Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 24
Filter
1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(11): 1450-1457, nov. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is a common complain in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Aim: To assess the perceived cognitive function and cognitive performance in women with FM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 100 women with FM (FMG) and 100 healthy controls (CG). Self-perceived cognitive functioning was evaluated using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Cognition scale (FACT-Cogv3). The neuropsychological performance was assessed with the Trail Making Test (TMT-A, TMT-B), Digit Span test (DS), Barcelona test (DS-F/B) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB-E), Spanish version test. Results: The mean scores of all cognitive self-perception factors and all neuropsychological tests were lower in the FMG (p < 0.001). Over 90% of the FMG took longer than the population mean (P50) to complete the TMT-A and TMT-B tests, while in the CG, 1/3 took longer than the P50 in both tests. The minimum expected scores for the DS-F and DS-B tests were not achieved by 40 and 9% of FMG participants, respectively. According to FAB-E, 54% and 24% of FMG were categorized as fronto-subcortical deficit and fronto-subcortical dementia, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Women with FM have a higher perception of cognitive dysfunction and lower cognitive performance in objective tests than healthy women. More research is needed to explore the clinical, psychosocial, and sociodemographic characteristics that predispose to cognitive deficits in this group of patients.


ANTECEDENTESA: La disfunción cognitiva es una queja común en pacientes con fibromialgia (FM). Objetivo: Investigar la función cognitiva percibida y el desempeño cognitivo en mujeres chilenas con FM. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal incluyendo a 100 mujeres con FM (GFM) y 100 mujeres como controles sanos (GC). El funcionamiento cognitivo autopercibido se evaluó mediante la prueba Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Cognition scale (FACT-Cogv3). El rendimiento neuropsicológico se evaluó mediante las pruebas Trail Making Test (TMT-A, TMT-B) y Digit Span test (DS), Barcelona test (DS-F/B) y la prueba Frontal Assessment Battery, versión española (FAB-E). RESULTADOS: Las puntuaciones medias de todos los factores de autopercepción cognitiva y todas las pruebas neuropsicológicas fueron significativamente menores en el GFM. Para TMT-A y TMT-B, más del 90% del GFM tardó más que la media poblacional (P50) para completar las pruebas, mientras que en el GC aproximadamente 1/3 requirió más tiempo que el P50 en ambas pruebas. Un 40 y 9% del GFM no obtuvo la puntuación mínima esperada para las pruebas DS-F y DS-B, respectivamente. Según FAB-E, el 54% y 24% del GFM se clasificó como déficit fronto-subcortical y demencia fronto-subcortical, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Las mujeres con FM tienen una mayor percepción de disfunción cognitiva y menor rendimiento cognitivo en pruebas objetivas que mujeres sanas. Se necesita más investigación para explorar las características clínicas, psicosociales y sociodemográficas que predisponen a los déficits cognitivos en este grupo de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Fibromyalgia/complications , Fibromyalgia/psychology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests
2.
Psico USF ; 27(4): 735-749, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422341

ABSTRACT

Cognitive deficits are common among post-stroke patients. Cognitive impairments of this sort are mediated by age and education. In Brazil, the only specific cognitive screening tool designed for post-stroke patients is the Cognitive Screening Test (Triagem Cognitiva - TRIACOG). The goal of this study was to investigate validity evidence related to external variables for the TRIACOG. Our sample included 153 adults and elderly people (M = 60.08, SD = 9.61) from Porto Alegre and metropolitan area, comprising 87 post-stroke patients and 66 healthy individuals. Three-way ANOVAs were used to assess main effects and interactions between the variables group (clinical/control), age and education. An influence of group and age on scores in the TRIACOG was found. We emphasize the relevance of these results to the selection of cut-off points for the tasks and cognitive functions assessed by the instrument, considering education and age, so as to allow more accurate identification of deficits in post-stroke patients. (AU)


Déficits cognitivos são comuns em pacientes após acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). O prejuízo cognitivo causado por esse evento é mediado por variáveis etárias e de escolaridade. No Brasil, o único instrumento de rastreio cognitivo específico para o pós-AVC é a Triagem Cognitiva (TRIACOG). O objetivo deste estudo é investigar evidências de validade relacionadas a variáveis externas da TRIACOG. Participaram do estudo 153 adultos e idosos (M = 60,08; DP = 9,61) de Porto Alegre e região metropolitana, sendo 87 pacientes pós-AVC e 66 saudáveis. Three-way ANOVA foi utilizada para indicar os efeitos e interações entre variáveis de grupo, etárias e educacionais. Observou-se a influência dos fatores de grupo e idade nos escores da TRIACOG. Ressalta-se a relevância dos resultados para a construção de pontos de corte para tarefas e funções do instrumento, considerando aspectos educacionais e etários, aumentando a precisão na identificação de déficits em pacientes pós-AVC. (AU)


Los déficits cognitivos son comunes en pacientes después de un accidente cerebrovascular. El deterioro cognitivo causado por este evento está mediado por variables de edad y educación. En Brasil, la única herramienta de detección cognitiva específica para después de un accidente cerebrovascular es el Cribado de Deterioro Cognitivo (TRIACOG). El propósito de este estudio fue investigar evidencias de validez relacionadas con las variables externas de TRIACOG. Participaron en el estudio un total de 153 adultos y ancianos (M = 60.08; DS= 9.61) de Porto Alegre y región metropolitana, de los cuales, 87 eran pacientes posictus y 66 eran sanos. Se utilizó Three-way ANOVA para indicar los efectos y las interacciones entre las variables de grupo, edad y escolarización. Se observó la influencia de factores de grupo y edad en las puntuaciones del TRIACOG. Se enfatiza la relevancia de los resultados para la construcción de puntos de corte para tareas y funciones del instrumento, teniendo en cuenta aspectos educativos y de edad, aumentando la precisión en la identificación de déficits en pacientes posictus. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Stroke/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Age Distribution , Educational Status , Sociodemographic Factors , Neuropsychological Tests
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 23-29, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360138

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Validation of cognitive instruments for detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on correlation with diagnostic biomarkers allows more reliable identification of the disease. Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB) in the differential diagnosis between AD, non-AD cognitive impairment (both defined by cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] biomarkers) and healthy cognition, and to correlate CSF biomarker results with cognitive performance. Methods: Overall, 117 individuals were evaluated: 45 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia within the AD continuum defined by the AT(N) classification [A+T+/-(N)+/]; 27 non-AD patients with MCI or mild dementia [A-T+/-(N)+/-]; and 45 cognitively healthy individuals without CSF biomarker results. All participants underwent evaluation using the BCSB. Results: The total BCSB and delayed recall (DR) scores of the BCSB memory test showed high diagnostic accuracy, as indicated by areas under the ROC curve (AUC): 0.89 and 0.87, respectively, for discrimination between AD and non-AD versus cognitively healthy controls. Similarly, total BCSB and DR displayed high accuracy (AUC-ROC curves of 0.89 and 0.91, respectively) for differentiation between AD and controls. BCSB tests displayed low accuracy for differentiation between AD and non-AD. The CSF levels of biomarkers correlated significantly, though weakly, with DR. Conclusions: Total BCSB and DR scores presented good accuracy for differentiation between patients with a biological AD diagnosis and cognitively healthy individuals, but low accuracy for differentiating AD from non-AD patients.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A validação de testes cognitivos para identificação da doença de Alzheimer (DA) definida por biomarcadores aumenta a confiabilidade diagnóstica. Objetivos: Investigar a acurácia da Bateria Breve de Rastreio Cognitivo (BBRC) no diagnóstico diferencial entre DA, comprometimento cognitivo não-DA (ambos diagnósticos definidos por biomarcadores no líquido cefalorraquidiano-LCR) e indivíduos cognitivamente saudáveis, e investigar correlações entre desempenho nos testes e concentrações dos biomarcadores no LCR. Métodos: No total, 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. Quarenta e cinco pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) ou demência leve com diagnóstico do continuum de DA definido pela classificação AT(N) [A+T+/-(N)+/-], 27 pacientes com CCL ou demência leve não-DA [A-T+/-(N)+/-], e 45 controles cognitivamente saudáveis sem estudo de biomarcadores no LCR. Os participantes foram submetidos à BBRC. Resultados: O escore total da BBRC e a evocação tardia (ET) no teste de memória da BBRC apresentaram elevada acurácia diagnóstica na diferenciação entre DA e não-DA versus controles, indicada pelas áreas sob a curva ROC (AUC) de 0,89 e 0,87, respectivamente. De modo semelhante, o escore total da BBRC e a ET mostraram elevadas acurácias (AUC-ROC de 0,89 e 0,91, respectivamente) para o diagnóstico diferencial entre DA e controles. A acurácia da BBRC foi baixa na diferenciação entre DA e não-DA. Os níveis dos biomarcadores no LCR se correlacionaram de forma significativa, embora fraca, com ET. Conclusões: Os escores totais da BCSB e a ET apresentaram boa acurácia na diferenciação entre pacientes com diagnóstico biológico de DA e controles cognitivamente saudáveis, mas baixa acurácia para diferenciar DA de não-DA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dementia/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Case-Control Studies , Amyloid beta-Peptides , tau Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Cognition
4.
Rev. odontopediatr. latinoam ; 11(1): 220160, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1147621

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de la musicoterapia para la reducción de la ansiedad dental en niños entre 5 a 12 años con discapacidad durante la atención odontológica. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cuasi experimental. Se evaluaron 40 pacientes, divididos aleatoriamente en 2 grupos: grupo de expuestos y no expuestos a musicoterapia. El nivel de ansiedad fue registrado por la escala de imagen facial antes y después de la atención clínica, el comportamiento durante la atención a través de la escala de Frankl y el nivel de ansiedad de los padres a través de la escala modificada de Corah. Se registraron las funciones vitales de ambos grupos antes y después de dicha atención. El análisis de los datos se realizó análisis descriptivo (media ± desviación estándar) y análisis inferencial: Test de T-Student y Chi cuadrado (p<0,05). Resultados: Se encontró que la presión arterial inicial/ final en el grupo expuesto fue (Sístole: 108.75 ± 8.56/ 95.50 ± 6.86, Diástole: 67.75 ± 7.15 / 57.75 ± 6.38), y en el grupo no expuesto (Sístole: 101.75 ± 8.77/ 110.15 ± 13.31, Diástole: 59.20 ± 6.08) respectivamente, y la frecuencia cardiaca inicial/final en el grupo expuesto (72.30 ± 7.18 / 63.95 ± 6.12); y en el grupo no expuesto (66.50 ± 9.88 / 73.90 ± 11.46). Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los valores de la presión arterial (sístole, p<0,001 y diástole, p=0,007) y frecuencia cardiaca final (p=0,001), así como una reducción de los niveles de ansiedad final en el grupo expuesto a musicoterapia (p=0,001).


Objetivo:Avaliar a eficacia da musicoterapia para redução da ansiedade dental em crianças com discapacidades entre 5 a 12 anos durante o atendimento odontológico. Materiais e métodos: Estudo quase experimental. Avaliou-se 40 pacientes divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupos de expostos e não expostos a musicoterapia. O nível de ansiedade foi registrado pela escala de imagem facial antes e durante o atendimento odontológico, o comportamento durante o atendimento foi através da escala de Frankl e o nível de ansiedade dos padres através da escala modificada de Corah. As funções vitais foram registradas antes e depois do atendimento. O análises de dados foi realizado através análises descritivas (média ± ds) e análises inferenciais: Teste de T-Student e Chi Quadrado (p<0,05). Resultados: A pressão arterial inicial/final no grupo exposto foi (Sístole: 108.75 ± 8.56/95.50 ± 6.86, Diástole: 67.75 ± 7.15/ 57.75 ± 6.38), e no grupo não exposto (Sístole: 101.75 ± 8.77/110.15 ± 13.31, Diástole: 59.20 ± 6.08) respetivamente, e a frequência cardíaca inicial/final no grupo exposto (72.30 ± 7.18/ 63.95 ± 6.12); e no grupo não exposto (66.50 ± 9.88 / 73.90 ± 11.46). Se encontraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas nos valores da pressão arterial (sístole, p=0,000 e diástole, p=0,007) e frequência cardíaca final (p= 0,001), assim como na redução dos níveis de ansiedade final no grupo exposto à musicoterapia (p=0,001). Conclusão: O uso da musicoterapia diminuiu significativamente os níveis da ansiedade durante o atendimento odontológico nos pacientes com discapacidades


Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of music therapy in reducing dental anxiety in children with disabilities between 5 and 12 years old during dental care. Materials and methods: Quasi-experimental study. 40 patients were evaluated, randomly divided into 2 groups: a group exposed to music therapy and a group not exposed to it. The levels of anxiety were registered using the Facial Image Scale before and after the dental care, the behaviour during dental care using the Frank Scale and the level of anxiety of the parents using the Modified Corah Scale. The vital functions of both groups were registered before and after the dental care. The data analysis was performed using descriptive analysis (media ± standard deviation) and inferential analysis: T- Student test and Chi square (p<0,05). Results: It was found that the initial/final blood pressure in the exposed group was (Systole: 108.75 ± 8.56/ 95.50 ± 6.86, Diastole: 67.75 ± 7.15/ 57.75 ± 6.38), and in the unexposed group (Systole: 101.75 ± 8.77/ 110.15 ± 13.31, Diastole: 59.20 ± 6.08), and the initial/final heart rate in the exposed group was (72.30 ± 7.18/ 63.95 ± 6.12); and in the unexposed group (66.50 ± 9.88/ 73.90 ± 11.46). Statistically significant differences were found in the values of blood pressure (systole, p=0,000 y diastole, p=0,007) and heart rate (p= 0,001), as well as a reduction in the levels of anxiety in the exposed group to music therapy (p=0,001). Conclusion: The use of Music therapy significantly reduces levels of anxiety during dental care in patients with disabilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Tooth Diseases/therapy , Dental Anxiety/psychology , Dental Care for Children/methods , Disabled Children/psychology , Music Therapy , Blood Pressure , Random Allocation , Down Syndrome/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Heart Rate
5.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(4): 191-198, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145493

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el siguiente estudio tuvo como finalidad explorar algunas características demográficas asociadas al dolor crónico y el desarrollo de ideas de suicidio en una población de pacientes mayores de 65 años. Método: se realizó un estudio observacional y analítico de corte transversal mediante el relevamiento de datos a partir historias clínicas de pacientes mayores de 65 años que concurrieron a los consultorios externos del equipo de geriatría del Servicio de Psiquiatría del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, entre junio de 2018 y diciembre de 2018. Resultados: se incluyó en el estudio un total de 222 pacientes, de los cuales 50 (23%) presentaron indicadores de dolor crónico y 33 pacientes (14,6%) lo hicieron de ideación suicida. Mediante estudio de correlación se estableció que estar ocupado, padecer dolor crónico y haber tenido más de una internación psiquiátrica son factores que incrementan el riesgo de presentar ideación suicida. Las variables ideación suicida, edad, y el estado civil ‒separado o divorciado en comparación con estar casado‒ son factores asociados a la presencia de dolor crónico. Conclusiones: el dolor crónico y la ideación suicida son factores que contribuyen a aumentar la fragilidad en personas mayores y deben ser estudiados en mayor profundidad para comprender los distintos modos de expresión de la patología psiquiátrica en esta población. (AU)


Introduction: the following study aimed to explore some demographic characteristics associated with chronic pain and the development of suicidal ideas in a population of patients over 65 years. Method: an cross-sectional observational and analytical study was carried out by collecting data from clinical histories of patients over 65 years of age who attended the external offices of the geriatrics team of the Psychiatry service of the Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires between June 2018 and December 2018. Results: a total of 222 patients were included in the study, of which 50 (23%) presented indicators of chronic pain and 33 patients (14.6%) had suicidal ideation. A correlation study established that being employed, suffering from chronic pain and having had more than one psychiatric hospitalization are factors that increase the risk of presenting suicidal ideation. The variables suicidal ideation, age, and separated or divorced marital status compared to being married are factors associated with the presence of chronic pain. Conclusions: chronic pain and suicidal ideation are factors that contribute to increasing frailty in elderly patients and should be studied in greater depth to understand the different modes of expression of psychiatric pathology in this population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Suicidal Ideation , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Suicide/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Grief , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Marital Status/statistics & numerical data , Dementia/psychology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Frailty/psychology , Geriatric Psychiatry/statistics & numerical data
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 133-138, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098078

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cognitive impairment has been described in all phases of a migraine attack and interictally. However, the prevalence and phenotype of such impairment in chronic migraine (CM) have not yet been studied. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate both the prevalence of the objective cognitive deficit in patients with CM and the factors underlying its etiology. Methods: 144 patients with CM and 44 age-matched patients with low-frequency episodic migraine (EM) (a maximum of 4 headache days per month) participated in this study. Neuropsychiatric characteristics were measured with the HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ-20). Results: Compared to EM, CM subjects demonstrated higher subjective and objective cognitive impairment across all tests. CM patients had 4 times higher odds of achieving a RAVLT score in the lower quartile range compared to EM (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.8; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.5‒9.6; р=0.005). In the MoCA, CM patients demonstrated the most striking impairment in memory/delayed recall (65.3%), attention (46.5%), abstraction (30.6%), and language (27.1%). Chronic headache and level of education, but not gender, depression or anxiety, were independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Conclusions: Cognitive impairment is prevalent in the CM population during their mildest possible pain and may be caused by a central sensitization. Timely preventive treatment of EM is warranted.


Resumo O comprometimento cognitivo foi descrito em todas as fases de um ataque de enxaqueca, de maneira intermitente. Entretanto, a prevalência e o fenótipo desse comprometimento na enxaqueca crônica (EC) não foram estudados. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência do déficit cognitivo objetivo em pacientes com EC e fatores subjacentes à sua etiologia. Métodos: 144 pacientes com CM e 44 pacientes pareados por idade com enxaqueca episódica (EE) de baixa frequência (máximo de 4 dias de dor de cabeça por mês) foram incluídos. As características neuropsiquiátricas foram medidas pela Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A função cognitiva foi avaliada por meio da Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), o Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), o Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) e o Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ-20). Resultados: Em comparação com a EE, os indivíduos com EC demonstraram um comprometimento cognitivo subjetivo e objetivo maior em todos os testes. Os pacientes com CM tiveram 4 vezes mais chances de alcançar um escore RAVLT na faixa quartil inferior, em comparação com EE (Odds Ratio [OR] 3,8; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 1,5‒9,6; p=0,005). No MoCA, os pacientes com EC demonstraram o maior prejuízo na memória/atraso na recordação (65,3%), atenção (46,5%), abstração (30,6%) e linguagem (27,1%). Dor de cabeça crônica e nível de escolaridade, mas não o sexo, depressão ou ansiedade, foram preditores independentes de comprometimento cognitivo. Conclusões: O comprometimento cognitivo é prevalente na população com enxaqueca crônica mesmo durante uma dor muito leve e pode ser causado pela sensibilização central. O tratamento preventivo oportuno da enxaqueca episódica se faz necessário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Headache/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/physiopathology , Depression/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/classification , Migraine Disorders/psychology
7.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 25: e46319, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1135773

ABSTRACT

RESUMO. O objetivo deste artigo, de caráter teórico descritivo, foi analisar as principais motivações para o aprimoramento cognitivo farmacológico na contemporaneidade, mediante o diálogo com autores que investigaram alguns fenômenos da denominada pós-modernidade, tais como Deleuze (1992), Foucault (2000), Bauman (2001) e Han (2015), além de autores do campo psicanalítico (Bezerra Júnior, 2010; Ferraz, 2014; Birman, 2014) que tecem críticas à questão da medicalização da educação e seus desdobramentos. Constatou-se que, na atualidade, a busca pelo aprimoramento cognitivo farmacológico está intimamente ligada ao estilo de vida e ao de sociedade construídos nas últimas décadas. Independentemente da palavra utilizada para nomear o momento histórico vivido, está cada vez mais difícil lidar com a realidade e, nesse contexto, o aprimoramento cognitivo farmacológico revela-se como uma das facetas do fenômeno recente conhecido como psiquiatrização da normalidade. Como resultado, nota-se também que o uso não médico e indiscriminado de medicamentos para 'turbinar' o cérebro tem tornado uma prática comum entre os estudantes universitários; por esse motivo, não se trata meramente de uma questão educacional relacionada à interferência nos processos de ensino e de aprendizagem, mas de um problema de saúde pública. Conclui-se que esse fenômeno suscita, na sociedade atual, desafios de diferentes ordens, razão pela qual merece atenção especial da comunidade científica.


RESUMEN. El objetivo de este artículo, de carácter teórico descriptivo, ha sido el de analizar las principales motivaciones para el perfeccionamiento cognitivo farmacológico en la contemporaneidad, el diálogo con autores que investigaron algunos fenómenos de la llamada posmodernidad, tales como Deleuze (1991), Foucault (2000), Bauman (2001) y Han (2015), además de autores del campo psicoanalítico (Bezerra Júnior, 2010; Ferraz, 2014; Birman, 2014) que lanzan críticas a la cuestión de la medicalización de la educación y sus desdoblamientos. Se constató que actualmente, la búsqueda por el perfeccionamiento cognitivo farmacológico está íntimamente conectada al estilo de vida y de la sociedad construido em las últimas décadas. Independientemente de la palabra utilizada para nombrar el momento histórico vivido, está cada día más difícil lidiar con la realidad y, en ese contexto, el perfeccionamiento cognitivo farmacológico se revela cómo a una de las facetas del fenómeno reciente conocido como psiquiatrización de la normalidad. Como resultado, se nota también que el uso no medico e indiscriminado de medicinas para potencializar el cerebro se ha tornado una práctica común entre los estudiantes universitarios; por ese motivo, no se trata meramente de una cuestión educacional relacionada a la interferencia en los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, pero de un problema da salud pública, se concluye que ese fenómeno suscita, en la sociedad actual, desafíos de diferentes órdenes, razón por la cual merece atención especial de la comunidad científica.


ABSTRACT. The aim of this theoretical descriptive study was to analyze the main motivations for pharmacological cognitive enhancement in contemporary times through the dialogue with authors who investigated some phenomena of the so-called post-modernity, such as Deleuze (1992), Foucault (2000), Bauman (2001) and Han (2015), in addition to authors of the psychoanalytic field (Bezerra Júnior, 2010; Ferraz, 2014; Birman, 2014) that criticize the issue of medicalization of education and its consequences. It was found that, currently, the search for pharmacological cognitive enhancement is closely linked to the lifestyle and society built in the last decades. Regardless of the name given to the historical moment the society is, it is increasingly difficult to deal with reality and, in this context, the pharmacological cognitive enhancement is revealed as one of the facets of the recent phenomenon known as 'psychiatrization of normality'. As a result, it is also noted that the non-medical and indiscriminate use of drugs to boost brainpower has become a common practice among college students; for this reason, it is not merely an educational issue that may interfere with the teaching-learning process, but also a public health problem. It is concluded that this phenomenon raises, in today's society, challenges of different orders, which is why it deserves special attention from the scientific community.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Psychiatry , Students , Public Health , Competitive Behavior/drug effects , Nootropic Agents/pharmacology , Medicalization , Motivation/drug effects
8.
Rev. Kairós ; 22(4): 99-118, dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1393140

ABSTRACT

The objective is to describe and analyze the possible associations between the variables institutionalization, education, polypharmacy, depression and cognitive impairment, in two heterogeneous elderly groups. Methods and Procedures: Subjects were 48 elderly, of whom 24 were institutionalized and 24 were non-institutionalized. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess cognitive decline and, for depression, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). As a result: 8.3% of subjects presented cognitive decline and 52,1% presented depression. Among those institutionalized, there was a higher incidence of cognitive decline and depression. Age negatively influenced cognitive performance (rS = -0.450, p = 0.001). An inverse relationship was observed between cognitive decline and depression (rs= -0.304, p = 0.036). Older people with higher schooling had a lower rate of depression, and illiterate elderly individuals presented greater cognitive decline. There were no significant differences between illiterate and low schooling elderly. It was concluded that institutionalized elderly lacking social and cognitive stimulation are more vulnerable to cognitive decline and depression, which indicates the importance of conducting controlled research on protective factors for depression and cognitive decline in elderly populations and the establishment of public policies that aim at improving the quality of life of the elderly population, especially the most deprived elderly and the institutionalized.


O objetivo foi descrever e analisar as possíveis associações entre as variáveis institucionalização, educação, polifarmácia, depressão e comprometimento cognitivo em dois grupos heterogêneos de idosos. Participaram 48 idosos, sendo 24 institucionalizados e 24 não institucionalizados. O Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM) foi utilizado para avaliar o declínio cognitivo e para a depressão, o Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI). Como resultados: 8,3% dos indivíduos apresentaram declínio cognitivo e 52,1% apresentaram depressão. Entre os institucionalizados, houve maior incidência de declínio cognitivo e depressão. A idade influenciou negativamente o desempenho cognitivo (rS = -0,450, p = 0,001). Foi observada relação inversa entre declínio cognitivo e depressão (rs = -0,304, p = 0,036). Os idosos com maior escolaridade apresentaram menor índice de depressão e os idosos analfabetos apresentaram maior declínio cognitivo. Não houve diferenças significativas entre idosos analfabetos e com baixa escolaridade. Concluiu-se que os idosos institucionalizados, sem estímulo social e cognitivo, são mais vulneráveis ao declínio cognitivo e à depressão, o que indica a importância de se realizarem pesquisas controladas sobre fatores de proteção para depressão e declínio cognitivo em populações idosas e o estabelecimento de políticas públicas que visem a melhorar a qualidade de vida dos velhos, principalmente os mais necessitados e os institucionalizados.


El objetivo es describir y analizar las posibles asociaciones entre las variables institucionalización, educación, polifarmacia, depresión y deterioro cognitivo en dos grupos de ancianos heterogéneos. Métodos e Procedimientos: los sujetos eran 48 ancianos, de los cuales 24 estaban institucionalizados y 24 no institucionalizados. El Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) se utilizó para evaluar el deterioro cognitivo y, para la depresión, el Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Resultados: 8.3% de los sujetos tenían deterioro cognitivo y 52.1% tenían depresión. Entre los institucionalizados, hubo una mayor incidencia de deterioro cognitivo y depresión. La edad influyó negativamente en el rendimiento cognitivo (rS = -0.450, p = 0.001). Se observó una relación inversa entre el deterioro cognitivo y la depresión (rs = -0.304, p = 0.036). Las personas mayores con mayor escolaridad tenían una tasa más baja de depresión, y las personas mayores analfabetas presentaban un mayor deterioro cognitivo. No hubo diferencias significativas entre los adultos mayores analfabetos y con baja escolaridad. Se concluyó que los los ancianos institucionalizados que carecen de estimulación social y cognitiva son más vulnerables al deterioro cognitivo y la depresión, lo que indica la importancia de llevar a cabo una investigación controlada sobre los factores protectores para la depresión y el deterioro cognitivo en las poblaciones de ancianos y el establecimiento de políticas públicas que tengan como objetivo mejorar la calidad de vida de la población de edad avanzada, especialmente de los más desfavorecidos e institucionalizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Polypharmacy , Depression/psychology , Educational Status , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Social Determinants of Health , Correlation of Data , Home Environment , Homes for the Aged
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(12): 855-859, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055198

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) has as its main characteristic the deterioration of cerebral functions. Its etiology is still complex and undefined despite the progress made in understanding its neurological, infectious, biochemical, genetic and cytogenetic mechanisms. Considering this, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of chromosomal alterations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, and to verify if there was a high frequency of these alterations in patients diagnosed with AD at the University Hospital GetúLio Vargas Outpatient Clinic Araújo Lima in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Among the nine patients in the AD group, only one patient did not have metaphases with chromosomal alterations (2n = 46,XX), while eight patients with AD showed numerical chromosomal alterations, classified as X chromosome aneupLoidy (2n = 45,X) and double aneupLoidy (2n = 44,X,-X,-10; 2n = 44,X,-X,-13 and 2n = 44,X,-X,-21). In the control group, no chromosomal changes were found in the karyotypes of these individuals. Therefore, the karyotypes of patients with AD undergo chromosomal alterations at different levels. These findings are being described for the first time in the population of Amazonas, and they highlight the importance of the inclusion of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of patients with AD.


RESUMO Doença de Alzheimer (DA) tem como principal característica a deterioração das funções cerebrais. Quanto a sua etiologia ainda é complexa e indefinida, apesar do progresso alcançado na compreensão de seus mecanismos neurológicos, infecciosos, bioquímicos, genéticos e citogenéticos. Considerando isto, nós investigamos a presença de alterações cromossômicas nos Linfócitos de sangue periférico e verificamos se há uma alta frequência dessas alterações em pacientes já diagnosticados com doença de Alzheimer no Hospital Universitário Getulio Vargas / Ambulatório Araújo Lima, Manaus / Amazonas / Brasil. Assim, dos 09 pacientes do grupo DA, somente 01 paciente não apresentou metáfases com alterações cromossômicas (2n = 46,XX) enquanto que 08 pacientes com DA apresentaram alterações cromossômicas numéricas, sendo classificadas como aneupLoidia do cromossomo X (2n = 45,X) e aneupLoidia dupLa (2n = 44,X,-X,-10; 2n = 44,X,-X,-13 e 2n = 44,X,-X,-21). No grupo controle, não foram encontradas aLterações cromossômicas nos cariótipos desses indivíduos. Estes achados para a popuLação do Amazonas/ BrasiL estão sendo descritos pela primeira vez. Os cariótipos de pacientes com DA sofrem aLterações cromossômicas em diferentes níveis e demonstraram a importância das investigações citogenéticas no manejo rotineiro de pacientes com DA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chromosome Aberrations , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Brazil , Lymphocytes , Case-Control Studies , Cytogenetic Analysis , Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics , Abnormal Karyotype , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Aneuploidy
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(9): 654-668, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038750

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To explore the relationship between severe/serious mental illness (SMI) and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), as the patterns of symptoms and cognitive performance that characterize both disorders share similarities. Methods: We performed a systematic review investigating what has already been published regarding the relationship between bvFTD and SMI. Studies were selected from PubMed and LILACS databases, including those published up to February 12, 2018. The search strategy included the following terms: "frontotemporal dementia" plus "bipolar", OR "frontotemporal dementia" plus "schizophrenia", OR "frontotemporal dementia" plus "schizoaffective". Publications without abstracts, case reports with absent genetic or histopathological confirmation, reviews and non-English language papers were excluded across the search process. Results: The search on PubMed retrieved 186 articles, of which 42 met eligibility criteria. On the LILACS database, none met the requirements. Generally, three major research aims were identified: 1) to look for frontotemporal lobar degeneration-associated genetic abnormalities in patients with prior SMI; 2) to compare the cognitive profile between patients affected by neurodegenerative disorders and schizophrenic patients; 3) to highlight the association between bvFTD and preceding psychiatric conditions and/or distinguish them both. The investigated mutations were found infrequently in the studied SMI samples. Cross-sectional studies comparing cognitive performance between bvFTD and psychiatric disorders mostly found no remarkable differences. There were only a few case reports identifying definite frontotemporal lobar degeneration in patients with previous psychiatric diagnoses. Conclusions: The available evidence demonstrates how fragile the current understanding is regarding the association between bvFTD and prior SMI.


RESUMO Objetivos: Explorar a relação entre doença mental grave (DMG) e a variante comportamental da demência frontotemporal (DFTvc), uma vez que os padrões de sintomas e de desempenho cognitivo que caracterizam ambos os transtornos compartilham semelhanças. Métodos: Revisão sistemática investigando estudos publicados sobre a relação entre DFTvc e DMG. Os estudos foram selecionados nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS, incluindo aqueles publicados até 12 de fevereiro de 2018. A estratégia de busca incluiu os seguintes termos: "demência frontotemporal" e "bipolar", OU "demência frontotemporal" e "esquizofrenia" OU "demência frontotemporal" e "esquizoafetivo". Publicações sem resumos, relatos de casos sem confirmação genética ou histopatológica, revisões e artigos escritos em idiomas que não fossem o inglês não foram selecionados na busca sistemática. Resultados: A pesquisa no PubMed encontrou 186 artigos, dos quais 42 alcançaram critérios de elegibilidade. Na base de dados LILACS, nenhum dos nove artigos identificados atendeu aos requisitos. Foram identificados três objetivos de pesquisa principais: buscar anormalidades genéticas associadas à degeneração lobar frontotemporal (DLFT) em pacientes com SMI prévia; comparar o perfil cognitivo entre pacientes acometidos por doenças neurodegenerativos e esquizofrênicos; destacar a associação entre DFTvc e condições psiquiátricas precedentes e/ou distinguir ambos. As mutações investigadas foram encontradas infrequentemente nas amostras estudadas. Os estudos transversais comparando o desempenho cognitivo entre DFTvc e os transtornos psiquiátricos não encontraram diferença, e houve apenas relatos de casos confirmando de DLFT em pacientes com diagnósticos psiquiátricos prévios. Conclusões: A evidência disponível demonstra quão frágil é o entendimento atual sobre a associação entre DFTvc e DMG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Frontotemporal Dementia/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Schizophrenic Psychology , Frontotemporal Dementia/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Mental Disorders/complications
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(8): 574-578, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019473

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by movement disorders, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric symptoms. Relatives of HD patients experience a great burden as the latter suffer from altered social conduct and deterioration of interpersonal relationships. Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute mental states (to oneself and others). Deficits in ToM are thought to have a role in the changes in empathy and interpersonal difficulties that HD patients face. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study to compare ToM task scores of patients with mild to moderate HD, their relatives (spouse or at-risk first-degree relative with a negative gene test) and controls.Individuals with dementia or depression were excluded. The ToM test battery included Spanish versions of the Reading Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), Happé's Strange Stories (Social and Physical Stories subtests) and the Hinting Task. Results: The series comprised 12 HD patients, 12 relatives and 12 controls. The HD patients showed lower affective ToM scores than controls (RMET 19 [3.5] vs 23.9 [2.7], p = 0.016). Cognitive ToM tasks scores were lower in HD patients than controls as well (Happé's Social Stories 9 [2.6] vs 13 [1.9], p = 0.001; the Hinting Task 13.6 [3.4] vs 17.5 [4.0], p = 0.009). In the Hinting Task, HD relatives had lower scores in than controls (13 [3.2] vs 17.5 [4.0], p = 0.009) and similar scores to controls in the rest of the battery. Conclusion: The HD patients with mild to moderate disease severity and their relatives show ToM deficits.


RESUMEN La enfermedad de Huntington (EH) es una enfermedad genética autosómica dominante caracterizada por trastornos del movimiento, deterioro cognitivo y síntomas psiquiátricos. Los familiares de las personas con EH experimentan gran carga dado que los pacientes sufren de conducta social alterada y deterioro de relaciones interpersonales. La Teoría de la mente (ToM) consiste en la habilidad para atribuir estados mentales (a uno mismo o a otros). Se piensa que déficits en ToM tienen un rol en los cambios en empatia y en las dificultades interpersonales que los pacientes con EH enfrentan. Métodos: Condujimos un estudio transversal para comparar el desempeño en puntajes de tareas de ToM en pacientes con EH leve a moderada, sus familiares (pareja o familiar en riesgo con prueba genética negativa) y controles sanos. Se excluyó a sujetos con demencia o depresión. La batería de pruebas de ToM incluyó versiones en español de la prueba de lectura de la mente en los ojos (RMET), Historias Extrañas de Happé (subpruebas Social y Física) y Hinting Task. Resultados: La serie consistió de 12 pacientes con EH, 12 familiares y 12 controles. Los pacientes con EH mostraron puntajes menores de tareas de ToM afectiva que los controles (RMET 19 [3.5] vs 23.9 [2.7], p = 0.016). Los puntajes de tareas de ToM cognitiva fueron inferiores a los controles en los pacientes con EH (Historias Sociales de Happé 9 [2.6] vs 13 [1.9], p = 0.001; Hinting task 13.6 [3.4] vs 175 [4.0], p = 0.009). En la Hinting task los familiares de pacientes con EH mostraron puntajes inferiores que los de los controles (13 [3.2] vs 175 [4.0], p = 0.009) y puntajes similares a aquellos de los controles en el resto de la batería. Conclusión: Los pacientes con EH con enfermedad leve a moderada y sus familiares muestran déficits en tareas de ToM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Family/psychology , Huntington Disease/psychology , Theory of Mind , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition , Statistics, Nonparametric , Empathy , Neuropsychological Tests
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(4): e8041, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001510

ABSTRACT

Although normal aging has been related to several cognitive difficulties, other processes have been studied less, such as spatial memory. Our aim was to compare egocentric and allocentric memory in an elderly population using ecological tasks. Twenty-eight cognitively unimpaired participants performed Egocentric and Allocentric Spatial Memory Tasks, as well as Spatial Span from CANTAB, Benton's Judge of Line Orientation test (JoLO), and Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA). The results revealed that younger participants showed better performance than older participants on both the Egocentric and Allocentric Spatial Memory Tasks, although only the Egocentric test was able to discriminate between younger, middle, and older elderly participants. Learning effect was found in Allocentric Spatial Memory Task in younger and older groups, but not in the middle group. Allocentric and egocentric performance was not related to other visuospatial neuropsychological scores and gender did not influence performance in any task. Egocentric and Allocentric Spatial Memory Tasks may be useful tools in early screening for cognitive decline, as they are able to detect age differences in the cognitive unimpaired elderly population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Space Perception/physiology , Task Performance and Analysis , Spatial Memory/physiology , Healthy Aging/physiology , Healthy Aging/psychology , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , Sex Factors , Analysis of Variance , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Spatial Navigation/physiology , Neuropsychological Tests
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(9): 582-587, Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973948

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to assess the presence of cognitive deficits in patients with chronic migraine, and to assess the main factors that trigger cognitive disorders, such as comorbidities or the use of medications. Methods: Chronic migraine and control groups were interviewed in a case-control study. The frequency and intensity of the headache, medication used and associated comorbidities were determined. All patients were submitted to an extended neuropsychological assessment. Results: The chronic migraine group (n = 30) had a worse performance in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (p = 0.00), Verbal Fluency (p = 0.00), Stroop (p = 0.00), Clock Drawing Test (p = 0.00), Digit Span (p = 0.00) and Matrix Reasoning (p = 0.01). After statistical adjustment by linear regression, migraine continued to be the only relevant factor in the poorer performance in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Verbal Fluency, Clock Drawing and Stroop tests. Conclusion: Patients with chronic migraine have cognitive deficits in multiple tasks, regardless of the presence of comorbidities or the use of medications.


RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a presença de déficits cognitivos em pacientes com migrânea crônica e avaliar os principais fatores que desencadeiam transtornos cognitivos, como comorbidades e uso de medicações. Métodos: Pacientes com migrânea crônica (n = 30) e controles foram entrevistados, em um estudo caso-controle. A frequência e intensidade da cefaleia, medicações utilizadas e comorbidades associadas foram determinadas. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a uma avaliação neuropsicológica estendida. Resultados: Os pacientes com migrânea crônica apresentaram uma pior performance no Montreal Cognitive Assessment (p = 0.00), Fluência Verbal (p = 0.00), Teste de Stroop (p = 0.00), Teste do Relógio (p = 0.00), Subteste Dígitos (p = 0.00) e Raciocínio matricial da WAIS-III (p = 0.01). Após ajuste estatístico através de Regressão Linear, a migrânea se manteve como único fator relevante para pior desempenho em MoCA, Fluência verbal, Teste do relógio e Teste de Stroop. Conclusão: Pacientes com migrânea crônica apresentam déficits cognitivos incluindo múltiplas tarefas, independentes da presença de comorbidades e uso de medicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Migraine Disorders/psychology , Neuropsychological Tests , Verbal Behavior/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis
14.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 34(3): e1052, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099054

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: En el transcurso de la vida todos somos cuidadores de algún modo. Sin embargo, aprender a serlo no surge de forma automática. Con el gradual envejecimiento de la población aumenta el número de casos que necesitan cuidados. La enfermedad de Alzheimer produce la pérdida gradual de la capacidad de cuidar de sí mismo y por ende se necesita la ayuda de un cuidador familiar, quien asume las principales tareas de cuidado y contrae una gran carga física y psíquica. Objetivo: Caracterizar el malestar psicológico que experimentan los cuidadores principales de pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer en los estadios leve y moderado. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo en 35 cuidadores principales de pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer leve y moderada del policlínico "Carlos Manuel Portuondo", municipio Marianao. La información fue recogida con el Inventario Neuropsiquiátrico validado al castellano, se procesó con distribuciones de frecuencia absoluta y porcentaje. Resultados: En la categoría de mínimo, predominaron la agitación o agresión (20,00 por ciento), las alteraciones del sueño (22,85 por ciento) y los trastornos de hábitos alimentarios (25,71 por ciento). En la categoría ligero, prevalecieron la depresión (20,00 por ciento), las alteraciones del sueño (25,71 por ciento) y los trastornos de hábitos alimentarios (22,85 por ciento). En la categoría de moderado, los síntomas más frecuentes fueron las repeticiones (25,71 por ciento), la depresión y la ansiedad, ambos con un 22,85 por ciento, la apatía y la irritabilidad, con un 20,00 por ciento. En la categoría de severo, el SPC más frecuente fue las repeticiones (20,00 por ciento). Conclusiones: En los cuidadores principales de pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer en los estadios leve y moderado predominó el malestar mínimo, ligero y moderado, presentaron mayor malestar ante la presencia de agitación o agresión, alteraciones del sueño, trastornos de hábitos alimentarios, depresión, repeticiones, ansiedad, apatía e irritabilidad(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: In the course of our lives, we are all caregivers in some way. However, learning how to be one does not come up automatically. With an increase in population aging, the number of cases of people needing care also increases. Alzheimer's disease produces the gradual loss of the capacity to take care of oneself and therefore there is the need for the help of a family caregiver, who assumes the main caring tasks together with great physical and mental burden. Objective: To characterize the psychological distress experienced by the main caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease in the mild and moderate stages. Methods: Descriptive study with 35 main caregivers of patients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease of Carlos Manuel Portuondo Polyclinic of Marianao Municipality. The information was collected with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory validated in Spanish, processed with absolute frequency and percentage distributions. Results: In the category minimum, agitation or aggression (20.00 percent), sleep disturbances (22.85 percent) and eating habits disorders (25.71 percent) predominated. In the category light, depression (20.00 percent), sleep disturbances (25.71 percent) and eating habits disorders (22.85 percent) prevailed. In the category moderate, the most frequent symptoms were repetitions (25.71 percent), depression and anxiety, both with 22.85 percent, apathy and irritability, with 20.00 percent. In the category severe, the most frequent SPC was the repetitions (20.00 percent). Conclusions: In the main caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease in the mild and moderate stages, the minimum, slight and moderate discomfort prevailed. They presented greater discomfort in the presence of agitation or aggression, sleep disturbances, eating disorders, depression, repetitions, anxiety, apathy and irritability(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Dementia/etiology , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Data Collection/methods
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(3): 315-322, mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961396

ABSTRACT

Background: Cognitive reserve (CR) is a protective factor in aging. Depression and perceived social support are associated with cognitive performance in older adults. However, their role in the relationship between CR and cognitive functioning is less clear. Aim: To determine the relationship between CR and cognitive functioning and whether this relationship is mediated by depression and moderated by social support. Material and Methods: CR, depression, perceived social support, and cognitive functioning scales were applied to a convenience sample of 206 older adults, aged 69 ± 1 years (77% women). Structural equation analysis and moderate mediation analysis were performed. Results: There was a direct effect of CR in cognitive functioning (β = 0.223, p = 0.005), which was not mediated by depression (β = 0.040, p = 0.096). High CR scores were associated with lower depression scores (β = −0.203, p = 0.002). Higher depression scores were associated with worse cognitive functioning (β = −0.168, p = 0.040). The effect of CR on depression was moderated by social support (β = −0.161, p = 0.032) controlling for income and age. Conclusions: The relationship between CR and cognition in older adults allows an early assessment of cognitive dysfunction risk. Depression is an independent risk factor for cognitive functioning. Social support protects individuals with high CR from developing depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Social Support , Depression/physiopathology , Cognitive Reserve/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Depression/psychology , Educational Status , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(2): 93-99, Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888353

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Language assessment seems to be an effective tool to differentiate healthy and cognitively impaired aging groups. This article discusses the impact of educational level on a naming task, on a verbal learning with semantic cues task and on the MMSE in healthy aging adults at three educational levels (very low, low and high) as well as comparing two clinical groups of very low (0-3 years) and low education (4-7 years) patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with healthy controls. The participants comprised 101 healthy controls, 17 patients with MCI and 19 with AD. Comparisons between the healthy groups showed an education effect on the MMSE, but not on naming and verbal learning. However, the clinical groups were differentiated in both the naming and verbal learning assessment. The results support the assumption that the verbal learning with semantic cues task is a valid tool to diagnose MCI and AD patients, with no influence from education.


RESUMO A linguagem tem se mostrado uma ferramenta eficiente para diferenciar grupos de idosos saudáveis dos com deficiências cognitivas. O artigo objetiva discutir o impacto do nível educacional na nomeação, na aprendizagem verbal (AV) com pistas semânticas e no MEEM no envelhecimento saudável em três níveis de escolaridade (muito baixa: 0-3 anos, baixa: 4-7 anos e alta: >8 anos) e em dois grupos clínicos de escolaridade muito baixa e baixa (Doença de Alzheimer - DA - e Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve - CCL), comparados a controles saudáveis. Participaram 101 controles, 17 CCL e 19 DA. Comparações entre grupos saudáveis demonstraram um efeito da escolaridade no MEEM, mas não nas tarefas de nomeação e de AV. Considerando as comparações entre os grupos clínicos, tanto a nomeação quanto a AV os diferenciaram. Os resultados corroboram a pressuposição de que a tarefa de AV com pistas semânticas é válida para diagnosticar CCL e DA, não sendo influenciada pela escolaridade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Verbal Learning/physiology , Aging/physiology , Educational Status , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reference Values , Semantics , Task Performance and Analysis , Brazil , Aging/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Analysis of Variance , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Memory, Episodic , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Healthy Aging/physiology , Healthy Aging/psychology , Language Tests , Neuropsychological Tests
17.
Estud. psicol. (Natal) ; 23(3): 201-211, jul./set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | INDEXPSI, LILACS | ID: biblio-1008515

ABSTRACT

Impacto da Anosognosia Associada à Demência de Alzheimer na Qualidade de Vida de Cuidadores. A Demência de Alzheimer (DA) apresenta como um dos sintomas a anosognosia, um prejuízo na capacidade de o indivíduo julgar alterações decorrentes da doença. Relaciona-se a diversos comprometimentos cognitivo/comportamentais e é apontada como tendo significativo impacto sobre a qualidade de vida (QV) dos cuidadores. Avaliamos o impacto da anosognosia relacionada à DA sobre QV de cuidadores. Foram avaliados 50 pares paciente-cuidador com Exame Cognitivo de Addenbrooke, Questionário de Demência Ampliado e Escala de QV na DA. Observamos que cuidadores de pacientes com sinais de anosognosia apresentavam menores escores de QV, sendo que pacientes com sinais de anosognosia apresentam pior desempenho cognitivo. Escores de anosognosia e QV apresentaram correlação negativa, enquanto QV e quadro cognitivo apresentou correlação positiva. Controlando o funcionamento cognitivo, observamos que a anosognosia apresenta maior impacto na QV em indivíduos com quadro cognitivo mais grave. Palavras-chave: demência de alzheimer, qualidade de vida, cuidadores, anosognosia (AU).


Impacto de Anosognosia asociada a la demencia de Alzheimer en la calidad de vida de cuidadores. Anosognosia es uno de los síntomas de la demencia de Alzheimer (AD), y se considera que tiene un impacto significativo en la calidad de vida (QOL) de los cuidadores. Evaluamos el impacto de la anosognosia relacionada con AD en los cuidadores de calidad de vida. Hubo 50 pares paciente y su cuidador con el examen cognitivo de Addenbrooke, Cuestionario Ampliado de y Escala de calidad de vida. Hemos observado que los cuidadores de pacientes con signos anosognosia tenían menores puntuaciones de calidad de vida con los pacientes con peor rendimiento cognitivo. Anosognosia y la calidad de vida mostraron una correlación de negativa, mientras que la calidad de vida y el marco cognitivo presentaron correlación positiva. Controlando el funcionamiento cognitivo, observamos que la anosognosia tiene mayor impacto en la calidad de vida en pacientes con marco cognitivo más severo. Palabras clave: enfermedad de alzheimer, calidad de vida, cuidadores, anosognosia (AU).


Alzheimer's disease (AD) has anosognosia as one of its symptoms, defined as a change in the individual's ability to judge their difficulties, and is observed as having a significant impact on quality of life of caregivers. This study evaluated the impact of anosognosia related to AD in quality of life (QoL) of caregivers. Fifty AD patients were evaluated through the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination, Dementia Questionnaire ­ expanded, while caregivers were evaluated using the Scale of QoL in AD and Dementia Questionnaire (caregiver versions). We observed that caregivers of patients with signs of anosognosia had lower scores on QoL and these patients had worse cognitive scores. Anosognosia and QoL were negatively correlated, as QoL and cognitive functioning. Controlling for cognitive functioning, we observed that anosognosia has a greater impact on QoL in individuals with more severe cognitive impairments (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Agnosia/psychology , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Brazil , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Qualitative Research , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
18.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 12(2): 8-13, dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096954

ABSTRACT

El presente es un estudio no experimental, transversal y correlacional, cuyo objetivo era determinar si existe relación entre estrés y deterioro cognitivo en personas con diagnóstico de esquizofrenia, confirmar si la depresión y las estrategias de afrontamiento del estrés se relacionan y si son factores moderadores de la relación entre estrés y deterioro cognitivo, mediante la evaluación y descripción del estrés percibido (PSS), estrategias de afrontamiento del estrés (CSI), depresión (CDSS) y deterioro cognitivo (MoCA), en una muestra de 43 pacientes con diagnóstico de esquizofrenia (36 hombres y 7 mujeres) entre los 16 y 65 años, de Bucaramanga y Medellín (Colombia), seleccionados mediante muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se encontró que el grupo presenta niveles medios de estrés percibido y puntuaciones medias y bajas en estrategias de afrontamiento adecuadas e inadecuadas, casi la mitad presenta riesgo de comorbilidad con depresión y la mayoría presenta deterioro cognitivo. No se encontró relación entre deterioro cognitivo con las demás variables. Estrés se relaciona significativamente con depresión y con estrategias de afrontamiento expresión emocional, retirada social y autocrítica. Finalmente, depresión correlacionó significativamente con estrategias de afrontamiento expresión emocional y retirada social. Aunque estos hallazgos no pueden ser concluyentes ni generalizables debido a limitaciones metodológicas, pueden ser usados como antecedente para futuros estudios.


The present is a non-experimental, cross-sectional and correlational study, whose objective was to determine if there is a relationship between stress and cognitive impairment in people diagnosed with schizophrenia, to confirm whether depression and coping strategies are related and if they are moderating factors of the relationship between stress and cognitive impairment, through the evaluation and description of perceived stress (PSS), stress coping strategies (CSI), depression (CDSS) and cognitive impairment (MoCA), in a sample of 43 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (36 men and 7 women) between 16 and 65 years old, from Bucaramanga and Medellín (Colombia), selected by non-probabilistic for convenience sampling. It was found that the group in average presents a medium level of perceived stress, and average and low scores in appropriate and inadequate coping strategies, almost half presents risk of comorbidity with depression, and most of them present cognitive impairment. No relationship was found between cognitive impairment with the other variables. Stress is significantly related to depression and coping strategies as emotional expression, social withdrawal and self-criticism. Finally, depression correlated significantly with coping strategies as emotional expression and social withdrawal. Although these findings cannot be conclusive or generalizable due to methodological limitations, they can be used as a precedent for future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Schizophrenic Psychology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(6): 483-490, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-769880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Serious functional and structural alterations of gastrointestinal tract are observed in failure of blood supply, leading to gastrointestinal dismotility. Activation of opioid receptors provides cardioprotective effect against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not remifentanil could reduce I/R injury of small intestine. METHODS: Male Wistar Albino rats were subjected to mesenteric ischemia (30 min) followed by reperfusion (3 h). Four groups were designed: sham control; remifentanil alone; I/R control; and remifentanil + I/R. Animals in remifentanil + I/R group were subjected to infusion of remifentanil (2 ug kg-1 min-1) for 60 min, half of which started before inducing ischemia. Collecting the ileum tissues, evaluation of damage was based on contractile responses to carbachol, levels of lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration, and observation of histopathological features in intestinal tissue. RESULTS: Following reperfusion, a significant decrease in carbachol-induced contractile response, a remarkable increase in both lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration, and a significant injury in mucosa were observed. An average contractile response of remifentanil + I/R group was significantly different from that of the I/R group. Lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration were also significantly suppressed by the treatment. The tissue samples of the I/R group were grade 4 in histopathological evaluation. In remifentanil + I/R group, on the other hand, the mucosal damage was moderate, staging as grade 1. CONCLUSIONS: The pretreatment with remifentanil can attenuate the intestinal I/R injury at a remarkable degree possibly by lowering lipid peroxidation and leukocyte infiltration.


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Alterações funcionais e estruturais sérias do trato gastrointestinal são observadas na insuficiência de irrigação sanguínea, levando a alterações da motilidade gastrointestinal. A ativação dos receptores opioides proporciona um efeito cardioprotetor contra a lesão de isquemia/reperfusão (I/R). O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar se remifentanil pode ou não reduzir a lesão de I/R do intestino delgado. MÉTODOS: Ratos machos albinos, da linhagem Wistar, foram submetidos à isquemia mesentérica (30 minutos) seguida de reperfusão (3 horas). Quatro grupos foram designados: sham controle; remifentanil isolado; controle I/R; remifentanil + I/R. Os animais do grupo remifentanil + I/R foram submetidos à infusão de remifentanil (2 µg kg-1 min-1) por 60 min, metade dos quais iniciou antes da indução da isquemia. Coletando os tecidos do íleo, a avaliação dos danos foi baseada nas respostas contráteis ao carbacol, nos níveis de peroxidação lipídica e infiltração de neutrófilos e na observação das características histopatológicas no tecido intestinal. RESULTADOS: Após a reperfusão, uma diminuição significativa da resposta contrátil induzida por carbacol, um notável aumento tanto da peroxidação lipídica quanto da infiltração de neutrófilos e uma lesão significativa da mucosa foram observados. A média da resposta contrátil no grupo remifentanil + I/R foi significativamente diferente daquela do grupo I/R. A peroxidação lipídica e a infiltração de neutrófilos também foram significativamente suprimidas pelo tratamento. As amostras de tecido do grupo I/R apresentaram grau 4 na avaliação histopatológica. No grupo remifentanil + I/R, por outro lado, a lesão da mucosa foi moderada, apresentando estadiamento de grau 1. CONCLUSÕES: O pré-tratamento com remifentanil pode atenuar a lesão intestinal de I/R em um grau notável, possivelmente pela redução da peroxidação lipídica e da infiltração leucocitária.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Longitudinal Studies , Massachusetts , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk
20.
Clinics ; 70(5): 356-362, 05/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748278

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The vulva is the primary site affected in lichen sclerosus, a chronic dermatosis in women that is histologically characterized by a zone of collagen remodeling in the superior dermis. The normal physiological properties of the vulva depend on the assembly of collagen types I (COLI), III (COLIII) and V (COLV), which form heterotypic fibers, and extracellular matrix protein interactions. COLV regulates the heterotypic fiber diameter, and the preservation of its properties is important for maintaining normal tissue architecture and function. In the current work, we analyzed the expression of COLV and its relationship with COLI, COLIII, elastic fibers and extracellular matrix protein 1 in vulvar biopsies from patients with lichen sclerosus. METHODS: Skin biopsies from 21 patients with lichen sclerosus, classified according to Hewitt histological criteria, were studied and compared to clinically normal vulvar tissue (N=21). Morphology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, 3D reconstruction and morphometric analysis of COLI, COLIII, COLV deposition, elastic fibers and extracellular matrix 1 expression in a zone of collagen remodeling in the superior dermis were performed. RESULTS: A significant decrease of elastic fibers and extracellular matrix 1 protein was present in the hyalinization zone of lichen sclerosus compared to healthy controls. The non-homogeneous distribution of collagen fibers visualized under immunofluorescence in the hyalinization zone of lichen sclerosus and control skin was confirmed by histomorphometry. Lichen sclerosus dermis shows a significant increase of COLI, COLIII and COLV expression compared to the healthy controls. Significant inverse associations were found between elastic fibers and COLV and between COLV and extracellular matrix 1 expression. A direct association was found between elastic fiber content and extracellular matrix 1 expression. Tridimensional reconstruction of the heterotypic fibers ...


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain/pathology , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Postoperative Complications/pathology , Atrophy , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Follow-Up Studies , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Postoperative Complications/psychology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL