µg/mL was obtained after 24 h.


Debido a las actividades biológicas del aceite esencial de Syzygium aromaticum, se evaluó su incorporación en nanopartículas (NP) de metacrilato polimérico (Eudragit E100), su caracterización y ensayos antimicrobianos. El clavo tiene un gran potencial para aplicaciones en odontología. El aceite se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y las NP cargado de aceite utilizando el método de nanoprecipitación. El tamaño de partícula y el índice de polidispersidad se determinaron mediante espectroscopia de correlación fotónica y su morfología por microscopía electrónica. La capacidad de carga y la liberación de eugenol in vitro se evaluaron mediante cromatografía de gases en masa, y la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó contra Streptococcus mutans. Se caracterizaron diferentes ingredientes químicos, siendo el eugenol el principal compuesto con 51.55%. El contenido de polímero se relacionó directamente con el tamaño homogéneo de NP, que fue de alrededor de 150 nm con morfología esférica. Se obtuvo un 73,2% de capacidad de carga de eugenol. El aceite cargado en NP presentó un mecanismo de liberación de eugenol de tipo fickiano. La actividad antimicrobiana a 300 µg/mL se obtuvo después de 24 h.


Subject(s)
Polymers/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Syzygium/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Eugenol/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Administration, Oral , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drug Delivery Systems , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2779-2790, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878529

ABSTRACT

Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids, and affect the development of various diseases by regulating intestinal flora structure and modulating immunity and metabolism. It is therefore important to quantitatively detect bile acids. Current analytical methods are still immature due to constituent complexity, structural heterogeneity and bioactive variability of bile acids. Detection of individual bile acids is of significance for pharmacological research, clinical diagnosis and disease prevention. Advances have been made in bile acid analysis from multiple sources including serum, bile, urine and feces, although several limitations still exist for bile acid quantification. Here we review research progress in conventional bile acid assays, including spectrophotometry, thin-layer chromatography, liquid/gas chromatography and liquid/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, we emphasize the development of bile acid biosensors that may have promising prospects.


Subject(s)
Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Biosensing Techniques , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 36(1): 5-10, 2020. ilus, Graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1146008

ABSTRACT

Ligaria cuneifolia (R. et P.) Tiegh. ­Loranthaceae­ es una especie hemiparásita que se desarrolla sobre diferentes hospedantes. Es conocida con el nombre vulgar de "liga" o "liguilla". Debido a su similitud morfológica, constituye el sustituto natural del "muérdago europeo", por lo cual es denominado "muérdago criollo". Las drogas vegetales son matrices complejas en las cuales múltiples componentes actúan en forma sinérgica y son responsables de la acción farmacológica. Con el fin de dar sustento científico al uso folclórico de L. cuneifolia se estudiaron distintas formas de obtención de los extractos, se evaluaron diferentes hospedantes y regiones fitogeográficas. Se desarrolló y validó un método de electroforesis capilar para construir fingerprints o perfiles cromatográficos característicos que permitan evaluar los distintos componentes con el fin de estandarizar los extractos. Se efectuó la comparación con otras técnicas cromatográficas, tales como en cromatografía en capa delgada (TLC) y líquida de alta resolución (HPLC). A su vez, se procedió al aislamiento, purificación y análisis estructural de los compuestos de interés por técnicas espectroscópicas y cromatográficas. Se identificaron diez compuestos, de los cuales cuatro son reportados por primera vez en esta especie. La electroforesis capilar probó ser una técnica adecuada para el control de calidad de los extractos y una alternativa atractiva a las técnicas cromatográficas tradicionales.


Ligaria cuneifolia (R. et P.) Tiegh. ­Loranthaceae­ is a hemiparasite plant which grows on different host trees. It is popularly referred to as "liga" or "liguilla". Due to its morphological similarity, it is considered as the natural substitute for the European mistletoe, for which is known as the "Argentine mistletoe". Herbal drugs are complex matrices in which multiple components acting synergistically are responsible for the pharmacological activity. In order to provide scientific support to the popular use of L. cuneifolia, a capillary electrophoretic method was developed and validated to build a chromatographic profile or fingerprint that allows the evaluation of different components for extract standardization. A comparison was made with other chromatographic techniques such as TLC and HPLC. Isolation, purification and structural analysis of compounds were performed by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Ten analytes were identified, four of which are reported for the first time in L. cuneifolia. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be an appropriate tool for the quality control of herbal drugs, as well as an attractive alternative to traditional chromatographic techniques.


Subject(s)
Electrophoresis, Capillary , Loranthaceae , Mistletoe , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Flavonols
5.
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 5(4): 135-139, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1179406

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Proponer compuestos fenólicos presentes en el extracto metanólico de hojas de Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts «panisara¼. Materiales y métodos. Se preparó un extracto metanólico de las hojas de Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts «panisara¼, se determinó la solubilidad por disolución de extracto en solventes de polaridad creciente. Se detectaron algunos componentes químicos mediante un screening fitoquímico empleando gelatina, tricloruro férrico, reacción de Mayer, reacción de Shinoda, entre otros. Se realizó cromatografía en capa fina, revelándose por aspersión con reactivos cromogénicos y se propone posibles estructuras de componentes mediante espectroscopía UV. Resultados. El extracto metanólico presentó buena solubilidad en solventes de alta y mediana polaridad. El screening fitoquímico dio resultados positivos para la presencia de compuestos fenólicos y compuestos nitrogenados: flavonoides, alcaloides y glicósidos. Conclusión. Se propuso la estructura química de tres flavonoides obtenidos del extracto metanólico de hojas de Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts «panisara¼.


Objectives. Propose phenolic compounds present in the methanolic extract of Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts "panisara" leaves. Materials and methods. A methanolic extract of the Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts "panisara" leaves was prepared by maceration, the solubility was determined by dissolving the extract in solvents of increasing polarity. Some chemical components were detected by phytochemical screening using gelatin, ferric trichloride, Mayer reaction, Shinoda reaction, among others. Thin layer chromatography was performed, revealing by spray with chromogenic reagents and possible component structures by UV spectroscopy. Results. The methanolic extract showed good solubility in solvents of high and medium polarity. Phytochemical screening gave positive results for the presence of phenolic compounds and nitrogen compounds: flavonoids, alkaloids and glycosides. Conclusion. The chemical structure of three flavonoids obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts "panisara" was proposed.


Subject(s)
Lamiaceae , Phenolic Compounds , Peru , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts , Chromatography, Thin Layer
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18094, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285510

ABSTRACT

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a secondary bile acid (BA), has been used as a drug to treat various liver diseases. UDCA is synthesised from cholic or chenodeoxycholic acid (CA/CDCA), two primary BAs frequently used as the starting materials. Nowadays, swine, cattle, and poultry bile are the main sources of those BAs. However, other commercial animals could be promising sources as well. We identified two livestock, two poultries, and eight fishes that are commercially cultivated in Indonesia. Four free BAs including CA, CDCA, deoxycholic acid (DCA), and lithocholic acid (LA) were identified for their occurrences using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. CA was detected in cow, duck, red tilapia, gourami, the common carp, and grouper, whereas CDCA was only detected in two poultries and the common carp. The occurrence of DCA was common and abundant in most tested animals. In contrast, the presence of LA was found to be very low in all samples. The biliary bile of tilapia has been found to contain a high abundance of free CA (43% of the total bile). A simple extraction was able to purify CA from biliary bile of tilapia. This is a new promising and competitive source of CA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Bile/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Indonesia/ethnology , Animals , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/antagonists & inhibitors , Bile Acids and Salts/therapeutic use , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Tilapia/classification , Cholic Acid/agonists , Deoxycholic Acid , Lithocholic Acid
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1164-1171, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012412

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or attack by fungi. The underutilization of soybean seed coat (Glycine max (L.) Merrill.) and tempeh, cheap Indonesia fermented food thus opens up a new opportunity for developing a Resveratrol-based medicine for Plants-Derived Neuroprotective Agents purposes. In this study, it was isolated from tempeh, ordinarily well-known as Indonesian soybean fermented food, and soybean seed coat. The finding of this compound was confirmed by TLC and HPLC analysis applying fluorescence detection. From this, the Rf-value for transresveratrol is 0.64. As eluent, a mixture of chloroform, ethyl acetate, and formic acid (2.5+1+0.1, v/v) was selected. In addition, retention time for tempeh was 14.467 and for soybean seed coat was 11.977. The extraction yield of resveratrol was 65.15 % in tempeh and 55.35 % in soybean seed coat. Resveratrol isolated from Tempeh and Soybean seed coat gave prevents some reaction by modulating intracellular signaling pathways: protein kinase C (PKC), a family of 12 serine/ threonine kinases and providing a new lead molecule for neuroprotective affects in addition to has prevented cell death by apoptosis.


El resveratrol es un estilbenoide, un tipo de fenol natural, y fitoalexina producida por varias plantas en respuesta a una lesión o ataque de hongos. La subutilización de la cubierta de la semilla de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill.) y el tempeh, alimento fermentado barato de Indonesia, abren una nueva oportunidad para obtener un medicamento a base de resveratrol para propósitos de desarrollo de agentes neuroprotectores derivados de plantas. En este estudio, se aisló el resveratrol del tempeh, generalmente conocido como alimento fermentado de soja de Indonesia y de la cubierta de la semilla de soja. El hallazgo de este compuesto se confirmó mediante análisis de TLC y HPLC aplicando detección de fluorescencia. A partir de esto, el valor de Rf para trans-resveratrol es 0,64. Como eluyente, se seleccionó una mezcla de cloroformo, acetato de etilo y ácido fórmico (2,5 + 1 + 0,1, v / v). Además, el tiempo de retención para el tempeh fue de 14,467 y para el revestimiento de semilla de soja fue de 11,977. El rendimiento de extracción del resveratrol fue del 65,15 % en tempeh y del 55,35 % en la cubierta de la semilla de soja. El resveratrol aislado de tempeh y de la cubierta de la semilla de soja previno reacciones mediante la modulación de ciertas vías de señalización intracelular: proteína quinasa C (PKC), una familia de 12 serina/treonin quinasas, proporcionando una nueva molécula de plomo con efectos neuroprotectores, además de prevenir la muerte celular por apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Soybeans/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/isolation & purification , Soy Foods/analysis , Resveratrol/isolation & purification , Seeds/chemistry , Cells, Cultured , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(3): 277-288, mayo 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007989

ABSTRACT

Neurolaena lobata (L.) R.Br. ex Cass. (Asteraceae)Is a popular folk remedy for in Central America. The plant is of commercial value in Guatemala but so far there is not any monograph to guide regional laboratories on ensuring identity and chemical tests for this species. As identity test we here run macro and micro morphoanatomical studies of the characters of the vegetative organs. We also developed standard chemical tests for quality by both TLC and HPLC for infusions and tinctures of varying alcoholic strength. Their radical scavenging activities in DPPH and NO were also measured. Macro and micro morphoanatomical characters of the vegetative organs present a set of characteristics to facilitate the identification of dry powdered samples of this species. We developed optimal conditions for the TLC and HPLC phytochemical fingerprints of the 4 most common pharmacopoeial liquid herbal preparations from this herbal drug, namely infusion, 70%, 45% and 20% hydroalcoholic tinctures. Our work provides the Latin-American industry with a set of analyses to establish the identity and chemistry of N. lobata samples for quality control purposes.


Neurolaena lobata (L.) R.Br. ex cass. (Asteraceae) es un remedio popular popular en América Central. La planta tiene un valor comercial en Guatemala, pero hasta el momento no existe una monografía que guíe a los laboratorios regionales para garantizar la identidad y las pruebas químicas para esta especie. Como prueba de identidad proponemos estudios macro y micro morfoanatómicos de los caracteres de los órganos vegetativos. También desarrollamos pruebas químicas de calidad mediante CCF y CLAR para infusiones y tinturas de grado alcohólico variable. También se midieron sus actividades de captación de radicales en DPPH y NO. Los caracteres macro y micro morfoanatómicos de los órganos vegetativos presentan un conjunto de características para facilitar la identificación de muestras de polvo seco de esta especie. Desarrollamos condiciones óptimas para las huellas dactilares fitoquímicas de CCF y CLAR de las 4 preparaciones herbales líquidas farmacopéicas más comunes de esta droga herbal, a saber, infusión, 70%, 45% y 20% tinturas hidroalcohólicas. Nuestro trabajo proporciona a la industria latinoamericana un conjunto de análisis base para establecer la identidad y la química de las muestras de N. lobata con fines de control de calidad.


Subject(s)
Asteraceae/anatomy & histology , Asteraceae/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Quality Control , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Free Radical Scavengers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Asteraceae/ultrastructure , Guatemala , Microscopy
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 1016-1021, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954224

ABSTRACT

To determine the effects of 70 % ethanolic extract of Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) L. bulbs contained naphtoquinone in blood pressure and lipids profile level of ovariectomized rats. Thin layer chromatography was performed to analyze the content of the Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) bulbs extracts using Chloroform : Methanol (7:1) as eluent. This study used white female Sprague-Dawley rats which were divided into 6 groups: SHAM and OVX, both given 0.5 % carboxymethyl cellulose; the positive control group that was given tamoxifen (0.36 mg/200 g B.W.); the three various of doses of extract namely dose 1, 2, and 3 that were given 8, 12, and 18 mg/200 g BW respectively on day 29 until 50. All groups were ovariectomized on day 1, except sham group. Measurement of blood pressure were performed on the day before ovariectomy using non-invasive tool CODA®; and on the second, third, and fourth weeks post-ovariectomy. Three weeks after treatment of hypoestrogen rats by the dose 18 mg/200 g B.W, Eleutherine bulbosa extracts could decrease the systolic blood pressure level to 28.06 %, the diastolic to 30.47 %. Lipid profile of Dose 3 also showed recovery of Triglyceride, LDL and also Total Cholesterol. Eleutherine bulbosa extracts could improve blood pressure of ovariectomized rats by controlling lipids profile level.


Para determinar los efectos del 70 % de extracto etanólico de Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) L. en bulbos que contenían naftoquinona, se analizó la presión arterial de ratas ovariectomizadas. Se realizó un estudio de cromatografía de capa fina para analizar el contenido de los extractos de bulbos de Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) usando cloroformo:metanol (7:1) como diluyente. En este estudio se utilizaron ratas blancas Sprague-Dawley hembras, que se dividieron en 6 grupos: SHAM y OVX, ambos grupos fueron administrados con carboximetilcelulosa al 0,5 %; grupo control positivo, recibió tamoxifeno (0,36 mg / 200 g de B.W.); y tres grupos restantes, que recibieron tres dosis diferentes de extracto, es decir, dosis 1, 2 y 3 a las que se les administró 8, 12 y 18 mg / 200 g de por peso, respectivamente el día 29 hasta el día 50. Todos los grupos fueron sometidos a ovariectomía en el día 1, excepto el grupo simulado. La medición de la presión arterial se realizó el día anterior a la ovariectomía con la herramienta no invasiva CODA®, y, posteriormente, en la segunda, tercera y cuarta semanas de realizada la ovariectomía. Tres semanas después del tratamiento aplicado a las ratas hipoestrógenas, con la dosis de 18 mg / 200 g por peso, los extractos de Eleutherine bulbosa podrían disminuir el nivel de presión arterial sistólica al 28,06 %, y la diastólica al 30,47 %. La dosis 3 del perfil lipídico mostró mejoría en los niveles de Triglicéridos, LDL y Colesterol Total. Los extractos de Eleutherine bulbosa podrían mejorar la presión sanguínea de ratas ovariectomizadas controlando el nivel del perfil lipídico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Iridaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ovariectomy , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Naphthoquinones/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Estrogens/deficiency , Lipids/analysis
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6069, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889062

ABSTRACT

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20-85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Tannins/isolation & purification , Tannins/pharmacology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775411

ABSTRACT

The fingerprint technology could reflect the internal chemical characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine or preparation, which has the characteristics of "wholeness" and "fuzziness". It is suitable for evaluating the quality of intermediate and finished products in the production process of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules. In this paper, the applications of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC) and infrared spectrum (IR) fingerprint technology in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules were reviewed, and their advantages and disadvantages were analyzed. The aim of this article is to enhance the combined application of various fingerprint technologies in traditional Chinese medicine formula granules. It could provide technical reference for realizing the stability of production process and improving the overall quality of formula granules.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
12.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1565-1578, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aims the anatomical description and chemical characterization of aerial parts of Clusia criuva Cambess., Clusiaceae in addition to the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of crude extracts, correlated to the flavonoid content. The morphological characterization was performed using traditional techniques of plant anatomy. For phytochemical studies, crude extracts were obtained by static maceration and analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity and the flavonoids content were determined by colorimetric methods involving, respectively, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical and aluminum chloride. C. criuva has uniseriate epidermis, paracytic stomata, hypostomatic leaves, cuticular flanges and cordiform vascular cylinder with accessory bundles. Chemical prospecting confirmed the abundant presence of terpenes and phenols in the extracts of leaves and of fruits. The methanolic extract of seeds showed the lowest EC50 value, but the methanolic extract of pericarps exhibited the highest maximum antioxidant activity. The results suggested a high percentage of flavonoids in the hexanic extract of pericarps, however, this could represent, in fact, the presence of benzophenones. Secretory ducts and the shape of the midrib are diagnostic for C. criuva. The antioxidant activity is not directly related to the flavonoids. The results indicate the importance of future studies with C. criuva chemical constituents.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Clusia/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Colorimetry , Plant Leaves/ultrastructure , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Clusia/classification , Clusia/ultrastructure , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 259-267, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839390

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fungi is a well-known model used to study drug metabolism and its production in in vitro condition. We aim to screen the most efficient strain of Cunninghamella sp. among C. elegans, C. echinulata and C. blakesleeana for bromhexine metabolites production. We characterized the metabolites produced using various analytical tools and compared them with mammalian metabolites in Rat liver microsomes (RLM). The metabolites were collected by two-stage fermentation of bromhexine with different strains of Cunninghamella sp. followed by extraction. Analysis was done by thin layer chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The role of Cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4) enzymes in bromhexine metabolism was studied. Fungal incubates were spiked with reference standard – clarithromycin to confirm the role of CYP3A4 enzyme in bromhexine metabolism. Three metabolites appeared at 4.7, 5.5 and 6.4 min retention time in HPLC. Metabolites produced by C. elegans and RLM were concluded to be similar based on their retention time, peak area and peak response of 30.05%, 21.06%, 1.34%, and 47.66% of three metabolites and bromhexine in HPLC. The role of CYP3A4 enzyme in metabolism of bromhexine and the presence of these enzymes in Cunninghamella species was confirmed due to absence of peaks at 4.7, 5.4 and 6.7 min when RLM were incubated with a CYP3A4 enzyme inhibitor – clarithromycin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bromhexine/metabolism , Cunninghamella/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Biotransformation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Microsomes/metabolism
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 789-797, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886693

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aims to identify special metabolites in polar extracts from Urochloa humidicola (synonym Brachiaria humidicola) that have allelopathic effects and induce secondary photosensitization in ruminants. The compounds were isolated and identified via chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The compounds 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoic acid, trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid; the flavonols isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and methyl quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronate; and kaempferitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, and tricin were identified in the extract from the leaves of Urochloa humidicola. Two furostanic saponins, namely, dioscin and 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-penogenin, as well as catechin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were identified in the methanolic extract obtained from the roots of this plant. This species features a range of metabolites that may be toxic for animals if used in food and may interfere with the growth medium, thereby inhibiting the development of other species.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Brachiaria/chemistry , Parabens/isolation & purification , Parabens/chemistry , Saponins/chemistry , Vanillic Acid/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Crotonates/isolation & purification , Crotonates/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Glycosides/isolation & purification , Glycosides/chemistry
15.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 22(1)ene.-mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901502

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Curcuma longa L. es una planta de la familia Zingiberaceae distribuida en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales, utilizada en la industria alimentaria, en medicina y en cosmética. Su colorante principal es la curcumina, un polifenol con múltiples efectos medicinales. Objetivos: obtener, caracterizar químicamente y evaluar la actividad biológica de tres curcuminoides de C. longa, cultivada en el Quindío-Colombia. Métodos: se purificaron tres curcuminoides (curcumina (C), demetoxicurcumina (DMC) y bisdemetoxicurcumina (BDMC) desde el rizoma de la planta, en estado seco, por cromatografía en columna y se caracterizaron por punto de fusión, espectroscopía infrarroja (IR), espectroscopía UV-vis y espectrometría de masas. Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana en bacterias y hongos por el método modificado de pozos de agar, la citotoxicidad sobre células BHK-21 por el método de bromuro de 3-(4,5- dimetiltiazol-2-ilo)-2,5-difeniltetrazol (MTT) y la toxicidad sobre Artemia salina. Finalmente se determinó el efecto de los curcuminoides en células BHK-21 infectadas con dengue virus 2. Resultados: la curcumina presentó mayor punto de fusión (177,3 ºC-183,2 ºC). El espectro IR reveló los grupos funcionales característicos y el UV-vis indicó máximos de absorción para curcumina, demetoxicurcumina y bisdemetoxicurcumina de 419, 418 y 414 nm en cloroformo, respectivamente. El espectro de masas mostró m/z para C: 368, DMC: 338 y BDMC: 308. Se encontró actividad antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus epidermidis, se determinó que BDMC presentó menor toxicidad y se evidenció mayor efecto inhibitorio sobre viriones infectivos de dengue con curcumina a 20 y 30 M. Conclusiones: la caracterización de los compuestos confirma su composición como polifenoles, lo cual se relaciona a la actividad biológica de éstos, encontrándose principalmente que la curcumina altera la infección por virus dengue en cultivo celular. Esta investigación confirma la importancia de los principios activos de plantas con amplio espectro farmacológico como C. longa(AU)


Introduction: Curcuma longa L. is a plant from the family Zingiberaceae distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and used in the food industry, in medicine and in cosmetics. Its main coloring substance is curcumin, a polyphenol with many medicinal properties. Objectives: Obtain, characterize chemically and evaluate the biological activity of three curcuminoids from C. longa grown in Quindío, Colombia. Methods: Three curcuminoids (curcumin (C), demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin BDMC) from the rhizome of the plant were purified in a dry state by column chromatography and characterized by fusion point, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi was evaluated by the modified agar well method, cytotoxicity to BHK-21 cells by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Finally, determination was made of the effect of the curcuminoids in BHK-21 cells infected with dengue virus 2. Results: Curcumin had the highest fusion point (177.3 ºC-183.2 ºC). IR spectroscopy revealed the characteristic functional groups and UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorption values for curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin of 419, 418 and 414 nm in chloroform, respectively. Mass spectrometry found that m/z values were C: 368, DMC: 338 and BDMC: 308. Antimicrobial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. BDMC was found to have lower toxicity. A greater inhibitory effect against infective dengue virions was observed with curcumin at 20 y 30 µM. Conclusions: Characterization of the compounds confirms their polyphenolic composition, which manifests in their biological activity, mainly the capacity of curcumin to alter infection by dengue virus in cell cultures. The study corroborated the importance of the active principles of plants with a wide pharmacological spectrum, such as C. longa(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Curcuma/drug effects , Products with Antimicrobial Action , Virion , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Colombia
16.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 22(1)ene.-mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901503

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Solanum dolichosepalum Bitter, llamada comúnmente frutillo, es tradicionalmente usada en Colombia como antibacteriano, antiinflamatorio, cicatrizante y en enfermedades renales. La escasa información en bases de datos sobre la planta en estudio no permitió referenciar un mayor número de artículos actuales. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de extractos obtenidos del fruto de S. dolichosepalum y realizar un estudio fitoquímico preliminar. Método: la actividad antimicrobiana fue evaluada a partir de cuatro fracciones (F) obtenidas del extracto etanólico de los frutos secos deS. dolichosepalum frente a cepas de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomona aeruginosa por el método de Kirby-Bauer. La primera fracción se sometió a cromatografía en columna y a sus fracciones se les evaluó la concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC) por el método de microdilución. Los metabolitos responsables de la actividad antimicrobiana se identificaron por cromatografía de capa delgada en placas de sílica gel (MERCK) y lámpara ultravioleta (365nm). Se realizó finalmente un estudio fitoquímico del extracto etanólico de los frutos para evaluar la presencia de metabolitos bioactivos. Resultados: las pruebas fitoquímicas del extracto etanólico revelaron la presencia de alcaloides, esteroides y/o triterpenoides libres, taninos, saponinas, flavonoides y glucósidos cardiotónicos. De las cuatro fracciones obtenidas a partir de este extracto, las fracciones F1 y F2 tuvieron MIC de 31,25 y 15,62 mg/mL, respectivamente frente a E. coli y de 500 y 31,25 mg/mL frente a S. aureus. F3 y F4 no presentaron inhibición y ninguna fracción tuvo actividad frente a P. aeruginosa. Las fracciones obtenidas por cromatografía en columna a partir de F1 se denominaron F1A, F1B, F1C y F1D; la fracción F 1B mostró la mayor actividad antimicrobiana, con MICs de 35 y 17,5 mg/mL frente a S. aureus y E. coli respectivamente. Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos confirman el uso tradicional delS. dolichosepalum como antibacteriana, con actividad frente a E. coli y S. aureus(AU)


Introduction: Solanum dolichosepalum Bitter, commonly known as frutillo, has been traditionally used in Colombia as antibacterial, antiinflammatory and cicatrizant, and to treat renal disease. Due to the scant information about the study plant contained in databases, it was not possible to reference a larger number of current papers. Objective: Evaluate the antibacterial activity of extracts obtained from the fruit of S. dolichosepalum and conduct a preliminary phytochemical study. Method: The Kirby-Bauer method was applied to four fractions (F) obtained from the ethanolic extract of dry fruits of S. dolichosepalum to evaluate antimicrobial activity against strains ofEscherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomona aeruginosa. The first fraction underwent column chromatography and its fractions were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the microdilution method. Metabolites responsible for antimicrobial activity were identified by thin layer chromatography on silica gel plates (MERCK) with an ultraviolet lamp (365 nm). Finally, a phytochemical study was conducted of the ethanolic extract of the fruits to determine the presence of bioactive metabolites.Results: Phytochemical testing of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids and/or free triterpenoids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and cardiotonic glucosides. Of the four fractions obtained from the extract, fractions F1 and F2 had an MIC of 31.25 and 15.62 mg/mL, respectively, against E. coli, and 500 and 31.25 mg/mL against S. aureus. F3 and F4 did not show any inhibition, and no fraction displayed any activity against P. aeruginosa. The fractions obtained by column chromatography from F1 were named F1A, F1B, F1C and F1D. Fraction F1B showed the highest antimicrobial activity, with MICs of 35 and 17.5 mg/mL against S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. Conclusions: The results obtained confirm the validity of the traditional use ofS. dolichosepalum as antibacterial, with activity against E. coli and S. aureus(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , /therapeutic use , Solanum , Phytotherapy , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Colombia
17.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 22(1)ene.-mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901508

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la composición química de las especies vegetales está sujeta a cambios, dependiendo, entre otros factores, de la localización geográfica. Moringa oleífera Lam., que crece en Machala, Ecuador, puede diferir de especies de otras regiones geográficas. Objetivo: realizar un estudio farmacognóstico preliminar del tallo y raíz (corteza y pulpa) de la planta M. oleífera cultivada en las áreas de la Unidad Académica de Ciencias Agropecuarias, de la Universidad Técnica de Machala. Métodos: se desarrolla el control de la calidad de la droga cruda según la metodología establecida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, mediante determinación de la humedad residual, el porciento de cenizas y el porciento de sustancias solubles en el tallo y la raíz. Se cuantificaron algunos metales mediante espectrometría de emisión óptica con plasma acoplado inductivamente. El estudio químico preliminar se efectuó a través de ensayos de tamizaje fitoquímico y mediante cromatografía en capa delgada. Resultados: la humedad residual para ambos órganos y los valores de cenizas obtenidos para la raíz se encuentran dentro de los límites establecidos. Las cenizas totales para el tallo resultaron elevadas. La determinación de metales descartó la presencia de metales tóxicos en los órganos estudiados. Los valores de sustancias solubles indicaron mayor poder extractivo para el agua. La evaluación mediante tamizaje fitoquímico sugirió triterpenos y esteroides, azúcares reductores, alcaloides, flavonoides, aminoácidos y saponinas, en los extractos de la raíz. En el tallo se detectaron, además, catequinas, mucílagos y compuestos fenólicos, no así flavonoides. La cromatografía en capa delgada sugirió la existencia de alcaloides derivados de la fenilmetilamina. Conclusiones: el estudio permitió establecer parámetros de calidad de la droga cruda para la especie estudiada; sugerir, en principio, semejanzas en composición química de la planta analizada con otras de orígenes geográficos diferentes, y comprobar la ausencia de metales tóxicos en los órganos estudiados(AU)


Introduction: The chemical composition of plant species is subject to changes which depend, among other factors, on their geographic location. The Moringa oleifera Lam. growing in Machala, Ecuador, may differ from species from other geographic regions. Objective: Conduct a preliminary pharmacognostic study of the stem and root (bark and pulp) of the plant M. oleifera grown in areas from the Agricultural Sciences Academic Unit of the Technical University of Machala. Methods: Quality control was performed of the crude drug following the methodology set up by the World Health Organization to determine residual humidity, percentage of ashes and percentage of soluble substances in the stem and the root. Several metals were quantified by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The preliminary chemical study was conducted by phytochemical screening testing and thin layer chromatography. Results: Both the residual humidity for both organs and the ash values obtained for the root are within the limits established. Total ashes for the stem were high. Metal determination discarded the presence of toxic metals in the organs studied. Values for soluble substances awarded a greater extraction capacity to water. Phytochemical screening pointed to the presence of triterpenes and steroids, reducing sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, amino acids and saponins in root extracts. The stem was found to also contain catechins, mucilages and phenolic compounds, but not flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography pointed to the presence of alkaloids derived from phenyl methylamine. Conclusions: The study made it possible to set up crude drug quality parameters for the study species, make preliminary suggestions about similarities between the chemical composition of the plant analyzed and other plants of different geographic origin, and verify the absence of toxic metals in the organs studied(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacognosy , Benzylamines/antagonists & inhibitors , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Moringa oleifera/toxicity , Ecuador/ethnology
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 93 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875303

ABSTRACT

Mono e diacilgliceróis são produtos empregados na indústria alimentícia, farmacêutica, cosmética e química como emulsificantes e melhoradores de viscosidade de produtos alimentícios, cosméticos e farmacêuticos. No entanto, a forma mais usual de obtê-los é por síntese química, o que acaba rendendo produtos finais caros e com atributos de qualidade, rendimento e de aplicabilidade tecnológica inferiores aos esperados. A busca por formas de obtenção mais racionais, eficientes e com melhor padrão de qualidade destes produtos foi o objetivo principal do trabalho, por meio de hidrólise parcial enzimática, que necessita de condições de reação mais brandas. Foram avaliadas a hidrólise enzimática descontína, empregando como substrato a trioleína técnica, e a hidrólise enzimática descontínua-alimentada, usando como substrato o óleo de girassol médio oléico. Foi utilizada, em ambos processsos, a lipase imobilizada sn-1,3 específica Lipozyme RM IM (de Rhizomucor miehei). A caracterização dos padrões e dos substrados, bem como o acompanhamento da formação dos produtos da hidrólise enzimática foram feitos por determinação da porcentagem de hidrólise, cromatografia em camada delgada (TLC), dos perfis das curvas de fusão e cristalização por calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC), cromatografia gasosa (CG) e cromatografia de exclusão de tamanho de alto desempenho (HPSEC). Os parâmetros de hidrólise descontínua foram o tempo de reação, a temperatura e a concentração inicial de substrato. Os parâmetros de hidrólise descontínua-alimentada foram tempo de enchimento e intervalo de alimentação de substrato. Para as respostas analíticas de porcentagem de hidrólise e de composição de frações lipídicas foi aplicado um modelo de regressão múltipla com base em metodologia de superfície de resposta. Os resultados experimentais observados nas reações de hidrólise enzimática descontínua de trioleína técnica mostraram de 24,7 a 34,2% de mono e diacilgliceróis (para 5% de óleo na emulsão) e de 21,4 a 33,6% de mono e diacilgliceróis (para 20% de óleo na emulsão). Os resultados experimentais observados nas reações de hidrólise enzimática descontínua-alimentada de óleo de girassol médio oléico (para 15% de óleo na emulsão), mostraram de 7,9 a 31,8% de mono e diacilgliceróis. Os modelos de superfície de resposta foram considerados significativos e preditivos. As hidrólises obtidas no formato descontínuo e descontínuo-alimentado permitiram efetivamente a obtenção de frações de mono/ diacilgliceróis com vários graus de eficiência de conversão e com corretas identificação e quantificação das frações de lipídios procuradas. As correlações feitas entre porcentagem de hidrólise e entalpias de cristalização e fusão, corroboradas com os resultados qualitativos e/ou quantitativos diretos obtidos na cromatografia de camada delgada (TLC) e de HPSEC, demonstraram que estes atributos podem positivamente indicar a ocorrência efetiva de reação de hidrólise, além de auferir uma escala de desempenho de reação alinhada com o previsto na literatura, à medida que são aumentadas a temperatura, o tempo de hidrólise e a porcentagem inicial de substrato oleoso, sob regime descontínuo, e que puderam ser melhoradas, de forma inovadora, sob parâmetros de tempo total de alimentação e de intervalo de alimentação, sob regime descontínuo-alimentado. A hidrólise parcial enzimática de triacilgliceróis utilizando lipase imobilizada sn-1,3 específica pode ser considerada uma alternativa às vias químicas para a produção de misturas de mono e diacilgliceróis para utilização como aditivos químicos.


Mono and diacylglycerols are products used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industries as emulsifiers and viscosity improvers for food products, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. However, the most usual forms of obtaining them are by chemical synthesis, which ends up yielding expensive final products with attributes of quality, yield and technological applicability lower than expected. The search for more rational, efficient and better quality standards of these products was the aim of the work, through partial enzymatic hydrolysis, which requires milder reaction conditions. Discontinuous enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated using technical triolein as substrate and discontinuous-fed enzymatic hydrolysis using as the substrate the mid oleic sunflower oil. In both processes, immobilized lipase sn-1,3 specific Lipozyme RM IM (from Rhizomucor miehei) was used. The characterization of the patterns and substrates, as well as the monitoring of the formation of the products from the enzymatic hydrolysis were made by determining the percentage of hydrolysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC), profiles of the melting and crystallization curves by differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC), gas chromatography (GC) and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The parameters of discontinuous hydrolysis were the reaction time, the temperature and the initial substrate concentration. The parameters of discontinuous-fed hydrolysis were filling time and substrate feed interval. For the analytical responses of hydrolysis percentage and composition of lipid fractions a multiple regression model was applied based on response surface methodology. The experimental results observed in the reactions of discontinuous enzymatic hydrolysis of technical triolein indicated amounts of mono- and diacylglycerols from 24.7 to 34.2% (for 5% of oil in the emulsion) and from 21.4 to 33.6% for mono and diacylglycerols with 20% oil in the emulsion. The experimental results observed in the reactions of discontinuous-fed enzymatic hydrolysis of mid oleic sunflower oil (for 15% oil in the emulsion), showed from 7.9 to 31.8% of mono and diacylglycerols. Response surface models were considered significant and viii predictive. The hydrolysis obtained in the discontinuous and discontinuous-fed form allowed to obtain fractions of mono / diacylglycerols with various degrees of conversion efficiency and with correct identification and quantification of the lipid fractions sought. The correlations between the percentage of hydrolysis and enthalpies of crystallization and fusion, corroborated with the qualitative and / or quantitative direct results obtained in thin layer chromatography (TLC) and HPSEC, showed that these attributes can positively indicate the effective occurrence of reaction of Hydrolysis, in addition to achieving a reaction performance scale in line with the literature, as the temperature rate, the hydrolysis time and the initial percentage of oily substrate are increased under a discontinuous regime and can be improved, in a innovative form, under parameters of total filling time and feeding interval, under a fed-batch regime. The partial enzymatic hydrolysis of triacylglycerols using specific sn-1,3-specific immobilized lipase may be considered an alternative to the chemical pathways for the production of mono- and diacylglycerol blends for use as chemical additives.


Subject(s)
Diglycerides/analysis , Hydrolysis , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/statistics & numerical data , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Lipase , Monoglycerides/classification , Oils
19.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (1): 149-154
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185752

ABSTRACT

The indole alkaloid Yohimbine has been used for over two centuries in the treatment of erectly dysfunction. Several formulations containing yohimbine salts, yohimbe bark power or extract are marketed worldwide. Determination of the amount of yohimbine in such formulation is a challenging task due to their complex nature. Extraction followed by acid-base purification resulted in a relatively pure alkaloids containing fractions. The exact amounts of yohimbine free base in different formulations were determined by densitometric HPTLC validated methods using silica gel TLC plates. Standard curve for yohimbine was generated using yohimbine hydrochloride subjected to the same acid-base treatment as the used samples. All formulations found to contain yohimbine though some with less concentration than the labeled amount


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Thin Layer , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists/analysis , Calibration , Reproducibility of Results , Densitometry , Dosage Forms
20.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (6): 2211-2215
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189732

ABSTRACT

Amommum subulatum [Roxb.] or Cardamom extract is known to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects towards many gastrointestinal related problems. However, uptill now different fractions of cardamom extract on fibroblasts with respect to potassium channel activity have not been investigated. Therefore, present study investigated the effects of different tractions of cardamom extract on potassium channels in non-tumor NIH3T3 cell line. Phytochemical analysis of hydroalcoholic, n-hexane, butane and ethyl acetate fractions of cardamom extracts were purified and isolated by thin layer chromatography [TLC]. 3T3 cells were cultured and incubated with hydroalcohol [1-2 Hg/ml], n-hexane [1 microg/ml], butane [2 microg/ml] and ethyl acetate [1-2 microg/ml] for 5 hrs at 37°C. Modulation in potassium currents were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp method. The data showed two constituents Cineol [CioHigO] and Terpinyl acetate [CioHi[7]OOCCH[3]] by TLC method. The present study shows that the constituents in n-hexane, hydro alcohol [1 [microg/ml] and ethyl acetate [2 microg/ml] significantly increased [p<0.01] the potassium outward rectifying currents from NIH3T3 cells when compared to untreated controls cells. Where as, butanol fraction [2 microg/ml] significantly decreased [p<0.01] the inward rectifying currents when compared to controls. Moreover hydroalcoholic and n-hexane fractions have increased the proliferation in 3T3 cell line. On the other hand butanol and ethyl acetate did not induce proliferation in 3T3 cells. Taken together, our data suggested that cardamom extract contains constituents that increased K[+] currents, cell migration and proliferation and are involved in wound healing


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , Cell Proliferation , Potassium , Cell Line , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Neuroprotective Agents , NIH 3T3 Cells , Chromatography, Thin Layer
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