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Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 504-510, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969935


Non-syndromic oral cleft (NSOC), a common birth defect, remains to be a critical public health problem in China. In the context of adjustment of childbearing policy for two times in China and the increase of pregnancy at older childbearing age, NSOC risk prediction will provide evidence for high-risk population identification and prenatal counseling. Genome-wide association study and second generation sequencing have identified multiple loci associated with NSOC, facilitating the development of genetic risk prediction of NSOC. Despite the marked progress, risk prediction models of NSOC still faces multiple challenges. This paper summarizes the recent progress in research of NSOC risk prediction models based on the results of extensive literature retrieval to provide some insights for the model development regarding research design, variable selection, model-build strategy and evaluation methods.

Humans , Cleft Palate/genetics , Cleft Lip/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Risk Factors , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982473


The cranial neural crest plays a fundamental role in orofacial development and morphogenesis. Accordingly, mutations with impact on the cranial neural crest and its development lead to orofacial malformations such as cleft lip and palate. As a pluripotent and dynamic cell population, the cranial neural crest undergoes vast transcriptional and epigenomic alterations throughout the formation of facial structures pointing to an essential role of factors regulating chromatin state or transcription levels. Using CRISPR/Cas9-guided genome editing and conditional mutagenesis in the mouse, we here show that inactivation of Kat5 or Ep400 as the two essential enzymatic subunits of the Tip60/Ep400 chromatin remodeling complex severely affects carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism in cranial neural crest cells. The resulting decrease in protein synthesis, proliferation and survival leads to a drastic reduction of cranial neural crest cells early in fetal development and a loss of most facial structures in the absence of either protein. Following heterozygous loss of Kat5 in neural crest cells palatogenesis was impaired. These findings point to a decisive role of the Tip60/Ep400 chromatin remodeling complex in facial morphogenesis and lead us to conclude that the orofacial clefting observed in patients with heterozygous KAT5 missense mutations is at least in part due to disturbances in the cranial neural crest.

Animals , Mice , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , DNA Helicases/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins , Neural Crest/metabolism , Skull , Transcription Factors/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1460-1465, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421813


La formación del paladar ocurre entre la quinta y undécima semana de vida intrauterina producto de la unión del paladar primario y secundario. Por otra parte, la formación del labio superior ocurre entre la quinta y sexta semana del desarrollo, y se configura en su parte media por la fusión de los procesos nasales mediales y lateralmente, a expensas de los procesos maxilares. La prevalencia de las fisuras labiales y/o fisura palatina varía según las distintas etnias, con cifras entre 0,7 hasta 1,1 casos por 1000 nacidos vivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una revisión bibliográfica sobre aspectos epidemiológicos, mecanismos genéticos moleculares y ambientales que influyen en la ocurrencia de la fisura labial, fisura palatina y fisura labio palatina. La búsqueda bibliográfica se realizó en las bases de datos PUBMED, SCOPUS, SPRINGER, SCIENCEDIRECT utilizando los términos en inglés "cleft lip and palate", "cleft lip", "cleft palate" y "embriology". Entre los criterios de inclusión se consideraron estudios realizados en humanos y animales, publicados entre los años 2015 y 2021. La búsqueda arrojó un total de 407 trabajos, de los cuales tras un filtro por título y resumen quedaron un total de 38 artículos, en los cuales se realizó un análisis de texto completo para finalmente seleccionar 26 artículos que abarcan temas genéticos-moleculares, ambientales, epidemiológicos y sindrómicos. Además se incorporaron por búsqueda manual, 6 documentos asociados a libros de texto, y artículos científicos, sin considerar el criterio inclusión de tiempo. Dentro de esta revisión se describe la fuerte asociación entre las fisuras orales y las mutaciones de genes Msx1, sonic hedgehog, proteínas morfogenéticas óseas y factor de crecimiento fibroblástico durante la migración de las células de la cresta neural y la modelación y formación del paladar. La ausencia de ácido fólico durante el desarrollo del paladar y la presencia de hipoxia por exposición a humo, son los factores ambientales observados con mayor frecuencia en malformaciones orofaciales.

SUMMARY: Palate formation occurs between the fifth and eleventh week of intrauterine life as a result of the union of the primary and secondary palate. On the other hand, the formation of the upper lip occurs between the fifth and sixth week of development, and is configured in its middle part by the fusion of the medial and lateral nasal processes, at the expense of the maxillary processes. The prevalence of cleft lips and / or cleft palate varies according to the different ethnic groups, with figures ranging from 0.7 to 1.1 cases per 1000 live births. The aim of this work was to carry out a literature review on epidemiological aspects, molecular and environmental genetic mechanisms that influence the occurrence of cleft lip, cleft palate and its embriology. The literature search was carried out in the databases PUBMED, SCOPUS, SPRINGER, SCIENCEDIRECT using the English terms "cleft lip and palate", "cleft lip", "cleft palate" and "embryology". Inclusion criteria included studies carried out in humans and animals, published between 2015 and 2021. The search yielded a total of 407 works, of which after a filter by title and abstract, a total of 38 articles remained, in which a text analysis was carried out complete to finally select 26 articles that cover genetic-molecular, environmental, epidemiological and syndromic topics. In addition, 6 documents associated with textbooks and scientific articles were incorporated by manual search, without considering the inclusion criterion of time. This review describes the strong association between oral fissures and mutations of genes Msx1, sonic hedgehog, bone morphogenetic proteins and fibroblast growth factor during migration of neural crest cells and palate shaping and formation. Lack of folic acid during palae development dar and the presence of hypoxia due to exposure to smoke, are the environmental factors most frequently observed in orofacial malformations.

Humans , Cleft Lip/embryology , Cleft Palate/embryology , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Lip/epidemiology , Cleft Palate/genetics , Cleft Palate/epidemiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940980


OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether WNT signaling pathway genes were associated with non-syndromic oral clefts (NSOC) based on haplotypes analyses among 1 008 Chinese NSOC case-parent trios.@*METHODS@#The genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of 806 Chinese non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) trios and 202 Chinese non-syndromic cleft palate (NSCP) case-parent trios were drawn from the International Consortium to Identify Genes and Interactions Controlling Oral Clefts (ICOCs) study GWAS data set, whose Chinese study population were recruited from four provinces in China, namely Taiwan, Shandong, Hubei, and Sichuan provinces. The process of DNA genotyping was conducted by the Center for Inherited Disease Research in the Johns Hopkins University, using Illumina Human610-Quad v.1_B Bead Chip. The method of sliding windows was used to determine the haplotypes for analyses, including 2 SNPs haplotypes and 3 SNPs haplotypes. Haplotypes with a frequency lower than 1% were excluded for further analyses. To further assess the association between haplotypes and NSOC risks, and the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was performed. The Bonferroni method was adopted to correct multiple tests in the study, with which the threshold of statistical significance level was set as P < 0.05 divided by the number of tests, e.g P < 3.47×10-4 in the current stu-dy. All the statistical analyses were performed by using plink (v1.07).@*RESULTS@#After quality control, a total of 144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped in seven genes in WNT signaling pathway were included for the analyses among the 806 Chinese NSCL/P trios and 202 Chinese NSCP trios. A total of 1 042 haplotypes with frequency higher than 1% were included for NSCL/P analyses and another 1 057 haplotypes with frequency higher than 1% were included for NSCP analyses. Results from the TDT analyses showed that a total of 69 haplotypes were nominally associated with the NSCL/P risk among Chinese (P < 0.05). Another 34 haplotypes showed nominal significant association with the NSCP risk among Chinese (P < 0.05). However, none of these haplotypes reached pre-defined statistical significance level after Bonferroni correction (P>3.47×10-4).@*CONCLUSION@#This study failed to observe any statistically significant associations between haplotypes of seven WNT signaling pathway genes and the risk of NSOC among Chinese. Further studies are warranted to replicate the findings here.

Humans , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Haplotypes , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Wnt Signaling Pathway/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940979


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the association between de novo mutations (DNM) and non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) using case-parent trio design.@*METHODS@#Whole-exome sequencing was conducted for twenty-two NSCL/P trios and Genome Analysis ToolKit (GATK) was used to identify DNM by comparing the alleles of the cases and their parents. Information of predictable functions was annotated to the locus with SnpEff. Enrichment analysis for DNM was conducted to test the difference between the actual number and the expected number of DNM, and to explore whether there were genes with more DNM than expected. NSCL/P-related genes indicated by previous studies with solid evidence were selected by literature reviewing. Protein-protein interactions analysis was conducted among the genes with protein-altering DNM and NSCL/P-related genes. R package "denovolyzeR" was used for the enrichment analysis (Bonferroni correction: P=0.05/n, n is the number of genes in the whole genome range). Protein-protein interactions among genes with DNM and genes with solid evidence on the risk factors of NSCL/P were predicted depending on the information provided by STRING database.@*RESULTS@#A total of 339 908 SNPs were qualified for the subsequent analysis after quality control. The number of high confident DNM identified by GATK was 345. Among those DNM, forty-four DNM were missense mutations, one DNM was nonsense mutation, two DNM were splicing site mutations, twenty DNM were synonymous mutations and others were located in intron or intergenic regions. The results of enrichment analysis showed that the number of protein-altering DNM on the exome regions was larger than expected (P < 0.05), and five genes (KRTCAP2, HMCN2, ANKRD36C, ADGRL2 and DIPK2A) had more DNM than expected (P < 0.05/(2×19 618)). Protein-protein interaction analysis was conducted among forty-six genes with protein-altering DNM and thirteen genes associated with NSCL/P selected by literature reviewing. Six pairs of interactions occurred between the genes with DNM and known NSCL/P-related genes. The score measuring the confidence level of the predicted interaction between RGPD4 and SUMO1 was 0.868, which was higher than the scores for other pairs of genes.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study provided novel insights into the development of NSCL/P and demonstrated that functional analyses of genes carrying DNM were warranted to understand the genetic architecture of complex diseases.

