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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e189444, fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363181

ABSTRACT

Felines play a leading role in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection, but there is scarce information about the epidemiology of Neospora caninum, particularly in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats. Cats seropositive to T. gondii do not usually show symptoms unless they are immunosuppressed, such as FIV-infected cats. The same relationship remains poorly known for N. caninum, although it has been associated with neurological disorders in HIV-infected people. Since FIV-infected cats are prone to develop encephalitis of unknown etiology, this study aimed to evaluate the presence of specific antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum in a shelter for stray cats naturally infected with FIV. A total of 104 serum samples from cats living in a shelter, located in São Paulo city (Brazil), was assessed for T. gondii and N. caninum specific antibody by indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). Of the 104 cats, 25 (24%) were infected with FIV and, aside from these, 8 (32%) had antibodies against T. gondii (titers from 16 to 128). Only 1 (4%) of the FIV-infected cats had antibodies against N. caninum, which was the first record of coinfection. Among the FIV-naïve cats, 11 (14%) were positive for T. gondii(titers from 16 to 256) and only 1 (1.2%) had antibodies against N. caninum. Serologically positive reactions to T. gondii and N. caninum were not correlated with age or sex (p>0.05), and there was no correlation between FIV and the occurrence of anti-T. gondii or anti-N. caninum antibodies (p>0.05). Further studies encompassing larger cat populations from different origins and locations are essential to clarify the prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies in FIV-positive cats.(AU)


Os felinos têm um papel importante na epidemiologia da infecção por Toxoplasma gondii, mas pouco se sabe sobre a epidemiologia da infecção por Neospora caninum em gatos, particularmente em gatos infectados com o vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV). Gatos soropositivos para Toxoplasma gondii geralmente não apresentam sintomas a não ser que estejam imunossuprimidos, como gatos infectados com FIV. A mesma relação ainda é pouco conhecida para N. caninum, embora tenha sido associada a distúrbios neurológicos em pessoas infectadas pelo HIV. Considerando que gatos infectados com FIV são propensos a desenvolver encefalite de etiologia desconhecida, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a presença de anticorpos específicos para T. gondii e N. caninum em gatos infectados com FIV. Um total de 104 amostras de soro de gatos residentes em um abrigo na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, foram avaliadas para a presença de anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI). Dos 104 gatos, 25 (24%) estavam infectados com FIV e destes 8, (32%) tinham anticorpos contra T. gondii (titulação entre 16 e 128). Apenas 1 (4%) dos gatos infectados com FIV apresentava anticorpos contra N. caninum, sendo este o primeiro registro dessa coinfecção. Entre os gatos não infectados com FIV, 11 (14%) foram positivos para T. gondii (titulação entre 16 e 256) e apenas 1 (1,2%) tinha anticorpos contra N. caninum. A reação sorologicamente positiva para T. gondii e N. caninum não foi correlacionada com a idade ou sexo (p> 0,05), nem houve correlação entre FIV e ocorrência de anticorpos para T. gondii ou N. caninum(p> 0,05). Estudos subsequentes abrangendo populações maiores de gatos de diferentes origens e locais são essenciais para esclarecer a prevalência de anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum em animais acometidos por FIV.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline/immunology , Neospora/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Coinfection
2.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene. 06, 2022. 37 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1359275

ABSTRACT

La presente guía clínica para la atención de las personas con coinfección TB/VIH, es el resultado de un esfuerzo multidisciplinario, en el que se aborda un problema de salud pública tan importante como es la coinfección TB/VIH. La intersección y la interacción entre las epidemias del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y tuberculosis (TB) han tenido consecuencias mortales en todo el mundo. Sin un control adecuado de la TB/VIH, no se alcanzará el objetivo de eliminación de la tuberculosis a largo plazo. Existe una necesidad urgente de recursos adicionales y enfoques novedosos para el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y la prevención tanto del VIH como de la tuberculosis. Además, serán necesarios enfoques multidisciplinarios que consideren el VIH y la tuberculosis juntos, en lugar de como problemas y enfermedades separados, para prevenir un mayor empeoramiento de la sindemia del VIH-TB


This clinical guideline for the care of people with TB/HIV coinfection is the result of a multidisciplinary effort, in which a public health problem as important as TB/HIV coinfection is addressed. The intersection and interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have had deadly consequences around the world. Without adequate TB/HIV control, the long-term goal of tuberculosis elimination will not be achieved. There is an urgent need for additional resources and novel approaches for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of both HIV and tuberculosis. In addition, multidisciplinary approaches that consider HIV and TB together, rather than as separate problems and diseases, will be necessary to prevent further worsening of the HIV-TB syndemic.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , HIV , Guideline , Coinfection , Viruses , Disease , Epidemics
3.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE03661, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1364242

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar aspectos relacionados à adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose em pessoas que vivem com coinfecção tuberculose/vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, do tipo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa sobre a adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose entre pessoas que apresentam a coinfecção tuberculose/vírus da imunodeficiência humana. O cenário do estudo foi um centro de referência para vírus da imunodeficiência humana/síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida do estado de São Paulo, localizado na capital. O instrumento de coleta de dados continha questões relacionadas ao perfil sóciodemográfico e de saúde. Para a análise do material empírico foi utilizado o método de análise de discurso que permitiu a depreensão de frases temáticas. Resultados Foram entrevistadas 16 pessoas, sendo a maioria do sexo masculino, da cor parda, na faixa etária entre 30 a 39 anos, com 9 a 12 anos de estudo, que moravam sozinhos, solteiros e que se declararam homossexuais. Da análise dos depoimentos emergiram três categorias de análise: Processo saúde doença: o impacto do diagnóstico e os significados de viver a coinfecção; Tratamento medicamentoso: motivos para o seguimento, facilidades e dificuldades envolvidas; e Cuidado no serviço de saúde: acolhimento e redes de apoio que favorecem a adesão ao tratamento. Conclusão A adesão ao tratamento na coinfecção tuberculose/vírus da imunodeficiência humana mostrou-se relacionada à forma como a pessoa está inserida na sociedade, suas condições de vida e trabalho. Ressalta-se também que o cuidado nos serviços de saúde interfere na adesão, dada a importância do vínculo entre o profissional de saúde e o usuário.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar los aspectos relacionados con la adherencia al tratamiento de tuberculosis en personas que viven con la coinfección tuberculosis/virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Métodos Se trata de un estudio exploratorio, tipo descriptivo, con enfoque cualitativo, sobre la adherencia al tratamiento de tuberculosis en personas que presentan la coinfección tuberculosis/virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. El escenario de estudio fue un centro de referencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana/síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida del estado de São Paulo, ubicado en la capital. El instrumento de recopilación de datos contenía preguntas relacionadas con el perfil sociodemográfico y de salud. Para analizar el material empírico se utilizó el método de análisis de discurso que permitió extraer frases temáticas. Resultados Se entrevistaron 16 personas, de las cuales la mayoría era de sexo masculino, de color pardo, del grupo de edad entre 30 y 39 años, con 9 a 12 años de estudios, que vivían solos, solteros y que se declararon homosexuales. Del análisis de los relatos surgieron tres categorías de análisis: Proceso de salud y enfermedad: el impacto del diagnóstico y los significados de vivir la coinfección; Tratamiento farmacológico: motivos para el acompañamiento, facilidades y dificultades relacionadas, y Cuidado en el servicio sanitario: contención y redes de apoyo que favorecen la adherencia al tratamiento. Conclusión La adherencia al tratamiento de la coinfección tuberculosis/virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana demostró estar relacionada con la forma como la persona está insertada en la sociedad, su condición de vida y trabajo. También se observó que el cuidado en los servicios de salud interfiere en la adherencia, debido a la importancia del vínculo entre los profesionales de la salud y los usuarios.


Abstract Objective To analyze aspects related to adherence to tuberculosis treatment in people living with tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Methods This is an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study on adherence to tuberculosis treatment among people with tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. The study setting was a reference center for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome located in the capital of the state of São Paulo. The data collection instrument contained socio-demographic and health profile related questions. The discourse analysis method was used for the analysis of the empirical material, which allowed the comprehension of thematic phrases. Results Sixteen people were interviewed. Most were male, mixed race, in the age group of 30-39 years, with 9-12 years of study, living alone, single and declared themselves homosexuals. Three categories of analysis emerged from the analysis of testimonies: Health-disease process: the impact of the diagnosis and the meanings of living with coinfection; Drug treatment: reasons for follow-up, facilities and difficulties involved; and Care in the health service: embracement and support networks that favor treatment adherence. Conclusion Adherence to treatment in the tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection has shown a relation to the way people are inserted in society, their living and working conditions. The fact that care in health services interferes with adherence is also noteworthy, given the importance of the bond between the health professional and the user.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Perception , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coinfection , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Quality of Life , Health-Disease Process , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Interviews as Topic , Evaluation Studies as Topic
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e07014, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360625

ABSTRACT

A retrospective study of poxvirus infections diagnosed in cattle from Goiás state (GO), Brazil, from 2010 to 2018, was performed. All cases have been investigated by the GO Official Veterinary Service (Agrodefesa), from which technical forms and protocols of veterinary diagnosis laboratories were reviewed. In most cases, samples of oral or cutaneous tissues and/or swabs were submitted for virological diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or virus isolation. Thirty seven outbreaks/cases of vesicular disease were notified in cattle of 25 counties; in 33 cases the animals presented lesions clinically compatible with poxviruses. The etiology of 25 out of 33 outbreaks/cases was confirmed as poxviruses by PCR and/or viral isolation: 13 as bovine vaccinia virus (VACV), six as pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), five as bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and one coinfection (VACV and an Orf virus-like parapoxvirus). The laboratory confirmed that cases occurred mainly in dairy cattle (19/25) and during the dry season (22/25). In adult cattle, gross changes were observed mainly in the teats and udder and included vesicles, ulcers, crusts, papules and scars and varied of type, severity and affected region, depending on the poxvirus species. In calves, the main lesions were ulcers in the mouth and muzzle. Zoonotic lesions compatible with poxvirus infections were observed for all diagnosed poxviruses, affecting especially the hands of milkers and other farm workers. Our data demonstrate the sanitary and economic relevance of these diseases and the wide circulation of different poxviruses in cattle from GO.(AU)


Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo das infecções por poxvírus diagnosticadas em bovinos do estado de Goiás (GO), entre 2010 e 2018. Todos os casos foram investigados pela Agência Goiana de Defesa Agropecuária (Agrodefesa). Foram revisados formulários técnicos e protocolos de laboratórios de diagnóstico veterinário. Na maioria dos casos, amostras de tecidos orais ou cutâneos e/ou swabs foram encaminhadas para diagnóstico virológico. Foram notificados 37 surtos/casos de doença vesicular em bovinos em 25 municípios; em 33 casos os animais apresentavam lesões clinicamente compatíveis com poxvírus. A etiologia de 25 de 33 surtos/casos foi confirmada como poxvírus por PCR e/ou isolamento viral: 13 como vírus vaccínia (VACV), seis como vírus pseudocowpox (PCPV), cinco como vírus da estomatite papular bovina (BPSV) e um caso de coinfecção (VACV e um parapoxvírus semelhante ao Orf vírus). Os casos confirmados laboratorialmente ocorreram principalmente em bovinos leiteiros (19/25) e durante a estação seca (22/25). Em bovinos adultos, alterações macroscópicas foram observadas principalmente nas tetas e úbere e incluíram vesículas, úlceras, crostas, pápulas e cicatrizes e variaram quanto ao tipo, gravidade e região afetada, dependendo da espécie do poxvírus. Em bezerros, as principais lesões foram úlceras na boca e focinho. Lesões zoonóticas compatíveis com infecção por poxvírus foram observadas em todas as poxviroses diagnosticadas, afetando principalmente as mãos dos ordenhadores e outros trabalhadores rurais. Nossos dados demonstram a relevância sanitária e econômica dessas doenças e a ampla circulação de diferentes poxvírus em bovinos de GO.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Vaccinia virus/isolation & purification , Parapoxvirus/isolation & purification , Pseudocowpox Virus/isolation & purification , Poxviridae Infections/diagnosis , Poxviridae Infections/pathology , Poxviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Viral Zoonoses
5.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210141, 2022. ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286058

ABSTRACT

Trypanosomosis in sheep is a hemoparasitic disease of worldwide interest due to its effects on the health of animals and the economic impact on producers, is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma sp. In the present study, the occurrence of Trypanosoma sp. in sheep from the urban-rural area of the canton Salitre was determined, through an applied study with a qualitative descriptive prospective cross-sectional approach, carried out between October 1, 2019, and February 19, 2020. Blood samples were extracted from the jugular vein and analyzed by the blood smear method using the Giemsa and Diff-Quick staining techniques. Previously, in a first study realized between 2018 and 2019, 2 cases (2%) of Trypanosoma sp., 1 case of Babesia sp. (1%), and 4 cases of Anaplasma marginale (4%) were identified, but without the presence of symptoms of the disease. However, in this new research study, of 170 animals sampled from 5 herds and aged between 3 and 8 years, 34 (20%) were positive for Trypanosoma sp., 6 for Babesia sp. (3.52%) and 6 for A. marginale (3.52%) with coinfection between them. In this research, deteriorated clinical aspects and low hematological values were also determined in positive animals; besides of the total of positive cases, 25 presented symptoms of hemoparasitic disease, 3 sheep had abortions and 8 died. The results of this study showed that Trypanosoma sp. could already become an endemic parasitosis in sheep in the country, representing a serious problem of animal health.


A tripanossomose em ovinos é uma doença hemoparasitária de interesse mundial devido a seus efeitos sobre a saúde dos animais e o impacto econômico sobre os produtores, Esta doença é causada pelo protozoário Trypanosoma sp. No presente estudo, foi determinada a ocorrência de Trypanosoma sp. em ovelhas da área urbano-rural do Cantão Salitre, através de um estudo aplicado com uma abordagem transversal descritiva qualitativa prospectiva, realizado entre dia primeiro de outubro de 2019, à 19 de fevereiro de 2020. Amostras de sangue foram extraídas da veia jugular e analisadas pelo método de esfregaço de sangue usando as técnicas de coloração Giemsa e Diff-Quick. Anteriormente, em um primeiro estudo realizado entre 2018 e 2019, dois casos (2%) de Trypanosoma sp., foram identificados um caso de Babesia sp. (1%), e quatro casos de Anaplasma marginale (4%), mas sem a presença de sintomas da doença. Entretanto, neste novo estudo de pesquisa, de 170 animais amostrados de cinco rebanhos e com idades entre três e oito anos, 34 (20%) foram positivos para Trypanosoma sp., seis para Babesia sp. (3,52%) e seis para A. marginale (3,52%) com coinfecção entre eles. Nesta pesquisa, aspectos clínicos deteriorados e baixos valores hematológicos também foram determinados em animais positivos; além do total de casos positivos, 25 apresentaram sintomas de doença hemoparasítica, três ovelhas tiveram abortos e oito morreram. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que o Trypanosoma sp. já poderia se tornar uma parasitose endêmica em ovinos no país, representando um grave problema de saúde animal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Sheep/parasitology , Anaplasmosis/diagnosis , Ecuador , Coinfection/veterinary
6.
Ludovica pediátr ; 24(2): 8-13, dic.2021.
Article in Spanish | Redbvs, LILACS, Redbvs, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1363144

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La coinfección de COVID-19 con otros patógenos respiratorios en pediatría ha sido poco estudiada. Resulta de interés conocer las características y cuadro clínico de pacientes que presenten coinfecciones con COVID-19. Objetivo: Estudiar la coinfección de SARS-CoV-2 con patógenos incluidos en el Panel RP 2.0 FilmArray® en muestras de pacientes pediátricos en un hospital del tercer nivel. Materiales y métodos: Durante abril a agosto de 2021 se realizó un estudio prospectivo descriptivo sobre 21 muestras de Hisopado Nasofaríngeo de pacientes pediátricos positivos para SARS-CoV-2 (iAMP® COVID-19 Detection Kit de Atila Biosystems). Se procesaron por PCR multiplex Filmarray® RP 2.0. Luego se describieron las características y síntomas de los pacientes. Resultados: 12/21 (60%) fueron pacientes ambulatorios y 8/21 (40%) internados. El 57% de los pacientes fueron mayores de 5 años, el 24% menores de 1 año y el 19% entre 1 y 5 años. El síntoma más frecuente fue fiebre 18/21 (86%). El 90,5% (19/21) de las muestras no mostraron detección de otros patógenos. En una muestra se detectó Rhino/enterovirus y en otra Coronavirus NL63; ambas pertenecieron a dos pacientes con enfermedades de base. Conclusión: La tasa de coinfecciones fue del 9,5%. Este número podría deberse a la baja circulación de patógenos respiratorios en un contexto con medidas de prevención de los contagios. En el estado actual de incremento de circulación de virus respiratorios endémicos, es de interés la búsqueda de coinfecciones con COVID-19


Introduction: The co-infection of COVID-19 with other respiratory pathogens in pediatrics has been little studied. It is of interest to know the characteristics and clinical picture of patients who present co-infections with COVID-19. Objective: To study the co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with pathogens included in the RP Panel 2.0 FilmArray® in samples from pediatric patients in a third-level hospital. Materials and methods: During April to August 2021, a prospective descriptive study was conducted on 21 Nasopharyngeal Swab samples from pediatrics patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 (iAMP® COVID-19 Detection Kit from Attila Biosystems). They were processed by PCR multiplex Filmarray® RP 2.0. The characteristics and symptoms of the patients were then described. Results: 12/21 (60%) were outpatients and 8/21 (40%) were hospitalized. 57% of patients were older than 5 years, 24% under 1 year and 19% between 1 and 5 years. The most frequent symptom was fever 18/21 (86%). 90,5% (19/21) of the samples showed no detection of other pathogens. Rhino/enterovirus was detected in one sample and NL63 in another Coronavirus; both belonged to two patients with underlying diseases. Conclusion: The rate of co-infections was 9,5%. This number could be dueto the low circulation of respiratory pathogens in a context with measures to prevent contagion. In the current state of increased circulation of endemic respiratory viruses, the search for co-infections with COVID-19 is of interest


Subject(s)
Coinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Pediatrics
7.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 482-489, 01-dic-2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354788

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el SARS-CoV-2 es un coronavirus que fue descrito por primera vez en diciembre de 2019 en Wuhan, China. Este virus causa una enfermedad que varía en un espectro de severidad que va desde casos asintomáticos hasta defunciones. Los casos más severos se asocian normalmente con algunas comorbilidades y con la edad del paciente. Sin embargo, existen pacientes que no son parte de estos grupos de riesgo y aun así desarrollan casos graves. Objetivo: determinar la asociación entre las coinfecciones por SARS-CoV-2 y otros virus respiratorios y su desenlace clínico. Material y métodos: se realizó RT-qPCR para determinar la presencia de 16 virus respiratorios en 103 casos confirmados de COVID-19. Se recolectaron datos demográficos y de comorbilidades, y se realizaron análisis estadísticos para determinar asociaciones con gravedad. Resultados: el 13.6% de los casos (14/103) presentaron alguna coinfección, de estos, el 92% nunca requirió ingreso hospitalario, aun en aquellos casos en los que el paciente presentara comorbilidades y edad avanzada. Conclusiones: estos resultados sugieren que la coinfección no está relacionada con un COVID-19 más grave y que, dependiendo del virus involucrado, incluso podría conducir a un mejor pronóstico. Estos hallazgos sientan las bases para nuevos estudios dirigidos a determinar el mecanismo biológico por el cual ocurre este fenómeno y a proponer las estrategias correspondientes para limitar la progresión a casos severos de COVID-19.


Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a coronavirus described for the first time in China, in December 2019. This virus can cause a disease with a very variable spectrum that ranges from asymptomatic cases to deaths. The most severe cases are normally associated with comorbidities and with the age of the patient. However, there are patients who are not part of these risk groups and develop severe cases. Objetive: To determine the association between coinfections by SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses and their clincal outcome. Material and methods: RT-qPCR was performed to determine the presence of 16 respiratory viruses in 103 confirmed COVID-19 cases. Demographic and comorbid data were collected, and statistical analyzes were performed to determine associations with severity. Results: Of the 103 analyzed cases, 14 (13.6%) presented a coinfection, of these, 92% did not require hospitalization, even in those cases in which the patient presented advanced age and some comorbidities. Conclusions: These results suggest that coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses is not related to a more severe form of COVID-19 and, in some cases, depending on the virus involved, it could even lead to a better prognosis. These findings lay the foundations for the development of new studies that could determine the biological mechanism of this phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Coinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Prognosis , Risk Groups , Demographic Data , Health Strategies
8.
Rev. méd. (La Paz) ; 27(2): 80-86, Jul. - Dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361305

ABSTRACT

Las evidencias sobre coinfecciones bacterianas y fúngicas en pacientes con infección por coronavirus informan un porcentaje general elevado de las mismas, en cualquier momento durante la hospitalización. Al tratarse de pacientes que con frecuencia requieren hospitalización prolongada y asistencia respiratoria, los antibióticos innecesarios en el momento de la hospitalización pueden aumentar el riesgo individual de Neumonía adquirida en el Hospital posterior causada por bacterias resistentes y otros eventos adversos. Por lo tanto, el uso adecuado de antimicrobianos se asocia a mayor éxito en el manejo de estos pacientes, Se revisan en este articulo las evidencias disponibles acerca del tratamiento antimicrobiano adecuado en los pacientes con COVID 19, con coinfecciones bacterianas.


Subject(s)
Coinfection
9.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(3): e1160, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347543

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ascariasis es una enteroparasitosis con alta prevalencia en la población pediátrica tercermundista, la cual puede asociarse a otras enfermedades intestinales y tener graves complicaciones que requieren tratamiento quirúrgico. Objetivo: Informar el caso de un infante operado por coinfección de ascariasis intestinal y fiebre tifoidea complicadas. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 9 años de edad asistido y operado en el hospital provincial N´gola Kimbanda de la provincia Namibe, Angola, por presentar evidencia clínica de peritonitis aguda generalizada por perforación intestinal de causa tifoidea y por cuyo orificio salían además áscaris lumbricoides vivos. Su evolución no fue satisfactoria y falleció 24 horas después de la operación. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico y tratamiento quirúrgico oportuno de la coinfección letal de ascariasis y fiebre tifoidea complicadas permitirá disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad por esta prevalente asociación(AU)


Introduction: Ascariasis is an enteroparasitosis with high prevalence in the third-world pediatric population, which can be associated with other bowel diseases and have serious complications that require surgical treatment. Objective: Report the case of an infant operated by the co-infection of complicated intestinal ascariasis and typhoid fever. Case presentation: 9-year-old male patient attended and operated at N'gola Kimbanda Provincial Hospital in Namibe Province, Angola, after presenting clinical evidence of generalized acute peritonitis due to intestinal perforation of typhoid-causing and through which live ascaris lumbricoide also came out. His evolution was unsatisfactory and he died 24 hours after the operation. Conclusions: The timely diagnosis and surgical treatment of lethal co-infection of complicated ascariasis and typhoid fever will reduce morbidity and mortality from this prevalent association(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Peritonitis/etiology , Ascariasis/epidemiology , Ascaris lumbricoides/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases/complications , Intestinal Perforation/surgery , Research Report , Coinfection/mortality
12.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(2): 117-126, 20210630. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348662

ABSTRACT

El brote mundial del SARS-CoV-2, descrito a partir del 2019, provocó la pandemia de COVID-19, originando un riesgo para la salud de las personas, una amenaza a la vida y una emergencia de salud pública internacional, que hasta Julio del 2021 no se ha logrado controlar. La coinfección en estos pacientes, por virus, bacterias y hongos, aumenta la dificultad de diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico de la enfermedad. Es importante profundizar los conocimientos sobre el virus SARS-CoV-2 y las coinfecciones que podrían presentarse, en particular, en pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan micosis. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es, determinar la importancia de las micosis, como enfermedad oportunista, en pacientes con COVID-19. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sistemática, en la base de datos "PubMed-NCBI". Se utilizaron las palabras claves: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19 and coinfection", "Mycosis", "Aspergillus spp.", "Candida spp.", "COVID-19 and Aspergillus spp.", "COVID-19 and Candida spp.". Del análisis de la bibliografía, se concluye la importancia de las micosis respiratorias, originadas por diversos hongos en pacientes con COVID-19. Hay poca información del manejo de estas, siendo necesario fortalecer la investigación de la coinfección, para así, mejorar los flujogramas de sospecha clínica, contribuyendo a diagnósticos, tratamientos precisos y fomentar la prevención frente a esta pandemia.


The global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, described as of 2019 whose expansion caused the COVID-19 pandemic, has created a risk to people's health, presenting itself as a threat to life and an international public health emergency, which to the date cannot be controlled. Coinfection in these patients, by viruses, bacteria and fungi, increases the difficulty of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the disease. It's important to deepen the knowledge about the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the co-infections that could occur, in particular, in patients with COVID-19 who present with mycosis. The objective of this bibliographic review is to determine the importance of mycosis, as an opportunistic disease, in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2. A systematic bibliographic review was carried out in the "PubMed-NCBI" database, using the keywords and / or headings: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19 and coinfection" ,"Mycosis", "Aspergillus spp.", "Candida spp." COVID-19 and Aspergillus spp.", "COVID-19 and Candida spp.". From the analysis of the literature, one can conclude the importance of respiratory mycoses, caused by various fungal pathogens in patients with COVID-19. The disease was described in 2019 and there is few a information on cases and their management, making it necessary to strengthen the investigation of coinfection in these patients, in order to improve the flow charts of clinical suspicion, contributing to diagnoses, accurate treatments and promoting prevention against to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus , Candida , Coinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Immune Tolerance
13.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 25(2): 315-323,
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279424

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en el Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico Cmdte. «Manuel Fajardo Rivero¼, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, marzo - julio de 2020, con el objetivo de describir las infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas asociadas a la COVID-19. La población de estudio fue de 202 pacientes que permanecieron ingresados con diagnóstico confirmado de infección por SARS-CoV-2. Las variables de estudio fueron: edad, sexo, infección asociada, estado al egreso, microorganismos aislados y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. El 7,9 % de los pacientes presentó una infección asociada; el 7,4 % falleció (la mayoría de las defunciones ocurrieron en los meses de marzo y abril, previo al establecimiento del protocolo definitivo de tratamiento de la COVID-19 en Cuba). El 60 % de los fallecidos presentaron una infección asociada. Escherichia coli fue el microorganismo más aislado. Es necesario establecer un protocolo de diagnóstico terapéutico para determinar las infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas asociadas al coronavirus.


ABSTRACT A descriptive study was carried out at "Cmdte. Manuel Fajardo Rivero" Clinical and Surgical University Hospital in Santa Clara, Villa Clara from March to July 2020, with the aim of describing bacterial and fungal infections associated with COVID-19. The study population consisted of 202 patients who remained hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Age, gender, associated infection, discharge status, isolated microorganisms, and antimicrobial susceptibility were the variables studied. The 7.9% of the patients had an associated infection; 7.4% died (most deaths occurred in March and April, prior to the establishment of the definitive protocol for the treatment of COVID-19 in Cuba). The 60% of the deceased patients had an associated infection. Escherichia coli was the most isolated microorganism. A diagnostic and therapeutic protocol is necessary to determine the bacterial and fungal infections associated with the coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Coronavirus Infections , Coinfection , Mycoses
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 757-761, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278364

ABSTRACT

Neste estudo, 308 amostras de fetos mumificados foram testadas para parvovírus suíno (PPV), circovírus suíno tipos 2 e 3 (PCV2 e PCV3) e leptospiras patogênicas. A idade gestacional no momento da perda gestacional e a frequência da mumificação fetal de acordo com a ordem de parto também foram investigadas. As amostras foram coletadas em granjas comerciais de criação de suínos da região sul do Brasil que apresentassem taxas de mumificação fetal igual ou maiores a 2,5%. Fragmentos de pulmão, rim, fígado e coração de fetos suínos mumificados foram coletados para análise molecular. Resultados da PCR foram classificados de acordo com a região de origem das amostras, tendo Santa Catarina, Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul contabilizado 87 (28,25%), 89 (28,90%) e 132 (42,86%) do total de amostras de fetos suínos mumificados, respectivamente. Coinfecções foram observadas na maioria dos casos e PCV3 foi o agente mais prevalente detectado, encontrado em 298 amostras (96,75%). A maioria das perdas gestacionais foi observada entre 50 e 70 dias de gestação (168; 54,5%) e a mumificação fetal não foi associada à ordem de parto das matrizes. Os achados sugerem que as altas taxas de fetos suínos mumificados na região Sul do Brasil podem ser explicadas pela infecção com esses agentes virais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pregnancy , Swine , Circoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Parvoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Fetal Death/etiology , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Circoviridae/isolation & purification , Parvovirus, Porcine/isolation & purification , Coinfection/veterinary , Leptospira/isolation & purification
16.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e376, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280322

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La fascioliasis es causada por el trematodo Fasciola hepatica que afecta a animales herbívoros, omnívoros y al humano. Los niños de edad escolar son los más afectados y el órgano más dañado es el hígado. Este parásito requiere de reservorio y huésped intermediario para completar su ciclo biológico. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación de la fascioliasis con el estado nutricional y coinfección enteroparasitaria en niños. Métodos: La investigación se realizó entre septiembre de 2016 y abril de 2017 en el distrito de Santa María de Chicmo, región Apurímac. El estudio fue analítico de corte transversal. La población de niños de 6 a 16 años estuvo constituida por 2 172 individuos. El tamaño de muestra fue de 435 niños y se determinó mediante un muestreo simple al azar. Además, para que el muestreo fuera más eficiente se distribuyó el tamaño total de la muestra entre los estratos I.E. Primaria e I.E. Secundaria, para un resultado de 209 y 226 muestras, respectivamente. Sin embargo, se logró tomar 493 muestras coprológicas y serológicas repartidas proporcionalmente entre la totalidad de 23 instituciones educativas. Resultados: La prevalencia de fascioliasis fue de 5,3 por ciento (26/493; IC95 por ciento =3,2-7,4). Las instituciones educativas con mayor prevalencia fueron: Taramba con 17,2 por ciento (5/29; IC95 por ciento = 5,9-35,8), Libertadores de América con 16,1 por ciento (5/31; IC95 por ciento = 5,5-33,7), Mariano Melgar con 15 por ciento (3/20; IC95 por ciento = 3,2-37,9) y Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe con 10,8 por ciento (4/37; IC95 por ciento = 3-25,4). No se encontró asociación de fascioliasis con la valoración nutricional antropométrica ni con la coinfección enteroparasitaria en niños (p˃ 0,05). Conclusiones: La fascioliasis no estaría afectando el estado nutricional de los niños; asimismo, los signos clínicos, atribuidos a fascioliasis, corresponderían también a la alta presentación de parásitos entéricos(AU)


Introduction: Fascioliasis is caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica and affects herbivorous and omnivorous animals as well as humans. Schoolchildren are the most affected group, and the organ most commonly targeted is the liver. This parasite requires an intermediate reservoir and host to complete its biological cycle. Objective: Determine the association of fascioliasis to nutritional status and enteroparasite coinfection in children. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2016 to April 2017 in the district of Santa María de Chicmo, Apurímac Region. The child population aged 6-16 years was composed of 2 172 individuals. The sample size was 435 children, and it was determined by simple random sampling. Additionally, in order for the sampling to be more efficient, the total sample size was distributed between the strata Primary E.I. and Secondary E.I., for 209 and 226 samples, respectively. However, 493 coprological and serological samples were proportionally taken from the total 23 educational institutions. Results: Prevalence of fascioliasis was 5.3 percent (26/493; CI95 percent=3.2-7.4). The educational institutions with the highest prevalence were Taramba with 17.2 percent (5/29; CI95 percent= 5.9-35.8), Libertadores de América with 16.1 percent (5/31; CI95 percent= 5.5-33.7), Mariano Melgar with 15 percent (3/20; CI95 percent= 3.2-37.9) and Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe with 10.8 percent (4/37; CI95 percent= 3-25.4). No association was found between fascioliasis and nutritional anthropometric assessment or enteroparasite coinfection in children (p˃ 0.05). Conclusions: Fascioliasis was not found to affect the nutritional status of children. On the other hand, the clinical signs attributed to fascioliasis also correspond to the high presentation of enteric parasites(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Fascioliasis/complications , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/etiology , Fascioliasis/diet therapy , Coinfection/prevention & control
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): 131-138, abril 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152134

ABSTRACT

A 11 años del primer brote de dengue en Buenos Aires, el 20 de marzo de 2020, mientras se iniciaba la cuarentena obligatoria por COVID-19, dengue pasó a ser la causa más común de consulta por fiebre. La nueva ola de casos de dengue ya se encontraba entre las predicciones de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud en función del aumento en la región de las Américas que se venía presentando desde el año anterior. La llegada del SARS-CoV-2 a principios de marzo, sumada al brote de dengue que ya estaba en curso, resultó en un nuevo desafío para el sistema de salud, mientras comenzaba un paradigma con planes de adaptación a la nueva infección pandémica en el país. La superposición de infecciones con potencial epidémico, como dengue, recuerda la importancia de no desatender otras enfermedades endémicas, emergentes y reemergentes a la sombra del nuevo fenómeno epidemiológico


Eleven years after the first dengue outbreak in Buenos Aires, on March 20, 2020, while the mandatory quarantine for COVID-19 began dengue became the most common cause of fever consultation. The new wave of dengue cases was already among the predictions of the Pan American Health Organization based on the increase in the region of the Americas that had been occurring since the previous year. The arrival of SARS-CoV-2 at the beginning of March, added to the dengue outbreak that was already underway, made a new challenge for the health system while a new paradigm was initiated with adaptation plans to the new pandemic infection in the country. The overlapping of infections with epidemic potential such as dengue recalls the importance of not neglecting other endemic, emerging and re-emerging diseases in the shadow of the new epidemiological phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dengue/epidemiology , Pediatrics , Arboviruses , Argentina/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Aedes , Coinfection
18.
Rev. Saúde Pública Paraná (Online) ; 4(1): 108-118, abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SESA-PR | ID: biblio-1281242

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar as características e consequências clínicas da infecção pelo coronavírus em pessoas com HIV. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, que utilizou de publicações das bases PubMed e MedLine. A captura se deu com a articulação dos descritores "covid-19" OR "corona vírus disease" OR "sars-cov-2 AND HIV patient AND clinical outcomes". Ainda como critérios de inclusão, artigos disponíveis em texto completo, independente do ano ou idioma de publicação, totalizando11 manuscritos que compuseram a análise. Todos os artigos foram publicados em língua inglesa, no ano de 2020. O quadro clínico apresentado pelos pacientes coinfectados por Covid-19 e HIV não demonstrou diferenças se comparado a pacientes sem HIV. Observou-se que outras comorbidades influenciaram nas consequências da evolução clínica dos pacientes, independente da coinfecção com HIV. Dessa forma, os resultados apresentaram discrepâncias, não tornando possível evidenciar o agravamento clínico da Covid-19 pela presença do HIV. (AU)


The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and clinical consequences of coronavirus infection in people with HIV. This is an integrative literature review, which used publications from the PubMed and MedLine databases. The capture occurred with the articulation of the descriptors "covid-19" OR "corona virus disease" OR "sars-cov-2 AND HIV patient AND clinical outcomes". Still as inclusion criteria, articles available in full text, regardless of year or language of publication, totaling 11 manuscripts that made up the analysis. All articles were published in English in 2020. The clinical picture presented by patients co-infected with Covid-19 and HIV did not show any differences when compared to patients without HIV. It was observed that other comorbidities influenced the consequences of the clinical evolution of patients, regardless of coinfection with HIV. Thus, the results showed discrepancies, making it impossible to show the clinical worsening of Covid-19 due to the presence of HIV. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Coronavirus Infections , Coinfection , Literature
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 1-5, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287233

ABSTRACT

Resumen La principal infección viral transmisible por sangre es actualmente la debida al virus de hepatitis C (VHC). Uno de los mayores obstáculos para el logro de su control en la Argentina se relaciona con las dificultades de acceso al diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno de las personas infectadas. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de caracterizar a los pacientes infectados con VHC que iniciaron tratamiento con antivirales de acción directa (AAD) y describir la experiencia vinculada al tratamiento. Se seleccionaron las historias clínicas de 82 pacientes, 44 (53.7%) de sexo masculino, 37 (45.1%) de sexo femenino, y uno (1.2%) transgénero. La media de edad fue de 49 años. Se halló una frecuencia de cirrosis de 39%, 32 pacientes, coinfección con HIV en 48 (58.5%) y con VHB en 27 (32.9%). En 52 (63.4%) no se observó ningún factor de riesgo claramente asociado a infección. Todos completaron la terapia, de ellos 72 (87.8%) efectuaron el control para confirmar respuesta viral sostenida (RVS), que fue de 98.6%. Concluimos que el testeo universal debe implementarse por sobre el testeo con enfoque de riesgo, y que debe promoverse un criterio de atención simplificado y descentralizado, reservando la atención especializada para pacientes con cirrosis descompensada y cáncer de hígado.


Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is currently the main blood-borne viral infection. One of the main obstacles to achieving its control in Argentina is related to difficulties in accessing the diagnosis and timely treatment of infected people. We carried out this study with the aim of characterizing the HCV-infected patients who started treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and to describe the experience related to treatment. The medical records of 82 patients, 44 (53.7%) male, 37 (45.1%) female, and one (1.2%) transgender, were selected. The mean age was 49 years. We report a frequency of cirrhosis, 39%, in 32 patients, coinfection with HIV in 48 (58.5%) and with HBV in 27 (32.9%). In 52 patients (63.4%), no risk factor clearly associated with infection was observed. All completed the therapy, of them 72 (87.8%) carried out the control to confirm sustained viral response (SVR), that attained 98.6%. We conclude that universal testing should be implemented over testing based on a risk approach, and that a simplified and decentralized care criterion should be promoted, reserving specialized care for patients with decompensated cirrhosis and liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
20.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 29(105): 6-16, 2021 mar. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1349035

ABSTRACT

En diciembre de 2019 se identificó en Wuhan, China, un nuevo coronavirus denominado SARS-CoV-2, agente causal de la epidemia de neumonía atípica COVID-2019, que el 11 de marzo de 2020 fue declarada pandemia por la OMS.Hasta el 30 de septiembre de 2020, en Argentina fueron confirmados 751.001 casos y más de 16.937 muertes.La frecuencia y el impacto de las coinfecciones que afectan a los pacientes infectados por SARS-Cov-2 se ha estudiado junto con el avance de la pandemia. Entre las debidas a hongos se encuentran las fungemias por Candida sp, la aspergilosis invasora, las micosis sistémicas endémicas y la neumocistosis. Presentamos las distintas coinfecciones micosis-COVID-19 que fueron asistidas en nuestra institución entre abril y septiembre de 2020, y se realiza un análisis de las características de estas infecciones en pacientes con y sin sida. En este período se internaron 2837 pacientes, 2287 tuvieron diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. La coinfección de COVID-19 con micosis pulmonares o sistémicas fue menor al 1%.Dieciocho pacientes presentaron infecciones fúngicas pulmonares o sistémicas. Ocho padecieron candidemias, cinco criptococosis meningeas, dos histoplasmosis, dos aspergilosis invasoras agudas probables y una aspergilosis pulmonar crónica. La estadía prolongada en terapia intensiva facilitó las fungemias por Candida sp, los casos de histoplasmosis y criptococosis parecen relacionarse con la enfermedad avanzada por VIH y no con COVID-19. Los enfermos con un componente inflamatorio basal alto con neumonía grave por coronavirus se relacionan más con micosis invasoras que los enfermos VIH positivos con niveles bajos de LTCD4+


On December 2019 a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) result in atypical pneumonía epidemic, it was identified in Wuhan China and it was called COVID-19. Then on March 11 was declared pandemic by the WHO.Until September 30, 2020 in Argentina 751,001 cases and more than 16,937 deaths have been confirmed. The frequency and impact of co-infections affecting SARS-Cov2 infected patients has been studied with the advance of the pandemic. Among those due to fungi are Candida sp fungemias, invasive aspergillosis, endemic systemic mycoses, and pneumocystosis.We present the different mycosis-COVID-19 co-infections that were assisted in F. J. Muñiz Hospital between April and September of this year and review the characteristics of these infections in patients with and without AIDS is carried out.In this period, 2,837 patients were admitted in the Muñiz hospital, 2,287 had a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19.Co-infection of COVID-19 with pulmonary or systemic mycoses was less than 1%.Eighteen patients had pulmonary or systemic fungal infections. Eight suffered from candidemia, five meningeal cryptococcosis, two histoplasmosis, two probable acute invasive aspergillosis, and one chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.Prolonged stay in intensive care facilitated fungemia due to Candida sp. Histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis cases seem to be related to advanced HIV disease and not to COVID-19.Patients with a high baseline inflammatory component with severe coronavirus pneumonia are more associated with invasive mycoses than HIV-positive patients with low levels of LTCD4 +


Subject(s)
Humans , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Candidemia/microbiology , Coinfection , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology
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