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1.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 16(1): 11-16, ene. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362017

ABSTRACT

Las cardiopatías congénitas se consideran una de las anomalías que alteran la irrigación y el intercambio de oxigenación adecuado a las principales venas y arterias. Esto puede generar consecuencias en el desarrollo neurológico que se puede traducir en retraso psicomotor, déficits de aprendizaje, dificultades académicas y problemas de integración social. Para mejorar los trastornos cognitivos, se propone la habilitación cognitiva basada en los principios de mecánica y robótica de LEGO® Education. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir el efecto de un programa de intervención, basado en el uso de ensamblado y programación robótica con LEGO® Education, sobre las funciones frontales básicas como primera aproximación a un modelo propuesto en pacientes cardiópatas congénitos que han sido sometidos a cirugía cardiovascular. Se trató de un estudio de serie de casos, en el que finalizaron el tratamiento una niña y dos niños con cardiopatías congénitas con RACHS 2 y 3. Se aplicaron sub-escalas BANFE-2 y el cuestionario neuropsicológico de daño frontal antes y después del tratamiento; así como una escala para medir el nivel de ejecución por intervención, durante las ocho sesiones. Los resultados muestran en la escala BANFE2, cambios en las medias de las funciones frontales básicas, de daño leve-moderado y normal a normal alto, principalmente en memoria de trabajo y fluidez verbal. En esta primera aproximación, el método LEGO® Education mostró ser una buena herramienta para la habilitación neuropsicológica de estos pacientes.


Congenital heart diseases are considered to be an anomaly which alter the irrigation and the adequate exchange of oxygenation to the main veins and arteries. They can have neurodevelopmental consequences that could translate into psychomotor retardation, learning deficits, academic difficulties, and social integration problems. Cognitive empowerment based on the mechanics and robotics principles of LEGO® Education is proposed to improve cognitive disorders. In this study, the objective was to measure the effect of an intervention program, based on the use of assembly and robotic programming with LEGO® Education, upon basic frontal functions as a first approach to a proposed model in congenital heart disease patients who have undergone cardiovascular surgery. This was a case-series study, in which a girl and two boys with congenital heart disease with RACHS 2 and 3, completed the treatment. BANFE-2 subscales and the neuropsychological questionnaire of frontal damage were applied before and after the treatment; as well as a scale to measure the level of performance per intervention, through all the eight sessions. The BANFE-2 scale showed changes in the means of frontal functions, from mild-moderate damage and normal to high normal, mainly in working memory and verbal fluency. In this first approach, LEGO® Education method proved to be a useful tool for the neuropsychological empowerment of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Robotics , Cognition Disorders/rehabilitation , Heart Defects, Congenital/rehabilitation , Mechanics , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Learning
2.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(7): 333-343, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358825

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de fatiga crónica es una enfermedad caracterizada, principalmente, por la manifestación de la fatiga, el dolor muscular difuso, y alteraciones en el sueño, en un periodo de no menos de 6 meses y que no son explicables por alguna causa. Es llamativo que, luego de un periodo de tiempo de padecer la COVID-19, los pacientes presenten síntomas similares a los hallados en el síndrome de fatiga crónica. A esta afección se la denomino síndrome pos-COVID. Los virus son los principales sospechosos en la aparición de ambos síndromes, estos podrían ocasionar la generación de daño mitocondrial, una neuroinflamación, alteración en el sistema glinfático o la disfunción en el eje hipotálamo-pituitario-adrenal entre otros. Dichos mecanismos serían los implicados en la aparición de los síntomas que padecen los pacientes con estos síndromes. El objetivo de esta revisión literaria es analizar y describir los posibles mecanismos que explicarían la manifestación de los síntomas del síndrome de fatiga crónica en los pacientes que hayan sufrido la COVID-19. Hasta el momento no existen tratamientos totalmente efectivos para erradicar los síntomas en ambos síndromes. Dado el abanico de síntomas que padecen estos pacientes, el enfoque terapéutico debe ser interdisciplinario para tratar de mejorar su calidad de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/etiology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/prevention & control , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/therapy , Chronic Disease/therapy , Cognition Disorders/therapy , Mitochondrial Diseases/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Glymphatic System , Anosmia/therapy , COVID-19/complications
3.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(3): 29-31, jul.-set. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342523

ABSTRACT

Chromosome 5p13 duplication syndrome represents a contiguous gene syndrome involving duplication of several genes on chromosome 5p13. Some clinical phenotypes are related to it, such as: obsessive-compulsive behavior, small palpebral fissures, intellectual disability, global development delay and ocular hypertelorism. The exact mechanism behind these changes has not well known and further studies are needed for this purpose. Since it is a rare and uncommon clinical situation, the case report contributes to the knowledge of the disease and early diagnosis. This condition mainly affects the cognitive neuromuscular system. We describe an 8-year-old Brazilian patient with the duplication of chromosome 5p13.2, karyotype, whose neurodevelopmental evaluation presented cognitive impairment, severe language delay and atypical physical examination, with ocular hypertelorism, right auricular tags, congenital heart defect and long fingers. The patient was diagnosed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-array revealing a 204Kb of DNA duplication. The exact mechanism behind these structural disorders is still unclear and further studies are needed for this purpose. Nevertheless, the diagnostic suspicion of this genetic alteration that, in general, presents late diagnosis, should be considered to enable better clinical support to the patients and family genetic counseling.


A síndrome da duplicação do cromossomo 5p13 representa uma síndrome genética contígua envolvendo a duplicação de vários genes contidos nesta região. Alguns fenótipos clínicos estão relacionados com ela, tais como: comportamento obsessivo compulsivo, fissuras palpebrais pequenas, déficit intelectual, atraso no desenvolvimento global e hipertelorismo ocular. Por ser uma situação clínica rara, o relato do caso contribui para a disseminação do conhecimento acerca da condição, assim como para seu diagnóstico precoce. Descrevemos uma paciente brasileira de oito anos com a duplicação do cromossomo 5p13.2, que na avaliação do neurodesenvolvimento apresentou comprometimento cognitivo, grave atraso da linguagem e dismorfismos como hipertelorismo ocular, apêndice auricular direito, sopro cardíaco, relacionado a defeito do septo ventricular, e dedos alongados. A paciente foi diagnosticada por meio da pesquisa molecular (CGH)-array com ganho de 204Kb de DNA. O mecanismo exato por trás dessas alterações estruturais ainda não está claro e são necessários mais estudos para este fim. Não obstante, a suspeita diagnóstica dessa alteração genética que, em geral, apresenta diagnóstico tardio, deve ser aventada para viabilizar melhor suporte clínico aos pacientes e aconselhamento genético familiar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Segmental Duplications, Genomic , Chromosome Duplication/genetics , Genetic Testing/methods , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Failure to Thrive , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Language Development Disorders/diagnosis
5.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 32(1): 52-59, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151924

ABSTRACT

Communication is an essential part of our social participation and the need to know how to evaluate and deal with its alterations is essential when working with people with neurological pathologies such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Purpose: to carry out a bibliographic review and group information related to communication problems, describing useful instruments for timely evaluation in the different areas involved. Material and method: bibliographic review related to the subject. Results: People with MS can face differents communication problems (aphasia, dysarthria or cognitive communicative disorder), it is important to have the characterization of these disorders and with tools that specifically carry out a pertinent evaluation with common language among experts. Conclusions: considering the importance of communication, its disorders as a consequence of MS and the forms of evaluation are a priority when intervening with this population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Communication Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Aphasia , Cognition Disorders , Dysarthria , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology
6.
CoDAS ; 33(2): e20200023, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249611

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Pessoas com demência apresentam alterações cognitivas, de linguagem e de comportamento. As alterações da linguagem podem ser identificadas no discurso desses pacientes já nas fases iniciais. Contudo, ainda há poucas pesquisas sobre a efetividade da terapia fonoaudiológica nesses casos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever as manifestações linguísticas presentes no discurso de um paciente com distúrbio linguístico-cognitivo e analisar a efetividade da terapia fonoaudiólogica. Foi realizado um estudo de caso único longitudinal, com participante com demência mista em fase leve à moderada, submetida à avaliação pré e pós-terapia fonoaudiológica. Foram utilizados os subtestes de Compreensão oral e de Discurso narrativo oral da Bateria MTL-Brasil e o teste The Dog Story. Na avaliação, a paciente apresentou alteração grave da compreensão oral e alteração nas dimensões micro e macrolinguística do discurso, obtendo pontuação 2/10 no índice de avaliação do discurso oral. Após a terapia, a paciente obteve resultados dentro do esperado nos subtestes de Compreensão oral (palavras, frases e texto) e de Discurso narrativo oral (número de palavras e unidades de informação) da Bateria MTL-Brasil. No teste The Dog Story, a participante obteve melhor desempenho na produção do discurso em relação aos itens alteração lexical e complexidade sintática (dimensão microlinguística) e macroproposição (dimensão macrolinguística), alcançando escore de 5/10 no índice. É possível afirmar que a terapia fonoaudiológica foi efetiva a curto prazo para esta paciente com distúrbio linguístico-cognitivo e alterações no nível discursivo da linguagem.


ABSTRACT People with dementia present cognitive, language and behavioral impairments. The language deficits can be identified in the speech of these patients in the early stages. However, there are still few studies about the effectiveness of speech-language therapy in these cases. This study aimed to describe the language manifestations observed in the speech of a patient with a linguistic-cognitive disorder and to analyze the effectiveness of speech-language therapy. A longitudinal single-case study with a patient with mild to moderate mixed dementia was carried out. The patient underwent pre- and post-speech-language therapy evaluation with the Oral comprehension and the Narrative discourse subtests of the MTL-Brazil Battery and The Dog Story test. We observed severe impairments of the oral comprehension and deficits involving the micro and macrolinguistic dimensions of the discourse, with a score of 2/10 in the oral discourse evaluation index. After the speech-language therapy, the patient achieved adequate performance in the Oral Comprehension subtests (words, sentences and text) and the Oral Narrative discourse (number of words and information units) of the MTL-Brazil Battery. In The Dog Story test, the participant obtained better performance in the discourse production regarding the items lexical change and syntactic complexity (microlinguistic dimension) and macroproposition (macrolinguistic dimension), achieving a score of 5/10 on the index. It is possible to state that the speech-language therapy was effective in the short term for this patient with linguistic-cognitive disorder and impairments in the discursive level of the language.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Speech , Cognition Disorders , Brazil , Language Therapy , Linguistics
8.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 20(3): 759-767, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136454

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictors of low perceptual-motor skills in children at preschool age. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort involving mother-child pairs. The children's perceptual-motor skills were assessed individually in their homes when they were 4-5 years old using the Pre-Literacy Skills and Knowledge Test (THCP®), a vali-dated Brazilian instrument. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between cognitive perceptual-motor skills and potential maternal and child risk factors. Results: of the 199 children included in the study, 53.8% were boys, 90.8% attended school, and 91.1% were enrolled in a public school. Among the children, 114 (57.3%), 41 (20.6%) and 44 (22.1%) had low, moderate and high perceptual-motor skills, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed greater odds of children at preschool age having low perceptual motor skills for boys (OR=2.10; CI95%= 1.14-3.88), children who did not attend school (OR=4.61; CI95%= 1.21-17.49), and those with a household income <5 minimum wages (MW) (OR=4.28; CI95%= 1.49-12.26). Conclusions: our study showed that male gender, not attending school and a monthly household income <5 MW were predictors of low perceptual-motor skills in children at 4-5 years of age.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar os preditores da baixa habilidade percepto-motora em crianças em idade pré-escolar. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal aninhado a uma coorte de nascimentos envol-vendo pares de mães-crianças. A habilidade percepto-motora das crianças foi avaliada indi-vidualmente em suas residências quando completaram 4-5 anos de idade, utilizando-se o Teste de Habilidades e Conhecimento Pré-Alfabetização (THCP®), um instrumento brasileiro validado. Análise de regressão logística foi utilizada para estimar a associação entre a baixa habilidade percepto-motora das crianças e potenciais fatores de risco materno-infantil. Resultados: das 199 crianças incluídas no estudo, 53,8% eram meninos, 90,8% frequen-tavam a escola, e 91,1% estudavam em escola pública. Entre as crianças, 114 (57,3%), 41 (20,6%) e 44 (22,1%) revelaram baixa, moderada e elevada habilidade percepto-motora, respectivamente. A análise de regressão logística ajustada revelou maior chance de crianças em idade pré-escolar apresentar baixa habilidade percepto-motora quando em meninos (OR=2,10; IC95%=1,14-3,88), crianças que não frequentavam a escola (OR=4,61; IC95%=1,21-17,49), e possuíam renda familiar <5 salários mínimos (SM) (OR=4,28; IC95%=1,49-12,26). Conclusões: nosso estudo revelou que sexo masculino, renda familiar <5 SM, e não frequentar a escola foram preditores significativos da baixa habilidade percepto-motora em crianças de 4-5 anos de idade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Perception , Risk Factors , Cognition Disorders , Academic Performance , Motor Skills , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mother-Child Relations
9.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(3): e721, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126760

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Existen pocos estudios sobre alteraciones cognitivas en niños realizados en las provincias centrales cubanas. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de niños preescolares con alteraciones cognitivas. Métodos: De un universo de 25 600 niños de la provincia de Cienfuegos entre 0-6 años, se seleccionaron 825 niños preescolares entre 4 y 6 años de varias instituciones educativas y médicas. Todos se evaluaron con la prueba neuropsicológica Luria Inicial. Se usó la norma cubana de la prueba para obtener la prevalencia: percentiles 30 - 35, niños con trastornos del neurodesarrollo, y percentiles 40 - 45, niños con alteraciones cognitivas asociadas a factores psicosociales. Resultados: El 3,9 por ciento de los niños presentaron alteración cognitiva asociada a factores psicosociales, mientras que 1,4 por ciento presentaron alteraciones asociada a trastornos del neurodesarrollo. Las principales alteraciones se resumieron en cuatro tareas: cálculos sencillos, psicomotricidad, lenguaje y memoria de trabajo. En las instituciones educativas, 1 de 10 niños presentaron trastorno del neurodesarrollo, mientras que 3 de 10 niños presentaron alteraciones explicadas por causas educativas. En las instituciones médicas, el 58,0 por ciento de los niños presentó alteraciones explicadas también por causas educativas. Conclusiones: En la provincia de Cienfuegos la prevalencia de niños preescolares con alteraciones cognitivas es moderadamente alta. En especial, las alteraciones se encuentran en las funciones ejecutivas, lingüísticas y en las habilidades relacionadas con el procesamiento numérico. En las instituciones médicas, el niño con alteraciones en las funciones ejecutivas y lingüísticas es frecuente, mientras que en las instituciones educativas prevalecen las alteraciones en las funciones ejecutivas y en el procesamiento numérico(AU)


Introduction: There are few studies on cognitive alterations in children that have been carried out in the Cuban provinces of the central region. Objective: To determine the prevalence of pre-school children with cognitive alterations. Methods: From a group sample of 25 600 children from 0 to 6 years old of Cienfuegos province, there were selected 825 pre-school children in the ages from 4 to 6 years from different educational and health institutions. All the children were evaluated with the Luria Incial neuropsychological test. It was used the Cuban standard of the test to obtain the prevalence data: percentiles 30 - 35, children with neurodevelopmental disorders, and percentiles 40 - 45, children with cognitive alterations related to psychosocial factors. Results: The 3.9 percent of the children presented cognitive alterations related to psychosocial factors, while the 1.4 percent presented alterations related to neurodevelopmental disorders. The main alterations were comprised in 4 tasks: simple calculations, psychomotricity, language and working memory. In the educational institutions, 1 of 10 children presented a neurodevelopmental disorder, while 3 of 10 children presented alterations due to educative causes. In the health institutions, 58,0 percent of the children presented alterations due to educative causes. Conclusions: In Cienfuegos province, the prevalence of pre-school children with cognitive alterations is moderately high. The alterations are specially found in the executive and linguistic functions and in the abilities related with the numbers processing. In the health institutions, it is common to have children with alterations in the executive and linguistic functions, while in the educative institutions prevail the alterations in the executive functions and the numbers processing(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Cuba
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 412-418, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131724

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Central nervous system changes associated to systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) are progressive and may cause negative effects on cognitive performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between SAH and the components of executive functions (EF), inhibitory control (IC), updating and shifting, comparing a control group (without SAH) to patients with SAH, in two levels of severity. Methods: The protocol included the following tests to evaluate EF components: T.O.V.A. Test (IC), Backward Digit Span from Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency (updating), and Trail Making Test Part B (shifting). Results: A total of 204 participants was included: 56 from the Control Group (CG), 87 SAH stage 1, and 61 SAH stage 2. The groups were not different for age (52.37±12.29) and education (10.98±4.06). As to controlled blood pressure (BP), duration of hypertension treatment and number of drugs, the SAH 2 group had a worse BP control, longer duration of hypertension treatment and use of more drugs when compared to the SAH 1. The findings revealed that patients with more severe hypertension presented worse performance in updating (Backward Digit Span, phonemic and semantics VF) and shifting (Trail Making Test Part B). Conclusion: The results suggest that patients with SAH have a significant impairment in EF, more specifically in updating and shifting. Besides that, such damage may be directly proportional to the severity of SAH. It is suggested that future studies include neuroimaging exams to exclude possible cerebrovascular diseases.


RESUMO Introdução: As alterações do sistema nervoso central associadas à hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) são progressivas e podem ocasionar efeitos negativos no desempenho cognitivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre a HAS e os componentes das funções executivas (FE), controle inibitório (CI), atualização e alternância, comparando um grupo controle (sem HAS) a pacientes com HAS, em dois níveis de gravidade. Métodos: O protocolo incluiu os seguintes testes para avaliar os componentes das FE: T.O.V.A. Test (CI), Dígitos Ordem Indireta da Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Adultos (Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale - WAIS-III), Fluência Verbal fonêmica e semântica (atualização) e Teste de Trilhas parte B (alternância). Resultados: Foram incluídos 204 participantes, sendo 56 do Grupo Controle (GC), 87 HAS estágio 1 (HAS 1) e 61 de HAS estágio 2 (HAS 2). Os grupos não foram diferentes em relação à idade (52,37±12,29) e escolaridade (10,98±4,06). Em relação à pressão arterial (PA) controlada, tempo de tratamento da HAS e número de medicações, o grupo HAS 2 apresentou pior controle de PA, mais tempo de tratamento da HAS e uso de maior número de medicações quando comparado ao grupo HAS 1. Os achados revelaram que os pacientes com HAS em estágio mais grave apresentaram pior desempenho nos testes de alternância (Teste de Trilhas parte B) e atualização (Dígitos Ordem Indireta, FV fonêmica e semântica). Conclusão: Esses resultados sugerem que pacientes com a HAS possuem prejuízo significativo em FE, especificamente em alternância e atualização, e que esse prejuízo pode ser diretamente proporcional à gravidade da HAS. Sugere-se que, em estudos futuros, incluam-se exames de neuroimagem com o objetivo de excluir possíveis doenças cerebrovasculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Executive Function/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Trail Making Test , Neuropsychological Tests
11.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 99-106, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090548

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Peripheral vestibular disorders can lead to cognitive deficits and are more common in elderly patients. Objective To evaluate and correlate cognitive, balance and gait aspects in elderly women with chronic peripheral vestibular dizziness, and to compare them with elderly women without vestibular disorders. Methods Twenty-two women presenting peripheral vestibular dizziness episodes for at least six months participated in the study. The individuals were categorized by dizziness severity level: moderate (n = 11) or severe (n = 11). The control group (n = 11) included women showing no vestibulopathy, light-headedness or dizziness. Cognitive assessments and semi-static and dynamic balance assessments were performed with the Balance Master (Neurocom International, Inc., Clackamas, OR), while the Dizziness Handicap Inventory provided a score for the severity of the symptoms. The groups were submitted to statistics of inference and correlation between cognitive, balance and stability variables. Results The group with severe dizziness showed higher sway speed of the center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction, smaller step length, and slower gait than the control group. Regarding the cognitive variables, the group with severe dizziness symptoms presented significant correlations with stability and gait variables. Conclusion The relationship between cognitive aspects, balance and gait was stronger in women with severe dizziness than in those with no vestibulopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Vestibular Diseases/complications , Sensation Disorders/etiology , Dizziness/complications , Postural Balance/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Vestibular Diseases/physiopathology , Vestibular Diseases/rehabilitation , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Gait/physiology
12.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(1): e492, ene.-mar. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126683

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las adicciones afectan la salud mental al involucrar el funcionamiento alterado de varios circuitos cerebrales, lo cual se traduce en múltiples trastornos cognitivos, emocionales y comportamentales. Objetivo: Identificar sintomatología depresiva y ansiosa en un grupo de pacientes adictos a sustancias psicoactivas, en deshabituación. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, con pacientes en deshabituación, durante el año 2017, en el Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay". El universo estuvo constituido por 88 pacientes con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 65 años. Se aplicaron los inventarios de ansiedad rasgo - estado (IDARE) e inventario de depresión rasgo - estado (IDERE). Resultados: De los pacientes estudiados, 21 masculino y 9 femeninas, presentaron depresión alta, moderada 18 masculinos y 2 femeninas y baja 21 del sexo masculino. Quienes presentaron mayores niveles de ansiedad, fueron los del sexo masculino, del grupo de edad de 41 a 50 años y con nivel escolar secundario. Conclusiones: En la presente investigación se pudo confirmar que los pacientes presentaron alteraciones tanto ansiosas como depresivas y el tiempo de consumo estuvo relacionado con la intensidad de la sintomatología. A mayor intensidad de la sintomatología afectiva, hubo mayor probabilidad de consumo(AU)


Introduction: Addictions affect mental health by involving the altered functioning of several brain circuits, which translates into multiple cognitive, emotional and behavioral disorders. Objective: To identify depressive and anxious symptomatology in a group of patients addicted to psychoactive substances, in cessation. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out, with patients in cessation, during the year 2017, at the Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay". The universe consisted of 88 patients aged between 18 and 65 years. Trait - state anxiety (IDARE) inventories and trait - state depression (IDERE) inventory were applied. Results: Of the patients studied, 21 male and 9 female, had high depression, moderate 18 male and 2 female and 21 male with low depression. Those who presented higher levels of anxiety were those of the male sex, of the age group of 41 to 50 years and with secondary school level. Conclusions: In the present investigation it was possible to confirm that the patients presented both anxious and depressive alterations, and the time of consumption was related to the intensity of the symptomatology. The greater the intensity of affective symptoms, the greater the likelihood of consumption(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anxiety , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition Disorders , Affect , Depression/diagnosis
13.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 41-47, jan.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090407

ABSTRACT

RESUMO As cardiopatias congênitas (CC) estão entre as principais causas de morbimortalidade na primeira infância e os lactentes com essa condição podem apresentar atrasos no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor (DNPM). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência da CC no DNPM de lactentes. Trata-se de um estudo observacional com avaliação do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor realizada pela Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III). As condições maternas e clínicas dos lactentes foram verificadas no relatório de alta médica e na caderneta de saúde da criança, e a condição socioeconômica das famílias pelo Critério da Classificação Econômica Brasil. Para associar as variáveis clínicas e o DNPM foram utilizados o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman e o teste de razão de verossimilhança. Foram avaliados 18 lactentes, com predomínio do sexo feminino (72,2%). A maioria das mães (47,1%) possuía ensino médio completo ou superior incompleto, com média da idade de 27,2±5,5 anos. Houve correlação das escalas do BSID-III com as variáveis quantitativas analisadas: escala motora com o peso (p=0,02 e r=0,54) e com uso de oxigenoterapia (p=0,009 e r=−0,591); já para as variáveis qualitativas as associações foram entre: escala motora e condição socioeconômica (p=0,015), escala motora e comunicação interatrial - (CIA) (p=0,023) e escala da linguagem e CIA (p=0,038). A CC influenciou o DNPM, principalmente no aspecto motor. Além disso peso, diagnóstico de CIA, uso de oxigenoterapia e condição socioeconômica foram considerados como principais fatores de risco para o atraso no DNPM.


RESUMEN Las cardiopatías congénitas (CC) se encuentran entre las principales causas de morbimortalidad en la primera infancia, y los lactantes con esta afección pueden tener retrasos en el desarrollo neuropsicomotor (DNPM). El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo de evaluar la influencia de las CC en el DNPM de los lactantes. Este es un estudio observacional en el cual se evaluó el desarrollo neuropsicomotor utilizando la Bayley scales of infant and toddler development (BSID-III). Las condiciones maternas y clínicas de los lactantes se obtuvieron en el informe de alta médica y en la libreta de salud del niño, y el estado socioeconómico de las familias en el Criterio de Clasificación Económica de Brasil. Para asociar las variables clínicas y el DNPM, se utilizaron el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman y la prueba de razón de probabilidad. Se evaluaron a 18 lactantes, con un predominio del sexo femenino (72,2%). La mayoría de las madres (47,1%) tenían la secundaria completa o la educación superior incompleta, con una edad promedio de 27,2±5,5 años. Hubo una correlación entre las escalas BSID-III y las variables cuantitativas analizadas: escala motora con el peso (p=0,02 y r=0,54) y con el uso de oxigenoterapia (p=0,009 y r=−0,591); para las variables cualitativas, las asociaciones fueron entre: escala motora y estado socioeconómico (p=0,015), escala motora y comunicación interauricular (CIA) (p=0,023) y escala de lenguaje y CIA (p=0,038). Las CC influyeron en el DNPM, principalmente en el aspecto motor. Además, el peso, el diagnóstico de CIA, el uso de oxigenoterapia y el estado socioeconómico fueron considerados los principales factores de riesgo para el retraso en el DNPM.


ABSTRACT Congenital heart defects (CHD) are among the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants who has this impairment may present delays in neuropsychomotor development (NPMD). This study assesses the influence of CHD on NPMD of infants. This is an observational study assessing neuropsychomotor development performed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - BSID-III. The Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria was used to verify the socioeconomic status of the families and also the maternal and infants' clinical conditions were verified in the medical discharge report and in the child's health handbook. For the association between the quantitative and qualitative variables with the NPMD, the Spearman's correlation coefficient and the likelihood ratio test were used. A total of 18 infants were assessed, with a predominance of females (72.2%). Most mothers (47.1%) had complete high school or incomplete higher education, with a mean age of 27.2±5.5 years. There was a correlation between the BSID-III scales and the quantitative variables analyzed: motor scale with weight (p=0.02 and r=0.54) and oxygen therapy (p=0.009 and r=−0.591); besides that, the qualitative variables correlation were: motor scale and socioeconomic condition (p=0.015), motor scale and Interatrial Communication - IAC (p=0.023) and language with IAC scales (p=0.038). CHD influences the delay of NPMD, mainly for motor aspect. Furthermore, weight, diagnosis of IAC, use of oxygen therapy and socioeconomic status were considered the main risk factors for the delay in NPMD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Psychomotor Disorders/etiology , Motor Skills Disorders/etiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Psychomotor Disorders/diagnosis , Socioeconomic Factors , Child Development/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Motor Skills Disorders/diagnosis , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Language Disorders/diagnosis , Language Disorders/etiology , Length of Stay , Neuropsychological Tests
14.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(1): 75-81, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092465

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: We aimed to compare the effectiveness of cognitive function protection between the standard follow-up parameters and advanced neuromonitoring methods in diabetic patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting during cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: Study design was prospective and observational. Patients were separated into two groups, treated only with standard follow-up parameters (Group 1) and followed up with the change of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (rSO2) by near-infrared spectroscopy (Group 2). Neurocognitive functions were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively before discharge in all patients using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. Results: Cognitive functions of Group 2 patients in the postoperative period were significantly higher than Group 1 patients (P=0.001). The mean postoperative MoCA score of patients was significantly lower than the mean preoperative MoCA score in Group 1 (24.8±2.2 vs. 23.6±2.6, P=0.02). However, mild cognitive dysfunction was significantly lower in Group 2, compared to Group 1 (P=0.02). Conclusion: In patients followed up with standard parameters, a significant decrease in cognitive function was observed in the early period. However, the use of advanced neuromonitoring methods can significantly prevent this decrease in cognitive functions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Coronary Artery Bypass , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Cognition Disorders
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782081

ABSTRACT

0.05). Similarly, no significant difference was detected in retinal arteriolar tortuosity (Z=0.91) and venular tortuosity (Z=1.31) (both p>0.05). However, the retinal arteriolar FD (mean difference: −0.03, 95% CI: −0.05, −0.01) and venular FD (mean difference: −0.03, 95% CI: −0.05, −0.02) were associated with cognitive impairment.CONCLUSIONS: A smaller retinal microvascular FD might be associated with cognitive impairment. Further large-sample and well-controlled original studies are required to confirm the present findings.


Subject(s)
Cognition Disorders , Fractals , Publication Bias , Retina , Retinal Artery , Retinal Vessels , Retinaldehyde
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787140

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia worldwide, and is mainly characterized by aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ). Increasing evidence has shown that plant extracts have the potential to delay AD development. The plant sterol β-Sitosterol has a potential role in inhibiting the production of platelet Aβ, suggesting that it may be useful for AD prevention. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of β-Sitosterol on deficits in learning and memory in amyloid protein precursor/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice. APP/PS1 mice were treated with β-Sitosterol for four weeks, from the age of seven months. Brain Aβ metabolism was evaluated using ELISA and Western blotting. We found that β-Sitosterol treatment can improve spatial learning and recognition memory ability, and reduce plaque load in APP/PS1 mice. β-Sitosterol treatment helped reverse dendritic spine loss in APP/PS1 mice and reversed the decreased hippocampal neuron miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency. Our research helps to explain and support the neuroprotective effect of β-Sitosterol, which may offer a novel pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of AD. Taken together, these findings suggest that β-Sitosterol ameliorates memory and learning impairment in APP/PS1 mice and possibly decreases Aβ deposition.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Animals , Blood Platelets , Blotting, Western , Brain , Cognition Disorders , Dementia , Dendritic Spines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Learning , Memory , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Plant Extracts , Plants , Plaque, Amyloid , Spatial Learning
17.
Clinics ; 75: e1435, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe elderly performance in the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) and to discriminate its score by using types of errors as comparison among healthy controls, Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and vascular dementia (VD) patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 285 elderly individuals of both sexes, all over 60 years old and with more than 1 year of schooling. All participants were assessed through a detailed clinical history, laboratorial tests, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological tests including the BGT, the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). The BGT scores were not used to establish diagnosis. RESULTS: Mean BGT scores were 3.2 for healthy controls, 7.21 for AD, and 8.04 for VD with statistically significant differences observed between groups (p<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the main risk factors for the diagnostic groups. BGT's scores significantly differentiated the healthy elderly from those with AD (p<0.0001) and VD (p<0.0001), with a higher area under the curve, respectively 0.958 and 0.982. BGT's scores also showed that the AD group presented 12 types of errors. Types of errors evidenced in the execution of this test may be fundamental in clinical practice because it can offer differential diagnoses between senescence and senility. CONCLUSION: A cut-off point of 4 in the BGT indicated cognitive impairment. BGT thus provides satisfactory and useful psychometric data to investigate elderly individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Aged , Psychometrics/statistics & numerical data , Dementia, Vascular/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition/physiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Neuropsychological Tests
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 48/6 Model of Care is an integrative care initiative for improving the health outcomes of hospitalized older patients; however, its applicability in community-dwelling older adults as a health screening tool has not been investigated. The present study aimed to examine the applicability of this model, prevalence of dysfunction in 6 care areas, and its relationship with self-reported mobility in community-dwelling older adults.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey study of community-dwelling adults aged 65 or older. Participants were screened for problems using 9 items corresponding to the 6 care areas of the 48/6 Model of Care (cognitive functioning, functional mobility, pain management, nutrition and hydration, bladder and bowel management, and medication management). Mobility was assessed via the Life-Space Assessment (LSA). We examined the correlation between each screening item and the LSA.RESULTS: A total of 444 older adults (260 women, 58.6%) participated. The mean number of health problems was 2.3 ± 2.1, with the most common being pain, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence. These problems and LSA scores were significantly different by age groups. A multiple regression analysis showed that polypharmacy (β = −10.567, P < 0.001), dysphagia (β = −9.610, P = 0.021), and pain (β = −7.369, P = 0.004) were significantly associated with life-space mobility after controlling for age.CONCLUSION: The 48/6 Model of Care is applicable to community-dwelling older adults, who show high prevalence of dysfunction in the 6 care areas. This study supports the role of the model in screening for the health status of older adults living in the community, and in estimating mobility.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cognition Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Deglutition Disorders , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Pain Management , Polypharmacy , Prevalence , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Incontinence
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879219

ABSTRACT

Cognitive enhancement refers to the technology of enhancing or expanding the cognitive and emotional abilities of people without psychosis based on relevant knowledge of neurobiology. The common methods of cognitive enhancement include transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and cognitive training (CT). tDCS takes effect quickly, with a short effective time, while CT takes longer to work, requiring several weeks of training, with a longer effective time. In recent years, some researchers have begun to use the method of tDCS combined with CT to regulate the cognitive function. This paper will sort out and summarize this topic from five aspects: perception, attention, working memory, decision-making and other cognitive abilities. Finally, the application prospect and challenges of technology are prospected.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Neuropsychological Tests , Prefrontal Cortex , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
20.
CoDAS ; 32(1): e20190017, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055896

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Comparar o desempenho das habilidades motora grossa, motora fina-adaptativa, linguagem, cognitiva e pessoal-social de meninas entre 36 e 70 meses com hipotireoidismo congênito tratado no período pós-natal com seus pares sem alterações tireoidianas. Método Participaram 15 meninas com diagnóstico de hipotireoidismo congênito, com idade cronológica variando de 36 a 70 meses no Grupo Experimental (GE); e 15 meninas sem alterações tireoidianas no Grupo Comparativo (GC), pareadas por idade cronológica e nível socioeconômico. Os instrumentos de avaliação utilizados foram: Entrevista com os pais; Teste de Vocabulário por Imagem Peabody (TVIP-R); e Teste de Triagem do Desenvolvimento de Denver II (TTDD-II). Foi realizada a avaliação psicológica, quanto ao nível intelectual, com a aplicação da Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SBIS). A estatística foi realizada por meio de análise descritiva, teste "t" de Student e Teste de Mann-Whitney, nível de significância de p <5%. Resultados Na comparação do TVIP-R e SBIS, houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre o GE e o GC. Na comparação entre as áreas do TTDD-II, houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos para as áreas de Linguagem, Motora Grossa e Motora Fina-Adaptativa. Conclusão O presente estudo confirmou a interferência do Hipotireoidismo Congênito no desenvolvimento infantil, mesmo quando diagnosticado e tratado precocemente, levando a mudanças no desenvolvimento que podem trazer prejuízos nas áreas motora, cognitiva e linguística.


ABSTRACT Objective To compare the performance in gross motor, fine motor-adaptive, language, cognitive and personal-social development skills of girls with a mean age of 36 to 71 months with Congenital Hypothyroidism treated from the neonatal period with that of their peers without thyroid alterations. Methods The participants included in the study were 30 children aged between 36 and 70 months divided into two groups paired for chronological age and socioeconomic status: 15 girls diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism - Experimental Group (EG) and 15 girls without thyroid changes - Control Group (CG). The following assessment instruments were used: Interview with parents, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R), and Denver Developmental Screening Test - 2nd edition (DDST-II). Psychological testing of intellectual functioning was conducted with application of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SBIS). The descriptive statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney test at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). Results Comparison of the PPVT-R and SBIS results showed a statistically significant difference between the EG and CG. Comparison of the DDST-II results showed a statistically significant difference between the groups for the fine motor-adaptive, language and gross motor areas. Conclusion The present study confirms that Congenital Hypothyroidism affects child development, even when children are diagnosed and treated early, leading to alterations that can impair their motor, cognitive and language development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Child Language , Cognition Disorders , Congenital Hypothyroidism/physiopathology , Motor Skills/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Child Development , Cognition , Social Skills , Language Development
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