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Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 181-199, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922672


The glymphatic system plays a pivotal role in maintaining cerebral homeostasis. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, arising from small vessel disease or carotid stenosis, results in cerebrometabolic disturbances ultimately manifesting in white matter injury and cognitive dysfunction. However, whether the glymphatic system serves as a potential therapeutic target for white matter injury and cognitive decline during hypoperfusion remains unknown. Here, we established a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via bilateral common carotid artery stenosis. We found that the hypoperfusion model was associated with significant white matter injury and initial cognitive impairment in conjunction with impaired glymphatic system function. The glymphatic dysfunction was associated with altered cerebral perfusion and loss of aquaporin 4 polarization. Treatment of digoxin rescued changes in glymphatic transport, white matter structure, and cognitive function. Suppression of glymphatic functions by treatment with the AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020 abolished this protective effect of digoxin from hypoperfusion injury. Our research yields new insight into the relationship between hemodynamics, glymphatic transport, white matter injury, and cognitive changes after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

Animals , Brain Ischemia , Carotid Stenosis/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Digoxin , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , White Matter
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(3): 24-28, jul.-set. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342518


Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease understood as a complex syndrome with motor and non-motor symptoms, including sleep-related conditions, such as periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS). This paper presents issues regarding Parkinson's disease, motor and non-motor symptoms, sleep physiology, and PLMS. In conclusion, both conditions seem to be correlated through impairment of the dopaminergic system.

A doença de Parkinson é uma doença neurodegenerativa entendida como uma síndrome complexa com sintomas motores e não motores, incluindo condições relacionadas ao sono, como movimentos periódicos dos membros durante o sono (MPMS). Este artigo apresenta questões relacionadas à doença de Parkinson, sintomas motores e não motores, fisiologia do sono e MPMS. Em conclusão, ambas as condições parecem estar correlacionadas por comprometimento do sistema dopaminérgico.

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Restless Legs Syndrome , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Neuroimaging/methods , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(2): 133-138, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153166


ABSTRACT Introduction: People with epilepsy frequently complain of poor memory. Objective: To assess the occurrence of memory complaints in older adults with epilepsy (OAE) and whether it is associated with clinical variables, objective cognitive performance, and quality of life (QoL). Methods: The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) was related to objective cognitive performance, the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E), the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31), and the clinical characteristics of 83 OAE. Results: OAE showed worse cognitive performance and higher MAC-Q scores when compared to a similar control group (n=40). Impairment in multiple cognitive domains occurred in 34 (41%) OAE and was associated with older age and lower educational level. Memory complaints (MAC-Q≥25) were reported by 45 (54.2%) OAE and associated with older age, lower educational level, onset at ≥60 years, higher NDDI-E scores, lower QOLIE-31 scores, and impairment in multiple cognitive domains. Conclusions: OAE presented worse cognitive performance and greater memory complaints. Episode onset at ≥60 years of age was associated with complaints, but not with objective cognitive deficit. We found an association between subjective and objective cognitive performance, with aspects of epilepsy and worse QoL scores.

RESUMO Introdução: A queixa de memória fraca é frequente em pessoas com epilepsia. Objetivo: Avaliar a ocorrência de queixas de memória em idosos com epilepsia (IE) e se há associação com variáveis clínicas, desempenho cognitivo objetivo e qualidade de vida (QV). Métodos: O questionário de queixa de memória (memory complaint questionnaire — MAC-Q) foi relacionado ao desempenho cognitivo objetivo, o inventário de depressão de transtornos neurológicos para epilepsia (neurological disorders depression inventory for epilepsy — NDDI-E), o QOLIE-31 e com as características clínicas de 83 IE. Resultados: Houve desempenho cognitivo inferior e maiores escores no MAC-Q em IE quando comparados aos de um grupo controle similar (n=40). Comprometimento de múltiplos domínios cognitivos ocorreu em 34 (41%) IE e associou-se a maior idade e menor escolaridade. Queixas de memória (MAC-Q≥25) foram observadas em 45 (54,2%) IE e associadas a idade mais elevada, menor escolaridade, início das crises aos ≥60 anos, maiores escores no NDDI-E, menores escores no QOLIE-31 e comprometimento de múltiplos domínios cognitivos. Conclusões: Pior desempenho cognitivo e maiores queixa de memória ocorreram em IE. Crises com início aos ≥60 anos foram associadas a queixas, mas não a déficit objetivo cognitivo. Houve associação entre desempenho cognitivo subjetivo e objetivo, com aspectos da epilepsia e pior QV.

Humans , Aged , Epilepsy/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Quality of Life , Memory , Memory Disorders/etiology , Neuropsychological Tests
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888483


OBJECTIVES@#To study the difference in cognitive impairment between the children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECT) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and those with BECT or ADHD alone.@*METHODS@#A prospective study was performed on 80 children with BECT and ADHD, 91 children with BECT, and 70 children with ADHD , who were diagnosed with the diseases for the first time. Seventy children of the same age who underwent physical examination were enrolled as the healthy control group. Event-related potential P300, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test were used to measure and compare each index between groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the healthy control group, the BECT+ADHD group, the BECT group, and the ADHD group had a significantly prolonged P300 latency, a significant reduction in the amplitude of P300, and significant reductions in the scores of verbal comprehension index (VCI), perceptual reasoning index (PRI), working memory index (WMI), processing speed index (PSI), full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), auditory response control quotient (ARCQ), visual response control quotient, full response control quotient (FRCQ), auditory attention quotient (AAQ), visual attention quotient, and full attention quotient (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with the children with BECT or ADHD alone, the children with both BECT and ADHD have basically the same fields of cognitive impairment but a higher degree of cognitive impairment in some fields.

Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Child , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Epilepsy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Wechsler Scales
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922207


BACKGROUND@#The July 2018 Japan Floods caused enormous damage to western Japan. Such disasters can especially impact elderly persons. Research has shown that natural disasters exacerbated a decline in cognitive function, but to date, there have been no studies examining the effects of this disaster on the elderly. The object of this study was to reveal the effect of this disaster in terms of cognitive decline among the elderly.@*METHODS@#Study participants were certified users of the long-term care insurance (LTCI) system in Hiroshima, Okayama, and Ehime prefectures from May 2018 to June 2018. The observation period was from July 2018 to December 2018. Our primary outcome was cognitive decline after the disaster using a dementia symptomatology assessment. In addition to a crude model, a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the cognitive decline of victims, adjusting for age classification, gender, the level of dementia scale before the disaster occurred, residential environment, whether a participant used facilities shut down after the disaster, and population density. After we confirmed that the interaction term between victims and residential environment was statistically significant, we stratified them for the analysis.@*RESULTS@#The total number of participants was 264,614. Victims accounted for 1.10% of the total participants (n = 2,908). For the Cox proportional hazards model, the hazard ratio of the victims was 1.18 (95% confidential interval (CI): 1.05-1.32) in the crude model and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.00-1.26) in the adjusted model. After being stratified by residential environment, the hazard ratio of home victims was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.06-1.36) and the hazard ratio of facility victims was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.67-1.17).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study showed that elderly living at home during the 2018 Japan Floods were at risk for cognitive decline. Medical providers, care providers, and local governments should establish a system to check on the cognitive function of elderly victims and provide necessary care support.

Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Floods , Humans , Insurance, Long-Term Care , Japan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921341


Objective@#To evaluate the associations of sarcopenia, handgrip strength and calf circumference with cognitive impairment among Chinese older adults.@*Methods@#Totally 2,525 older adults were recruited from the Healthy Aging and Biomarkers Cohort Study. Cognitive impairment was assessed by the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination. Handgrip strength was calculated from the means of the right and left hand values. Calf circumference was measured at the site of maximum circumference of the non-dominant leg. The formula developed by Ishii was used to define sarcopenia. Multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations of sarcopenia, handgrip strength, and calf circumference with cognitive impairment.@*Results@#The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 34.36%. The adjusted odds ratio ( @*Conclusion@#Sarcopenia, identified by low handgrip strength and low calf circumference, was positively associated with cognitive impairment.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Leg/anatomy & histology , Logistic Models , Male , Sarcopenia/pathology
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2992-2998, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921252


BACKGROUND@#Single subcortical infarction (SSI) is caused by two main etiological subtypes, which are branch atheromatous disease (BAD) and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD)-related SSI. We applied the Beijing version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-BJ), the Shape Trail Test (STT), and the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) to investigate the differences in cognitive performance between these two subtypes of SSI.@*METHODS@#Patients with acute SSIs were prospectively enrolled. The differences of MoCA-BJ, STT, and SCWT between the BAD group and CSVD-related SSI group were analyzed. A generalized linear model was used to analyze the associations between SSI patients with different etiological mechanisms and cognitive function. We investigated the correlations between MoCA-BJ, STT, and SCWT using Spearman's correlation analysis and established cut-off scores for Shape Trail Test A (STT-A) and STT-B to identify cognitive impairment in patients with SSI.@*RESULTS@#This study enrolled a total of 106 patients, including 49 and 57 patients with BAD and CSVD-related SSI, respectively. The BAD group performances were worse than those of the CSVD-related SSI group for STT-A (83 [60.5-120.0] vs. 68 [49.0-86.5], P = 0.01), STT-B (204 [151.5-294.5] vs. 153 [126.5-212.5], P = 0.015), and the number of correct answers on Stroop-C (46 [41-49] vs. 49 [45-50], P = 0.035). After adjusting for age, years of education, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and lesion location, the performance of SSI patients with different etiological mechanisms still differed significantly for STT-A and STT-B.@*CONCLUSIONS@#BAD patients were more likely to perform worse than CSVD-related SSI patients in the domains of language, attention, executive function, and memory. The mechanism of cognitive impairment after BAD remains unclear.

Cerebral Infarction , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Executive Function , Humans , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880651


OBJECTIVES@#To comprehensively analyze the characteristics of cognitive impairment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to explore the effects of different lateral patients' cognitive impairment and different clinical factors on cognitive impairment of TLE.@*METHODS@#A total of 84 patients, who met the diagnostic criteria for TLE in the Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, were collected as a patient group, with 36 cases of left TLE and 48 cases of right TLE. A total of 79 healthy volunteers with matching gender, age and education level were selected as a control group. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the scores of Arithmetic Test, Information Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Block Design Test (BDT), Hayling Test and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) of the revised Chinese Adult Wechsler Intelligence scale were retrospectively analyzed in the 2 groups.Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the clinical factors and the cognitive impairment score.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the TLE patient group had low scores in all neuropsychological tests, with significant difference (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#There are multiple cognitive domain dysfunctions in TLE, including language, short-term memory, long-term memory, attention, working memory, executive function and visual space function. Left TLE has greater impairment of executive function and right TLE has greater damage in working memory. Long pathography of disease, hippocampal sclerosis and a history of febrile convulsions may lead to more severe cognitive impairment. Earlier identification and earlier intervention are needed to improve prognosis of patients.

Adult , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/complications , Executive Function , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , Retrospective Studies
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 573-582, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155780


Abstract Background: The present study investigated the association between Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) and increased serum S100B level after Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RALRP). Methods: The study included 82 consecutive patients who underwent RALRP. Serum S100B levels were determined preoperatively, after anesthesia induction, and at 30 minutes and 24 hours postoperatively. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychological testing preoperatively, and at 7 days and 3 months postoperatively. Results: Twenty four patients (29%) exhibited POCD 7 days after surgery, and 9 (11%) at 3 months after surgery. Serum S100B levels were significantly increased at postoperative 30 minutes and 24 hours in patients displaying POCD at postoperative 7 days (p = 0.0001 for both) and 3 months (p = 0.001 for both) compared to patients without POCD. Duration of anesthesia was also significantly longer in patients with POCD at 7 days and 3 months after surgery compared with patients without POCD (p = 0.012, p = 0.001, respectively), as was duration of Trendelenburg (p = 0.025, p = 0.002, respectively). Composite Z score in tests performed on day 7 were significantly correlated with duration of Trendelenburg and duration of anesthesia (p = 0.0001 for both). Conclusions: S100B increases after RALRP and this increase is associated with POCD development. Duration of Trendelenburg position and anesthesia contribute to the development of POCD. Trial Registry Number: (N° NCT03018522).

Resumo Introdução: O presente estudo investigou a associação entre Disfunção Cognitiva Pós-Operatória (DCPO) e aumento do nível sérico de S100B após Prostatectomia Radical Laparoscópica Assistida por Robô (PRLAR). Métodos: O estudo incluiu 82 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à PRLAR. Os níveis séricos de S100B foram determinados: no pré-operatório, após indução anestésica, e aos 30 minutos e 24 horas do pós-operatório. A função cognitiva foi avaliada com testes neuropsicológicos no pré-operatório, no 7° dia pós-operatório (7 DPO) e aos 3 meses após a cirurgia (3 MPO). Resultados: Observamos 24 pacientes (29%) com DCPO no 7 DPO e 9 pacientes com DCPO (11%) após 3 meses da cirurgia. Quando comparados com os pacientes sem DCPO, os níveis séricos de S100B estavam significantemente aumentados aos 30 minutos e às 24 horas do pós-operatório nos pacientes que apresentaram DCPO no 7 DPO (p= 0,0001 para os dois momentos) e 3 meses após a cirurgia (p= 0,001 para os dois momentos) A duração anestésica também foi significantemente maior em pacientes com DCPO no 7 DPO e 3 MPO em comparação com pacientes sem DCPO (p= 0,012, p= 0,001, respectivamente), assim como a duração da posição de Trendelenburg (p= 0,025, p= 0,002, respectivamente). O escore Z composto nos testes realizados no 7 DPO foi significantemente correlacionado com a duração da posição de Trendelenburg e a duração da anestesia (p= 0,0001 para ambos). Conclusão: S100B aumenta após PRLAR e o aumento está associado ao desenvolvimento de DCPO. A duração anestésica e o tempo decorrido em posição de Trendelenburg contribuem para o desenvolvimento de DCPO. Número de registro do estudo: (n° NCT03018522)

Humans , Male , Aged , Postoperative Complications/blood , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Cognitive Dysfunction/blood , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/blood , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prostatectomy/methods , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Head-Down Tilt/adverse effects , Area Under Curve , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Operative Time , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(1): 01-05, oct. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353755


El VIH/SIDA es una enfermedad neurotrópica que afecta al sistema nervioso central y dependiendo de la fase clínica de la enfermedad genera deterioro neurológico, psiquiátrico y neuropsicológico en grado variable. Se describe el caso de un paciente que presentó un cuadro de deterioro cognitivo severo (demencia SIDA) con posterior mejoría de signos y síntomas, y establecimiento posterior de secuelas neuropsicológicas después de un año de su diagnóstico. Se comparó una evaluación neuropsicológica en etapa de deterioro cognitivo severo con otra de seguimiento, realizada un año después de iniciar el tratamiento antirretroviral. Se presentan las características clínicas del paciente utilizando el estudio de caso como herramienta metodológica y sobre la base de un procedimiento clínico y psicométrico.

HIV/AIDS is a neurotropic disease that affects the central nervous system and depending on the clinical phase of the disease generates neurological, psychiatric and neuropsychological impairment to varying degrees. The case of a patient who presented severe cognitive impairment (AIDS dementia) is described with subsequent remission of signs and symptoms, and establishment of neuropsychological sequelae after one year of diagnosis. A neuropsychological evaluation in stage of severe cognitive impairment was compared with another follow-up one year after initiating antiretroviral treatment. The clinical characteristics of the patient are presented using the case study as a methodological tool and based on a clinical and psychometric procedure.

Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Diseases/etiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV Infections/complications , AIDS Dementia Complex , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Neuropsychological Tests
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 284-292, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131045


Resumen Introducción: El deterioro cognitivo leve es una alteración de la función cognitiva que no afecta de manera negativa a las actividades diarias de la persona. Factores de riesgo modificables como la hipertensión arterial podrían intervenir en el aceleramiento de este proceso y afectar a personas menores de 65 años. Una detección temprana del deterioro cognitivo leve por medio del Montreal Cognitive Assesment (MoCA) en personas con hipertensión arterial ayudaría a idear medidas para su control eficaz. Materiales y métodos: Se diseñó un estudio de tipo observacional transversal. La población se integra con pacientes hipertensos de 45 a 65 años de Guayaquil. De una base de datos de 570 pacientes, se realizó un llamado a sujetos que cumplieran los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, para la evaluación de la función cognitiva por medio del MoCA. Resultados: El 93.3% de los participantes sometidos a la prueba MoCA presentó un puntaje menor de 26. El promedio del puntaje total fue de 18.9 y el 51.6% de los participantes reveló deterioro cognitivo leve. Se obtuvo una correlación negativa del 40% (-0.40) con una p = 0.0015 entre años con hipertensión arterial y el resultado total de la prueba MoCA. Conclusiones: Por medio del MoCA se pudo cuantificar la magnitud del deterioro cognitivo en estos pacientes. Se identificó que la mayoría de los participantes examinados presentaba un puntaje promedio menor del intervalo normal. Las cifras obtenidas de los valores de correlación de Pearson muestran una actividad tendencial y relación de la hipertensión arterial con el deterioro de la función cognitiva.

Abstract Introduction: Mild cognitive impairment is an alteration of cognitive function that does not negatively affect the daily activities of the person. Modifiable risk factors such as hypertension could be involved in the acceleration of this process affecting people under 65 years of age. Early detection of mild cognitive impairment through the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in people with high blood pressure, would help to formulate strategies for its effective control. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional observational study was designed. The population is hypertensive patients between 45 and 65 years old in Guayaquil. From a database of 570 patients, a call was made to patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, for the evaluation of cognitive function through MoCA. Results: 93.3% of the participants who underwent the MoCA test had a score lower than 26. The average of the total score was 18.9, with 51.6% of the participants suffering from mild cognitive impairment. A negative correlation of 40% (-0.40) was obtained with a p = 0.0015 between years with arterial hypertension and the total result of the MoCA test. Conclusions: Through MoCA, the magnitude of cognitive deterioration in these patients could be quantified. It was detected that the majority of the examined participants had a lower average score of the normal range. The figures obtained from the Pearson correlation values show trend activity, relating arterial hypertension and deterioration of cognitive function.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ecuador , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(1): e1314, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139037


Introducción: Las quejas sobre la función cognitiva han aumentado en la población más envejecida del municipio Habana del Este, provincia La Habana, donde se desconoce la frecuencia y causas de este incremento. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo de deterioro cognitivo leve en personas mayores de 85 años o más. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en personas mayores de un área de salud durante el período 2019-2020. El universo estuvo conformado por 51 personas de 85 años o más. Se tomó una muestra de 47, los cuales cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Se les aplicó un modelo de recogida de información anónimo, pruebas neuropsicológicas y exámenes complementarios con el propósito de elevar la precisión del diagnóstico. Los datos fueron validados estadísticamente mediante el chi cuadrado, la prueba exacta de Fisher, la regresión de Poisson y estadígrafo de Woolf. Resultados: La prevalencia de deterioro cognitivo leve en personas mayores de 80 años o más fue de 74,5 por ciento, encontrándose significativamente influenciada por el género femenino (OR 6,67; IC 95 por ciento1,09-52,01). Un mayor nivel educacional fue asociado con menor riesgo de deterioro cognitivo leve (OR 10,13; IC 95 por ciento 1,83-63,53). Conclusiones: En la población estudiada, el deterioro cognitivo leve constituye un problema de salud. El mayor nivel educacional mostró su efecto protector, se identificó asociación entre el género femenino y el declinar cognitivo(AU)

Introduction: Complaints about cognitive function have increased in the eldest population from Habana del Este municipality, Havana province, where the frequency and causes of such increase are unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of mild cognitive impairment in elderly older than 85 years. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in the elderly from a health area from 2019 to 2020. Fifty one persons aged over 85 made up the universe. Forty seven subjects who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria made the sample. An anonymous information collection model, neuropsychological tests and complementary examinations were applied to them in order to rise the diagnosis precision. Data were statistically validated using chi square, Fisher's exact test, Poisson regression and Woolf statistician. Results: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in persons older than 80 years was 74.5 percent. Women accounted the higher number (OR 6.67, 95 percent CI 1.09-52.01). Higher educational level was associated with lower risk of mild cognitive impairment (OR 10.13, 95 percent CI 1.83-63.53). Conclusions: In the studied population, mild cognitive impairment constitutes a health problem. The higher educational level showed protective effect, an association between female gender and cognitive decline was identified(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Risk Factors , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.2): 58-62, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125108


La epilepsia y el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) son condiciones frecuentes en pediatría y suelen presentarse asociadas en muchos pacientes. Su relación es compleja y comparten comorbilidad psiquiátrica. Los pacientes con ambas condiciones conjuntas, epilepsia y TDAH, se presentan con igual frecuencia en ambos géneros, predominando la presentación inatenta. El déficit cognitivo incrementa el riesgo de asociar TDAH en pacientes con epilepsia. No hay evidencia suficiente para otros factores de riesgo, sin embargo, se puede anticipar su presencia en pacientes con algunos tipos de epilepsia y con modelos neuropsicológicos que evidencian la disfunción de redes subyacentes. Se revisa la relación con el control de crisis, las alteraciones electroencefalográficas y los fármacos antiepilépticos (FAEs). Se describen las recomendaciones para reducir efectos adversos de FAEs. El diagnóstico de TDAH en pacientes con epilepsia debe partir por la sospecha, a través de instrumentos clínicos y valoraciones de funcionamiento cognitivo. El tratamiento multimodal es recomendado para pacientes con TDAH con y sin epilepsia. Los psicoestimulantes se pueden usar con seguridad. La calidad de vida se afecta en pacientes y sus familias, por lo que la educación, pesquisa precoz y referencia para rehabilitación, están encaminadas a resolver las dificultades de estos pacientes. En caso contrario, se generan consecuencias negativas escolares, sociales y emocionales, que pueden ser relevantes y persistentes.

Epilepsy and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequent conditions in pediatrics. Their association is frequent and complex, often sharing psychiatric comorbidity. Patients who present epilepsy and ADHD, show equal frequency in both genders, with the inattentive type, as predominant presentation. Cognitive deficit increases the risk of associating ADHD in patients with epilepsy. There is not enough evidence for other risk factors, however there is enough information that allows to ant icipate its presence in some types of epilepsy, with neuropsychological models that evidence the underlying network dysfunction. The relationship with frequency and seizure control, electroencephalographic alterations and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is also reviewed. Recommendations to reduce adverse effects of AEDs are described. The diagnosis must therefore be based on suspicion, through clinical instruments and assessments of cognitive functioning. Multimodal treatment is also recommended in patients with ADHD with and without epilepsy. Psych stimulants can be used safely. The quality of life of the patients and their families is affected, so it is advisable for them to be supported by a specialized team that could provide education, early assessment and therapy. If they are omitted, the consequences can be negative at school, social environment and emotional development, which could be relevant and become persistent.

Humans , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/etiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 133-138, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098078


Abstract Cognitive impairment has been described in all phases of a migraine attack and interictally. However, the prevalence and phenotype of such impairment in chronic migraine (CM) have not yet been studied. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate both the prevalence of the objective cognitive deficit in patients with CM and the factors underlying its etiology. Methods: 144 patients with CM and 44 age-matched patients with low-frequency episodic migraine (EM) (a maximum of 4 headache days per month) participated in this study. Neuropsychiatric characteristics were measured with the HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ-20). Results: Compared to EM, CM subjects demonstrated higher subjective and objective cognitive impairment across all tests. CM patients had 4 times higher odds of achieving a RAVLT score in the lower quartile range compared to EM (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.8; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.5‒9.6; р=0.005). In the MoCA, CM patients demonstrated the most striking impairment in memory/delayed recall (65.3%), attention (46.5%), abstraction (30.6%), and language (27.1%). Chronic headache and level of education, but not gender, depression or anxiety, were independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Conclusions: Cognitive impairment is prevalent in the CM population during their mildest possible pain and may be caused by a central sensitization. Timely preventive treatment of EM is warranted.

Resumo O comprometimento cognitivo foi descrito em todas as fases de um ataque de enxaqueca, de maneira intermitente. Entretanto, a prevalência e o fenótipo desse comprometimento na enxaqueca crônica (EC) não foram estudados. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência do déficit cognitivo objetivo em pacientes com EC e fatores subjacentes à sua etiologia. Métodos: 144 pacientes com CM e 44 pacientes pareados por idade com enxaqueca episódica (EE) de baixa frequência (máximo de 4 dias de dor de cabeça por mês) foram incluídos. As características neuropsiquiátricas foram medidas pela Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A função cognitiva foi avaliada por meio da Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), o Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), o Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) e o Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ-20). Resultados: Em comparação com a EE, os indivíduos com EC demonstraram um comprometimento cognitivo subjetivo e objetivo maior em todos os testes. Os pacientes com CM tiveram 4 vezes mais chances de alcançar um escore RAVLT na faixa quartil inferior, em comparação com EE (Odds Ratio [OR] 3,8; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 1,5‒9,6; p=0,005). No MoCA, os pacientes com EC demonstraram o maior prejuízo na memória/atraso na recordação (65,3%), atenção (46,5%), abstração (30,6%) e linguagem (27,1%). Dor de cabeça crônica e nível de escolaridade, mas não o sexo, depressão ou ansiedade, foram preditores independentes de comprometimento cognitivo. Conclusões: O comprometimento cognitivo é prevalente na população com enxaqueca crônica mesmo durante uma dor muito leve e pode ser causado pela sensibilização central. O tratamento preventivo oportuno da enxaqueca episódica se faz necessário.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Headache/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/physiopathology , Depression/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/classification , Migraine Disorders/psychology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 89-95, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088770


ABSTRACT Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism are the most common hormonal dysfunctions during pregnancy. Insufficient maternal thyroid hormones (THs) in the early stages of pregnancy can lead to severe impairments in the development of the central nervous system because THs are critical to central nervous system development. In the fetus and after birth, THs participate in neurogenic processes, cell differentiation, neuronal activation, axonal growth, dendritic arborization, synaptogenesis and myelination. Although treatment is simple and effective, approximately 30% of pregnant women in Brazil with access to prenatal care have their first consultation after the first trimester of pregnancy, and any delay in diagnosis and resulting treatment delay may lead to cognitive impairment in children. This review summarizes the effects of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism on fetal neurodevelopment, behavior and cognition in humans and rodents. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):89-95

Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Pregnancy Complications/physiopathology , Brain/embryology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Hypothyroidism/complications , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/physiology , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Pregnancy Trimesters , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Brain/physiopathology , Pregnancy Outcome
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 2-8, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088988


Abstract The association between cognitive impairment and physical frailty has been studied in older adults. The criteria degree of frailty may be keys to associated cognitive impairment. Objective: To analyze the association between cognitive impairment and the criteria for frailty. Methods: We cross-sectionally examined data from 667 older adults (≥60 years of age) from a study entitled 'Variables associated to cognition in elderly caregivers' involving patients in an urban and rural primary healthcare center. We defined cognitive impairment based on different groups of scores on the Mini Mental State Examination, and defined frailty and prefrailty using the criteria by the Cardiovascular Health Study. We performed multinomial regression models to analyze the association between levels of frailty and cognitive impairment. Results: Similar proportions of women (54.8%) and men (45.2%) participated in the study (mean age: 71 years old). We found cognitive impairment, prefrailty and frailty in 34, 54, and 24% of the participants, respectively. Concomitant cognitive impairment and frailty was found in 13% of them. The chances of cognitive impairment increased up to 330% (Odds Ratio [OR]: 4.3; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 2.4‒7.7; p<0.001) among frail individuals, and 70% (OR: 1.7; 95%CI 1.0‒2.8; p=0.033) among prefrail individuals compared to robust/non-frail individuals. After controlling for age, education, place of residence and functional dependence, slowness and fatigue criteria were significantly associated with cognitive impairment. Conclusion: Older adults with frailty have a greater likelihood of concomitant cognitive impairment than prefrail and robust older adults. The prevalence of cognitive impairment and frailty is consistent with data reported in literature. The present findings contribute to the investigation of cognitive frailty.

Resumo A associação entre comprometimento cognitivo e fragilidade tem sida estudada em idosos e os critérios de fragilidade e níveis de fragilidade podem também apresentar influência na função cognitiva. Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre comprometimento cognitivo e os critérios de fragilidade em idosos. Métodos: O estudo analisou transversalmente dados de 667 idosos (≥60 anos) do estudo 'Variables associated to cognition in elderly caregivers' conduzido com usuários da atenção primária a saúde de áreas urbanas e rurais. Comprometimento cognitivo foi definido em função dos escores no Miniexame do Estado Mental baseado na escolaridade e a fragilidade e pré-fragilidade foi operacionalizada segundo os critérios do Cardiovascular Health Study. Foram realizados modelos de regressão multinominal para analisar a associação entre níveis de fragilidade e comprometimento cognitivo. Resultados: Proporções semelhantes de mulheres (54,8%) e homens (45,2%) participaram do estudo (média de idade: 71 anos). Comprometimento cognitivo, pré-fragilidade e fragilidade foram encontrados em 34, 54 e 24% dos participantes, respectivamente. Concomitante comprometimento cognitivo e fragilidade foi evidenciado em 13%. As chances de apresentar comprometimento cognitivo aumentaram em 330% (Odds Ratio [OR]: 4.3; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 2.4‒7.7; p<0.001) entre indivíduos frágeis e 70% (OR: 1.7; IC95% 1.0‒2.8; p=0.033) entre indivíduos pré-frágeis em comparação com indivíduos robustos/não-frágeis. Após controle da idade, escolaridade, local de residência e dependência funcional, os critérios de lentidão e fadiga foram significativamente associados ao comprometimento cognitivo. Conclusão: Os idosos mais frágeis têm maior probabilidade de apresentar comprometimento cognitivo comparados a adultos idosos pré-frágeis ou robustos. A prevalência de comprometimento cognitivo e fragilidade é consistente com os dados relatados na literatura e fornece suporte para futuras investigações sobre a fragilidade cognitiva.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Frail Elderly/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Frailty/complications , Frailty/psychology , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Activities of Daily Living/psychology , Geriatric Assessment , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Independent Living , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(12): e9487, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132506


This study aimed to explore the association between serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and cognitive dysfunction risk in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). This cross-sectional study enrolled 583 AIS patients. Biochemical markers and lipid profile were collected after admission. AIS patients were classified into high group (non-HDL-C ≥3.4 mM) and normal group (non-HDL-C <3.4 mM). Mini-Mental State Examination scale (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and Hamilton Depression scale 21 version (HAMD-21) were applied on the third day after admission. Compared with the control group, patients of the high group had higher body mass index and higher frequency of intracranial artery stenosis, and exhibited higher levels of non-HDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, homocysteine, fasting blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all P<0.05). Compared with the control group, patients of the high group had significantly lower MMSE and MoCA scores (MMSE: 26.01±4.17 vs 23.12±4.73, P<0.001; MoCA: 22.28±5.28 vs 20.25±5.87, P<0.001) and higher scores on the NPI and HAMD-21 (both P<0.001). MMSE (r=-0.306, P<0.001) and MoCA scores (r=-0.251, P<0.001) were negatively associated with non-HDL-C level. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that non-HDL-C level (OR=1.361, 95%CI: 1.059-1.729, P=0.016) was independently associated with the presence of cognitive dysfunction after adjusting for confounding factors. High serum non-HDL-C level might significantly increase the risk of cognitive dysfunction after AIS.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Cholesterol, HDL
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880607


Antipsychotic medication is the primary treatment for schizophrenia, which is effective on ameliorating positive symptoms and can reduce the risk of recurrence, but it has limited efficacy for negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. The negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction seriously affects the life quality and social function for the patients with schizophrenia. Currently, there is plenty evidence that antipsychotic drugs combined with adjuvant therapy drugs can effectively improve the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. These drugs include anti-oxidants, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neuro-inflammatory drugs (anti-inflammatory drugs, minocycline), which show potential clinical effects.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Minocycline/therapeutic use , Schizophrenia/drug therapy