Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 354
Filter
1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1433908

ABSTRACT

El uso de clozapina (CZP) en niños/as y adolescentes ha estado históricamente limitado, debido a los efectos adversos y riesgos médicos asociados al fármaco, a pesar de ser una herramienta farmacológica de gran efectividad en la psiquiatría general. A continuación, se presenta una guía clínica con los siguientes objetivos: 1) identificar los criterios de indicación de CZP en niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) según la evidencia disponible; 2) entregar algunas directrices a los clínicos y profesionales de salud respecto a la prescripción de CZP y precauciones a tener en consideración en esta población y; 3) entregar algunos datos comparativos del uso de CZP entre población infantojuvenil y población adulta. Todo lo anterior tiene como finalidad poder entregar la información necesaria para que los clínicos no limiten el uso de este fármaco y puedan prescribirlo de acuerdo con la evidencia científica disponible.


The use of clozapine (CZP) in children and adolescents has historically been limited due to the adverse effects and medical risks commonly associated with the drug, despite being a highly effective pharmacological tool in general psychiatry. Below we developed a clinical guideline with the following objectives: 1) identify the indication criteria for CZP in children and adolescents (NNA) according to the available evidence; 2) provide some guidelines to clinicians and health professionals regarding the prescription of CZP and precautions to be taken into account in this population and; 3) provide some comparative data on the use of CZP between the pediatric and adult population. The purpose of the guideline is to provide the necessary information so that clinicians do not limit the use of CLZ when needed and can prescribe it safely and according to the available scientific evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Clozapine/therapeutic use
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21738, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439498

ABSTRACT

Abstract Schizophrenia is an illness that affects 26 million people worldwide. However, conventional antipsychotics present side effects and toxicity, highlighting the need for new antipsychotics. We aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of haloperidol (HAL), clozapine (CLO), and a new molecule with antipsychotic potential, PT-31, in NIH-3T3 cells. The neutral red uptake assay and the MTT assay were performed to evaluate cell viability and mitochondrial activity, morphological changes were assessed, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection was performed. HAL and CLO (0.1 µM) showed a decrease in cell viability in the neutral red uptake assay and in the MTT assay. In addition, cell detachment, content decrease, rounding and cell death were also observed at 0.1 µM for both antipsychotics. An increase in ROS was observed for HAL (0.001, 0.01 and 1 µM) and CLO (0.01 and 1 µM). PT-31 did not alter cell viability in any of the assays, although it increased ROS at 0.01 and 1 µM. HAL and CLO present cytotoxicity at 0.1 µM, possibly through apoptosis and necrosis. In contrast, PT-31 does not present cytotoxicity to NIH-3T3 cells. Further studies must be performed for a better understanding of these mechanisms and the potential risk of conventional antipsychotics


Subject(s)
Schizophrenia/pathology , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Clozapine/analysis , Haloperidol/analysis , NIH 3T3 Cells/classification , Neutral Red/pharmacology
3.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 85(1): 28-42, oct. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1343130

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento farmacológico de demostrada eficacia en la esquizofrenia es el antipsicótico. Sin embargo, en muchas ocasiones se requiere medicación concomitante que depende de comorbilidades y efectos adversos. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, longitudinal, retrospectivo, considerando el año 2006 y 2016, en una población de usuarios con esquizofrenia de la Policlínica del Hospital Vilardebó, analizando los tratamientos con psicofármacos. Se diferenciaron los tratamientos según monoterapia antipsicótica y polifarmacia con 2 antipsicóticos, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, antidepresivos, estabilizantes del humor, benzodiacepinas y anticolinérgicos. La población inicial en 2006 fue de 621 pacientes y 398 pacientes continuaban en tratamiento en 2016. Mantuvieron el trata-miento con antipsicóticos 377 pacientes; 184 mantuvieron benzodiacepinas; 59 se mantuvieron con anticolinérgicos; 49, con estabilizantes del humor y 47, con antidepresivos. La monoterapia antipsicótica se presentó en torno al 50 % de la población estudiada. Se deberían revisar aquellas prácticas que se infieren a partir de este estudio, como el uso prolongado de anticolinérgicos, benzodiacepinas, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, que está extendida en los usuarios con esquizofrenia. El tratamiento con clozapina fue el más estable y no parece aumentar la mortalidad en estos pacientes


Antipsychotics are the proved effective therapy for schizophrenia. However, on many occasions, associated drugs are required depending on comorbidities and side effects. A retrospective longitudinal quantitative study of drug prescription for 2006 and 2016 in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis was carried out in an outpatient clinic at Hospital Vilardebó. Treatments were classified as antipsychotic monotherapy, two antipsychotic drugs polypharmacy and polypharmacy with two antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs. Initial population in 2006 included 621 patients, 398 were still being treated in 2016. Antipsychotic drugs were still being received in 377 patients, benzodiazepines in 184, anticholinergic drugs in 59, mood stabilizers in 49, and anti-depressants in 47. Antipsychotic monotherapy was 50% of the population. Those practices that can be inferred from this study, with lengthy use of anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, and the use of more than 2 antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis should be revised. Clozapine therapy was the most stable and does not seem to increase mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Polypharmacy , Age and Sex Distribution , Tiapride Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Methotrimeprazine/therapeutic use
4.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS | ID: biblio-1358133

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Aripiprazol, antipsicóticos disponíveis no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Indicação: Tratamento da esquizofrenia em adultos. Pergunta: O Aripiprazol é mais eficaz e seguro para promover controle sintomático, que os antipsicóticos disponíveis no SUS? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado em bases de dados PUBMED, com estratégias estruturadas de busca, e a qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com a ferramenta AMSTAR II. Resultados: Foram identificados 109 resumos de revisões sistemáticas. Após leitura dos mesmos, foram selecionadas 2 revisões sistemáticas. Conclusão: Aripiprazol tem eficácia e segurança similar à Ziprasidona e Haloperidol, mas eficácia semelhante e maior segurança metabólica que a Quetiapina, Olanzapina, Clozapina e Risperidona. Ziprasidona apresenta vantagem sobre o Aripiprazol, pois tem menor risco de efeito colateral de mudanças na função sexual. Considerando que o perfil de eficácia e segurança do Aripiprazol é muito parecido com o dos outros antipsicóticos disponíveis no SUS, com mínimas diferenças, e seu custo de tratamento é inferior ao da Ziprasidona e Quetiapina, essa droga poderia estar disponível no SUS


Technology: Aripiprazole, antipsychotics available in the Brazilian Public Health System (BPHS). Indication: Treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Question: Is Aripiprazole more effective and safer to promote symptomatic control than antipsychotics available in BPHS? Methods: A bibliographic survey was carried out in PUBMED databases, with structured search strategies, and the methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR II tool. Results: 109 abstracts of systematic reviews were identified. After reading them, 2 systematic reviews were selected. Conclusion: Aripiprazole has identical effectiveness and safety to Ziprasidone and Haloperidol, but similar efficacy and greater safety than Quetiapine, Olanzapine, Clozapine and Risperidone. Ziprasidone has an advantage over Aripiprazole as it has a lower risk of side effects of changes in sexual function. Since the Aripiprazole's effectiveness and safety profile is very similar to profile of others antipsychotics available in BPHS, with minimal differences, and it has cost lower than Ziprasidone and Quetiapine, this drug could be available in BPHS


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Unified Health System , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use
5.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 167-169, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337839

ABSTRACT

For years, the management of schizophrenia has represented a challenge for clinicians, with antipsychotic treatments usually resulting in relapses and new hospitalizations. Clozapine has been shown to be an effective medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), but is currently underused due to its potential side effects. Nevertheless, research has suggested that clozapine reduces future hospitalizations in patients with TRS. This study aims to verify the rates of hospitalizations in patients with TRS under long-term use of clozapine. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 52 individuals with TRS before and after the use of clozapine. The mean duration of treatment with and without clozapine was 6.6 (± 3.9) and 8.5 years (± 6.6), respectively. Patients had a median of 0.5 (0.74) hospitalizations per year before the use of clozapine and 0 (0.74) hospitalizations after it (p = 0.001). Therefore, the use of clozapine resulted in an expected reduction in the number of hospitalizations per year in individuals with TRS. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Drug Resistance , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Hospitalization
6.
Brasília; s.n; 20 jun. 2020. 29 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1102288

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 13 artigos e 9 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Vaccines/isolation & purification , Heparin/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
8.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 602-611, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763786

ABSTRACT

Synaptic dopamine (DA) is mainly regulated by the presynaptic DA transporter (DAT). Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with the DAT radiotracer [¹²³I]FP-CIT assesses changes in synaptic DA availability when endogenous DA displaces [¹²³I]FP-CIT or competes for DAT. Here, we investigated the effects of haloperidol (HAL) and clozapine (CLZ) on [¹²³I]FP-CIT binding in the rat striatum and midbrain to assess the utility of [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT to quantify changes in synaptic DA availability. Rats underwent [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT after intraperitoneal administration of normal saline (vehicle), HAL (1 and 7 mg/kg), CLZ (10 and 54 mg/kg) and bupropion (BUP, a DAT blocker, 20 and 100 mg/kg). In the striatum and midbrain, percent differences in the nondisplaceable binding potential (BP(ND)) of [¹²³I]FP-CIT compared to the vehicle were calculated for the various drugs and doses. In another experiment, changes in endogenous striatal DA concentration were measured by in vivo microdialysis under the conditions used in the SPECT study. BUP dose-dependently occupied DAT at considerable levels. Compared to the vehicle, HAL decreased [¹²³I]FP-CIT BP(ND) in the striatum (−25.29% and −2.27% for 1 and 7 mg/kg, respectively) and to a greater degree in the midbrain (−58.74% and −49.64% for 1 and 7 mg/kg, respectively), whereas the CLZ-treated group showed a decrease in the midbrain (−38.60% and −40.38% for 10 and 54 mg/kg, respectively) but an increase in the striatum (18.85% and 38.64% for 10 and 54 mg/kg, respectively). Antipsychotic-induced changes in endogenous striatal DA concentrations varied across drugs and doses. The data demonstrate that [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT may be a useful preclinical technique for detecting increases in synaptic DA availability in the midbrain and striatum in response to HAL, with results comparable to those of in vivo microdialysis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bupropion , Clozapine , Dopamine , Haloperidol , Mesencephalon , Microdialysis , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
9.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 475-486, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763575

ABSTRACT

Although the majority of patients with schizophrenia are not actually violent, an increased tendency toward violent behaviors is known to be associated with schizophrenia. There are several factors to consider when identifying the subgroup of patients with schizophrenia who may commit violent or aggressive acts. Comorbidity with substance abuse is the most important clinical indicator of increased aggressive behaviors and crime rates in patients with schizophrenia. Genetic studies have proposed that polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene and in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene are related to aggression. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that fronto-limbic dysfunction may be related to aggression or violence. By identifying specific risk factors, a more efficient treatment plan to prevent violent behavior in schizophrenia will be possible. Management of comorbid substance use disorder may help prevent violent events and overall aggression. Currently, clozapine may be the only effective antipsychotic medication to repress aggressive behavior. With the current medical field moving toward tailored medicine, it is important to identify vulnerable schizophrenia populations and provide efficient treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aggression , Antipsychotic Agents , Catechol O-Methyltransferase , Clozapine , Comorbidity , Crime , Neuroimaging , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Substance-Related Disorders , Violence
10.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 559-563, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763562

ABSTRACT

Schizophrenic patients resistant to antipsychotics are diagnosed as having treatment-refractory schizophrenia, and they are treated with clozapine. However, clozapine is sometimes combined with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) if clozapine monotherapy fails. In this report, a severe treatment-refractory schizophrenic patient who did not respond to clozapine even with ECT, but who recovered with asenapine monotherapy, is presented. Asenapine, considered a serotonin spectrum dopamine modulator, is a new atypical antipsychotic with unique pharmacological features that is used not only for schizophrenia, but also for bipolar disorder. The unique features of asenapine may be effective for some treatment-refractory schizophrenic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Bipolar Disorder , Clozapine , Dopamine , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Recurrence , Schizophrenia , Serotonin , Suicide
11.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 14-21, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759574

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Thyroid hormone deficiency during the neurodevelopmental period can impair brain development and induce psychiatric symptoms. This study examined the association between thyroid dysfunction and the severity of symptoms in schizophrenia patients, and the treatment response of patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Three hundred thirty-eight schizophrenia patients, with no prior history of thyroid disease or taking medication associated with it, were studied. We assessed the blood thyroid hormone level, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores on the day of admission and discharge, admission period, dose of administered antipsychotics, and the number of antipsychotic combinations. The collected data were subsequently analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: The percentage of schizophrenia patients who presented with abnormal thyroid hormone level was 24.6%. High total triiodothyronine (TT3) (p = 0.003), low TT3 (p = 0.001), and high free thyroxine (fT4) (p < 0.001) groups showed a higher BPRS score on admission than did the normal thyroid hormone group, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were not significantly correlated with the severity of symptoms. Furthermore, thyroid hormone was not associated with the treatment response assessed by the rate of BPRS score reduction, admission days, use of clozapine, and dose of antipsychotics. CONCLUSIONS: The TT3 and fT4 hormone levels were significantly associated with the severity of symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These relations suggested that thyroid dysfunction may be associated with the severity of schizophrenia. And hence, further analysis of the results of the thyroid function test, which is commonly used in cases of psychiatric admission, is required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Brain , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Clozapine , Inpatients , Schizophrenia , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
12.
Korean Journal of Schizophrenia Research ; : 1-7, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738914

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Clozapine is the drug of choice in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, its use is often delayed and a significant proportion of clozapine treated patients fails to respond and experience potentially dangerous side-effects. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients started on clozapine and the rate and reason of discontinuation of clozapine. METHODS: Medical records of 83 patients started on clozapine during the period of 2012–2016 were reviewed. RESULTS: Clozapine started on patients in chronic phase; the mean age of start was 38.1 years old and the mean number of psychiatric admission was 6.5. A majority (80.7%) of the patients had been subjected to antipsychotic polypharmacy prior to clozapine and most (61.5%) of them were being treated with polypharmacy including clozapine. Overall, 39 (47.0%) subjects had continued clozapine whereas 15 (18.1%) discontinued it; 29 (34.9%) were lost to follow-up. The most common reason for discontinuation was side-effects (n=13) including six life-threatening cases, most of which occurred within 6 months of its start. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that there is some evidence of delays to clozapine use, high rates of polypharmacy and significant rate of discontinuation during the early phase of clozapine treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Clozapine , Lost to Follow-Up , Medical Records , Polypharmacy , Retrospective Studies , Schizophrenia
13.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 467-474, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761817

ABSTRACT

Exposure to lead during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders in the offspring. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to low levels of lead acetate (0.2%) in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation causes behavioral impairment and affects the expression of proteins associated with neurodevelopment. Lead exposure altered several parameters in rat offspring compared with those unexposed in open-field, social interaction, and pre-pulse inhibition tests. These parameters were restored to normal levels after clozapine treatment. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of the hippocampus revealed that several neurodevelopmental proteins were downregulated in lead-exposed rats. The expression was normalized after clozapine treatment (5 mg/kg/day, postnatal day 35–56). These findings demonstrate that downregulation of several proteins in lead-exposed rats affected subsequent behavioral changes. Our results suggest that lead exposure in early life may induce psychiatric disorders and treatment with antipsychotics such as clozapine may reduce their incidence.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Antipsychotic Agents , Behavior Rating Scale , Blotting, Western , Clozapine , Down-Regulation , Drinking Water , Hippocampus , Incidence , Interpersonal Relations , Lactation , Lead Poisoning , Models, Animal , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Risk Factors
14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 403-406, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760932

ABSTRACT

This study explored long-term changes in self-report auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) among patients with schizophrenia taking clozapine. Forty-four patients who were evaluated more than twice and were above the mild severity category on the Hamilton Program for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire (HPSVQ) were enrolled. The mean observation period was 492.5±350.1 days (median, 452 days). The mean total, physical, and emotional factor scores on the HPSVQ were significantly reduced from baseline to the final observations except for one item “interference with life,” which was not significantly reduced. Regarding the time-dependent longitudinal changes modeled using linear mixed-effect regression, the total and physical factor scores showed significant changes during the first year, but the emotional factor score did not satisfy a more stringent level of significance. Female gender was negatively associated with the reduction in total and physical factor scores. The duration of treatment with clozapine also had a negative relationship with the reductions in all three scores.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Clozapine , Hallucinations , Schizophrenia , Voice
15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 279-284, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the serum concentration of clozapine (C-CLZ), N-desmethylclozapine (N-CLZ) and the daily dose of CLZ (D-CLZ), and the relationships among CLZ and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients were recruited to this study, but 8 patients were excluded because clozapine was discontinued before the post-treatment measurement of EEG or C-CLZ. Ultimately, 20 patients (6 men, 14 women) with an average age of 36 years were enrolled. The subjects were divided into EEG normal and abnormal groups. C-CLZ and N-CLZ were measured at 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after initiating CLZ administration. RESULTS: All patients had normal baseline EEG signals, and 8 patients showed EEG abnormalities later. There were significant correlations between C-CLZ and D-CLZ, and between N-CLZ and D-CLZ. The C-CLZ/D-CLZ, N-CLZ/D-CLZ, and C-CLZ/N-CLZ ratio were not significantly different between the EEG normal and EEG abnormal groups. The EEG abnormal group had significant higher proportion of patients with high intra-individual variability in their C-CLZ/D-CLZ ratio. CONCLUSION: There is no relationship between C-CLZ and EEG abnormalities. However, patients with high intra-individual variability in their C-CLZ/D-CLZ ratio had greater possibility of exhibiting EEG abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Asian People , Clozapine , Electroencephalography , Schizophrenia
16.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry ; (3): 242-250, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study is to investigate inflammatory markers and associated clinical factors between treatment resistant schizophrenia and non-treatment resistant schizophrenia.METHODS: Of the 116 schizophrenia subjects who were hospitalized for ac ute symptomatic treatment, 19 patients (16%) were treated with clozapine as a treatment resistant schizophrenia(TRS) and 97 patients(84%) were treated with other atypical antipsychotics as a non-treatment resistant schizophrenia(Non-TRS). Various inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein(CRP) and clinical factors were retrospectively evaluated with electrical medical records.RESULTS: There were significant differences between two groups in disease duration(p =0.015), number of admission (p =0.003), Clinical Global Impression(p <0.001) but other demographic and clinical variables including previous antipsychotics use did not show significant differences. In terms of hematologic profiles, TRS group demonstrated higher CRP level(p =0.006), lower neutrophil count(p =0.012), and lower hemoglobin level(p =0.003) compared with non-TRS group. Body mass index was significantly correlated with CRP(r=0.318, p =0.001).CONCLUSION: The elevated level of serum CRP in TRS suggests that treatment resistance in schizophrenia may be associated with inflammatory response. However, retrospective study design and small number of subjects could limit this interpretation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein , Clozapine , Medical Records , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies , Schizophrenia
17.
Korean Journal of Schizophrenia Research ; : 21-33, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The current study covers a secondary revision of the guidelines for the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia issued by the Korean Medication Algorithm for Schizophrenia (KMAP-SCZ) 2001, specifically for co-existing symptoms and antipsychotics-related side-effects in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: An expert consensus regarding the strategies of pharmacotherapy for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, co-existing symptoms of schizophrenia, and side-effect of antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia was retrieved by responses obtained using a 30-item questionnaire. RESULTS: For the co-existing symptoms, agitation could be treated with oral or intramuscular injection of benzodiazepine or antipsychotics; depressive symptoms with atypical antipsychotics and adjunctive use of antidepressant; obsessive-compulsive symptoms with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics other than clozapine and olanzapine; negative symptoms with atypical antipsychotics or antidepressants; higher risk of suicide with clozapine; comorbid substance abuse with use of naltrexone or bupropion/ varenicline, respectively. For the antipsychotics-related side effects, anticholinergics (extrapyramidal symptom), propranolol and benzodiazepine (akathisia), topiramate or metformin (weight gain), change of antipsychotics to aripiprazole (hyperprolactinemia and prolonged QTc) or clozapine (tardive dyskinesia) could be used. CONCLUSION: Updated pharmacotherapy strategies for co-existing symptoms and antipsychotics-related side effects in schizophrenia patients as presented in KMAP-SCZ 2019 could help effective clinical decision making of psychiatrists as a preferable option.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , Aripiprazole , Benzodiazepines , Cholinergic Antagonists , Clinical Decision-Making , Clozapine , Consensus , Depression , Dihydroergotamine , Drug Therapy , Injections, Intramuscular , Metformin , Naltrexone , Propranolol , Psychiatry , Schizophrenia , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors , Substance-Related Disorders , Suicide , Varenicline
18.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 276-279, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738608

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of corneal and lenticular pigmentation after prolonged clozapine therapy. CASE SUMMARY: A 56-year-old male visited our hospital with a progressive decline in vision that affected both eyes. He had a history of schizophrenia. He was being treated with 200 mg clozapine and 1 mg lorazepam daily, and had been treated with clozapine for 5 years. At the first visit, his best-corrected-visual acuity was 20/32 in both eyes. Slit lamp examination of the corneas showed bright, fine, grayish-brown deposits on the endothelium, and on dilation, bilateral central stellate opacity of the anterior portion of the lens capsule was revealed. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine may induce corneal and lenticular pigmentation and thus may lead to a decline in vision. Patients on long-term clozapine therapy should be considered for regular ophthalmic review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Clozapine , Cornea , Endothelium , Lorazepam , Pigmentation , Schizophrenia , Slit Lamp
19.
Psiquiatr. salud ment ; 35(3/4): 262-267, jul.-dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005052

ABSTRACT

Caso Clínico: Mujer, 23 años. Discapacidad intelectual. Asiste a colegio especial (no lee ni escribe). Institucionalizada. Motivo de ingreso: Paciente ingresa en octubre del 2017 traída por carabineros por ser encontrada en la calle bajo el efecto de múltiples sustancias, con ideación suicida. Días antes fue expulsada del hogar por agresión a cuidadoras. Diagnósticos de ingreso: Discapacidad intelectual moderado. Síndrome suicidal, Trastorno por dependencia a drogas. ¿Esquizofrenia hebefrénica? Evolución: Mantiene desajustes conductuales severos fluctuantes, con serias dificultades para manejar la rabia, lo que la lleva a tener conductas hetero y autoagresivas. Plan de tratamiento: Farmacológico (clozapina), Psicológico (TCC), Social (dispositivo adecuado post-alta). Clozapina para trastornos psicóticos en adultos con discapacidad intelectual. El principal riesgo de atribuir alguno de estos comportamientos a una supuesta "psicosis", es el de "medicalizar" y tratar de forma poco acertada. Es importante descartar factores ambientales y del aprendizaje (hábitos y conductas aprendidas, institucionalización, reacciones ante el estrés agudo.) La prevalencia de abuso y dependencia de sustancias en población con DI va desde el 0,5% al 2,6%. Lo cual es menor que la población general. Pacientes con DI y dependencia a drogas se asocia a otras enfermedades psiquiátricas (42-54%). Se ha informado que las personas con discapacidad intelectual en América Latina a menudo están institucionalizadas y escondidas de la sociedad en instalaciones deficientes y superpobladas.


Clinical Case: Female, 23 years old. Intellectual disability. He attends a special school (she does not read or write). Institutionalized. Reason for admission: Patient enters in October 2017 brought by police officers to be found in the street under the effect of multiple substances, with suicidal ideation. Days before she was expelled from the home because of assaulting caregivers. Admission diagnoses: Moderate intellectual disability. Suicidal syndrome, Disorder due to drug dependence. Hebephrenic schizophrenia? Evolution: Maintains fluctuating severe behavioral imbalances, with serious difficulties in managing rage, which leads to hetero and self-aggressive behaviors. Treatment plan: pharmacological (clozapine), Psychological (CBT), Social (adequate post-hospitalization discharge device). Clozapine for psychotic disorders in adults with intellectual disabilities. The main risk of attributing some of these behaviors to a supposed "psychosis" is that of "medicalizing" and dealing inappropriately. It is important to rule out environmental and learning factors (habits and behaviors learned, institutionalization, reactions to acute stress. The prevalence of substance abuse and dependence in the population with ID ranges from 0.5% to 2.6%. Which is less than the general population. Patients with ID and drug dependence are associated with other psychiatric illnesses (42-54%). It is reported that people with intellectual disabilty in Latin America are often institutionalized and hidden from society in poor and overcrowded facilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/therapy , Psychotherapy , Psychotic Disorders , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Suicidal Ideation , Intellectual Disability/classification , Intellectual Disability/complications , Intellectual Disability/etiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL