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1.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 624-628, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985537

ABSTRACT

Objective: We analyze the characteristics of Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection among diarrhea patients in Kunming from 2018 to 2020 and provide evidence for follow-up surveillance and prevention. Methods: A total of 388 fecal samples of diarrhea patients from four sentinel hospitals in Yunnan Province from 2018 to 2020 were collected. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the fecal toxin genes of C. difficile. The positive fecal samples isolated the bacteria, and isolates were identified by mass spectrometry. The genomic DNA of the strains was extracted for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The fecal toxin, strain isolation, and clinical patient characteristics, including co-infection with other pathogens, were analyzed. Results: Among the 388 fecal samples, 47 samples with positive reference genes of C. difficile were positive, with a total positive rate of 12.11%. There were 4 (8.51%) non-toxigenic and 43 (91.49%) toxigenic ones. A total of 18 strains C. difficile were isolated from 47 positive specimens, and the isolation rate of positive specimens was 38.30%. Among them, 14 strains were positive for tcdA, tcdB, tcdC, tcdR, and tcdE. All 18 strains of C. difficile were negative for binary toxins. The MLST results showed 10 sequence types (ST), including 5 strains of ST37, accounting for 27.78%; 2 strains of ST129, ST3, ST54, and ST2, respectively; and 1 strain of ST35, ST532, ST48, ST27, and ST39, respectively. Fecal toxin gene positive (tcdB+) results were statistically associated with the patient's age group and with or without fever before the visit; positive isolates were only statistically associated with the patient's age group. In addition, some C. difficile patients have co-infection with other diarrhea-related viruses. Conclusions: The infection of C. difficile in diarrhea patients in Kunming is mostly toxigenic strains, and the high diversity of strains was identified using the MLST method. Therefore, the surveillance and prevention of C. difficile should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Enterotoxins/genetics , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Coinfection , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , China/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 29-34, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La infección por Clostridioides dfficile (ICD) es la principal causa de diarrea nosocomial, generalmente asociada al consumo de antimicrobianos. Esta infección puede causar desde diarrea no complicada hasta colitis pseudomembranosa o megacolon tóxico. Estudios recientes han intentado relacionar el valor el ciclo umbral (Ct) de la RT-PCR con la mortalidad, como un método rápido, sencillo, objetivo y eficaz. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el Ct como predictor de mala evolución en pacientes con y sin criterio clínico de dicha gravedad. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo entre enero 2015 y diciembre 2018, incluyendo todos los pacientes del área de referencia del Hospital Universitario de Canarias en Tenerife (396.483 habitantes) en pacientes con criterios clínicos de gravedad (de acuerdo a la Guía para la Práctica Clínica de la enfermedad por C. dfficile de la Sociedad de Epidemiología del Cuidado de la Salud de América (SHEA) y la Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas de Norteamérica (IDSA) y pacientes sin criterios clínicos de gravedad evaluando el Ct como predictor de mala evolución. RESULTADOS: Se diagnosticó un total de 202 episodios de ICD. El 77,7% (n = 157) presentó criterios clínicos de gravedad. La presencia de colitis ulcerosa (p < 0,001), fiebre (p < 0,001), leucocitosis (p < 0,001), neutrofilia (p < 0,001), creatininemia (p = 0,005) se presentaron como factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de ICD grave. El sexo femenino, la institucionalización, el ingreso previo y el exitus se describieron con mayor frecuencia en el grupo con ICD-G, no encontrando diferencias significativas. No encontramos diferencias respecto a los días de estancia previa, o de estancia post-ICD, aunque en este último, la media fue mayor en el caso de los pacientes con ICD-G. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al Ct en ambos grupos; siendo sólo un punto menor en pacientes con criterio de gravedad (Ct = 26,1) que sin criterios de gravedad (Ct = 27,4) (p = 0,326).


BACKGROUND: Clostridioides dfficile infection (CDI) is the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea, generally associated with the use of antibiotics. This infection can cause uncomplicated diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon. Recent studies have attempted to relate the threshold cycle (Ct) value of RT-PCR with mortality, as a fast, simple, objective and efficient method. AIM: To evaluate Ct as a predictor of poor outcome in patients with C. dfficile disease with/without clinical signs of severity. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study between January 2015 and December 2018, including all patients in the reference area of the Hospital Universitario de Canarias in Tenerife (396,483 inhabitants) in patients with clinical criteria of severity and patients without clinical severity criteria (according to the guide for the clinical practice of CDI of the Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of North America (IDSA). RESULTS: A total of 202 CDI episodes were diagnosed. 77.7% (n = 157) presented clinical severity criteria. The presence of ulcerative colitis (p < 0.001), fever (p < 0.001), leukocytosis (p < 0.001), neutrophilia (p < 0.001), creatininemia (p = 0.005) were presented as risk factors for the development of severe CDI (S-CDI). Female sex, institutionalization, previous admission and death were described more frequently in the group with S-CDI, not finding significant differences. We found no differences with respect to the days of previous stay, or of post-CDI stay, although in the latter, the mean was higher in the case of S-CDI patients. No significant differences were found in terms of Ct in both groups; being only one point lower in patients with severity criteria (Ct = 26.1) than without severity criteria (Ct = 27.4) (p = 0.326). CONCLUSION: Based on the results of our study, it has not been possible to systematically implement the Ct value as a predictor of severity to the clinical report, and it is not possible to extrapolate this predictive variable from S-CDI and standardize the Ct value as a predictor of severity. Conclusion: Basándonos en los resultados de nuestro estudio, no ha sido posible la implementación sistemática del valor Ct como predictor de gravedad al informe clínico, no siendo posible extrapolar esta variable predictora de enfermedad por C difficile-G y estandarizar el valor Ct como factor predictor de gravedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Clostridium Infections , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Diarrhea
3.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 601-608, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935331

ABSTRACT

Objective: Comparative analyses of wild-type Clostridioides difficile 630 (Cd630) strain and pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) knockout mutant (ΔPaLoc) by using RNA-seq technology. Analysis of differential expression of Cd630 wild-type strain and ΔPaLoc mutant strain and measurement of its cellular virulence changes. Lay the foundation for the construction of an toxin-attenuated vaccine strain against Clostridioides difficile. Methods: Analysis of Cd630 and ΔPaLoc mutant strains using high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq). Clustering differentially expressed genes and screening differentially expressed genes by DESeq software. Further analysis of differential genes using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment. Finally, cytotoxicity assays of ΔPaLoc and Cd630 strains were performed in the African monkey kidney epithelial cell (Vero) and the human colonic cell (Caco-2) lines. Results: The transcriptome data showed that the ΔPaLoc mutant toxin genes tcdA and tcdB were not transcribed. Compared to the wild-type strain, CD630_36010, CD630_020910,CD630_02080 and cel genes upregulated 17.92,11.40,8.93 and 7.55 fold, respectively. Whereas the hom2 (high serine dehydrogenase), the CD630_15810 (spore-forming protein), CD630_23230 (zinc-binding dehydrogenase) and CD630_23240 (galactitol 1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenase) genes were down-regulated by 0.06, 0.075, 0.133 and 0.183 fold, respectively. The GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that the differentially transcribed genes in ΔPaLoc were enriched in the density-sensing system, ABC transport system, two-component system, phosphotransferase (PTS) system, and sugar metabolism pathway, as well as vancomycin resistance-related pathways. Cytotoxicity assays showed that the ΔPaLoc mutant strain lost its virulence to Vero and Caco-2 cells compared to the wild-type Cd630 strain. Conclusion: Transcriptional sequencing analysis of the Cd630 and ΔPaLoc mutant strains showed that the toxin genes were not transcribed. Those other differential genes could provide a reference for further studies on the physiological and biochemical properties of the ΔPaLoc mutant strain. Cytotoxicity assays confirmed that the ΔPaLoc mutant lost virulence to Vero and Caco-2 cells, thus laying the foundation for constructing an toxin-attenuated vaccine strain against C. difficile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Caco-2 Cells , Clostridioides , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Transcriptome , Vaccines, Attenuated
4.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(1): 36-44, mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958028

ABSTRACT

The best laboratory diagnostic approach to detect Clostridioides --#1;Clostridium--#3; difficile infection (CDI) is a subject of ongoing debate. With the aim of evaluating four laboratory diagnostic methods, 250 unformed stools from patients with suspected CDI submitted to nine medical center laboratories from November 2010 to December 2011, were studied using: (1) an immunochromatographic rapid assay test that combines the qualitative determination of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plus toxins A and B (QAB), the CDIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE assay; (2) an enzyme immunoassay for qualitative determination of toxins A and B, the RIDASCREENTC. difficile Toxin A/B assay (RAB); (3) a PCR for the toxin B gene assay (PCR); and (4) the toxigenic culture (TC).C. difficile isolates from direct toxin negative stools by QAB, RAB and PCR were evaluated for toxigenicity by the same direct tests, in order to assess the contribution of the TC (QAB-TC, RAB-TC, PCR-TC). A combination of the cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCCNA) in stools, and the same assay on isolates from direct negative samples (CCCNA-TC) was considered the reference method (CCCNA/CCCNA-TC). Of the 250 stools tested, 107 (42.8%) were positive by CCCNA/CCCNA-TC. The GDH and PCR/PCR-TC assays were the most sensitive, 91.59% and 87.62%, respectively. The QAB, RAB, QAB/QAB-TC and RAB/RAB-TC had the highest specificities, ca. 95%. A negative GDH result would rule out CDI, however, its low positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of 3.97 indicates that a positive result should always be complemented with the detection of toxins. If the RAB, QAB, and PCR assays do not detect toxins from direct feces, the toxigenic culture should be performed. In view of our results, the most accurate and reliable methods to be applied in a clinical microbiology laboratory were the QAB/QAB-TC, and RAB/RAB-TC, with PLRs >10 and negative likelihood ratios <0.30.


El mejor procedimiento para realizar el diagnóstico de laboratorio de la infección causada por Clostridioides --#1;Clostridium--#3; difficile (ICD) es aún objeto de debate. Con el fin de evaluar cuatro métodos diagnósticos de laboratorio, se estudiaron 250 muestras de heces diarreicas provenientes de pacientes con sospecha de ICD remitidas a los laboratorios de nueve centros médicos entre noviembre de 2010 y diciembre de 2011. Dichas muestras se analizaron mediante los siguientes métodos:1) un ensayo rápido inmunocromatográfico que combina la detección cualitativa de la glutamato deshidrogenasa (GDH) y de las toxinas Ay B (QAB), CDIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE;2) un enzimoinmunoanálisis para la determinación cualitativa de las toxinas A/B, RIDASCREENTC. difficile Toxin A/B (RAB);3) un método molecular basado en PCR para la detección del gen que codifica la toxina B (PCR) y 4) el cultivo toxigénico (TC). Como método de referencia se utilizó la combinación del ensayo de citotoxicidad sobre cultivo de células con la neutralización de toxina mediante anticuerpo específico en los filtrados de las heces (CCCNA) y el mismo método en sobrenadantes de aislamientos de C. difficile (CCCNA-TC). La toxigenicidad de las cepas aisladas de muestras directas negativas con QAB, RAB y PCR se evaluó con los mismos métodos, con el propósito de detectar la contribución del TC (QAB-TC, RAB-TC, PCR-TC). De las 250 muestras estudiadas, 107 (42,8%) fueron positivas por CCCNA/CCCNA-TC. Los métodos GDH y PCR/PCR-TC fueron los más sensibles: 91,59 y 87,62%, respectivamente. Los métodos QAB, RAB, QAB/QAB-TC y RAB/RAB-TC mostraron las mayores especificidades, del 95%, aproximadamente. Un resultado negativo para GDH excluiría la ICD, pero su baja razón de verosimilitud positiva (PLR), que fue 3,97, indica que un resultado positivo debe complementarse con la detección de toxinas. Cuando no se detectan toxinas directas por RAB, QAB ni PCR, debería realizarse el TC. De acuerdo con nuestros resultados, los métodos más precisos y confiables para ser aplicados en un laboratorio de microbiología clínica son QAB/QAB-TC y RAB/RAB-TC, con una PLR> 10 y una razón de verosimilitud negativa < 0,30.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Toxins , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clostridioides difficile , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Bacterial Proteins , Bacterial Toxins/analysis , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Enterotoxins , Feces
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 489-492, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889140

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the association between Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and efficacy of screening stools submitted for C. difficile toxin assay for prevalence of VRE. Between April 2012 and February 2014, 158 stool samples submitted for C. difficile toxin to the Marmara University Microbiology Laboratory, were included in the study. Stool samples were analyzed by enzyme immuno assay test; VIDAS (bioMerieux, France) for Toxin A&B. Samples were inoculated on chromID VRE (bioMerieux, France) and incubated 24 h at 37 °C. Manuel tests and API20 STREP (bioMerieux, France) test were used to identify the Enterococci species. After the species identification, vancomycin and teicoplanin MIC's were performed by E test and molecular resistance genes for vanA vs vanB were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 158 stool samples, 88 were toxin positive. The prevalence of VRE was 17%(n:19) in toxin positives however, 11.4% in toxin negatives(n:70). All VRE isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium. These results were evaluated according to Fischer's exact chi-square test and p value between VRE colonization and C. difficile toxin positivity was detected 0.047 (p < 0.05). PPV and NPV were 79% and 47% respectively. In our study, the presence of VRE in C. difficile toxin positives is statistically significant compared with toxin negatives (p < 0.05). Screening for VRE is both additional cost and work load for the laboratories. Therefore VRE screening among C. difficile toxin positive samples, will be cost effective for determination of high risk patients in the hospitals especially for developing countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Toxins/analysis , Clostridioides difficile/metabolism , Clostridium Infections/microbiology , Vancomycin Resistance , Feces/microbiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridioides difficile/drug effects , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/classification , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/drug effects , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 394-402, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780824

ABSTRACT

Abstract Clostridium difficile has emerged as an increasingly important nosocomial pathogen and the prime causative agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In addition to toxins A and B, immunological studies using antisera from patients infected with C. difficile have shown that a number of other bacterial factors contribute to the pathogenesis, including surface proteins, which are responsible for adhesion, motility and other interactions with the human host. In this study, various clostridial targets, including FliC, FliD and cell wall protein 66, were expressed and purified. Phage antibody display yielded a large panel of specific recombinant antibodies, which were expressed, purified and characterised. Reactions of the recombinant antibodies with their targets were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; and Western blotting suggested that linear rather than conformational epitopes were recognised. Binding of the recombinant antibodies to surface-layer proteins and their components showed strain specificity, with good recognition of proteins from C. difficile 630. However, no reaction was observed for strain R20291—a representative of the 027 ribotype. Binding of the recombinant antibodies to C. difficile M120 extracts indicated that a component of a surface-layer protein of this strain might possess immunoglobulin-binding activities. The recombinant antibodies against FliC and FliD proteins were able to inhibit bacterial motility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Clostridium Infections/microbiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/analysis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/analysis , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Gene Expression , Blotting, Western , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridioides difficile/immunology , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Ribotyping , Antibodies, Bacterial/genetics , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology
7.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 131-137, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of four commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs: Xpert C. difficile, BD MAX Cdiff, IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000, and Illumigene C. difficile) for direct and rapid detection of Clostridium difficile toxin genes. METHODS: We compared four NAATs on the same set of 339 stool specimens (303 prospective and 36 retrospective specimens) with toxigenic culture (TC). RESULTS: Concordance rate among four NAATs was 90.3% (306/339). Based on TC results, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.9% for Xpert; 86.3% and 89.3% for Max; 84.3% and 94.4% for IMDx; and 82.4% and 93.7% for Illumigene, respectively. For 306 concordant cases, there were 11 TC-negative/NAATs co-positive cases and 6 TC-positive/NAATs co-negative cases. Among 33 discordant cases, 18 were only single positive in each NAAT (Xpert, 1; Max, 12; IMDx, 1; Illumigene, 4). Positivity rates of the four NAATs were associated with those of semi-quantitative cultures, which were maximized in grade 3 (>100 colony-forming unit [CFU]) compared with grade 1 (<10 CFU). CONCLUSIONS: Commercial NAATs may be rapid and reliable methods for direct detection of tcdA and/or tcdB in stool specimens compared with TC. Some differences in the sensitivity of the NAATs may partly depend on the number of toxigenic C. difficile in stool specimens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Enterotoxins/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
EJMM-Egyptian Journal of Medical Microbiology [The]. 2015; 24 (4): 119-127
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-175731

ABSTRACT

Background: Clostridium difficile infection [CDI] is the most common cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea [AAD]. Rapid diagnosis of CDI is essential to prevent hospital spread of infection


Objectives: The aim of this work were to determine the prevalence of CDI among cases of AAD in Zagazig University Hospitals, identify risk factors, and evaluate real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and enzyme immunoassay [EIA], against toxigenic culture [TC]


Methodology: Stools were collected from 150 patients with AAD


Results: They were tested for TC, toxin A/B EIA, and C. difficile tcdA/tcdB genes. Thirty four toxigenic C. difficile isolates were obtained [22.7%] out of the 150 patients and those patients were considered positive for CDI. On the other hand, 6 non-toxigenic C. difficile isolates were obtained [4%], while culture of the remaining 110 patients [73.3%] did not yield C. difficile. The later 116 patients [77.3%] were considered negative for CDI. Analysis of risk factors revealed that advanced age, prolonged hospitalization, long duration of antibiotic intake, potentiated penicillins, 3rd generation cephalosporins, antibiotic combined therapy, liver cirrhosis, malignancy, proton pump inhibitors, enteral tube feeding, and cancer chemotherapy were significantly associated with CDI. Sensitivitiy, specificitiy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of real-time PCR against TC were all 100%, however, values of EIA were 79.4%, 100%, 100%, 94.3%, 95.3%, respectively


Conclusions: CDI is an underappreciated nosocomial infection predisposed by many risk factors. Real-time PCR proved superior diagnostic performance to toxin A/B EIA


Subject(s)
Adult , Adolescent , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Predictive Value of Tests , Cross Infection
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(4): 447-450, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722303

ABSTRACT

Introduction Despite the known importance of Clostridium difficile as a nosocomial pathogen, few studies regarding Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Brazil have been conducted. To date, the diagnostic tests that are available on the Brazilian market for the diagnosis of CDI have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of four commercial methods for the diagnosis of CDI in patients from a university hospital in Brazil. Methods Three enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and one nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were evaluated against a cytotoxicity assay (CTA) and toxigenic culture (TC). Stool samples from 92 patients with suspected CDI were used in this study. Results Twenty-five (27.2%) of 92 samples were positive according to the CTA, and 23 (25%) were positive according to the TC. All EIAs and the NAAT test demonstrated sensitivities between 59 and 68% and specificities greater than 91%. Conclusions All four methods exhibited low sensitivities for the diagnosis of CDI, which could lead to a large number of false-negative results, an increased risk of cross-infection to other patients, and overtreatment with empirical antibiotics. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Brazil , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/isolation & purification , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Clostridioides difficile/immunology , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Hospitals, University , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Gut and Liver ; : 1-6, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208929

ABSTRACT

Clostridium difficile, an anaerobic toxigenic bacterium, causes a severe infectious colitis that leads to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Both enhanced bacterial toxins and diminished host immune response contribute to symptomatic disease. C. difficile has been a well-established pathogen in North America and Europe for decades, but is just emerging in Asia. This article reviews the epidemiology, microbiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management of C. difficile. Prompt recognition of C. difficile is necessary to implement appropriate infection control practices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asia/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Europe/epidemiology , Global Health , North America/epidemiology
12.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 376-379, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216385

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the performance of a new chromogenic medium for detection of Clostridium difficile, chromID C. difficile agar (CDIF; bioMerieux, France), by comparison with BBL C. difficile Selective Agar (CDSA; Becton Dickinson and Company, USA). After heat pre-treatment (80degrees C, 5 min), 185 diarrheal stool samples were inoculated onto the two media types and incubated anaerobically for 24 hr and 48 hr for CDIF and for 48 hr and 72 hr for CDSA. All typical colonies on each medium were examined by Gram staining, and the gram-positive rods confirmed to contain the tpi gene by PCR were identified as C. difficile. C. difficile was recovered from 36 samples by using a combination of the two media. The sensitivity with CDIF 48 hr was highest (100%) and was significantly higher than that with CDIF 24 hr (58.3%; P<0.001), because samples with a low burden of C. difficile tended to require prolonged incubation up to 48 hr (P<0.001). The specificity of CDIF 24 hr and CDIF 48 hr (99.3% and 90.6%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of CDSA 48 hr and CDSA 72 hr (72.5% and 67.1%, respectively; P<0.001). CDIF was effective for detecting C. difficile in heat-pretreated stool specimens, thus reducing unnecessary testing for toxin production in non-C. difficile isolates and turnaround time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agar/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Chromogenic Compounds/chemistry , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Culture Media/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Diarrhea/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors
13.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 15-19, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ChromID Clostridium difficile agar (IDCd; bioMerieux SA, France) is a recently developed chromogenic medium for rapid and specific isolation of C. difficile. We compared the performance of IDCd with that of Clostridium difficile Selective Agar (CDSA). METHODS: A total of 530 fresh stool specimens were collected from patients with clinical signs compatible with C. difficile infection, and cultures for C. difficile were performed on IDCd and CDSA. C. difficile colonies were identified by spore staining, odor, use of an ANI identification test kit (bioMerieux SA), and multiplex PCR for tcdA, tcdB, and tpi. RESULTS: The concordance rate between IDCd and CDSA was 90.6% (480/530). The positivity rates on IDCd on days 1 and 2 (55.6% and 85.0%, respectively) were significantly higher than those on CDSA (19.4% and 75.6%, respectively) (P<0.001 for day 1 and P=0.02 for day 2), but the detection rates on IDCd and CDSA on day 3 were not different (89.4% vs. 82.8%, P=0.0914). On day 3, the recovery rates for non-C. difficile isolates on IDCd and CDSA were 30.2% (160/530) and 22.1% (117/530), respectively (P=0.0075). Clostridium spp. other than C. difficile were the most prevalent non-C. difficile isolates on both media. CONCLUSIONS: The culture positivity rates on IDCd and CDSA were not different on day 3 but IDCd may allow for rapid and sensitive detection of C. difficile within 2 days of cultivation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agar/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/diagnosis , Enterotoxins/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Triose-Phosphate Isomerase/genetics
14.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 200-202, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144100

ABSTRACT

Clostridium difficile, an anaerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, is the most common nosocomial pathogen causing pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile is not intrinsically invasive and rarely infects extraintestinal sites. The bacterium, therefore, is not commonly detected in blood cultures. Here, we report a case of C. difficile bacteremia in a patient who had underwent loop ileostomy because of rectal obstruction following metastatic colon cancer originated from prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/drug therapy , Ileostomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/chemistry , Sequence Analysis, RNA
15.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 200-202, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144093

ABSTRACT

Clostridium difficile, an anaerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, is the most common nosocomial pathogen causing pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile is not intrinsically invasive and rarely infects extraintestinal sites. The bacterium, therefore, is not commonly detected in blood cultures. Here, we report a case of C. difficile bacteremia in a patient who had underwent loop ileostomy because of rectal obstruction following metastatic colon cancer originated from prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/drug therapy , Ileostomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/chemistry , Sequence Analysis, RNA
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(1): 133-137, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676895

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to detect C. difficileA/B toxins and to isolate strains of C. perfringensand C. difficile from diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs in Brazil. Stool samples were collected from 57 dogs, 35 of which were apparently healthy, and 22 of which were diarrheic. C. difficileA/B toxins were detected by ELISA, and C. perfringensand C. difficilewere identified by multiplex PCR. C. difficileA/B toxins were detected in 21 samples (36.8%). Of these, 16 (76.2%) were from diarrheic dogs, and five (23.8%) were from non-diarrheic dogs. Twelve C. difficile strains (21.1%) were isolated, of which ten were A+B+and two were A-B-. All non-toxigenic strains were isolated from non-diarrheic animals. The binary toxin gene cdtBwas found in one strain, which was A+B+and was derived from a non-diarrheic dog. C. perfringensstrains were isolated from 40 samples (70.2%). Of these, 18 (45%) were from the diarrheic group, and 22 (55%) belonged to the non-diarrheic group. All isolates were classified as C. perfringenstype A and there was an association between the detection of the cpegene and the presence of diarrhea. Interestingly, ten strains (25%) were positive for the presence of the cpb2gene. The high rate of detection of the A/B toxins in non-diarrheic dogs suggests the occurrence of subclinical disease in dogs or carriage of its toxins without disease. More studies are needed to elucidate the epidemiology of C. difficileand C. perfringensin dogs and to better our understanding of C. difficileas a zoonotic agent. This is the first study to report the binary toxin gene in C. difficilestrains isolated from dogs in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Clostridium perfringens , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/genetics , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous , Fecal Impaction/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/isolation & purification , Diagnosis , Immunoassay , Methods , Spores, Bacterial , Virulence
17.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 355-358, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125851

ABSTRACT

Infection with Clostridium difficile is a growing concern because of the increasing prevalence and spread of nosocomial infections. Emergence of the hypervirulent 027/NAP1/BI strain is also notable. Existing diagnostic methods have low sensitivity or are time-consuming. Therefore, establishing a rapid and accurate microbiological diagnostic assay is needed. We evaluated the Xpert C. difficile assay (Xpert CD assay; Cepheid, USA) to detect toxigenic C. difficile. This assay is a real-time multiplex PCR assay that can be used to detect toxigenic C. difficile strains and differentiate the C. difficile presumptive 027/NAP1/BI strain. A total of 253 loose stool specimens were collected and toxigenic cultures, VIDAS C. difficile A & B assays (VIDAS CDAB assay; bioMerieux, France), and the Xpert CD assay were performed. In comparison to toxigenic cultures, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 100%, 94.6%, 83.1%, and 100%, respectively, for the Xpert CD assay and 40.8%, 98.0%, 100%, and 88.9%, respectively, for VIDAS CDAB assay. Because of the low prevalence of the PCR ribotype 027 in Korea, the evaluation of the usefulness of the Xpert CD assay for screening for the 027 strain was limited. The Xpert CD assay provides great sensitivity in diagnosing toxigenic C. difficile infection. In addition, this method has excellent usability because it is simple and fast.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Face/microbiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; : 191-196, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has markedly risen and is associated with hypervirulent ribotype 027 outbreaks in North America and Europe since 2003. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ribotype 027 among C. difficile isolates in Korea, to characterize the ribotype 027 isolates, and to determine the clinical severity of CDI in patients infected with these isolates. METHODS: A total of 1,251 isolates of C. difficile recovered from stool specimens of suspected CDI patients at two tertiary-care hospitals and one commercial laboratory between 2002 and 2009. Genes for toxin A (tcdA), toxin B (tcdB), and binary toxin (cdtA and cdtB) were detected by PCR. Mutation in the tcdC gene was detected by sequencing after PCR amplification. For molecular genotyping, we performed PCR-ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Minimum inhibitory concentrations of moxifloxacin were determined using Etest strips (AB bioMerieux, Sweden). RESULTS: We identified 7 isolates as ribotype 027. These isolates had the same tcdC mutation as the epidemic strain, and 6 of them were resistant to moxifloxacin. The isolates were categorized into 3 different PFGE types and 7 different MLVA types. All the 7 cases had occurred sporadically. CONCLUSIONS: C. difficile ribotype 027 is uncommon, but it has emerged in Korea. The spread of this ribotype should be closely monitored in order to avoid an outbreak of CDI in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/microbiology , Enterotoxins/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Ribotyping
19.
The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; : 122-126, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) capable of detecting both toxin A and toxin B is strongly recommended for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile associated disease. Therefore, we evaluated two different EIAs for the detection of C. difficile toxin A/B. METHODS: For a total of 228 stool specimens we performed bacteriologic cultures for C. difficile and examined for toxin A and toxin B using enzyme linked fluorescent immunoassay (ELFA; VIDAS CDAB, Bio-Merieux sa, France) and ELISA (C.DIFFICILE TOX A/B II, TECHLAB, USA). We also performed PCR assays for toxin A and B genes in 117 C. difficile isolates that grew from the stool cultures and compared the results with those obtained with the two different EIAs. RESULTS: The concordance rate between ELFA and ELISA was 85.5% (195/228). Using the culture and PCR results as the standard, the sensitivity/specificity of the ELFA and ELISA were 65.0%/72.1% and 71.8%/70.3%, and for positive/negative predictive values were 78.4%/69.6% and 71.8%/70.3%, respectively (P value >0.05). No differences were observed between the results of ELFA and ELISA with toxin A- toxin B+ strains of C. difficile. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of the ELISA was slightly higher than that of ELFA for toxin A and toxin B, but the specificity and positive predictive value of the ELFA were rather higher than those of the ELISA, although no statistical differences were observed. A bacteriologic culture and PCR assay for toxin genes are recommended in case the both EIAs are negative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Bacterial Toxins/analysis , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Enterotoxins/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Feces/microbiology , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-41976

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of Clostridium difficile isolated from stools of Thai adult patients with suspected antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) was 18.64 per cent. The recovery rate of toxin genes (tcdA and tcdB) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from stool samples yielded almost the same compared to the recovery rate of the toxin detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), which were 44.9 per cent and 46.7 per cent, respectively. Correlation of toxin gene detection by PCR and toxin detection by EIA was 90.6 per cent. All but one stool sample, the tcdA gene was detected together with the tcdB gene. Both genes were always detected together from tox gene-positive strains. Although, there were some discrepancy results for certain samples, the direct PCR-based-detection of C. difficile tox genes in stool samples seems to be the appropriate method for the diagnosis of C. difficile diarrhea. The PCR assay should be a recommended technique to be used routinely in laboratories. Further optimization of the technique to increase the sensitivity of the PCR assays is still needed. However, a quantitative isolation of the organism from stools of suspected antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) or antibiotic-associated colitis (AAC) patients may give some evidence for clinicians in hospitals who cannot perform PCR-based or EIA-based techniques, since 48.6 per cent of the isolates were demonstrated as toxigenic strains.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Bacterial Proteins , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Base Sequence , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Diarrhea/microbiology , Enterotoxins/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Thailand/epidemiology
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