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1.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 565-574, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is the most common hereditary defect of the red cell membrane, mainly characterized by anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly. Due to the atypical clinical manifestations and negative family history of some patients, as well as the low sensitivity and specificity of traditional laboratory examinations, it is easy for it to escape diagnosis or be misdiagnosed. At present, it has been confirmed that the mutation of ANK1, SPTB, SPTA1, SLC4A1 and EPB42 genes can cause the deletion of their corresponding coding proteins, and thus lead to the defect of erythrocyte membrane. This study aims to analyze the feasibility and clinical application value of HS gene diagnosis.@*METHODS@#Data of 26 patients from Hunan, China with HS admitted to the Department of Hematology, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2018 to September 2021 were retrospectively collected, and their clinical manifestations and results of laboratory examinations were analyzed. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) combined with Sanger sequencing were applied. The mutation of HS pathogenic gene and the variation of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferase 1 family polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1), a key enzyme in the regulation of bilirubin metabolism, were detected. The results of pathogenic gene variations were interpreted pathogenic gene variations in accordance with the Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants published by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). The clinical characteristics of patients with different gene variants were analyzed, and the clinical diagnosis and genetic diagnosis were compared.@*RESULTS@#Among the 26 patients with HS, there were 23 cases of anemia, 25 cases of jaundice, 24 cases of splenomegaly, and 14 cases of cholelithiasis. There were 16 cases with family history and 10 cases without family history. The results of HS mutation test were positive in 25 cases and negative in 1 case. A total of 18 heterozygous mutations of HS pathogenic genes were detected in 19 families, among which 14 were pathogenic, 1 was likely pathogenic and 3 were of unknown significance. SPTB mutations (12) and ANK1 mutations (4) were the most common. The main variation types were nonsense mutation (9). There were no significant differences in peripheral blood cell parameters and hemolysis indicators between the SPTB mutant group and the ANK1 mutant group (all P>0.05). The rate of splenectomy in ANK1 mutation group was higher than that in SPTB mutation group, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=6.970, P=0.014). There were no significant differences in peripheral blood cell parameters and hemolysis indicators among different mutation types (nonsense mutation, frameshift mutation, splice site mutation and missense mutation) (all P>0.05). Among the 18 clinically confirmedpatients, there were 17 cases whose diagnosis is consistent with the genetic diagnosis. Eight patients were clinically suspected, and all of them were confirmed by detection of HS gene mutation. Twenty-four patients with HS underwent UGT1A1 mutation detection, among which 5 patients carried UGT1A1 mutation resulting in a decrease in enzyme activity, and 19 patients had normal enzyme activity. The level of total bilirubin (TBIL) in the group with reduced enzyme activity was higher than that in the group with normal enzyme activity, and the difference was statistically significant (U=22, P=0.038).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Most patients with HS have anemia, jaundice and splenomegaly, often accompanied by cholelithiasis. SPTB and ANK1 mutations are the most common mutations in HS pathogenic genes among patients in Hunan, China, and there was no significant correlation between genotype and clinical phenotype. Genetic diagnosis is highly consistent with clinical diagnosis. The decrease of UGT1A1 enzyme activity can lead to the aggravation of jaundice in HS patients. Clinical combined gene diagnosis is beneficial for the rapid and precision diagnosis of HS. The detection of UGT1A1 enzyme activity related gene variation plays an important role in evaluation of HS jaundice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Codon, Nonsense , Hemolysis , Retrospective Studies , Splenomegaly , Bilirubin
2.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 489-496, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981983

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To summarize the clinical phenotype and genetic characteristics of children with autosomal dominant mental retardation type 5 caused by SYNGAP1 gene mutations.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 8 children with autosomal dominant mental retardation type 5 caused by SYNGAP1 gene mutations who were diagnosed and treated in the Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of onset was 9 months for the 8 children. All children had moderate-to-severe developmental delay (especially delayed language development), among whom 7 children also had seizures. Among these 8 children, 7 had novel heterozygous mutations (3 with frameshift mutations, 2 with nonsense mutations, and 2 with missense mutations) and 1 had 6p21.3 microdeletion. According to the literature review, there were 48 Chinese children with mental retardation caused by SYNGAP1 gene mutations (including the children in this study), among whom 40 had seizures, and the mean age of onset of seizures was 31.4 months. Frameshift mutations (15/48, 31%) and nonsense mutations (19/48, 40%) were relatively common in these children. In terms of treatment, among the 33 children with a history of epileptic medication, 28 (28/33, 85%) showed response to valproic acid antiepileptic treatment and 16 (16/33, 48%) achieved complete seizure control after valproic acid monotherapy or combined therapy.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with autosomal dominant mental retardation type 5 caused by SYNGAP1 gene mutations tend to have an early age of onset, and most of them are accompanied by seizures. These children mainly have frameshift and nonsense mutations. Valproic acid is effective for the treatment of seizures in most children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Codon, Nonsense , Retrospective Studies , Valproic Acid , ras GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Seizures/genetics
3.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 293-296, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928404

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics and ZBTB18 gene variant in a child with epilepsy and global developmental delay.@*METHODS@#Clinical data and laboratory examination of the patient were reviewed. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was also carried out for the family trio.@*RESULTS@#The main manifestations of the child included global developmental delay, short stature, epileptic seizures. EEG revealed frequent occurrence of sharp (slow) waves in the right central region during sleeping, with sharp waves occasionally seen in the frontal and right posterior temporal regions. Cranial MRI has shown no obvious abnormality. WES has identified a de novo pathogenic variant in the ZBTB18 gene [NM_205768.3: exon 2: c.1282_1283del (p.Phe428Leufs*72)]. Based on the guidelines from American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the variant was classified as pathogenic (PS2+PVS1_Moderate+PM2_Supporting). Following treatment with levetiracetam and rehabilitation, the seizures have been controlled for nearly half a year, with improvement of the psychomotor and language development. So far 28 children have been discovered with ZBTB18 gene mutations, and there was a significant difference in the clinical phenotypes of motor retardation, language retardation and epilepsy between those harboring frameshift/nonsense mutations and missense mutations.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.1282_1283del (p.Phe428leufs *72) variant of the ZBTB18 probably underlay the autosomal dominant mental disorder type 22 in this child. Compared with missense mutations, frameshift/nonsense mutations may predispose more to motor retardation, delayed language development and epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Codon, Nonsense , Epilepsy/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Mutation , Exome Sequencing
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 571-576, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928756

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analysis clinical phenotype and potential genetic cause of a family affected with hereditary coagulation factor Ⅻ deficiency.@*METHODS@#The prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB), D-Dimer (D-D), coagulation factor Ⅻ activity (FⅫ:C) and coagulation factor Ⅻ antigen (FⅫ:Ag) were determined for phenotype diagnosis of the proband and his family members(3 generations and 5 people). Targeted capture and whole exome sequencing were performed in peripheral blood sample of the proband. Possible disease-causing mutations of F12 gene were obtained and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The corresponding mutation sites of the family members were analyzed afterwards. The online bioinformatics software AutoPVS1 and Mutation Taster was used to predict the effects of mutation sites on protein function.@*RESULTS@#The APTT of the proband was significantly prolonged, reaching 180.9s. FⅫ:C and FⅫ:Ag of the proband was significantly reduced to 0.8% and 4.17%, respectively. The results of whole exome sequencing displayed that there were compound heterozygous mutations in F12 gene of the proband, including the c.1261G>T heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 11 (causing p.Glu421*) and the c.251dupG heterozygous frameshift mutation in exon 4 (causing p.Trp85Metfs*53). Both mutations are loss of function mutations with very strong pathogenicity, leading to premature termination of the protein. AutoPVS1 and Mutation Taster software predicted both mutations as pathogenic mutations. The results of Sanger sequencing revealed that c.1261G>T heterozygous mutation of the proband was inherited from his mother, for which his brother and his daughter were c.1261G>T heterozygous carriers. Genotype-phenotype cosegregation was observed in this family.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.1261G>T heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 11 and the c.251dupG heterozygous frameshift mutation in exon 4 of the F12 gene probably account for coagulation factor Ⅻ deficiency in this family. This study reports two novel pathogenic F12 mutations for the first time worldwide.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Codon, Nonsense , Factor XII/genetics , Heterozygote , Mutation , Pedigree
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 559-564, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct a mouse model of Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) with ITGA2B c.2659 C>T (p.Q887X) nonsense mutation by CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and then further explore the expression and function of glycoprotein αIIbβ3 on the surface of platelet membrane.@*METHODS@#The donor oligonucleotide and gRNA vector were designed and synthesized according to the ITGA2B gene sequence. The gRNA and Cas9 mRNA were injected into fertilized eggs with donor oligonucleotide and then sent back to the oviduct of surrogate mouse. Positive F0 mice were confirmed by PCR genotyping and sequence analysis after birth. The F1 generation of heterozygous GT mice were obtained by PCR and sequencing from F0 bred with WT mice, and then homozygous GT mice and WT mice were obtained by mating with each other. The phenotype of the model was then further verified by detecting tail hemorrhage time, saphenous vein bleeding time, platelet aggregation, expression and function of αIIbβ3 on the surface of platelet.@*RESULTS@#The bleeding time of GT mice was significantly longer than that of WT mice (P<0.01). Induced by collagen, thrombin, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), platelet aggregation in GT mice was significantly inhibited (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis showed that the expression of αIIbβ3 on the platelet surface of GT mice decreased significantly compared with WT mice (P<0.01), and binding amounts of activated platelets to fibrinogen were significantly reduced after thrombin stimulation (P<0.01). The spreading area of platelet on fibrinogen in GT mice was significantly smaller than that in WT mice (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#A GT mouse model with ITGA2B c.2659 C>T (p.Q887X) nonsense mutation has been established successfully by CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The aggregation function of platelet in this model is defective, which is consistent with GT performance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Codon, Nonsense , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrinogen/genetics , Integrin alpha2/genetics , Oligonucleotides , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/genetics , Thrombasthenia/genetics , Thrombin/genetics
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 228-232, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880059

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanism in stable cell strains expressing Mini-hF9 gene with nonsense mutation.@*METHODS@#Mini-hF9 gene and its nonsense mutants were transfected into HeLa cells independently, and stable cell strains were obtained after G418 resistance screening and monoclonal transformation. The altered splicing and protein expression of mRNA in Mini-hF9 gene in stable cell strains were detected by using RT-PCR and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The wild type and nonsense mutated human coagulation factor IX stable cell strains were constructed successfully, which were named HeLa-F9-WT, HeLa-F9-M1 and HeLa-F9-M2. Only normal splicing Norm was detected in the wild-type cell strain HeLa-F9-WT; Norm and Alt-S1 splicing were detected in HeLa-F9-M1; while Norm, Alt-S1 and Alt-S2 splicing were detected in HeLa-F9-M2.@*CONCLUSION@#The nonsense associated altered splicing (NAS) pathway, which generated alternately spliced transcripts, might be triggered in coagulation factor IX gene with nonsense mutation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Codon, Nonsense , Factor IX/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Mutation , RNA Splicing , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 549-552, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a pedigree affected with hereditary multiple osteochondroma (HMO).@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected from the proband and members of his pedigree with informed consent. Following extraction of genomic DNA, all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences (-10 bp) of the EXT1 and EXT2 genes were subjected to targeted capture and next generation sequencing (NGS). Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#A heterozygous nonsense variant (c.1911C>A) was found in exon 10 of the EXT1 gene in the proband and his affected father but not in a healthy sister and normal controls. The variant was classified as a pathogenic based on the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (PVS1+PM2+PP1). Bioinformatic analysis predicted that the c.1911C>A variant may be disease-causing via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and anomalous splicing.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.1911C>A variant probably underlay the disease in this pedigree. Discovery of this variant enriched the variant spectrum of HMO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Codon, Nonsense , Exons/genetics , Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary/genetics , Heterozygote , Pedigree
8.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 131-133, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879538

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a patient with intellectual disability.@*METHODS@#Whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were carried out for the patient. The result was verified in her family.@*RESULTS@#DNA sequencing revealed that the patient has carried a heterozygous nonsense c.40C>T (p.Arg14X) variant of the TRIP12 gene, which was de novo in origin. The variant was unrecorded in the Human Gene Mutation Database. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines, the variant was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+ PS2+ PP3).@*CONCLUSION@#The patient was diagnosed with autosomal dominant intellectual disability due to heterozygous c.40C>T variant of the TRIP12 gene.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Codon, Nonsense , Heterozygote , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Exome Sequencing
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 434-437, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828307

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze FOXC2 gene variant in a family affected with lymphodema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS).@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected for the extraction of DNA and protein. Whole-exome sequencing was carried out to detect variants in the proband. Suspected variant was validated by Sanger sequencing. Western blotting was used to detect changes in protein expression.@*RESULTS@#The proband and his mother were both found to carry a heterozygous nonsense variant c.177C>G (p.Tyr59X) of the FOXC2 gene, which was previously unreported. Down-regulated expression of FOXC2 was detected by Western blotting. Prenatal ultrasonography of the fetus indicated increased nuchal thickness. Amniocentesis was performed at 21+1 weeks of pregnancy, genetic testing suggested that the fetus also carried the c.177C>G variant.@*CONCLUSION@#The patients' condition may be attributed to the heterozygous nonsense variant c.177C>G of the FOXC2 gene, which resulted in a significant decrease in FOXC2 expression. Increased nuchal thickness may also be related with decreased FOXC2 expression. Above finding has expanded the variant spectrum of the FOXC2 gene.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Codon, Nonsense , Eyelashes , Congenital Abnormalities , Forkhead Transcription Factors , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Genetic Testing , Genetic Variation , Lymphedema , Genetics , Pedigree , Prenatal Diagnosis
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 452-454, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826557

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and genetic features of a patient with mental retardation.@*METHODS@#G-Banding chromosomal karyotyping and high-throughput sequencing was carried out for the child. Suspected variant was validated in his family by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to carry a de novo heterozygous c.4090G>T (p.Gly1364X) variant of the ASXL3 gene, which was known to predispose to Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome.@*CONCLUSION@#The nonsense c.4090G>T (p.Gly1364X) variant probably accounts for the disease in this patient.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Codon, Nonsense , Developmental Disabilities , Genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Intellectual Disability , Genetics , Phenotype , Syndrome , Transcription Factors , Genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 455-458, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic variants in a child with tyrosine hydroxylase-deficient infantile Parkinsonism with motor delay.@*METHODS@#Clinical feature of the patient was summarized. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples taken from the child and her family members. All exons of GCH1, TH and SPR genes were subjected to targeted capture and next-generation sequencing. Suspected variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The child could not sit alone at 7 month and 11 days. Physical examination suggested motor retardation and hypotonia, limb stiffness, head nodding, slight torticollis, and language and intellectual developmental delays. She developed involuntary shaking of limbs at 3 month old, which lasted approximately 10 seconds and aggregated with excitement and before sleeping. Cranial MRI revealed widening of subarachnoid space on the temporomandibular and particularly temporal sides. Genetic testing revealed that she has carried a nonsense c.457C>T (p.R153X) variant, which was known to be pathogenic, and a novel missense c.720C>G (p.I240M) variant of the TH gene. The two variants were derived from her father and mother, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The child was diagnosed as tyrosine hydroxylase-deficient infantile Parkinsonism with motor delay due to compound heterozygous variants of the TH gene. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of TH gene variants.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Brain , Diagnostic Imaging , Codon, Nonsense , Dystonic Disorders , Genetics , Genetic Testing , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mutation , Parkinsonian Disorders , Genetics , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Genetics
12.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 17-20, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis of a pedigree affected with hereditary spherocytosis.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected from 17 members of the pedigree. Genomic DNA of the proband was subjected to next generation sequencing. Candidate variant was validated by co-segregation analysis. pCAS2(c.5798+1G) and pCAS2(c.5798+1A) plasmids were constructed by homologous recombination and transfected into 293T cells. Reverse transcription PCR, TA cloning and Sanger sequencing were used to analyze the effect of candidate variant on splicing. Meanwhile, peripheral blood RNAs were extracted to analyze the effect of candidate variant on splicing in vivo.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to carry a c.5798+1G>A variant of the SPTB gene. The variant has co-segregated with the phenotype in the pedigree. In vitro and in vivo splicing experiments confirmed that the mutation has significantly affected the splicing, resulting in shift of reading frame and produced a premature termination codon.@*CONCLUSION@#The novel c.5798+1G>A variant of the SPTB gene probably underlies the pathogenesis of hereditary spherocytosis in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Humans , Codon, Nonsense , Genetics , Genetic Variation , HEK293 Cells , Mutation , Genetics , Pedigree , Plasmids , RNA Splicing , Spectrin , Genetics , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Genetics , Transfection
13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 992-1000, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) is a breast cancer susceptibility gene that plays an important role in DNA repair. This is the first study assessing the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in early-onset and familial breast/ovarian cancer patients from Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PALB2 mutation screening was performed in 370 Pakistani patients with early-onset and familial breast/ovarian cancer, who were negative for BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, CHEK2, and RAD51C mutations, using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Mutations were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Novel PALB2 alterations were analyzed for their potential effect on protein function or splicing using various in silico prediction tools. Three-hundred and seventy-two healthy controls were screened for the presence of the identified (potentially) functional mutations. RESULTS: A novel nonsense mutation, p.Y743*, was identified in one familial breast cancer patient (1/127, 0.8%). Besides, four in silico-predicted potentially functional mutations including three missense mutations and one 5' untranslated region mutation were identified: p.D498Y, novel p.G644R, novel p.E744K, and novel c.-134_-133delTCinsGGGT. The mutations p.Y743* and p.D498Y were identified in two familial patients diagnosed with unilateral or synchronous bilateral breast cancer at the ages of 29 and 39, respectively. The other mutations were identified in an early-onset (≤ 30 years of age) breast cancer patient each. All five mutations were absent in 372 healthy controls suggesting that they are disease associated. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that PALB2 mutations account for a small proportion of early-onset and hereditary breast/ovarian cancer cases in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
Humans , 5' Untranslated Regions , Breast Neoplasms , Chromatography, Liquid , Codon, Nonsense , Computer Simulation , DNA Repair , Germ-Line Mutation , Mass Screening , Mutation, Missense , Pakistan , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 327-335, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777182

ABSTRACT

Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is originally identified as a widespread mRNA surveillance machinery in degrading 'aberrant' mRNA species with premature termination codons (PTCs) rapidly, which protects the cells from the accumulation of truncated proteins. Recent studies show that NMD can also regulate the degradation of normal gene transcripts, which execute important cellular and physiological functions. Therefore, NMD is considered as a highly conserved post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes. NMD modulates 3% to 20% of the transcriptome from yeast to human directly or indirectly, which is essential for various physiological processes, such as cell homeostasis, stress response, proliferation, and differentiation. NMD can regulate the level of transcripts that involves in development, and single knockout of most NMD factors has an embryonic lethal effect. NMD plays an important role in the self-renewal, differentiation of embryonic stem cells and is critical during embryonic development. In this review, we summarized the latest advances in the roles and mechanisms of NMD in embryonic development, in order to provide new ideas for the research on embryonic development and the treatment of embryonic development related diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Codon, Nonsense , Embryonic Development , Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay , RNA, Messenger , Transcriptome
15.
Journal of Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry ; (4): 409-415, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787389

ABSTRACT

Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by the delayed closure of cranial sutures, defects in clavicle formation, supernumerary teeth, and delayed tooth eruption. Defects in the Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), a master regulator of bone formation, have been identified in CCD patients. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic causes in a CCD family with delayed tooth eruption.The 23-year-old female proband and her mother underwent clinical and radiographic examinations, and all coding exons of the RUNX2 were sequenced. Mutational analysis revealed a single nucleotide deletion mutation (NM_001024630.4 : c.357delC) in exon 3 in the proband and her mother. The single C deletion would result in a frameshift in translation and introduce a premature stop codon [p.(Asn120Thrfs*24)]. This would result in the impaired function of RUNX2 protein, which may be the cause of delayed eruption of permanent teeth in the family.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Young Adult , Clavicle , Cleidocranial Dysplasia , Clinical Coding , Codon, Nonsense , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Cranial Sutures , Exons , Molecular Biology , Mothers , Osteogenesis , Sequence Deletion , Tooth , Tooth Eruption , Tooth, Supernumerary , Transcription Factors
16.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 577-583, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763043

ABSTRACT

Human cytochrome P450 2C9 is a highly polymorphic enzyme that is required for drug and xenobiotic metabolism. Here, we studied eleven P450 2C9 genetic variants—including three novel variants F69S, L310V, and Q324X—that were clinically identified in Korean patients. P450 2C9 variant enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli and their bicistronic membrane fractions were prepared The CO-binding spectra were obtained for nine enzyme variants, indicating P450 holoenzymes, but not for the M02 (L90P) variant. The M11 (Q324X) variant could not be expressed due to an early nonsense mutation. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to measure the catalytic activities of the P450 2C9 variants, using diclofenac as a substrate. Steady-state kinetic analysis revealed that the catalytic efficiency of all nine P450 2C9 variants was lower than that of the wild type P450 2C9 enzyme. The M05 (R150L) and M06 (P279T) variants showed high k(cat) values; however, their K(m) values were also high. As the M01 (F69S), M03 (R124Q), M04 (R125H), M08 (I359L), M09 (I359T), and M10 (A477T) variants exhibited higher K(m) and lower k(cat) values than that of the wild type enzyme, their catalytic efficiency decreased by approximately 50-fold compared to the wild type enzyme. Furthermore, the novel variant M07 (L310V) showed lower k(cat) and K(m) values than the wild type enzyme, which resulted in its decreased (80%) catalytic efficiency. The X-ray crystal structure of P450 2C9 revealed the presence of mutations in the residues surrounding the substrate-binding cavity. Functional characterization of these genetic variants can help understand the pharmacogenetic outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Codon, Nonsense , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Diclofenac , Escherichia coli , Holoenzymes , Membranes , Metabolism , Pharmacogenetics
17.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 229-234, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719030

ABSTRACT

X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets is caused by loss-of-function mutations in PHEX, which encodes a phosphate-regulating endopeptidase homolog. We report a 26-year-old man with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets who showed decreased serum phosphate accompanied by bilateral genu valgum and short stature. He had received medical treatment with vitamin D (alfacalcidol) and phosphate from the age of 3 to 20 years. He underwent surgery due to valgus deformity at the age of 14 and 15. Targeted gene panel sequencing for Mendelian genes identified a nonsense mutation in PHEX (c.589C>T; p.Gln197Ter) and a mosaic pattern where only 38% of sequence reads showed the variant allele. This mutation was not found in his mother, who had a normal phenotype. This is a case of a sporadic nonsense mutation in PHEX and up to date, this is the first case of a mosaic mutation in PHEX in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Alleles , Codon, Nonsense , Congenital Abnormalities , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets , Genu Valgum , Korea , Mothers , Phenotype , Rickets, Hypophosphatemic , Vitamin D
18.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 264-269, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718841

ABSTRACT

Cell cycle dysfunction can cause severe diseases, including neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors controlling the G1 phase of the cell cycle are prevalent in various cancers. Mice lacking the tumor suppressors p16(Ink4a) (Cdkn2a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2a), p19(Arf) (an alternative reading frame product of Cdkn2a,), and p27(Kip1) (Cdkn1b, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1b) result in malignant progression of epithelial cancers, sarcomas, and melanomas, respectively. Here, we generated knockout mouse models for each of these three cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors using engineered nucleases. The p16(Ink4a) and p19(Arf) knockout mice were generated via transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and p27(Kip1) knockout mice via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9). These gene editing technologies were targeted to the first exon of each gene, to induce frameshifts producing premature termination codons. Unlike preexisting embryonic stem cell-based knockout mice, our mouse models are free from selectable markers or other external gene insertions, permitting more precise study of cell cycle-related diseases without confounding influences of foreign DNA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Cycle , Codon, Nonsense , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 , DNA , Exons , G1 Phase , Genome , Melanoma , Mice, Knockout , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Phosphotransferases , Reading Frames , Sarcoma
19.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e90-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718157

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We performed small-scale mutation and large genomic rearrangement (LGR) analysis of BRCA1/2 in ovarian cancer patients to determine the prevalence and the characteristics of the mutations. METHODS: All ovarian cancer patients who visited a single institution between September 2015 and April 2017 were included. Sanger sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to comprehensively study BRCA1/2. The genetic risk models BRCAPRO, Myriad, and BOADICEA were used to evaluate the mutation analysis. RESULTS: In total, 131 patients were enrolled. Of the 131 patients, Sanger sequencing identified 16 different BRCA1/2 small-scale mutations in 20 patients (15.3%). Two novel nonsense mutations were detected in 2 patients with a serous borderline tumor and a large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. MLPA analysis of BRCA1/2 in Sanger-negative patients revealed 2 LGRs. The LGRs accounted for 14.3% of all identified BRCA1 mutations, and the prevalence of LGRs identified in this study was 1.8% in 111 Sanger-negative patients. The genetic risk models showed statistically significant differences between mutation carriers and non-carriers. The 2 patients with LGRs had at least one blood relative with breast or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Twenty-two (16.8%) of the unselected ovarian cancer patients had BRCA1/2 mutations that were detected through comprehensive BRCA1/2 genetic testing. Ovarian cancer patients with Sanger-negative results should be considered for LGR detection if they have one blood relative with breast or ovarian cancer. The detection of more BRCA1/2 mutations in patients is important for efforts to provide targeted therapy to ovarian cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Codon, Nonsense , Genetic Testing , Korea , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ovarian Neoplasms , Ovary , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence
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