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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(2): 307-310, abr. 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559673

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis es una infección de alta incidencia en Latinoamérica. Su presentación como infección activa está determinada por factores de riesgo del hospedero. Comunicamos el caso clínico de una mujer joven que presentó una forma grave de tuberculosis pulmonar. Al explorar sus factores de riesgo se confirmó un estado de inmunosupresión profundo, causado por un linfoma de células T, asociada a una co-infección por virus linfotrópico T humano tipo 1. Se destacan los aspectos microbiológicos y de pronóstico de la co-infección de Mycobacterium tuberculosis y HTLV-1


Tuberculosis is a high-incidence infection in Latin America. Its presentation as an active infection is determined by risk factors in the host. We report the case of a young woman who presented a severe form of pulmonary tuberculosis. When exploring her risk factors, a profound state of immunosuppression was found, caused by T-cell lymphoma, associated with co-infection with human lymphotropic virus. Microbiological and prognostic aspects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HTLV-1 co-infection are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , HTLV-I Infections/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , HTLV-I Infections/diagnostic imaging , Leukemia, T-Cell/complications , Immunocompromised Host , Fatal Outcome , Coinfection , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
2.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 58: 10, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560450

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the geospatialization of tuberculosis-HIV coinfection in Brazil, from 2010 to 2021, and the correlation with socioeconomic, housing, and health indicators. METHODS An ecological study of Brazilian municipalities and states, with data from HIV and tuberculosis information systems, previously reported by the Ministry of Health. The crude and smoothed coefficients were calculated by the local empirical Bayesian method of incidence of coinfection per 100,000 inhabitants in the population aged between 18 and 59 years. Univariate (identification of clusters) and bivariate (correlation with 20 indicators) Moran's indices were used. RESULTS A total of 122,223 cases of coinfection were registered in Brazil from 2010 to 2021, with a mean coefficient of 8.30/100,000. The South (11.44/100,000) and North (9.93/100,000) regions concentrated the highest burden of infections. The coefficients dropped in Brazil, in all regions, in the years of covid-19 (2020 and 2021). The highest coefficients were observed in the municipalities of the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Amazonas, with high-high clusters in the capitals, border regions, coast of the country. The municipalities belonging to the states of Minas Gerais, Bahia, Paraná, and Piauí showed low-low clusters. There was a direct correlation with human development indices and aids rates, as well as an indirect correlation with the proportion of poor or of those vulnerable to poverty and the Gini index. CONCLUSIONS The spatial analysis of tuberculosis-HIV coinfection showed heterogeneity in the Brazilian territory and constant behavior throughout the period, revealing clusters with high-burden municipalities, especially in large urban centers and in states with a high occurrence of HIV and/or tuberculosis. These findings, in addition to alerting to the effects of the covid-19 pandemic, can incorporate strategic planning for the control of coinfection, aiming to eliminate these infections as public health problems by 2030.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a geoespacialização da coinfecção tuberculose-HIV no Brasil, de 2010 a 2021, e a correlação com indicadores socioeconômicos, habitacionais e sanitários. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico dos municípios e estados brasileiros, com dados dos sistemas de informação do HIV e da tuberculose, previamente relacionados pelo Ministério da Saúde. Foram calculados os coeficientes brutos e suavizados pelo método bayesiano empírico local de incidência da coinfecção, por 100 mil habitantes, na população entre 18 e 59 anos. Empregaram-se os índices de Moran univariado (identificação de clusters) e bivariado (correlação com 20 indicadores). RESULTADOS Foram registrados 122.223 casos de coinfecção no Brasil, de 2010 a 2021, com coeficiente médio de 8,30/100 mil. As regiões Sul (11,44/100 mil) e Norte (9,93/100 mil) concentraram a maior carga das infecções. Houve queda dos coeficientes no Brasil, em todas as regiões, nos anos de covid-19 (2020 e 2021). Os maiores coeficientes foram visualizados nos municípios do Rio Grande do Sul, do Mato Grosso do Sul e do Amazonas, com aglomerados alto-alto nas capitais, em regiões de fronteira e no litoral do país. Os municípios pertencentes aos estados de Minas Gerais, da Bahia, do Paraná e do Piauí apresentaram clusters baixo-baixo. Houve correlação direta com os índices de desenvolvimento humano e as taxas de aids, bem como indireta com a proporção de pobres ou vulneráveis à pobreza e o índice de Gini. CONCLUSÕES A análise espacial da coinfecção tuberculose-HIV demonstrou heterogeneidade no território brasileiro e comportamento constante ao longo do período, revelando clusters com municípios de alta carga, principalmente nos grandes centros urbanos e nos estados com ocorrência elevada do HIV e/ou da tuberculose. Esses achados, além de trazerem um alerta para os efeitos da pandemia da covid-19, podem incorporar o planejamento estratégico para o controle da coinfecção, visando à eliminação dessas infecções como problemas de saúde pública até 2030.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis , HIV , Coinfection , Spatial Analysis
3.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(4): 180-187, out.-dez. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532058

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: several patients with COVID-19 require hospital admission due to severe respiratory complications and undergo intensive care with mechanical ventilation (MV) support. Associated with this situation, there is an increase in fungal co-infections, which has a negative impact on the outcome of COVID-19. In this regard, this study intended to compare Candida spp. incidence in the respiratory tract of patients admitted in the COVID and General Intensive Care Units (ICU) at a teaching hospital in 2021. Methods: the results of protected tracheal aspirate samples from 556 patients admitted to the COVID ICU and 260 to General ICU as well as the respective records. Results: of the patients analyzed, 38 revealed a positive sample for Candida in the COVID ICU and 10 in the General ICU, with an incidence of 68.3/1000 and 38.5/1000, respectively. Males were predominant in both wards. The most affected age group was the population over 60 years old, and the average hospital admission for the COVID ICU was 22.1 years, and for the General ICU, 24.2. Conclusion: Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species, and the mortality rate in patients positive for Candida was higher in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients in the General ICU, suggesting that patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, admitted to the ICU under MV, are more predisposed to colonization by Candida spp., which can have a fatal outcome in these patients.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: muitos pacientes com COVID-19 necessitam de hospitalização devido às complicações respiratórias graves, e são submetidos a cuidados intensivos com suporte de ventilação mecânica (VM). Associado a esse quadro, verifica-se o aumento de coinfecções fúngicas, que tem impacto negativo no desfecho da COVID-19. Nesse sentido, este estudo pretendeu comparar a incidência de Candida spp. no trato respiratório de pacientes internados nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) COVID e Geral em um hospital escola em 2021. Métodos: foram avaliados os resultados de amostras de aspirado traqueal protegido provenientes de 556 pacientes internados na UTI COVID e 260 na UTI Geral, bem como os respectivos prontuários. Resultados: dos pacientes analisados, 38 revelaram amostra positiva para Candida na UTI COVID e 10 na UTI Geral, com incidência de 68,3/1000 e 38,5/1000, respectivamente. O sexo masculino foi predominante em ambas as alas. A faixa etária mais acometida foi a população acima de 60 anos, e a média de internação para a UTI COVID foi de 22,1 anos, e para a UTI Geral, 24,2. Conclusão: Candida albicans foi a espécie isolada com maior frequência, e a taxa de mortalidade em pacientes com positivos para Candida foi maior em pacientes com COVID-19 em relação aos pacientes da UTI Geral, sugerindo que pacientes infectados com SARS-CoV-2, internados em UTI sob VM, são mais predispostos à colonização por Candida spp., que pode ter um desfecho fatal nesses pacientes.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: muchos pacientes con COVID-19 requieren hospitalización debido a complicaciones respiratorias graves y se someten a cuidados intensivos con soporte de ventilación mecánica (VM). Asociado a esta situación, hay un aumento de las coinfecciones fúngicas, lo que repercute negativamente en el desenlace de la COVID-19. En este sentido, este estudio pretendió comparar la incidencia de Candida spp. en el tracto respiratorio de pacientes ingresados en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) COVID y General de un hospital escuela en 2021. Métodos: los resultados de muestras de aspirado traqueal protegidas de 556 pacientes ingresados en la UCI COVID y 260 en el UCI General, así como los respectivos registros. Resultados: de los pacientes analizados, 38 presentaron muestra positiva a Candida en UCI COVID y 10 en UCI General, con una incidencia de 68,3/1000 y 38,5/1000, respectivamente. Los machos predominaban en ambas alas. El grupo de edad más afectado fue la población mayor de 60 años, y la hospitalización promedio en la UCI COVID fue de 22,1 años, y en la UCI General, de 24,2. Conclusiones: Candida albicans fue la especie aislada con mayor frecuencia, y la tasa de mortalidad en pacientes positivos para Candida fue mayor en pacientes con COVID-19 en comparación con los pacientes en la UCI General, lo que sugiere que los pacientes infectados con SARS-CoV-2, ingresados en la UCI bajo VM, están más predispuestos a la colonización por Candida spp., lo que puede tener un desenlace fatal en estos pacientes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/isolation & purification , Clinical Evolution , Coinfection , COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units
4.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(4): 223-231, out.-dez. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532326

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by a virus from the hepadnaviridae family, with worldwide distribution, and represents a serious global health problem. The pathology may have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, making it possible for serious outcomes to occur when overlapping viral types. This study sought to describe the levels of scientific evidence of research carried out on the topic, establishing a relationship between hepatitis B virus infection and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Content: integrative literature review, with searches performed in the databases of the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, and Scientific Electronic Library Online, with analysis centered on the description of the methodological design, and on the classification of the level of evidence. Conclusion: the scientific production on hepatitis B associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection corresponds mostly to studies with a low level of evidence. The selected publications presented limitations such as the occurrence of studies with a small number of samples, lack of subsidiary data of patients in treatment, and occurrence of non-randomized selection. The results suggest the need for further investigations for the purpose of technological improvement, identification of risk factors, therapeutic intervention, and advanced clinical investigation, in order to encourage evidence-based healthcare practices.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: a hepatite B é uma doença infectocontagiosa provocada por um vírus da família hepadnaviridae, com distribuição mundial, e representa um grave problema de saúde global. A patologia pode ter sido afetada pela pandemia de COVID-19, provocada pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2, sendo possível a ocorrência de desfechos graves na sobreposição entre os dos tipos virais. Este estudo buscou descrever os níveis de evidências científicas de pesquisas realizadas sobre o tema, estabelecendo relação entre a infecção por vírus da hepatite B e a infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Conteúdo: revisão integrativa da literatura, com buscas realizadas nas bases de dados do Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online e Scientific Electronic Library Online, com análise centrada na descrição do delineamento metodológico e na classificação do nível de evidência. Conclusão: a produção científica sobre hepatite B associada a infecção por SARS-CoV-2 corresponde majoritariamente a pesquisas com baixo nível de evidência. As publicações selecionadas apresentaram limitações, como a ocorrência de estudos com número reduzido de amostras, falta de dados subsidiários de pacientes em tratamento e ocorrência de seleção não randomizada. Os resultados sugerem a necessidade de novas investigações para fins de incrementos tecnológicos, identificação de fatores de risco, intervenção terapêutica e investigação clínica avançada, de forma a fomentar práticas assistenciais em saúde baseadas em evidências.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivo: la hepatitis B es una enfermedad infecciosa contagiosa causada por un virus de la familia hepadnaviridae, de distribución mundial, y representa un grave problema de salud mundial. Su patología puede haberse visto afectada por la pandemia de COVID-19, provocada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, y son posibles desenlaces graves cuando se superponen tipos virales. Este estudio buscó describir los niveles de evidencia científica de las investigaciones realizadas sobre el tema, estableciendo una relación entre la infección por el virus de la hepatitis B y la infección por el SARS-CoV-2. Contenido: revisión integradora de la literatura, con búsquedas realizadas en las bases de datos Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online y Scientific Electronic Library Online, con un análisis centrado en la descripción del diseño metodológico y en la clasificación del nivel de evidencia. Conclusión: la producción científica sobre la hepatitis B asociada a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 corresponde, en su mayoría, a investigaciones con bajo nivel de evidencia. Las publicaciones seleccionadas presentaron limitaciones como la ocurrencia de estudios con un número reducido de muestras, la falta de datos subsidiarios de los pacientes en tratamiento y la ocurrencia de selección no aleatoria. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de seguir investigando para mejorar la tecnología, identificar los factores de riesgo, intervenir terapéuticamente y realizar investigación clínica avanzada, con el fin de promover prácticas sanitarias basadas en la evidencia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Coinfection
5.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(4): 232-239, out.-dez. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532363

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: HIV/syphilis coinfection is an important problem to be considered during pregnancy due to the various negative outcomes such as abortion, stillbirth, prematurity and congenital infections. The study is justified by the need to identify scientific evidence of clinical-epidemiological characteristics and vulnerabilities related to infections, factors that influence the prevalence, and if there are related health problems. The objective was to synthesize scientific evidence about sociodemographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of associated cases of syphilis and HIV. Content: this is an integrative literature review, searching the PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, BDENF and MedCarib databases, using the descriptors "HIV", "Syphilis", "Epidemiology", "Coinfection" and "Pregnant woman", combined by Boolean operators "AND" and "OR", guided by the question: what is the scientific evidence related to the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of pregnant women co-infected with HIV/syphilis? It was held from June to September 2022, including articles published in the last eight years. Nine primary articles published between 2015 and 2020 were selected. The association of infections was present in pregnant women of young adult age, non-white race/color, married, low level of education, housewives, residents of urban areas and belonging to more economically disadvantaged social classes. Conclusion: the study highlighted the importance of improving prenatal care, with the aim of reducing the risks of vertical transmission of these diseases, especially with the implementation of public policies aimed at the clinical management of co-infected pregnant women, the allocation of resources and the development of specific intervention protocols.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: A coinfecção HIV/sífilis é um problema importante a ser considerado durante a gravidez devido aos diversos desfechos negativos como aborto, natimorto, prematuridade e infecções congênitas. O estudo justifica-se pela necessidade de identificar evidências científicas de características clínico-epidemiológicas e vulnerabilidades relacionadas às infecções, fatores que influenciam a prevalência e se há problemas de saúde relacionados. O objetivo foi sintetizar evidências científicas sobre características sociodemográficas e manifestações clínicas de casos associados de sífilis e HIV. Conteúdo: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, com busca nas bases de dados PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, BDENF e MedCarib, utilizando os descritores "HIV", "Syphilis", "Epidemiology", "Coinfection" e "Pregnant woman", combinados por Operadores booleanos "AND" e "OR", norteados pela questão: quais as evidências científicas relacionadas às características clínico-epidemiológicas de gestantes coinfectadas com HIV/sífilis? Foi realizado de junho a setembro de 2022, incluindo artigos publicados nos últimos oito anos. Foram selecionados nove artigos primários publicados entre 2015 e 2020. A associação das infecções esteve presente em gestantes em idade adulta jovem, raça/cor não branca, casadas, baixa escolaridade, donas de casa, residentes em zona urbana e pertencentes a classes sociais mais desfavorecidas economicamente. Conclusão: o estudo destacou a importância da melhoria da assistência pré-natal, com o objetivo de reduzir os riscos de transmissão vertical dessas doenças, especialmente com a implementação de políticas públicas voltadas ao manejo clínico das gestantes coinfectadas, à alocação de recursos e o desenvolvimento de protocolos de intervenção específicos.(AU)


Antecedentes y objetivos: La coinfección VIH/sífilis es un problema importante a considerar durante el embarazo debido a los diversos resultados negativos como aborto, muerte fetal, prematuridad e infecciones congénitas. El estudio se justifica por la necesidad de identificar evidencia científica de características clínico-epidemiológicas y vulnerabilidades relacionadas con las infecciones, factores que influyen en la prevalencia y si existen problemas de salud relacionados. El objetivo fue sintetizar evidencia científica sobre las características sociodemográficas y manifestaciones clínicas de los casos asociados de sífilis y VIH. Contenido: se trata de una revisión integradora de la literatura, buscando en las bases de datos PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, BDENF y MedCarib, utilizando los descriptores "VIH", "Sífilis", "Epidemiología", "Coinfección" y "Mujer embarazada", combinados por Operadores booleanos "Y" y "O", guiados por la pregunta: ¿cuál es la evidencia científica relacionada con las características clínico- -epidemiológicas de las gestantes coinfectadas con VIH/sífilis? Se realizó de junio a septiembre de 2022, incluyendo artículos publicados en los últimos ocho años. Se seleccionaron nueve artículos primarios publicados entre 2015 y 2020. La asociación de infecciones estuvo presente en mujeres embarazadas de edad adulta joven, de raza/color no blanca, casadas, de bajo nivel educativo, amas de casa, residentes de áreas urbanas y pertenecientes a clases sociales más desfavorecidas económicamente. Conclusión: el estudio destacó la importancia de mejorar la atención prenatal, con el objetivo de reducir los riesgos de transmisión vertical de estas enfermedades, especialmente con la implementación de políticas públicas orientadas al manejo clínico de las gestantes coinfectadas, la asignación de recursos y el desarrollo de protocolos de intervención específicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Syphilis , HIV , Pregnant Women , Coinfection/epidemiology , Health Profile , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
6.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551157

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To compare the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory profiles of bacterial infection or colonization among patients hospitalized in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 intensive care units (ICUs) in Southeast Pará, Brazil. Methods:This was a retrospective analytical study based on the analyses of electronic medical records and microbiological reports of patients admitted to the ICU of a regional hospital located in Pará in the Brazilian Amazon due to complications associated with COVID-19 and other causes from March 2020 to December 2021. The sample consisted of data from the medical records of 343 patients collected after approval by the ethics and research committee (opinion number 5281433) was granted. The data extracted from the bacteriological and antibiogram culture reports were analyzed to characterize the clinical-epidemiological profile of the patients. The data were transferred and tabulated in Microsoft Excel 2019 to conduct a descriptive analysis, and the associated statistical analyses were performed using Stata 17.0 statistical soft-ware. Results: Of the total patients, 59.5% were hospitalized in the COVID-19 ICU and 40.5% were hospitalized in the non-COVID-19 ICU. Most individuals admitted to the COVID-19 ICU and non-COVID-19 ICU were aged between 66 and 78 years and between 54 and 66 years, respectively. The hospitalization duration in the COVID-19 ICU was fewer than 15 days, whereas that in the non-COVID-19 ICU was 15 to 30 days. Deaths were more frequent in the Covid-19 ICU compared to the non-Covid-19 ICU (64% versus 41%). In contrast, hospital discharge was more frequent in the non-Covid-19 ICU (58.3% versus 34.8%).The most prevalent comorbidity in both ICUs was circulatory system disease. Gram-negative bacteria were the most frequent etiological agent in both groups and were present in 63.1% of the cultures analyzed. Regarding the phenotypic profile of resistance, carbapenemase production was detected in 43.0% of the cultures analyzed. Multidrug resistance against antimicrobial drugs was more frequent in the non-COVID-19 ICU (55.7%). Most of the antimicrobial drug prescriptions for were empirical. Conclusions: The recurrence of secondary infections and bacterial colonization in both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ICU patients should not be underestimated. The clinical, microbiological, and bacterial resistance profiles elucidated in this study highlight the need to develop and implement holistic and assertive strategies to control and mitigate these problems. Which will contribute to an improved prognosis for patients and quality of life patients (AU).


Objetivos: Comparar o perfil clínico, epidemiológico e laboratorial das infecções ou colonizações bacterianas entre pacientes internados em UTI COVID-19 e não-COVID-19 no Sudeste do Pará, Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo analítico retrospectivo baseado na análise de prontuários eletrônicos e laudos microbiológicos de pacientes internados em um hospital regional localizado no Pará, na Amazônia brasileira, devido a complicações associadas à COVID-19 e outras causas no período de março de 2020 a dezembro de 2021. A amostra foi constituída por dados dos prontuários de 343 pacientes coletados após aprovação pelo Comitê de ética em Pesquisa (parecer número 5281433). Os dados extraídos dos laudos de cultura bacteriológica e antibiograma foram analisados para caracterizar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos pacientes. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e inferenciais utilizando o Stata 17.0 statistical software. Resultados: Do total de pacientes, 59,5% estavam internados na UTI COVID-19 e 40,5% na UTI não-COVID-19. A maioria dos indivíduos apresentavam idades entre 54 e 78. O tempo de internação na UTI COVID-19 foi inferior a 15 dias, enquanto na UTI não-CO-VID-19 foi de 15 a 30 dias. Os óbitos foram mais frequentes na UTI Covid-19 em relação à UTI não-Covid-19 (64% versus 41%). Em contrapartida, a alta hospitalar foi mais frequente na UTI não Covid-19 (58,3% versus 34,8%). A comorbidade mais prevalente em ambas as UTIs foi a doença do aparelho circulatório. As bactérias Gram-negativas foram os agentes etiológicos mais frequentes em ambos os grupos e estiveram presentes em 63,1% das culturas analisadas. Em relação ao perfil fenotípico de resistência, a produção de carbapenemase foi detectada em 43,0% das culturas analisadas. A multirresistência aos antimicrobianos foi mais frequente na UTI não COVID-19 (55,7%). A maioria das prescrições de antimicrobianos foram empíricas. Conclusões: A recorrência de infecções secundárias e colonizações bacterianas em pacientes com COVID-19 e não COVID-19 em UTIs não devem ser subestimadas. Os perfis de resistência bacteriana elucidados neste estudo destacam a necessidade da implementação de estratégias holísticas e assertivas visando o controle e mitigação dessa problemática, o que contribuirá para a melhoria do prognóstico, bem como, a qualidade e segurança dos paciente (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Evidence-Based Medicine , Coinfection , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units
7.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22 (2), 2023;22(2): 938, 16 octubre 2023. ilus., tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526598

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La procalcitonina, es un biomarcador que puede usarse como apoyo diagnóstico en infecciones bacterianas y la monitorización del tratamiento antibiótico, sobre todo en pacientes con sepsis. De ahí que, fue utilizado durante la pandemia COVID-19 OBJETIVO. Determinar los valores de procalcitonina en pacientes con COVID-19 y definir una p osible correlación entre su incremento y vinculación en coinfección o infección secundaria por Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa con multidrogo resistencia y resistencia extendida a los antibióticos. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio retrospectivo observacional, descriptivo transversal, realizado del 1 de mayo al 31 de octubre del 2020 en el Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín sobre 7028 pacientes adultos, hospitalizados, con diagnóstico de COVID-19, y resultados de procalcitonina, cuyas muestras de secreción traqueal y/o hemocultivo presentaron desarrollo de Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Su análisis estadístico fue desarrollado mediante la prueba Chi Cuadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS. Se recibieron 861 muestras de hemocultivo y 391 de secreción traqueal, obteniéndose: 32% aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa multidrogo y extremadamente resistente. Entre los pacientes COVID-19 que fallecieron, 34,4% mostraron incrementos de procalcitonina. Al contrario, entre los pacientes que sobrevivieron sólo en 8,8% se observó incrementos de procalcitonina evidenciándose un vínculo entre el incremento de procalcitonina y mortalidad. CONCLUSIONES. No existe diferencia en relación al incremento en los valores de procalcitonina en pacientes COVID-19 con co-infección o infección secundaria por Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa multidrogo y extremadamente resistente y los valores de procalcitonina en pacientes con coinfección e infección secundaria con otro tipo de aislamientos bacterianos.


INTRODUCTION. Procalcitonin is a biomarker that can be used as a diagnostic support in bacterial infections and the monitoring of antibiotic treatment, especially in patients with sepsis. Hence, it was used during the COVID-19 pandemic OBJECTIVE. To determine the values of procalcitonin in patients with COVID-19 and to define a possible correlation between its increase and linkage in co-infection or secondary infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with multidrug resistance and extended resistance to antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Retrospective observational, descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted from May 1 to October 31, 2020 at the Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín on 7028 adult patients, hospitalized, with diagnosis of COVID-19, and procalcitonin results, whose tracheal secretion and/or blood culture samples presented development of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their statistical analysis was developed using Pearson's Chi-squared test. RESULTS. We received 861 blood culture and 391 tracheal secretion samples, obtaining: 32% isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and multidrug-resistant and extremely resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the COVID-19 patients who died, 34.4% showed increased procalcitonin levels. On the contrary, among patients who survived, only 8.8% showed increased procalcitonin levels, showing a link between increased procalcitonin levels and mortality. CONCLUSIONS. There is no difference in relation to the increase in procalcitonin values in COVID-19 patients with co-infection or secondary infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae and multidrug-resistant and extremely resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and procalcitonin values in patients with co-infection and secondary infection with other types of bacterial isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Coinfection , Procalcitonin , COVID-19 , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Trachea , Biomarkers , Sepsis , Ecuador , Anti-Bacterial Agents
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 206-215, ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533880

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 was one of the most debated topics during the pandemic. Objectives. To analyze the clinical characteristics and evolution of people living with HIV/ AIDS and coinfection with cryptococcus and COVID-19 (group A) or without it (group B). Materials and methods. This is an analytical and retrospective study. We reviewed medical records of patients with meningeal cryptococcosis between April 2020 and May 2021. Results. We studied 65 people living with HIV/AIDS and with cryptococcosis infection diagnosed from April 2020 to May 2021. Fifteen patients with HIV/AIDS suffered from cryptococcosis and COVID-19, and out of these, 14 presented meningitis (group A), while 28 suffered from meningeal cryptococcosis, but did not have COVID-19 (group B). Conclusions. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups (A and B) considering: intracranial hypertension, presence of Cryptococcus antigens in cerebrospinal fluid, sensorium deterioration or mortality. The detection of Cryptococcus antigens in serum by lateral flow assay was highly effective to rapidly diagnose cryptococcosis in patients with HIV/AIDS who also developed COVID-19. Patients of both groups consulted for cryptoccocosis sometime after, in comparison with the pre-pandemic cases related to this infection.


Introducción. Las infecciones fúngicas en pacientes con COVID-19 fue uno de los temas más debatidos durante la pandemia. Objetivo. Analizar las características clínicas y la evolución de personas con VIH/SIDA que presentaron la asociación de criptococosis meníngea y COVID-19 (grupo A), y compararlas con aquellas personas con VIH/SIDA que padecieron criptococosis meníngea, pero sin infección de COVID-19 (grupo B). Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio analítico y retrospectivo en el que se revisaron las historias clínicas de pacientes que padecieron criptococosis meníngea entre abril de 2020 y mayo de 2021. Resultados. Se estudiaron 65 pacientes con HIV/SIDA y con criptococosis, diagnosticados entre abril de 2020 y mayo de 2021 (63 habían desarrollado sida y 2 eran negativos para VIH). De estos, 15 de los pacientes con sida padecían criptococosis y COVID-19, y 14 presentaban meningitis (grupo A), mientras que 28 pacientes padecieron criptococosis meníngea, pero no tuvieron COVID-19 (grupo B). Conclusiones. No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, entre los dos grupos, respecto a la hipertensión intracraneal, la presencia de antígenos de criptoccoco en líquido cefalorraquídeo, el deterioro del sensorio o la mortalidad. La detección de antígenos de Cryptococcus en suero por ensayo de flujo lateral fue efectiva para diagnosticar rápidamente criptococosis en personas con VIH/sida y con infección de COVID-19. Se observó que los pacientes de ambos grupos consultaron tarde por criptococosis en comparación con los casos prepandémicos de esta infección.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , SARS-CoV-2 , Cryptococcus , Coinfection , COVID-19
9.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(2): 62-69, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512918

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The identification, evaluation, and use of methodological resources for data quality analysis is important to support planning actions of public policies for the control of tuberculosis (TB) and the co-infection TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective was to analyze the quality and timeliness of notification of TB and TB-HIV co-infection cases from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN - Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação) in Espírito Santo State, from 2016 to 2018. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of the quality of SINAN data using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines to analyze the quality and timeliness of SINAN-TB notification, with emphasis on the description of TB-HIV co-infection in Espírito Santo State, from 2016 to 2018. It considered five methodological steps that included quality analysis, standardization of records, duplicity analysis, the completeness of data through linkage with the SINAN-HIV database and anonymization of data. It obtained ethical approval under the number 4022892 on 12/05/2020. Results: The study showed that 89% of mandatory variables and 91% of essential variables showed satisfactory completeness. In TB-HIV co-infection 73% of the variables were completed, but essential variables related to TB treatment follow-up showed unsatisfactory completeness. The timeliness of reporting was considered regular. Conclusion: Improvements in work processes and the development of a specific methodological process for data treatment are necessary to qualify the information available in SINAN-TB.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: A identificação, avaliação e emprego de recursos metodológicos para análise da qualidade dos dados é importante para fundamentar ações de planejamento das políticas públicas no controle da tuberculose (TB) e da coinfecção TB e o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). O objetivo é analisar a qualidade e a oportunidade de notificação dos casos de TB e coinfecção TB-HIV do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) no Espírito Santo, de 2016 a 2018. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal da qualidade dos dados do SINAN com uso do Guia do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) de análise da qualidade e oportunidade de notificação do SINAN-TB, com ênfase na descrição da coinfecção TB-HIV no Espírito Santo, de 2016 a 2018. Considerou-se cinco etapas metodológicas que incluíram análise da qualidade, padronização dos registros, análise de duplicidade, a completitude dos dados por meio de linkage com o banco de dados do SINAN-HIV e anonimização dos dados. Obteve aprovação ética sob parecer de nº 4022892 em 12/05/2020. Resultados: O estudo mostrou que 89% das variáveis obrigatórias e 91% das variáveis essenciais apresentaram completitude satisfatória. Na coinfecção TB-HIV 73% das variáveis foram preenchidas, porém variáveis essenciais relacionadas ao acompanhamento do tratamento para TB apresentaram completitude insatisfatória. A oportunidade de notificação foi considerada regular. Conclusão: Melhorias nos processos de trabalho e elaboração de processo metodológico específico para o tratamento dos dados são necessárias para qualificar as informações disponíveis no SINAN-TB.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: La identificación, evaluación y utilización de recursos metodológicos de análisis de la calidad de los datos es importante para apoyar la planificación de políticas públicas de control de la tuberculosis (TB) y la coinfección con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). El objetivo es analizar la calidad y oportunidad de la notificación de casos de TB y coinfección TB-VIH del Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN), en el Estado del Espírito Santo, desde el año 2016 hasta 2018. Métodos: Este es un estudio transversal utilizando el análisis de la Guía de los Centros para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de la calidad y oportunidad de la notificación en SINAN-TB, con énfasis en la descripción de la coinfección TB-VIH, en el Estado del Espírito Santo, desde el año 2016 hasta 2018. Fueran considerados cinco pasos metodológicos que incluyeron análisis de calidad, estandarización de registros, análisis de duplicidad, vinculación con la base de datos SINAN-VIH y anonimización de datos. Obtuvo aprobación ética bajo dictamen nº 4022892 el 12/05/2020. Resultados: El 89% de las variables obligatorias y el 91% de las variables esenciales se completaron satisfactoriamente. En la coinfección TB-VIH el 73% de las variables fueron completadas, mientras que las variables esenciales relacionadas con el acompañamiento del tratamiento para la TB presentaron una completitud insatisfactoria. La oportunidad de notificación fue considerada regular. Conclusión: Las mejoras en los procesos de trabajo y la elaboración de un proceso metodológico específico para el tratamiento de los datos son necesarias para cualificar la información disponible en el SINAN-TB.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , HIV Infections , Health Information Systems , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coinfection
10.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(111): 10-16, 20230000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1427156

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Se ha demostrado que la coinfección tu-berculosis y COVID-19 presenta peor evolución clínica. La inmunidad protectora se debilita frente a esta situación, generando fallo en el control de ambas infecciones, reac-tivación de formas latentes de tuberculosis y progresión exacerbada de los casos activos. Asimismo, la terapia con corticoides utilizada dentro del tratamiento de infecciones graves por COVID-19 puede generar inmunosupresión y precipitar la progresión de la tuberculosis.Objetivos: Describir las características clínicas, presenta-ción y evolución de los pacientes críticos con coinfección COVID-19 y tuberculosis. Evaluar la incidencia y letalidad de la asociación COVID-19 y tuberculosis en cuidados in-tensivos. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo. Se revisaron 12 historias clínicas de pacientes con coinfección COVID-19-tuberculosis sobre 1014 histo-rias clínicas de pacientes ingresados con diagnóstico de COVID-19, durante el periodo comprendido enero 2020 y junio 2022. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva. Resultados y discusión: Sobre un total de 1014 historias clínicas, se encontraron 12 pacientes con coinfección (in-cidencia de 0,011). La letalidad global en cuidados inten-sivos fue del 75%, a los 45 días fue del 83,3%, duplicando la letalidad general de los pacientes COVID-19 no coinfec-tados ingresados durante el mismo periodo (75% versus 37%). Los pacientes que requirieron ingreso a ventilación RESUMENARTÍCULO ORIGINALmecánica tuvieron una letalidad del 100% y aquellos que tenían infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia adquirida presentaron una letalidad de 100%. Resulta importante describir los hallazgos y alertar sobre la evolución desfavorable de aquellos pacientes que pre-sentan esta asociación a fin de optimizar el manejo y espe-cialmente recomendar la búsqueda de coinfección cuando el criterio clínico lo requiera


Background: Coinfection with tuberculosis and COVID-19 has been shown to have a worse clinical course. Protective immunity is weakened in this situation, leading to failure to control both infections, reactivation of latent forms of TB and exacerbated progression of active cases. Furthermore, corticosteroid therapy used in the treatment of severe COVID-19 infections can lead to immunosuppression and precipitate TB progression.Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics, presentation and evolution of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and tuberculosis co-infection.To evaluate the incidence and lethality of COVID-19 and tuberculosis association in intensive care.Materials and methods: A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted. Twelve medical records of patients aged 18 years or older admitted to intensive care with a diagnosis of COVID-19 during the period January 2020 to July 2022 were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were used.Results and discussion: Out of a total of 1014 medical records, 12 patients were found with co-infection (incidence 0.011). The global intensive care case fatality was 75%, at 45 days it was 83.3%. This was twice the overall case fatality of non-co-infected COVID-19 patients admitted during the same period (75% versus 37%). Patients requiring admission to mechanical ventilation had a 100% case fatality and those with acquired immunodeficiency virus infection had a 100% case fatality.It is important to describe the findings and to alert to the worse evolution of those patients presenting with this association, in order to improve management and recommend searching for co-infection when clinical criteria require it


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tuberculosis/therapy , Critical Care , Coinfection/immunology , COVID-19/immunology
11.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 732-742, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of causative microorganisms recovered from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs).@*METHODS@#A total of 2,926 bacterial and fungal strains were identified in samples collected from 1,679 patients with IAIs at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2011 and 2021. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the VITEK 2 compact system and the Kirby-Bauer method. AST results were interpreted based on the M100-Ed31 clinical breakpoints of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.@*RESULTS@#Of the 2,926 strains identified, 49.2%, 40.8%, and 9.5% were gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and fungi, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients; however, a significant decrease was observed in the isolation of E. coli between 2011 and 2021. Specifically, significant decreases were observed between 2011 and 2021 in the levels of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli (from 76.9% to 14.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (from 45.8% to 4.8%). Polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving co-infection with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, were commonly observed in IAI patients. Moreover, Candida albicans was more commonly isolated from hospital-associated IAI samples, while Staphylococcus epidermidis had a higher ratio in community-associated IAIs. Additionally, AST results revealed that most antimicrobial agents performed better in non-ESBL-producers than in ESBL-producers, while the overall resistance rates (56.9%-76.8%) of Acinetobacter baumanmii were higher against all antimicrobial agents than those of other common gram-negative bacteria. Indeed, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus were consistently found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid. Similarly, C. albicans exhibited high susceptibility to all the tested antifungal drugs.@*CONCLUSION@#The distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of the causative microorganisms from patients with IAIs were altered between 2011 and 2021. This finding is valuable for the implementation of evidence-based antimicrobial therapy and provides guidance for the control of hospital infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus , Intraabdominal Infections/epidemiology , Candida albicans , Coinfection
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2686-2693, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance is vital for a functional cure of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the incidence and predictors of HBsAg seroclearance in patients co-infected with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain largely unknown in Guangdong, China.@*METHODS@#Between 2009 and 2019, patients co-infected with HBV/HIV undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University were retrospectively reviewed with the endpoint on December 31, 2020. The incidence and risk factors for HBsAg seroclearance were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses.@*RESULTS@#A total of 1550 HBV/HIV co-infected patients were included in the study, with the median age of 42 years and 86.0% (1333/1550) males. Further, 98.3% (1524/1550) received ART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus lamivudine (3TC). HBV DNA was examined in 1283 cases at the last follow-up. Over the median 4.7 years of follow-up, 8.1% (126/1550) patients achieved HBsAg seroclearance, among whom 50.8% (64/126) obtained hepatitis B surface antibody, 28.1% (137/488) acquired hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion, and 95.9% (1231/1283) undetectable HBV DNA. Compared with patients who maintained HBsAg positive, cases achieving HBsAg seroclearance showed no differences in age, gender, CD4 + T cell count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, or fibrosis status; however, they presented lower HBV DNA levels, lower HBsAg levels, and higher rates of HBV genotype B at the baseline. Multivariate analysis showed that baseline HBsAg <1500 cutoff index (COI) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.74, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.48-5.09), ALT elevation >2 × upper limit of normal during the first six months after receiving ART (aHR, 2.96, 95% CI: 1.53-5.77), and HBV genotype B (aHR, 3.73, 95% CI: 1.46-9.59) were independent predictors for HBsAg seroclearance (all P <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Long-term TDF-containing ART has high anti-HBV efficacy including relatively high overall HBsAg seroclearance in HBV/HIV co-infected patients. Lower baseline HBsAg levels, HBV genotype B, and elevated ALT levels during the first six months of ART are potential predictors of HBsAg seroclearance.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV , DNA, Viral , Incidence , Coinfection/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy
13.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 548-553, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982631

ABSTRACT

Human bocavirus is a novel pathogen first detected in respiratory tract samples in 2005. People of different ages can be infected by human bocavirus. Children are the susceptible population, especially the infants aged from 6-24 months old. The epidemic season varies in different regions due to the differences in climate and geographical location, and it mainly occurs in autumn and winter. It's demonstrated that human bocavirus-1 is closely related to respiratory system diseases and even causes life-threatening critical illness. Also, the severity of symptom is positively correlated with viral load. Co-infections between human bocavirus-1 and other viruses often present high frequency occurrence. Human bocavirus-1 interferes immune function of host by inhibiting interferon secrete pathway. Currently, it remains limited knowledge and understanding of the roles of human bocavirus 2-4 in diseases, but the gastrointestinal diseases should be paid more attention. Detection of human bocavirus DNA by traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay shouldn't be regarded as conclusive diagnostic basis. Instead, combined with mRNA and specific antigen detection, it is beneficial to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Till now, the knowledge of human bocavirus remains poorly studied, which is deserved to further progress.


Subject(s)
Infant , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Human bocavirus , Climate , Coinfection , Epidemics , Interferons
15.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1517853

ABSTRACT

Introduction Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the main cause of death as an infectious agent of Tuberculosis in humans, particularly in resource-poor settings. Worldwide, Tuberculosis is one of the top 10 causes of mortality. Objective of the study This study aims to determine the outcomes of TB treatment and assess the factors associated with unsuccessful TB treatment outcome among TB/HIV co-infected patients in Rwanda. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of all TB/HIV co-infected patients reported in the national electronic TB reporting system (e-TB) by all health facilities from July 2019 to June 2020. Frequencies, proportions, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to determine factors associated with unsuccessful TB treatment. Results There were 1,144 people reported in the e-TB, however, only 987 were included in the study because 157 patients did not meet the inclusion criteria.The TB/HIV coinfected patients who were not given nutritional support, OR 7.3, 95%CI [1.4, 37.6] and those who were not on ART,OR15.3, 95%CI [3.6, 69.6],were more likely to have unsuccessful treatment outcome than their counterparts. Conclusion Unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes were highly observed among TB/HIV coinfected patients. The study recommended reinforcing nutritional support and early initiation of ART among TB/HIV co-infected patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis , HIV Infections , Cohort Studies , Coinfection
16.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1415943

ABSTRACT

Background: Initiating newly diagnosed people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) onto antiretroviral treatment (ART) and retaining patients on treatment are vital to South Africa's ART programme. In 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its accompanying containment (lockdown) measures presented unprecedented challenges to achieving these objectives. Aim: This study describes the impact of COVID-19 and related restrictions on district-level numbers of newly diagnosed people living with HIV and defaulting ART patients. Setting: Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM) in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Methods: Mixed-methods approach: Monthly aggregated electronic patient data (newly initiated and restarted on ART) from 113 public healthcare (PHC) facilities were analysed (December 2019 to November 2020) across varying levels of COVID-19 lockdown regulation periods; telephonic in-depth interviews at 10 rural BCMM PHC facilities were conducted with facility staff, community health workers (CHWs) and intervention personnel. Results: The number of newly initiated ART patients decreased dramatically compared with pre-COVID-19 levels. The overall number of restarted ART patients increased in response to fears of co-infection with COVID-19. Facility-level communications and community outreach promoting HIV testing and treatment were disrupted. Novel approaches to providing services to ART patients were developed. Conclusion: Programmes for identifying undiagnosed people living with HIV and services aimed at retaining ART patients in care were profoundly impacted by COVID-19. The value of CHWs was highlighted, as were communication innovations. Contribution: This study describes the impact of COVID-19 and related regulations on HIV testing, ART initiation and adherence to treatment in a District of the Eastern Cape of South Africa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Therapeutics , HIV Infections , Community Health Workers , Coinfection , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis
17.
Health sci. dis ; 24(2 Suppl 1): 26-30, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1416528

ABSTRACT

Background. The COVID-19 pandemic has added an additional burden in countries with already fragile health systems. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of COVID-19 in suspected malaria during the second wave in Yaounde. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Jordan Medical Services for 8 weeks from April 19 to June 13, 2021, i.e., during the second wave in Cameroon. For the 86 patients with suspected malaria, nasopharyngeal and blood samples were taken for SARS-CoV-2 antigen and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM using the STANDARD TM Q COVID-19 Ag kit from SD BIOSENSOR, Korea, 2020 and Standard TM Q COVID 19 Ac IgG/IgM kit from SD BIOSENSOR, Korea, 2020 respectively. Confirmation of malaria was done by microscopic examination of stained blood smears. Results. Malaria was confirmed in 20.9% (18) of cases. The prevalences of COVID-19 and COVID-19/malaria co-infection were 8.1% and 0.9% respectively. Of the 25.6% (54) of patients with anti-COVID-19 IgM, no positive microscopic cases were found. On the other hand, a little more than half of the patients had IgG antibodies against COVID-19 whether they had a positive thick drop or not (56.0% (42/75) and 52.2% (71/136) respectively). Conclusion. In case of suspicion of malaria in a malaria area, it seems important to consider COVID-19 as a differential diagnosis.


Introduction. La pandémie de la COVID-19 a ajouté un fardeau supplémentaire dans les pays aux systèmes de santé déjà fragiles. Objectif : déterminer la prévalence et la séroprévalence de la COVID-19 en cas de suspicion du paludisme au cours de la deuxième vagueà Yaoundé. Méthodologie. Une étude transversale descriptive a été menée au Centre Médical le Jourdain pendant 8 semaines du 19 Avril au 13 Juin 2021 soit durant la deuxième vague au Cameroun. Pour les 86 patients avec suspicion de paludisme, des prélèvements nasopharyngé et sanguins ont été réalisés pour la recherche d'antigène du SRAS- CoV 2 et des IgG et IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 grâce aux kits STANDARDTM Q COVID-19 Ag de SD BIOSENSOR, Corée, 2020 et StandardTM Q COVID 19 Ac IgG/IgM de SD BIOSENSOR, Corée, 2020 respectivement. La confirmation du paludisme a été faite grâce à l'examen microscopique des étalements de sang colorés. Résultats. Le paludisme était confirmé dans 20,9% (18) des cas. Les prévalences de la COVID-19 et de la coïnfection COVID19/Paludisme étaient de 8,1% et de 0,9% respectivement. Sur les 25,6% (54) des patients avec des IgM anti-COVID-19, aucun cas de microscopie positive n'a été retrouvé. Par ailleurs un peu plus de la moitié des patients avaient des anticorps IgG anti-COVID-19 qu'ils aient une goutte épaisse positive ou pas soit 56,0% (42/75) et 52,2% (71/136) respectivement. Conclusion. En cas de suspicion du paludisme en zone impaludée, il parait non négligeable de considérer la COVID-19 comme un diagnostic différentiel.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Signs and Symptoms , COVID-19 , Malaria , Therapeutics , Prevalence , Coinfection , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Health sci. dis ; 24(2 Suppl 1): 23-27, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1416547

ABSTRACT

Background. Health care personnel constitute a group at high risk of contracting COVID-19. However, the vaccination rate in this group in our context remains low. The objective of our study was to determine the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among health care workers in Yaounde. Methods.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 360 health personnel in three hospitals in the city of Yaounde from January to March 2022, i.e., 3 months. All health personnel who gave their free consent were included. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics and Research Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences of the University of Yaounde I. A logistic regression was performed to search for factors associated with reluctance to vaccinate, with a significance level of 0.05. Results.The vaccination rate against COVID-19 was 34% (123). Factors associated with vaccine hesitancy were female gender (OR [95% CI] =3.5[2.2-5.5]; p<0.001), working outside a COVID-19 management unit (OR [95% CI]=6, [2.1-18.5]; p=0.001), fear of the harmfulness of COVID-19 vaccines (OR [CI 95%] =2.7[1.7-4.2]; p<0.001), and doubt of vaccine efficacy (OR [CI 95%] =4.0[2.5-6.4]; p<0.001). Conclusion:Health personnel are still reluctant to vaccinate in our context. Factors associated with hesitancy to vaccination against COVID-19 could help deconstruct apprehensions.


Introduction. La pandémie de la COVID-19 a ajouté un fardeau supplémentaire dans les pays aux systèmes de santé déjà fragiles. Objectif : déterminer la prévalence et la séroprévalence de la COVID-19 en cas de suspicion du paludisme au cours de la deuxième vagueà Yaoundé. Méthodologie. Une étude transversale descriptive a été menée au Centre Médical le Jourdain pendant 8 semaines du 19 Avril au 13 Juin 2021 soit durant la deuxième vague au Cameroun. Pour les 86 patients avec suspicion de paludisme, des prélèvements nasopharyngé et sanguins ont été réalisés pour la recherche d'antigène du SRAS- CoV 2 et des IgG et IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 grâce aux kits STANDARDTM Q COVID-19 Ag de SD BIOSENSOR, Corée, 2020 et StandardTM Q COVID 19 Ac IgG/IgM de SD BIOSENSOR, Corée, 2020 respectivement. La confirmation du paludisme a été faite grâce à l'examen microscopique des étalements de sang colorés. Résultats. Le paludisme était confirmé dans 20,9% (18) des cas. Les prévalences de la COVID-19 et de la coïnfection COVID19/Paludisme étaient de 8,1% et de 0,9% respectivement. Sur les 25,6% (54) des patients avec des IgM anti-COVID-19, aucun cas de microscopie positive n'a été retrouvé. Par ailleurs un peu plus de la moitié des patients avaient des anticorps IgG anti-COVID-19 qu'ils aient une goutte épaisse positive ou pas soit 56,0% (42/75) et 52,2% (71/136) respectivement. Conclusion. En cas de suspicion du paludisme en zone impaludée, il parait non négligeable de considérer la COVID-19 comme un diagnostic différentiel.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Health Personnel , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Delivery of Health Care , Coinfection , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination Hesitancy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics
19.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 322-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985870

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and the risk factors of severe human metapneumovirus (hMPV)-associated community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Methods: A retrospective case summary was conducted. From December 2020 to March 2022, 721 children who were diagnosed with CAP and tested positive for hMPV nucleic acid by PCR-capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of nasopharyngeal secretions at the Yuying Children's Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University were selected as the research objects. The clinical characteristics, epidemiological characteristics and mixed pathogens of the two groups were analyzed. According to CAP diagnostic criteria, the children were divided into the severe group and the mild group. Chi-square test or Mann-Whitney rank and contrast analysis was used for comparison between groups, while multivariate Logistic regression was applied to analyze the risk factors of the severe hMPV-associated CAP. Results: A total of 721 children who were diagnosed with hMPV-associated CAP were included in this study, with 397 males and 324 females. There were 154 cases in the severe group. The age of onset was 1.0 (0.9, 3.0) years, <3 years old 104 cases (67.5%), and the length of hospital stay was 7 (6, 9) days. In the severe group, 67 children (43.5%) were complicated with underlying diseases. In the severe group, 154 cases (100.0%) had cough, 148 cases (96.1%) had shortness of breath and pulmonary moist rales, and 132 cases (85.7%) had fever, 23 cases (14.9%) were complicated with respiratory failure. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in 86 children (55.8%), including CRP≥50 mg/L in 33 children (21.4%). Co-infection was detected in 77 cases (50.0%) and 102 strains of pathogen were detected, 25 strains of rhinovirus, 17 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 15 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 12 strains of Haemophilus influenzae and 10 strains of respiratory syncytial virus were detected. Six cases (3.9%) received heated and humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, 15 cases (9.7%) were admitted to intensive care unit, and 2 cases (1.3%) received mechanical ventilation. In the severe group, 108 children were cured, 42 children were improved, 4 chlidren were discharged automatically without recovery and no death occurred. There were 567 cases in the mild group. The age of onset was 2.7 (1.0, 4.0) years, and the length of hospital stay was 4 (4, 6) days.Compared with the mild group, the proportion of children who age of disease onset <6 months, CRP≥50 mg/L, the proportions of preterm birth, congenital heart disease, malnutrition, congenital airway malformation, neuromuscular disease, mixed respiratory syncytial viruses infection were higher (20 cases (13.0%) vs. 31 cases (5.5%), 32 cases (20.8%) vs. 64 cases (11.3%), 23 cases (14.9%) vs. 44 cases (7.8%), 11 cases (7.1%) vs. 18 cases (3.2%), 9 cases (5.8%) vs. 6 cases (1.1%), 11 cases (7.1%) vs. 12 cases (2.1%), 8 cases (5.2%) vs. 4 cases (0.7%), 10 cases (6.5%) vs. 13 cases (2.3%), χ2=0.42, 9.45, 7.40, 4.94, 11.40, 8.35, 3.52, 6.92, all P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age<6 months (OR=2.51, 95%CI 1.29-4.89), CRP≥50 mg/L (OR=2.20, 95%CI 1.36-3.57), prematurity (OR=2.19, 95%CI 1.26-3.81), malnutrition (OR=6.05, 95%CI 1.89-19.39) were the independent risk factors for severe hMPV-associated CAP. Conclusions: Severe hMPV-associated CAP is most likely to occur in infants under 3 years old and has a higher proportion of underlying diseases and co-infection. The main clinical manifestations are cough, shortness of breath and pulmonary moist rales, fever. The overall prognosis is good. Age<6 months, CRP≥50 mg/L, preterm birth, malnutrition are the independent risk factors for severe hMPV-associated CAP.


Subject(s)
Infant , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Retrospective Studies , Cough , Coinfection , Premature Birth , Respiratory Sounds , Metapneumovirus , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Dyspnea , Malnutrition
20.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1114-1118, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985641

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the infection status and epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis C in people aged 1-69 years in Henan Province in 2020. Methods: The estimated sample size was 5 827. From August to December 2020, multistage sampling was used to select 8 counties (districts) in Henan, and two survey sites were selected in each county (district), and a questionnaire survey was conducted in local people aged 1-69 years, blood samples were collected from them for anti-HCV, HCV RNA and genotype detections. Results: A total of 5 165 people aged 1-69 years completed the questionnaire survey. Men accounted for 44.76% (2 312/5 165), women accounted for 55.24% (2 853/5 165). In the people aged 1-69 years, the overall prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 0.69% (95%CI: 0.68%-0.70%) and 0.20% (95%CI: 0.19%-0.21%) respectively. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 0.48% (95%CI: 0.46%-0.50%), 0.09% (95%CI: 0.08%-0.10%) in men and 0.86% (95%CI: 0.85%-0.87%), 0.30% (95%CI: 0.28%-0.32%) in women. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA increased with age. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 0.87% (95%CI: 0.86%-0.88%), 0.28% (95%CI: 0.26%-0.30%) in urban residents and 0.53% (95%CI: 0.51%-0.55%), 0.14% (95%CI: 0.13%-0.15%) in rural residents. The genotyping results of 10 HCV RNA positive samples ware genotype 1b (4/10), genotype 2 (3/10), genotype 1b/3 (1/10), genotype 1b/3/6 (1/10) and genotype 2/6 (1/10). Conclusions: The prevalence of hepatitis C was low in Henan in 2020. It is necessary to strengthen hepatitis C surveillance in people aged 40 years and above. The major HCV genotypes were 1b and 2, and mixed genotype infection existed.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coinfection , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/genetics , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires
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