Humans , Asian People , Case-Control Studies , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Mutation , Parents , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Exome Sequencing
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(6): 718-722, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350340


Abstract Introduction: Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate is a common worldwide birth defect due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies reported the rs7078160 of Vax1 is closely related to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in European populations. The following studies showed the same results in Mongolian, Japanese, Filipino, Vietnamese populations etc. However, conflicting research had been reported in Chinese population, Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the rs7078160 polymorphism and non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Southern Chinese patients. Methods: In this study, we investigated the polymorphism distribution of rs7078160 in 100 complete patient trios (39 patients with non-syndromic cleft lip and palate; 36 patients with non-syndromic cleft lip only; 25 had non-syndromic cleft palate only; and their parents) from Southern ethnic Han Chinese. 60 healthy trios were selected as control. Polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing were used to genotype rs7078160 in Vax1; both case-control and family-based associations were analyzed. Results: The case-control analyses revealed the rs7078160 polymorphism was significant, associated with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (p = 0.04) and non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (p = 0.01), but not associated with non-syndromic cleft lip only and nonsyndromic cleft palate only patients. The genotype composition of rs7078160 comprises mutated homozygous AA, heterozygous AG and wild homozygous GG. Cases with AG + AA genotypes compared with GG homozygotes showed an increased risk of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (p = 0.04, OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.01-4.16) and non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (p = 0.01, OR = 3.94, 95% CI: 1.34-11.54). In addition, we did not detect any transmissiondisequilibrium in rs7078160 (p = 0.68). Conclusion: This study suggests that rs7078160 polymorphism is a risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and Vax1 is strongly associated with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Southern Chinese Han populations.

Resumo Introdução: A fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina, é um defeito congênito comum em todo o mundo, devido a uma combinação de fatores ambientais e genéticos. O genome-wide association studies relatou que o polimorfismo rs7078160 do Vax1 está intimamente relacionado à fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina em populações europeias. Estudos subsequentes mostraram os mesmos resultados nas populações mongol, japonesa, filipina e vietnamita etc. No entanto, pesquisas conflitantes foram relatadas na população chinesa. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre o polimorfismo rs7078160 e fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina, em pacientes do sul da China. Método: Tentamos investigar a distribuição do polimorfismo rs7078160 em 100 trios completos de pacientes (39 pacientes com fenda labial e palatina não sindrômica; 36 pacientes com fenda labial somente, não sindrômica; 25 com fenda palatina somente, não sindrômica e seus pais), da etnia Han do sul da China, e em 60 trios saudáveis selecionados como controle. Reação de polimerase em cadeia e o sequenciamento de Sanger foram uszados para genotipar o polimorfismo rs7078160 do Vax1 e tanto os casos-controle quanto as associações baseadas na família foram analisadas. Resultados: As análises de caso-controle revelaram que o polimorfismo rs7078160 estava significativamente associado a fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina (p = 0,04) e fenda labial e palatina não sindrômica (p = 0,01), mas não estava associado a pacientes com fenda labial somente não sindrômica e fenda palatina somente não sindrômica. A composição do genótipo de rs7078160 compreende AA homozigoto mutado, AG heterozigoto e GG homozigoto selvagem. Casos com genótipos AG + AA comparados com GG homozigotos mostraram um risco aumentado de fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina (p = 0,04, OR = 2,05, IC de 95%: 1,01 ± 4,16) e fenda labial e palatina não sindrômica (p = 0,01, OR = 3,94, IC 95%: 1,34-11,54). Além disso, não detectamos desequilíbrio de transmissão em rs7078160 (p = 0,68). Conclusão: Este estudo sugere que o polimorfismo rs7078160 foi um fator de risco para fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina, e o gene Vax1 está fortemente associado com fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina em populações da etnia Han do sul da China.

Humans , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Case-Control Studies , China , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(3): 321-328, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279326


Abstract Objective This article presents a clinical and cytogenomic approach that focuses on the diagnosis of syndromic oral clefts (OCs). Methods The inclusion criteria were individuals with OC presenting four or more minor signs and no major defects (non-syndromic oral clefts [NSOCs]) as well as individuals with OC presenting at least another major defect, regardless of the number of minor signs (syndromic oral clefts [SOCs]). The exclusion criteria included NSOC with less than four minor signs, SOC with known etiology, as well as atypical oral clefts. Results Of 1647 individuals with OC recorded in the Brazilian Database of Craniofacial Anomalies, 100 individuals were selected for chromosome microarray analysis (CMA). Among these, 44 individuals were clinically classified as NSOC and 56 as SOC. CMA was performed for both groups, and abnormal CMA was identified in 9%, all previously classified as SCO. The clinical and CMA data analyses showed a significant predominance of abnormal CMA in individuals classified as SOC (p = 0.0044); prematurity, weight, length, and head circumference at birth were significantly lower in the group with abnormal CMA. Besides, minor signs were significantly higher in this group (p = 0.0090). Conclusion The rigorous selection of cases indicates that the significant variables could help in early recognition of SOC. This study reinforces the importance of applying the CMA technique to establish the diagnosis of SOC. This is an important and universal issue in clinical practice for intervention, care, and genetic counseling.

Humans , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Brazil , Chromosome Aberrations , Genomics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888366


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic etiology for a fetus with congenital orofacial cleft.@*METHODS@#Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP array) was carried out on skin tissues sampled from the fetus following induced abortion for the detection of copy number variation (CNVs). Pathogenicity of the candidate gene was validated through experiment.@*RESULTS@#SNP array revealed that the fetus has carried a hemizygous 9.23Mb deletion at Xq21.31-q22.1(91 063 807-100 293 555), which was inherited from its mother. The region contained 13 OMIM genes and 1 ncRNA coding gene(MIR548M). Inhibiting of the expression of the MIR548M gene in oral epithelial celllines has resulted in up-regulation of the expression of SUMO1 gene which was known to involve in the pathogenesis of orofacial cleft.@*CONCLUSION@#Dosage insufficiency of the MIR548M gene may underlie the etiology of orofacial cleft in this fetus.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics , Fetus , MicroRNAs/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SUMO-1 Protein
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879521


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree affected with non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate (NSCLP).@*METHODS@#With informed consent obtained, members of the pedigree were subjected to clinical examination and history taking to exclude syndromic cleft lip and palate. One affected member was subjected to whole-exome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing and co-segregation analysis of her family members and 100 unrelated healthy individuals.@*RESULTS@#Whole-exome sequencing and co-segregation analysis showed that all affected members of this pedigree have carried a heterozygous missense c.253A>G (p.Cys85Arg) variant in exon 4 of the IRF6 gene, which has co-segregated with the phenotype and was not found among the 100 unrelated healthy individuals.@*CONCLUSION@#The missense c.253A>G variant in exon 4 of the IRF6 gene probably underlay the NSCLP in this pedigree.

Female , Humans , Brain/abnormalities , China , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Pedigree , Exome Sequencing
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 696-702, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142599


Abstract Introduction: Non-syndromic orofacial clefts have a complex etiology due to the contribution from both genetic and environmental risk factors, as well as the interaction between them. Among the more than 15 susceptibility loci for non-syndromic orofacial clefts with considerable statistical and biological support, the IRF6 is the most validated gene by the majority of studies. Nonetheless, in genetically heterogeneous populations such as Brazilian, the confirmation of association between non-syndromic orofacial clefts and IRF6 common variants is not a consolidated fact and unrecognized IRF6 variants are poorly investigated. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IRF6 polymorphisms with non-syndromic orofacial clefts development in a population from northeast Brazil. Methods: Blood samples of 186 non-syndromic orofacial clefts patients and 182 controls from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, were obtained to analyze IRF6 polymorphisms (rs2235371, rs642961, rs2236907, rs861019, and rs1044516) by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Non-syndromic orofacial clefts patients were classified in cleft lip and palate, cleft palate only and cleft lip only groups. Results: The genotype and allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphism rs2235371 in IRF6 showed significant differences in patients with cleft palate when compared to the controls, whereas no association was shown between rs642961, rs2236907, rs861019, and rs1044516 and non-syndromic orofacial clefts. Conclusion: The association found between rs2235371 and isolated cleft palate should be interpreted with caution due to the low number of individuals investigated, and more studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these association. In addition, there is a lack of association of the rs642961, rs2236907 and rs861019 polymorphisms with non-syndromic orofacial clefts susceptibility.

Resumo Introdução: As fendas orofaciais não sindrômicas possuem uma etiologia complexa devido à contribuição de fatores de risco genéticos e ambientais, assim como a interação entre eles. Dentre os mais de 15loci de susceptibilidade para as fendas orofaciais não sindrômicas com considerável suporte estatístico e biológico, o IRF6 é o gene mais validado pela maioria dos estudos. Apesar disso, em populações geneticamente heterogêneas como a brasileira, a confirmação da associação entre as fendas orofaciais não sindrômicas e as variantes mais comuns do IRF6 ainda não é um fato consolidado e outras variantes não tão conhecidas IRF6 são pouco investigadas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação de variados polimorfismos do IRF6 com o desenvolvimento das fendas orofaciais não sindrômicas em uma população do nordeste do Brasil. Método: Amostras de sangue de 186 pacientes com fendas orofaciais não sindrômicas e 182 controles do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, foram obtidas para analisar os polimorfismos do IRF6 (rs2235371, rs642961, rs2236907, rs861019 e rs1044516) por reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real. Os pacientes com fendas orofaciais não sindrômicas foram classificados em fenda labiopalatina, fenda palatina isolada e fenda labial isolada. Resultados: As frequências genotípica e alélica do polimorfismo de único nucleotídeo rs2235371 no IRF6 mostraram-se significativamente diferentes em pacientes com fenda palatina isolada quando comparadas às dos controles, enquanto que nenhuma associação foi encontrada entre rs642961, rs2236907, rs861019 e rs1044516 e risco para o desenvolvimento das fendas orofaciais não sindrômicas. Conclusão: A associação encontrada entre rs2235371 e fenda palatina isolada deve ser interpretada com cautela devido ao baixo número de indivíduos investigados, sendo necessários mais estudos com um tamanho amostral maior para confirmar essa associação. Além disso, não foram encontradas associações significativas entre os demais polimorfismos do IRF6 rs642961, rs2236907, rs861019 e rs1044516 e a susceptibilidade às fendas orofaciais não sindrômicas.

Humans , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Brazil , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942080


OBJECTIVE@#In this study, we used genome-wide association study (GWAS) data to explore whether WNT pathway genes were associated with non-syndromic oral clefts (NSOC) considering gene-gene interaction and gene-environment interaction.@*METHODS@#We conducted the analysis using 806 non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) case-parent trios and 202 non-syndromic cleft palate (NSCP) case-parent trios among Chinese populations selected from an international consortium established for a GWAS of non-syndromic oral clefts. Genotype data and maternal environmental exposures were collected through DNA samples and questionnaires. Conditional Logistic regression models were adopted to explore gene-gene interaction and gene-environment in teraction using trio package in R software. The threshold of significance level was set as 3.47×10-4 using Bonferroni correction.@*RESULTS@#A total of 144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes passed the quality control process in NSCL/P trios and NSCP trios, respectively. Totally six pairs of SNPs interactions showed statistically significant SNP-SNP interaction (P < 3.47×10-4) after Bonferroni correction, which were rs7618735 (WNT5A) and rs10848543 (WNT5B), rs631948 (WNT11) and rs556874 (WNT5A), and rs631948 (WNT11) and rs472631 (WNT5A) among NSCL/P trios; rs589149 (WNT11) and rs4765834 (WNT5B), rs1402704 (WNT11) and rs358792 (WNT5A), and rs1402704 (WNT11) and rs358793 (WNT5A) among NSCP trios, respectively. In addition, no significant result was found for gene-environment interaction analysis in both of the NSCL/P trios and NSCP trios.@*CONCLUSION@#Though this study failed to detect significant association based on gene-environment interactions of seven WNT pathway genes and the risk of NSOC, WNT pathway genes may influence the risk of NSOC through potential gene-gene interaction.

Humans , Asian People/genetics , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Wnt Signaling Pathway/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942079


OBJECTIVE@#Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a common birth defect, affecting 1.4 per 1 000 live births, and multiple genetic and environmental risk factors influencing its risk. All the known genetic risk factors accounted for a small proportion of the heritability. Several authors have suggested parent-of-origin effects (PoO) may play an important role in the etiology of this complex and heterogeneous malformation. To clarify the genetic association between PTCH1, PTCH2, SHH and SMO in hedgehog (HH) pathway and NSCL/P, as well as testing for potential PoO effects in Chinese case-parent trios.@*METHODS@#We tested for transmission disequilibrium tests (TDT) and PoO effects using 83 common single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers of HH pathway genes from 806 NSCL/P case-parent trios. These trios were drawn from an international consortium established for a genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of non-syndromic oral clefts of multiple ethnicities. DNA samples were collected from each trio. Single marker and haplotype based analysis were performed both in TDT tests and PoO effects. SNPs were excluded if they (ⅰ) had a call rate of < 95%, (ⅱ) had a minor allele frequency (MAF) of < 0.05, (ⅲ) had Mendelian errors over all trios of >5%, (ⅳ) had a genotype distribution in the parents that deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) (<i>P</i> < 0.000 1). The process was done using Plink (version 1.07, <a href="" target="_blank"></a>). TDT test was performed in Plink v1.07. A log-linear model was used to explore PoO effects using Haplin v6.2.1 as implemented in R package v3.4.2. Significance level was assessed using the Bonferroni correction.@*RESULTS@#A total of 18 SNPs were dropped due to low MAF, thus leaving 65 SNPs available for the analysis. Thus the Bonferroni threshold was 7.7×10-4 (0.05/65). Nominal significant association with NSCL/P was found at a SNP (rs4448343 in PTCH1, P=0.023) and six haplotypes (rs10512249-rs4448343, rs1461208-rs7786445, rs10512249-rs4448343, rs16909865-rs10512249-rs4448343, rs1461208-rs7786445-rs12698335, and rs288756-rs288758-rs1151790, P < 0.05). A total of six haplotypes (rs288765-rs1233563, rs12537550-rs11765352, rs872723-rs288765-rs1233563, rs288765-rs1233563-rs288756, rs6459952-rs12537550-rs11765352, and rs12537550-rs11765352-rs6971211) showed PoO effect (P < 0.05). None of the results remained significant after the Bonferroni correction (P>7.7×10-4).@*CONCLUSION@#Neither significant association between SNPs within HH pathway and the risk of NSCL/P nor PoO effects was seen in this study.

Humans , Asian People , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hedgehog Proteins/genetics , Patched-2 Receptor , Smoothened Receptor
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(3): 345-349, set. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012434


ABSTRACT: A standardized photographic documentation is reproducible, which facilitates the evaluation of new techniques, treatment planning, and comparison of results. Clinical photography is important to impart scientific education to health professionals, because techniques can be better understood by the listener or reader when they are well illustrated. Documentation of consistent imaging of clinical diagnosis and treatment is also essential in medical-legal cases. Highquality clinical photographs along with radiographs and other medical and dental images should become an integral part of patients' medical records. Variables such as lens selection, camera position, distance, and patient's position should be understood and controlled by healthcare personnel for acquiring accurate photographs. In the case of patients with craniofacial deformities, such as cleft lip and palate, it is important to establish the standardization of photographic records because the patients' aesthetic evaluation is a fundamental clinical indicator in the deformity analysis, besides assisting the planning of patients' multidisciplinary treatment. This article aims to assist health professionals in acquiring standardized facial photographs (front, right profile, left profile, and submental oblique view) of patients with cleft lip and palate.

RESUMEN: Una documentación fotográfica estandarizada es reproducible, lo que facilita la evaluación de nuevas técnicas, la planificación del tratamiento y la comparación de resultados. La fotografía clínica es importante para impartir educación científica a los profesionales de la salud, ya que el oyente o lector puede comprender mejor las técnicas cuando están bien ilustradas. La documentación de imágenes consistentes de diagnóstico clínico y tratamiento también es esencial en casos médico-legales. Las fotografías clínicas de alta calidad junto con las radiografías y otras imágenes médicas y dentales deben convertirse en una parte integral de los registros médicos de los pacientes. El personal de atención médica debe comprender y controlar las variables como la selección de la lente, la posición de la cámara, la distancia y la posición del paciente para obtener fotografías precisas. En el caso de pacientes con deformidades craneofaciales, como labio leporino y paladar hendido, es importante establecer la estandarización de los registros fotográficos porque la evaluación estética de los pacientes es un indicador clínico fundamental en el análisis de la deformidad, además de ayudar en la planificación del tratamiento multidisciplinario del paciente. Este artículo pretende ayudar a los profesionales de la salud a adquirir fotografías faciales estandarizadas (frente, perfil derecho, perfil izquierdo y vista oblicua submental) de pacientes con labio leporino y paladar hendido.

Humans , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Lip/pathology , Cleft Palate/genetics , Cleft Palate/pathology , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Brazil , Photography, Dental/methods , Photography, Dental/standards , Informed Consent
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(4): 473-477, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951849


Abstract Introduction Transcription factors are very diverse family of proteins involved in activating or repressing the transcription of a gene at a given time. Several studies using animal models demonstrated the role of transcription factor genes in craniofacial development. Objective We aimed to investigate the association of IRF6 intron-6 polymorphism in the non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate in a South Indian population. Methods 173 unrelated nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate patients and 176 controls without clefts patients were genotyped for IRF6 rs2235375 variant by allele-specific amplification using the KASPar single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping system. The association between interferon regulatory factor-6 gene intron-6 dbSNP208032210:g.G>C (rs2235375) single nucleotide polymorphism and non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate risk was investigated by chi-square test. Results There were significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies of rs2235375 single nucleotide polymorphism between controls and cases with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate. IRF6 rs2235375 variant was significantly associated with increased risk of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate in co-dominant, dominant (OR: 1.19; 95% CI 1.03-2.51; p = 0.034) and allelic models (OR: 1.40; 95% CI 1.04-1.90; p = 0.028). When subset analysis was applied significantly increased risk was observed in cleft palate only group (OR dominant: 4.33; 95% CI 1.44-12.97; p = 0.005). Conclusion These results suggest that IRF6 rs2235375 SNP play a major role in the pathogenesis and risk of developing non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate.

Resumo Introdução Fatores de transcrição constituem uma família de proteínas muito diversa envolvida na ativação ou repressão da transcrição de um gene, em um determinado momento. Vários estudos usando modelos animais demonstraram o papel dos genes do fator de transcrição no desenvolvimento craniofacial. Objetivo Nosso objetivo foi investigar a associação do polimorfismo IRF6 intron-6 na fenda labial não sindrômica com ou sem fenda palatina em uma população do sul da Índia. Método Um total de 173 pacientes com fenda labial não sindrômica com ou sem fenda palatina e 176 controles sem fendas foram genotipados para a variante IRF6 rs2235375 por amplificação alelo-específica utilizando o sistema KASPar de genotipagem de polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único. A associação entre o polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único Fator 6 Regulatório do Interferon (IRF6) intron-6 dbSNP208032210:g.G>C (rs2235375) e o risco de fenda labial não sindrômica com ou sem fenda palatina foi investigado pelo teste qui-quadrado. Resultados Houve diferenças significativas nas frequências de genótipos ou alelos do rs2235375 SNP entre controles e casos com fenda labial não sindrômica com ou sem fenda palatina. A variante IRF6 rs2235375 foi significativamente associada ao aumento do risco de fenda labial não sindrômica com ou sem fenda palatina em modelos codominantes, dominantes (OR: 1,19; IC 95%: 1,03-2,51; p = 0,034) e alélicos (OR: 1,40; IC 95%: 1,04-1,90; p = 0,028). Quando a análise do subgrupo foi realizada, um risco significativamente aumentado foi observado no grupo Fenda Palatina Isolada (OR dominante: 4,33; IC 95%: 1,44-12,97; p = 0,005). Conclusões Esses resultados sugerem que o polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único IRF6 rs2235375 desempenha um papel importante na patogênese e no risco de desenvolvimento de fenda labial não sindrômica com ou sem fenda palatina.

Humans , Male , Female , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Cleft Lip/ethnology , Cleft Palate/ethnology , Genetic Association Studies , Genotyping Techniques , Gene Frequency , India
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(6): 650-656, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893673


Abstract Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) is a common congenital malformation worldwide, with complex etiology. It has been proposed that interaction of genes and environmental factors play a role in the predisposition to this disease. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association between AXIN2 (axis inhibition protein 2) rs7224837, BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein 4) rs17563, and IRF6 (interferon regulatory factor 6) rs861019 and 2235371 polymorphisms and NSCL/P in an Iranian population. Material and Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 132 unrelated NSCL/P patients and 156 healthy subjects. The variants were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: The findings suggest that BMP4 rs17563 polymorphism significantly decreased the risk of NSCL/P in codominant (OR=0.36, 95%CI=0.17-0.79, p=0.012, CT vs CC and OR=0.11, 95%CI=0.01-0.88, p = 0.019, TT vs CC), dominant (OR=0.30, 95%CI=0.15-0.62, p = 0.0007, CT+TT vs CC), recessive (OR=0.12, 95%CI=0.02-0.99, p = 0.023, TT vs CC+CT), overdominant (OR=0.39, 95%CI = 0.18-0.84, p=0.021, CT vs CC+TT), and allele (OR=0.28, 95%CI=0.15-0.55, p<0.0001, T vs C) inheritance models. Our findings did not support an association between AXIN2 rs7224837 and IRF6 rs861019 polymorphism and risk/protection of NSCL/P. The IRF6 2235371 variant was not polymorphic in our population. Conclusion: The results indicate that the BMP4 rs17563 variant is likely to confer a protective effect against the occurrence of NSCL/P in a sample of the southeast Iranian population.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4/genetics , Axin Protein/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Iran
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 35(2): 234-238, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-902837


RESUMO Objetivo: EEC é um acrônimo para uma síndrome autossômica dominante caracterizada clinicamente por ectrodactilia (E), displasia ectodérmica efissura labiopalatal (C). Nosso objetivo foi relatar um caso raro de irmãos afetados pela síndrome de ectrodactilia, displasia ectodérmica efissura labiopalatal (EEC) com pais hígidos. Descrição do caso: O paciente era o terceiro filho de pais jovens e hígidos, os quais não apresentavam nenhuma anomalia menor ou maior de mãos e pés ou anomalias de pele, cabelos e dentes. O casal tinha história prévia de duas crianças com malformação de mãos e pés, similar à do paciente. O primeiro foi natimorto e o segundo, prematuro, falecendo nos primeiros dias de vida, pelas consequências da prematuridade. Após o nascimento, o paciente apresentou desconforto respiratório, com necessidade de intubação orotraqueal e ventilação mecânica. No exame físico, verificaram-se a presença de fissura labiopalatal e ectrodactilia de mãos e pés, com ausência do segundo e terceiro dedos em ambas as mãos e defeitos de redução acometendo principalmente o segundo dedo dos pés. A criança apresentou pneumotórax e parada cardiorrespiratória, morrendo com 1 mês e 26 dias de vida. Comentários: Descrevemos aqui um caso de irmãos com síndrome EEC, indicativo de mosaicismo germinativo. Na revisão da literatura, observaram-se apenas três relatos similares. Este caso reforça a possibilidade do mosaicismo germinativo ser um mecanismo de herança mais comum do que se acreditava previamente para casos da síndrome EEC.

ABSTRACT Objective: EEC is an acronym for an autosomal dominant syndrome clinically characterized by ectrodactyly (E), ectodermal dysplasia (E) and cleft lip/palate (C). Our aim was to describe a rare case of siblings affected by ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome presenting normal parents. Case description: The patient was the third son of young and healthy parents. The parents did not present any minor or major anomaly of hands, feet or skin, hair and teeth. The couple had a previous history of two children with hands and feet malformations similar to the present patient. The first was a stillborn, and the second one a preterm infant that died in the first days after birth due to the consequences of prematurity. After birth, the patient presented respiratory distress with need of endotracheal intubation and mechanic ventilation. At physical examination, there were cleft lip/palate, hands and feet ectrodactyly, with absence of the second and third fingers in both hands, and reduction defects affecting mainly the second toes. The child presented pneumothorax and cardiorespiratory arrest and died at 1 month and 26 days. Comments: Herein we described a case of siblings with EEC syndrome, indicative of a germline mosaicism. In the literature review, there was the description of only three similar reports. The present case strengthens the possibility that germline mosaicism may be a more common inheritance mechanism than previously thought in cases of EEC syndrome.

Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Ectodermal Dysplasia/genetics , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Mosaicism , Parents , Pedigree , Phenotype , Germ-Line Mutation , Fatal Outcome
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 10(1): 75-84, abr. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-782625


El objetivo fue determinar la expresión génica del factor de crecimiento transformante beta (TGF-ß) y posibles factores de riesgo en niños con y sin fisuras labio palatina no sindrómicas (FLPNS). Diseño de casos (Niños con fisuras orales; n= 20) y controles (niños no afectados; n= 40). A partir de muestras de saliva se realizó la extracción de mRNA utilizando el RNeasy® Protect Saliva Mini Kit-QIAgen y la expresión génica del TGF-ß mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en transcriptasa reversa, además se aplicó un cuestionario para registrar características sociodemográficas y posibles factores de riesgo durante el periodo de concepción (medicamentos, enfermedades, alcohol, cigarrillo y edad de los padres).Los datos fueron analizados mediante medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, frecuencias y porcentajes, para establecer asociaciones se utilizaron las prueba T-Student, Chi-cuadrado y Odds ratio, asumiendo un límite de confianza de 0,05. El promedio de edad de los participantes fue de 6,8 (DE= 4,6) años y el 63,3 % eran de sexo masculino. Al evaluar los posibles factores asociados con el desarrollo de FLPNS no se encontraron diferencias significativas, sin embargo el 11,7 % de las madres habían ingerido algún tipo de medicamentos durante el embarazo, el 1,7 % habían fumado algún cigarrillo y el 13,3 % ingerido alcohol. Existieron diferencias significativas en la expresión génica del TGF-ß entre los grupos (p= 0,0205), siendo menor en grupo de casos. Los factores de riesgo evaluados mostraron poca evidencia de asociación con la presencia de FLAPNS, los niños con esta alteración tienen menor expresión génica del TGF-ß, sugiriendo que alteraciones moleculares en la vía de señalización del TGF-ß posiblemente están involucradas en el desarrollo de las fisuras labio palatinas, ya que se pueden afectar procesos de diferenciación, crecimiento y proliferación celular, en donde participan varios genes incluyendo el TGF-ß.

The aim of this study was to determine gene expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) and possible risk factors in children with and without non-syndromic oral clefts. Cases (Children with cleft lip and palate; n= 20) and controls (unaffected children; n= 40) study, from saliva samples mRNA extraction was performed using the RNeasy® Protect Saliva Mini Kit-QIAgen and gene expression of TGF-ß by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, a questionnaire was also applied to record sociodemographic characteristics and possible risk factors. Data were analyzed using measures of central tendency and dispersion, frequencies and percentages. Odds ratio, Chi-square and T-Student tests were used to determine association (p<0.05). The average age of participants was 6.8 (SD= 4.6) years and 63.3 % were male. No statistically significant association was found between any of the possible risk factors examined with the development of oral clefts (p> 0.05), however it was reported that 11.7 % of mothers had ingested some type of drug during pregnancy, 1.7 % reported maternal smoking and 13.3 % reported alcohol consumption. There were significant differences in gene expression levels of TGF-ß between groups (p= 0.0205), being lower in children with oral clefts. Most environmental risk factors evaluated here gave little evidence of association with the presence of oral clefts. Children with oral clefts have lower gene expression of TGF-ß, suggesting that molecular alterations in the signaling pathway of TGF-ß are possibly involved in the development of cleft lip and palate, as they can affect processes of differentiation, growth and proliferation cell, where several genes are involved including TGF-ß.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Saliva/chemistry , Case-Control Studies , Gene Expression , Risk Factors , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Braz. dent. j ; 26(6): 561-565, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769552


The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the polymorphisms in TCN2 (rs1801198) gene and in MTRR (rs1801394) gene with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) in a Brazilian population. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal cells. The polymorphisms in TCN2 (rs1801198) and MTRR (rs1801394) genes were genotyped by carrying out real-time PCR and Taqman assay. Chi-square test was used to determine the association between genotype and allele frequencies with NSCL/P and NSCL/P subgroups (cleft lip only, cleft lip and palate, and cleft palate only). Eight hundred and sixty seven unrelated individuals (401 cases with NSCL/P and 466 individuals without cleft) were evaluated. Genotype distributions of TCN2 and MTRR polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The TCN2 polymorphic genotype GG was identified in 16.7% of the NSCL/P group and in 14.1% of the non-cleft group (p>0.05). Similarly, the frequency of MTRR genotype (GG) was similar in NSCL/P group (15.5%) and control group (17.8%) (p>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed an association between MTRR and the subgroup that the mother smoked during pregnancy (p=0.039). Our findings did not demonstrate an association between TCN2 polymorphisms and NSCL/P, however suggests an association between MTRR and NSCL/P etiology.

Resumo O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a associação entre os polimorfismos no gene TCN2 (rs1801198) e no gene MTRR (rs1801394) com fissura de lábio e/ou palato não sindrômica (NSFL/P) em uma população brasileira. DNA genômico foi extraído de células bucais. Os polimorfismos nos genes TCN2 (rs1801198) e MTRR (rs1801394) foram genotipados através do PCR em tempo real pelo método Taqman. O teste do qui-quadrado foi utilizado para determinar a associação entre a frequência alélica e genotípica e NSFL/P e nos subtipos (fissura de lábio, fissura de lábio com palato e fissura de palato). Oitocentos e sessenta e sete indivíduos não aparentados (401 casos com NSFL/P e 466 indivíduos sem fissura) foram avaliados. A distribuição dos genótipos dos polimorfismos de TCN2 e MTRR estavam em equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg. O genótipo polimórfico GG do gene TCN2 foi identificado em 16,7% do grupo com NSFL/P e em 14,1% do grupo sem fissura (p>0,05). Da mesma forma, a freqüência do genótipo GG do gene MTRR foi bastante semelhante entre o grupo com NSFL/P (15,5%) e o grupo controle (17,8%). A análise multivariada mostrou associação entre o gene MTRR e o subgrupo que apresentou tabagismo materno durante a gestação (p=0,039). Nossos resultados mostraram que não há associação entre os polimorfismos nos genes TCN2 e NSFL/P, entretanto sugerem uma associação entre MTRR e a etiologia de NSFL/P.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Folic Acid/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Vitamin B 12/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Polymorphism, Genetic