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1.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 58: 04, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536764

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE To describe and analyze the healthiness of formal and informal food establishments in bus terminals of the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. METHOD An audit was conducted in 156 formal and 127 informal food establishments located in 14 bus terminals of the five most populous cities of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro. Proportions of types of establishments and means (95%CI) of food availability indicators in formal and informal settings were calculated. For the formal setting, prices, proportions of accepted payment methods, days and hours of operation, and food categories with displayed advertising were described. RESULTS The healthiness of food establishments in bus terminals was low (less than 36%). On average, ultra-processed food subgroups were 250% more available for purchase than fresh or minimally processed food. Purchasing food at these places was convenient because several forms of payment were available, and the opening hours of the establishments followed the peaks of movement. In addition, 73.3% of the advertising referred to ultra-processed drinks, and the cost-benefit of buying ultra-processed food was better than fresh or minimally processed food. CONCLUSION The food environment of bus terminals in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro promotes unhealthy eating. Regulatory public policies should focus on initiatives to limit the wide availability and advertising of ultra-processed food in spaces of great circulation of people.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever e analisar a saudabilidade dos estabelecimentos com venda formal e informal de alimentos em terminais rodoviários da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS Realizou-se auditoria em 156 estabelecimentos formais e 127 pontos informais de venda de alimentos localizados em 14 terminais rodoviários das cinco cidades mais populosas da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Foram calculadas proporções de tipos de estabelecimentos e médias (IC95%) de indicadores de disponibilidade de alimentos nos ambientes formal e informal. Para o ambiente formal, foram descritos preços, proporções das formas de pagamento aceitas, dias e horários de funcionamento e categorias de alimentos com propaganda exposta. RESULTADOS A saudabilidade dos pontos de venda de alimentos nos terminais rodoviários era baixa (inferior a 36%). Em média, estavam disponíveis para compra 250% mais subgrupos de alimentos ultraprocessados do que in natura ou minimamente processados. Adquirir comida nesses locais era conveniente porque diversas formas de pagamento estavam disponíveis e os horários de funcionamento dos estabelecimentos acompanhavam os picos de movimentação. Além disso, 73,3% das propagandas se referiam a bebidas ultraprocessadas e o custo-benefício da compra de alimentos ultraprocessados era melhor que o de alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados. CONCLUSÃO O ambiente alimentar dos terminais rodoviários da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro promove uma alimentação não saudável. Políticas públicas de regulação devem se concentrar em iniciativas que limitem a ampla disponibilidade e publicidade de alimentos ultraprocessados nesses espaços de grande circulação de pessoas.


Subject(s)
Transportation , Food Quality , Urban Health , Commerce , Food , Feeding in the Urban Context
2.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 669-673, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To interpret the key contents of the guidance of Personalized Medical Device Regulatory Pathways issued by the IMDRF, and provide reference for the improvement of China's medical device regulatory system.@*METHODS@#The regulatory requirements of personalized medical devices and point-of-care manufacture of medical device were described respectively, and the feasibility of implementing the regulation of point-of-care manufacture of medical device in China was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The different regulatory pathways of medical devices produced at point-of-care are feasible and have different regulatory risks.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In combination with the recommendations provided by the IMDRF guidance and the clinical and regulatory realities in China, we should accelerate the improvement of the regulations and supporting documents for point-of-care manufacture of medical device in China.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Medical Device Legislation , China
3.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 545-549, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010236

ABSTRACT

Through the analysis of laws and policies related to registration self-inspection, visiting and researching enterprises, holding symposiums, and issuing nationwide questionnaires, the risks in the registration self-inspection process were summarized, analyzed, and evaluated. From the aspects of regulatory departments and manufacturing enterprises, we suggest to improve China's medical device registration regulations system and reduce the risks of all parties in the registration self-inspection work.


Subject(s)
Risk Management , Commerce , Medical Device Legislation
4.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 533-538, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010234

ABSTRACT

With the characteristics of fast prototyping and personalized manufacturing, 3D-printing (three-dimensional printing) is an emerging technology with promising applications for orthopedic medical devices. It can complete the process of medical devices with complex shape which can not be completed by conventional fabrication process. At present, a variety of orthopedic medical devices manufactured by 3D printing technology, has been approved for marketing, and their use has been proved to be beneficial. 3D bioprinting in this area has also made a few breakthroughs. However, many challenges still remain to be addressed as well. In this study, the research status, as well as the development of the 3D-printing technology in the field of orthopedic medical devices is elaborated.


Subject(s)
Printing, Three-Dimensional , Bioprinting , Commerce , Research
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e278525, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529222

ABSTRACT

O Sistema de Avaliação de Testes Psicológicos (SATEPSI) recebeu notoriedade entre brasileiros e estrangeiros por oferecer um complexo sistema de qualificação dos testes psicológicos, pouco visto em âmbito mundial. Sua elaboração dependeu de uma autarquia, que o financiou, normatizou e o mantém, mas também de pesquisadores docentes de avaliação psicológica, que trouxeram a expertise da área para que houvesse o pleno estabelecimento de seus parâmetros. Passadas duas décadas de seu lançamento, o SATEPSI foi tema de artigos, capítulos, lives e diálogos digitais, nos quais foram destaque, de modo geral, as Resoluções do Conselho Federal de Psicologia, que o normatiza, e seus impactos para a área de avaliação psicológica - como, por exemplo, o aumento do número de pesquisas e de testes brasileiros qualificados. O que se pretende neste artigo é mencionar sua construção, à luz dos autores que vivenciaram o SATEPSI em funções e tempos distintos. Atenção especial será dada aos Métodos Projetivos, cuja história ainda é pouco revelada.(AU)


The system to evaluate psychological tests (Satepsi) received notoriety among Brazilians and foreigners for offering a complex system of qualification of psychological tests, which is rarely seen worldwide. Its development depended on an autarchy (which financed, standardized, and maintains it) and on researchers teaching psychological assessment, who brought their expertise to the area so its parameters could be fully established. After two decades of its launch, Satepsi was the subject of articles, chapters, lives, and digital dialogues, which usually highlighted the Resolutions of the Federal Council of Psychology that normatize psychological evaluation and their impacts, such as the increase in the number of qualified Brazilian tests. This study aims to mention its construction in the light of the authors who experienced Satepsi in different functions and times, giving special attention to Projective Methods, whose history remains to be shown.(AU)


El Sistema de Evaluación de Tests Psicológicos (SATEPSI) ganó notoriedad entre los brasileños y los extranjeros por ofrecer un complejo sistema de calificación de los tests psicológicos, poco frecuente a nivel mundial. Su elaboración dependió de una autarquía, que lo financió, lo estandarizó y lo mantiene, pero también de investigadores docentes de evaluación psicológica, que trajeron la experiencia del área para que hubiera el pleno establecimiento de sus parámetros. Tras dos décadas de su lanzamiento, SATEPSI fue tema de artículos, capítulos, en directo y diálogos digitales, en los cuales destacaron, de modo general, las Resoluciones del Consejo Federal de Psicología que lo normatiza y sus impactos para el área de evaluación psicológica, como el aumento del número de investigaciones y de pruebas brasileñas calificadas. Lo que se pretende en este artículo es mencionar su construcción, a la luz de los autores que vivieron el SATEPSI en funciones y tiempos distintos. Se prestará especial atención a los métodos proyectivos cuya historia aún no se ha revelado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Psychological Tests , Psychometrics , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Personality Assessment , Personality Tests , Aptitude Tests , Professional Competence , Professional Practice , Psychoanalytic Interpretation , Psychology , Safety , Audiovisual Aids , Self-Evaluation Programs , Social Control, Formal , Societies , Students , Vocational Guidance , Behavior , Professional Review Organizations , Body Image , Computer Systems , Mental Health , Efficacy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Liability, Legal , Treatment Outcome , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Total Quality Management , Commerce , Lecture , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Internet , Credentialing , Musculoskeletal Manipulations , Diagnosis , Employee Performance Appraisal , Science, Technology and Society , Ethics , Professional Training , Courses , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Expert Testimony , Self Report , Test Taking Skills , Quality Improvement , Pandemics , Social Skills , Data Accuracy , Behavior Rating Scale , Work Engagement , Internet Access , Web Archives as Topic , Internet-Based Intervention , Teleworking , COVID-19 , Psychological Well-Being , Human Rights , Intelligence , Intelligence Tests , Manuals as Topic , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e278674, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529223

ABSTRACT

A Comissão Consultiva em Avaliação Psicológica (CCAP), atrelada ao Sistema de Avaliação de Testes Psicológicos (SATEPSI) do Conselho Federal de Psicologia (CFP), tem como objetivos emitir pareceres acerca de solicitações advindas da avaliação psicológica(AP), elaborar e propor atualizações de documentos técnicos e normativos do CFP relativos à AP, elaborar e propor diretrizes para o ensino e formação continuada em AP, conduzir o processo de avaliação dos instrumentos submetidos ao SATEPSI e discutir temas e propor ações no âmbito da AP. Nos últimos 20 anos, a CCAP vem buscando atender a esses objetivos, indicando novos caminhos para a área. Nesse sentido, este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar as principais atualidades e movimentos da CCAP, indicando caminhos possíveis e perspectivas futuras para a área de AP. São discutidas as ações atuais que vêm sendo desenvolvidas pela CCAP, bem como as ações futuras delineadas que buscam promover uma AP cada vez mais democrática. Concluímos que a AP é uma prática do(a) psicólogo(a) que deve ser operacionalizada com compromisso ético, atrelada aos direitos humanos e à justiça, com embasamento científico e alinhada às mudanças sociais.(AU)


The Consultative Commission on Psychological Assessment (CCAP), affiliated with the Psychological Test Evaluation System under the Federal Council of Psychology (CFP), has the following objectives: to provide expert opinions on requests stemming from psychological assessments (PA), to draft and propose updates to the CFP technical and normative documents pertaining to PA, to formulate and recommend guidelines for education and ongoing professional development in PA, to oversee the evaluation process of instruments submitted to SATEPSI, and to engage in discussions and propose initiatives within the PA. Over the past two decades, CCAP has diligently worked to achieve these goals, charting new avenues in the field. In this context, this study aims to describe the most current developments and initiatives of CCAP and outline prospective directions and future outlooks for the PA. This study delves into the current initiatives undertaken by CCAP and the prospective actions delineated to foster a progressively more inclusive PA. Thus, we claim that PA is a practice inherent to psychologists that demands ethical commitment, alignment with human rights and justice, a solid scientific foundation, and adaptation to evolving social dynamics.(AU)


La Comisión Consultiva en Evaluación Psicológica (CCAP), vinculada al Sistema de Evaluación de Pruebas Psicológicas (SATEPSI) del Consejo Federal de Psicología (CFP), tiene como objetivo emitir opinión técnica sobre solicitudes derivadas de la evaluación psicológica (EP), elaborar y proponer actualizaciones de documentos técnicos y normativos del CFP relacionados con EP, desarrollar y proponer lineamientos para la enseñanza y la formación continua en EP, conducir el proceso de evaluación de los instrumentos presentados al SATEPSI y discutir temas y proponer acciones en el ámbito de EP. Durante los últimos veinte años, la CCAP ha buscado alcanzar estos objetivos indicando nuevos caminos para el área. En este sentido, este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar las principales actualidades y movimientos de la CCAP indicando posibles caminos y perspectivas de futuro para el área de EP. Se discuten las acciones actuales que ha desarrollado la CCAP, así como las acciones futuras perfiladas que buscan promover una EP cada vez más democrática. Se concluye que la EP es una práctica del psicólogo que debe ponerse en práctica con compromiso ético, vinculada a los derechos humanos y la justicia, con base científica y alineada con los cambios sociales.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychological Tests , Psychometrics , Social Justice , Psychological Techniques , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Human Rights , Personality Assessment , Personality Tests , Personnel Selection , Policy Making , Professional Staff Committees , Psychological Phenomena , Psychology , Public Policy , Research , Science , Social Behavior , Social Change , Social Class , Social Control, Formal , Social Identification , Social Isolation , Social Planning , Social Sciences , Social Work , Socioeconomic Factors , Therapeutics , Behavioral Sciences , Professional Review Organizations , Electronic Data Processing , Online Systems , Adaptation, Psychological , Career Choice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sociometric Techniques , Health Strategies , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Disabled Persons , Total Quality Management , Cognition , Commerce , Technology Transfer , Concept Formation , Cultural Diversity , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Form , Resolutions , Advisory Committees , Decision Making , Behavior Control , Codes of Ethics , Diagnosis , Educational Status , Research and Development Projects , Population Studies in Public Health , Equity , Information Technology , Expert Testimony , Cultural Competency , Evidence-Based Practice , Executive Function , Social Norms , Data Accuracy , Problem Behavior , Behavior Rating Scale , Freedom , Sociocultural Territory , Civil Society , Psychological Distress , Gender Identity , Social Network Analysis , Document Analysis , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Information Sources , Institutional Analysis , Human Development , Judgment , Learning , Memory , Mental Health Services , Mental Processes , Morale , Neuropsychological Tests , Neuropsychology
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e278403, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529212

ABSTRACT

A Comissão Consultiva em Avaliação Psicológica (CCAP) do Conselho Federal de Psicologia (CFP), em seu 20º aniversário, vem discutir os possíveis efeitos, ainda efetivamente desconhecidos, da Ação Direta de Inconstitucionalidade (ADI) 3481, instruída no Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF), a qual desestruturou o modo como os testes psicológicos eram comercializados no Brasil. A livre comercialização de testes psicológicos coloca em risco a segurança de avaliações psicológicas e cabe à categoria profissional pensar estratégias de enfrentamento desses riscos. Neste artigo, são discutidos possíveis efeitos da ADI 3481 para a categoria profissional da psicologia, bem como para a sociedade em geral, e são também elencadas possíveis estratégias de enfrentamento desses riscos, sem desconsiderar aspectos éticos relacionados a eles. Dessa forma, busca-se neste manuscrito, além da problematização dos efeitos derivados da ADI 3481, pensar soluções ou alternativas que venham a redirecionar a trajetória da área da avaliação psicológica no Brasil. Com isso, abre-se um espaço de discussão e encaminhamentos que a categoria profissional precisará tomar nos próximos anos.(AU)


The Advisory Commission for Psychological Assessment of the Federal Council of Psychology discusses, on its 20th anniversary, the possible and still effectively unknown effects of the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality (DAU) 3481, following the Supreme Federal Court, which interrupted how psychological tests were marketed in Brazil. The free trade of psychological tests puts the safety of psychological assessments at risk, and this professional category must think of strategies to face these risks. This study discusses the possible effects of DAU 3481 for professional psychology and for society in general, listing possible strategies for coping with these risks without disregarding its ethical aspects. Thus, this study seeks to problematize the effects derived from DAU 3481 and think of solutions or alternatives that may redirect the trajectory of the field of psychological assessment in Brazil, thus opening a space for discussion and referrals professional psychology will require in the coming years.(AU)


La Comisión Consultiva en Evaluación Psicológica (CCEP) del Consejo Federal de Psicología (CFP), en su 20.º aniversario, propone discutir los posibles efectos aún efectivamente desconocidos de la Acción Directa de Inconstitucionalidad (ADI) 3481, determinada por el Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF), por la cual trastornó la forma de comercializar las pruebas psicológicas en Brasil. La comercialización sin restricciones de las pruebas psicológicas pone en riesgo la seguridad de las evaluaciones psicológicas, y le corresponde a la categoría profesional pensar estrategias para enfrentar estos riesgos. En este artículo se discuten los posibles efectos de la ADI 3481 para la categoría profesional de la Psicología, así como para la sociedad en general, pero también se enumeran posibles estrategias para el enfrentamiento de estos riesgos, sin descuidar los aspectos éticos relacionados con ellos. Así, este manuscrito busca, además de problematizar los efectos derivados de la ADI 3481, pensar en soluciones o alternativas que puedan reconducir la trayectoria del campo de la evaluación psicológica en Brasil. Esto abre un espacio de discusión y derivaciones que la categoría profesional deberá tomar en los próximos años.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychological Tests , Psychology , Social Justice , Aptitude Tests , Politics , Poverty , Problem Solving , Professional Practice , Quality of Health Care , Safety , Social Control, Formal , Social Sciences , Societies , Specialty Boards , Systems Analysis , Teaching , Therapeutics , Choice Behavior , Mental Health , Control Groups , Reproducibility of Results , Health Status Indicators , Databases, Bibliographic , Decision Support Techniques , Investigative Techniques , Health Strategies , Civil Rights , Negotiating , Mental Competency , Clinical Competence , Disabled Persons , Total Quality Management , Collective Bargaining , Commerce , Communication , Confidentiality , Impacts of Polution on Health , Knowledge , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Handbook , Credentialing , Health Risk , Access to Information , Decision Making , Uncertainty , Government Regulation , Law Enforcement , Diagnosis , Employee Discipline , Equipment and Supplies , Disease Prevention , Ethics , Ethics, Professional , Professional Training , Data Accuracy , Ecological Momentary Assessment , Mentoring , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Freedom , Health Occupations , Health Services Accessibility , Jurisprudence , Licensure , Methods
8.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 18: 69252, 2023. ^etab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532277

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O ambiente alimentar que a comunidade está inserida pode influenciar, positiva ou negativamente no acesso à alimentação de qualidade e consequentemente na sua saúde. Objetivo: Identificar a presença de desertos alimentares em um distrito sanitário de uma capital brasileira. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, transversal e exploratório, utilizando dados secundários de diferentes fontes institucionais para mapear a distribuição espacial de estabelecimentos de comercialização de alimentos: restaurantes, padarias, supermercados, minimercados/mercearias, hortifrutigranjeiros, vendedores ambulantes e lanchonetes/fastfood. Os estabelecimentos foram agrupados nas categorias in natura, ultraprocessados e mistos, de acordo com a predominância do tipo de alimentos comercializados. Para a análise, a densidade de estabelecimentos in natura juntamente com os mistos por mil habitantes (usuários cadastrados nos centros de saúde) foram calculadas.  Resultados: Foram investigados 111 estabelecimentos, sendo 20% que comercializavam alimentos in natura (saudáveis), 27% alimentos ultraprocessados (não saudáveis) e 53% considerados mistos. Conclusões: Foram observadas áreas que podem ser consideradas desertos alimentares, locais onde há pouca (ou ausência) de oferta de alimentos in natura, e por consequência dificultando o acesso a alimentos saudáveis.


Introduction: The communities' food environment can positively or negatively influence access to quality food and consequently, people's health. Objective: Identify the presence of food deserts in a health district of a Brazilian capital. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional and exploratory study, using secondary data from different institutional sources to map the spatial distribution of food establishments such as restaurants, bakeries, supermarkets, minimarkets/grocery stores, fruit and vegetable stores, street vendors and cafeterias/fast food. The establishments were grouped into fresh, ultra-processed and mixed food categories, according to the predominance of the type of food offered. For the purpose of analysis, the density of fresh food establishments together with mixed food establishments per thousand inhabitants (as registered in the health centers) was calculated.  Results: A total of 111 establishments were investigated, 20% selling fresh foods (healthy), 27% ultra-processed foods (unhealthy) and 53% considered mixed food sellers. Conclusions: Areas that can be considered food deserts were found, i.e. places where there is little (or absence) of fresh food supply, and consequently making access to healthy foods difficult.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Food Deserts , Access to Healthy Foods
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243813, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431124

ABSTRACT

Este estudo propõe analisar as relações e os processos de subjetivação de mulheres quebradeiras de coco babaçu decorrentes das intervenções de políticas desenvolvimentistas em seus territórios de vida e reverberações no Movimento Interestadual de Quebradeiras de Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Sob a perspectiva ético-estético-política da Cartografia, acompanhamos as narrativas das histórias de vida de 24 mulheres, suas atividades cotidianas e eventos do MIQCB, também analisamos os documentos das políticas. Entendemos que, ao passo que tais políticas de desenvolvimento rural contribuem para a melhoria das condições de vida, em termos materiais e simbólicos, elas também produzem ressonâncias relacionadas ao modo de subjetivação do tipo "empresário de si", que agenciam seus modos de viver, de produzir e de se relacionar consigo e com os outros na lógica capitalista neoliberal. A resistência às capturas neoliberais também estão presentes ao ampliarem as mobilizações coletivas do próprio movimento, articulando com outros na produção de um "comum".(AU)


This study proposes to analyze the relations and the processes of subjectivation of babassu coconut-breaker women arising from developmental policy interventions in their territories of life and reverberations in the Babassu Coconut-breaker Interstate Movement (MIQCB). From the ethical-aesthetic-political perspective of Cartography, we followed the narratives of the life stories of 24 women, their daily activities and promoted events by MIQCB, we also analyzed the policy documents. We understand that while these policies of rural development contribute to improve the living conditions, in material and symbolic terms, they also produce resonances related to the "self-entrepreneur" mode of subjectivation, which has been handling their ways of living, producing, and relating to themselves and others in the neoliberal capitalist logic. Resistance to neoliberal captures is also present as they expand the collective mobilizations of the movement itself, articulating with others, in the production of a "common."(AU)


Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar los procesos de subjetivación de las mujeres que rompen coco babaçu que surgen de las intervenciones de las políticas de desarrollo en sus territorios de vida y las reverberaciones en el Movimiento Interestadual de las Mujeres que Rompen Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Desde la perspectiva ético-estético-política de la Cartografía, seguimos las narraciones de las historias de vida de 24 mujeres, sus actividades diarias y eventos del MIQCB, y también analizamos los documentos de las políticas. Si bien estas políticas han contribuido a mejorar las condiciones de vida de las mujeres, en términos materiales y simbólicos, también han producido resonancias del modo de subjetivación "autoempresarial", que ha agenciado sus formas de vivir, producir y relacionarse consigo mismas y con los demás en la lógica capitalista neoliberal. La resistencia a las capturas neoliberales también está presente cuando amplían las movilizaciones colectivas del propio movimiento, articulándose con otros en la producción de un "común".(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Growth and Development , Economics , Government , Politics , Poverty , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Retirement , Rural Population , Social Desirability , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Soil , Women's Rights , Wood , Health Policy, Planning and Management , Socioeconomic Planning , Social Control Policies , Legislation, Environmental , Brazil , Water , Exercise , Ethnicity , Economic Development , Crop Production , Poverty Areas , Land Use , Rural Areas , Forests , Organizations , Environmental Health , Conflict of Interest , Workload , Family Planning Policy , Entrepreneurship , Agrochemicals , Interview , Collective Bargaining , Commerce , Crops, Agricultural , Environmental Management , Natural Resources Exploitation , Natural Resources , Renewable Resources , Natural Reservations , Flora , Conservation of Natural Resources , Cultural Diversity , Nature , Feminism , Extraction and Processing Industry , Natural Resources Management , Rural Economy , Capitalism , State , Public Power , Biodiversity , Agriculture , Efficiency , Environment , Environment and Public Health , Health Sciences, Technology, and Innovation Management , Projects , Job Market , Health Surveillance of Products , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Foods and Beverages , Foods Containing Coconut , Machinery , Sustainable Agriculture , Non-Renewable Resources , Agribusiness , Environmental Communication , Femininity , Environmental Policy , Small Business , Ethnic Violence , Sociological Factors , Food , Work-Life Balance , Political Activism , Stakeholder Participation , Socioeconomic Rights , Occupied Territories , Sustainable Development , Social Programs , Indigenous Peoples , Right to Work , Empowerment , Social Inclusion , Gender Equity , Gender Role , Social Vulnerability , Environmental Responsability , Socio-Environmental Responsibility , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Working Conditions , Wildlife Trade , Health Services Needs and Demand , Housing , Human Activities , Human Rights , Labor Unions , Life Change Events , Anthropology , Mining , Occupational Groups
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3180-3189, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981454

ABSTRACT

In this paper, 50 batches of representative traditional Chinese medicine tablets were selected and the disintegration time was examined with the method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The disintegration time and disintegration phenomenon were recorded, and the dissolution behaviors of water-soluble and ultraviolet-absorbent components during the disintegration process of tablets were characterized by self-control method. The results revealed that coating type and raw material type influenced the disintegration time of tablets. It was found that only 4% of traditional Chinese medicine tablets had obvious fragmentation during the disintegration process, while 96% of traditional Chinese medicine tablets showed gradual dissolution or dispersion. Furthermore, according to the disintegration speed, disintegration phenomenon, and whether the cumulative dissolution of measured components was > 90% at complete disintegration, a disintegration behavior classification system(DBCS) was created for the regular-release traditional Chinese medicine tablets. As a result, the disintegration behaviors of 50 batches of traditional Chinese medicine tablets were classified into four categories, i.e. ⅠA_2, ⅠB_1, ⅡB_1, and ⅡB_2. traditional Chinese medicine tablets(Class I) with disintegration time ≤ 30 min were defined to be rapid in disintegration, which can be the objective of optimization or improvement of Chinese herbal extract(semi extract) tablets. Different drug release models were used to fit the dissolution curve of traditional Chinese medicine tablets with gradual dissolution or dispersion phenomenon(i.e. Type B tablets). The results showed that the dissolution curves of water-soluble components in the disintegration process conformed to the zero order kinetics and the Ritger-Peppas model. It could be inferred that the disintegration mechanisms of type B tablets were a combination of dissolution controlled and swelling controlled mechanisms. This study contributes to understanding the disintegration behavior of traditional Chinese medicine tablets, and provides a reference for the design and improvement of disintegration performance of traditional Chinese medicine tablets.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tablets , Water , Drug Compounding
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2841-2855, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981419

ABSTRACT

Focusing on the development and quality improvement strategy of the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) industry, the scientific and technological innovation of the new engineering of TCM should be paid attention to solve the "stuck neck" dilemma. Under the background of the ecological and industrial revolution of the scientific and technological innovation system, the super-scale information interaction and multi-dimensional integration will inevitably lead to profound changes in the manufacturing mode of TCM. Manufacturing measurement of TCM is formed on the basis of the reliability engineering theory of process control of TCM production. It is the development extension of system theory and system science ideas and a cross-fertilization discipline that combines theory with practice and adheres to the "four-oriented" re-epistemology improvement of the TCM discipline. In response to the problems of complex raw material sources, coarse process technology, unclear material basis, and poor applicability of equipment and technology in the manufacture of TCM, the transformation research mode of "aiming at the integration of pharmaceutical industry-developing intelligent production line-enabling industrial transformation" has been developed. This paper proposed the four key engineering technical problems, i.e., the identification of critical quality attributes(CQA) in the manufacture of TCM, the quality by design(QbD) and product development of the manufacturing process of TCM, the quality transfer principle and multivariate process capability index of TCM manufacturing, and the development of measurement technology and equipment of the manufacturing measurement of TCM, to achieve the systematization of quality control indicators, real-time process control, digitalization of manufacturing process, transparency of quality transfer, and intelligent whole-process control. In this paper, the new concepts, new theories, and new technologies provide a reference for the industrialization of TCM.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reproducibility of Results , Commerce , Drug Industry , Quality Control
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3977-3987, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008593

ABSTRACT

In the context of Pharma 4.0, the design tools that support the pharmaceutical Quality by Design(QbD) are iterating fast toward intelligent or smart design. The conventional development methods for traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) preparations have the limitations such as over dependence on experience, low dimensions for the designed experiment parameters, poor compatibility between the process and equipment, and high trial-and-error cost during process scale-up. Therefore, this paper innovatively proposed the intelligent co-design involving material, process, and equipment for manufacturing high-quality TCM preparations, and introduced the design philosophy, targets, tools, and applications with TCM oral solid dosage(OSD) as an example. In terms of design philosophy, the pharmaceutical design tetrahedron composed of critical material attributes, critical process parameters, critical equipment attributes, and critical quality attributes was developed. The design targets were put forward based on the product performance classification system. The design tools involve a design platform that contains several modules, such a as the iTCM material database, the processing route classification system, the system modeling and simulation, and reliability-based optimization. The roles of different modules in obtaining essential and universal design knowledge of the key common manufacturing units were introduced. At last, the applications of the co-design methodology involving material, process, and equipment in the high shear wet granulation process development and the improvement of the dissolving or dispersion capability of TCM formula granules are illustrated. The research on advanced pharmaceutical design theory and methodology will help enhance the efficiency and reliability of drug development, improve the product quality, and promote the innovation of high-end TCM products across the industry.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reproducibility of Results , Quality Control , Computer Simulation , Commerce , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
13.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 540-548, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982277

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants or Chinese materia medica (CMM) are now attracting worldwide attention as they have increasingly prominent advantages over chemical drugs in disease treatment and healthcare. Since the 1990s, World Health Organization (WHO) and International Organization for Standardization established the Technical Committee of Traditional Chinese Medicine (ISO/TC 249) have carried out the development of quality standards on medicinal plants or CMMs respectively, and a considerable number of monographs and international standards have been published. Since the two international organizations adhere to different principles, the standards they develop naturally have different emphasis. Driven by market demand and international trade, ISO mainly takes quality, efficacy and safety into consideration when developing standards, while WHO pays more attention to clinical practice, quality control and medication guidance. Up to now, there is a lack of comparative analysis on the records, background, principles, basic content, and main requirements of quality standards on medicinal plants or CMMs respectively published by WHO and ISO. Therefore, based on international standards of CMM developed by ISO/TC 249 platform and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, this paper systematically compares the purposes, selected principles, standard-developing process, basic content, and main quality requirements to summarize their similarities and differences, and find their merits, aiming to serve as a reference to the development of international standards for CMMs that helps them go global.


Subject(s)
Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Commerce , Internationality , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , China
14.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 341-345, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982242

ABSTRACT

Aiming at the management efficiency problems in the traditional medical low-value consumables management mode of the nursing unit, based on the perspective of supply chain management, this study uses lean management method to construct the lean management mode of low-value consumables with a whole cycle and whole process information monitoring, and analyzes the application effect of this mode. The results show that after the application of lean management mode, the low-value consumables of the nursing unit can achieve "consumables in use=priced consumables + un-priced consumables", the settlement cost is significantly reduced and its stability is high, and the efficiency of "supply-inventor-distribution" link is significantly enhanced. This model effectively improves the management efficiency of low-value consumables in the hospital, and also provides a reference for other hospitals to improve the management level of low-value consumables.


Subject(s)
Hospitals , Commerce
15.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1449914

ABSTRACT

Se presenta la propuesta de diseño de un Programa Virtual en Archivística e Inteligencia de Negocios para la Universidad de La Salle, de Bogotá-Colombia. Dicha propuesta se asume como un ejercicio curricular disruptivo, debido a que se pretende generar articulaciones entre los conocimientos y las prácticas típicamente archivísticas-informacionales-organizacionales con el conocimiento, métodos y técnicas de la inteligencia de negocios y, con ello, formar un profesional desde un enfoque que potencie el carácter estratégico de la toma de decisiones en todo tipo de instituciones, en conexión con las necesidades socio-productivas. La comparación de programas de pregrado, el análisis de tendencias conceptuales y metódicas de ambos campos, la caracterización de la demanda académico-profesional para la modalidad virtual y los criterios técnico-curriculares-normativos del Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia, así como los lineamientos de la Universidad de La Salle fueron los elementos sustantivos de la metodología. Los principales resultados se traducen en el perfil profesional por competencias, resultados de aprendizaje, plan de estudios y aspectos de la gestión curricular del programa que se propone. Como conclusión se enfatiza en lo disruptivo como el elemento transversal que debe guiar el diseño y planeación de programas académicos en Ciencias de la Información, los cuales deben ofrecer alternativas que estén en sintonía con las demandas sociales, configuradas a partir de las transformaciones producidas por las tecnologías digitales, en articulación con procesos analíticos de alto valor agregado en las organizaciones(AU)


A design proposal of Virtual Program in Archiving and Business Intelligence is presented for Universidad de La Salle, in Bogotá, Colombia. Said proposal is assumed as a disruptive curricular exercise, since it is intended to generate articulations between typically archival-informational-organizational knowledge and practices with the knowledge, methods and techniques of business intelligence and, with this, training a professional from an approach that enhances the strategic nature of decision-making in all kinds of institutions, in connection with socio-productive needs. The comparison of undergraduate programs, the analysis of conceptual and methodical trends of both fields, the characterization of the academic-professional demand for the virtual modality and the technical-curricular-regulatory criteria of Colombia National Ministry of Education, as well as the guidelines from the Universidad de La Salle were the major methodological elements. The main results are translated into the professional profile by competencies, learning outcomes, study plan and aspects of the curricular management of the proposed program. In conclusion, disruption is emphasized as the transversal element that must guide designing and planning academic programs in Information Sciences, which must offer alternatives that are in tune with social demands, shaped from the transformations produced by the digital technologies, in coordination with analytical processes of high added value in organizations(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Information Science , Commerce , Ethics, Business , Intelligence , Software Design , Colombia
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. tab, map
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468937

ABSTRACT

Wildlife trade is a profitable economic activity. Birds are among the most heavily traded animals worldwide, with numerous species threatened by pet trade. The present case study was stretched for period of one year to find out the status of wild birds’ trade in Bannu and Dera Ismael Khan Divisions. The study was aimed to find out the types of species, commercial prices of bird, trade routes, overall income generated from birds' trade and the status of dealers whether licensed or not. Bimonthly visits were conducted to interview 52 bird dealers/pet shops owners/venders (23 in Dera Ismael Khan and 29 in Bannu). A sum of 16 conceivable sites were visited during the study period. Out of these, 8 sites were located in Dera Ismael Khan and 8 sites in Bannu Division. The highest priced species was Demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) and the lowest priced species was house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Total number of species traded in both regions were 8 and 14 while the income generated by bird trade was amounting to PkR 1,322,200 and 7,128,950 in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. Majority of the birds were trapped locally with the exception of few from adjacent areas. Commercial activity led by illegal bird traders was found 75% and 100% species in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. There was no significant difference between prices of birds, number of species sold and income generated by bird trade in two divisions.


O comércio de animais selvagens é uma atividade econômica lucrativa. Os pássaros estão entre os animais mais comercializados em todo o mundo, com inúmeras espécies ameaçadas pelo comércio de animais de estimação. O presente estudo de caso foi estendido por um período de um ano para descobrir a situação do comércio de aves selvagens nas Divisões Bannu e Dera Ismael Khan. O estudo teve como objetivo descobrir os tipos de espécies, os preços comerciais das aves, as rotas comerciais, a receita geral gerada pelo comércio de aves e o status dos negociantes, licenciados ou não. Visitas bimestrais foram realizadas para entrevistar 52 comerciantes de pássaros / proprietários / vendedores de pet shops (23 em Dera Ismael Khan e 29 em Bannu). Uma soma de 16 locais concebíveis foram visitados durante o período de estudo. Destes, 8 sites estavam localizados em Dera Ismael Khan e 8 sites na Divisão Bannu. A espécie com preço mais alto foi o guindaste Demoiselle (Grus virgo) e a espécie com preço mais baixo foi o pardal (Passer domesticus). O número total de espécies comercializadas em ambas as regiões foi de 8 e 14, enquanto a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves foi de PkR 1.322.200 e 7.128.950 em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. A maioria das aves foi capturada localmente, com exceção de algumas das áreas adjacentes. A atividade comercial liderada por comerciantes ilegais de aves foi encontrada com 75% e 100% de espécies em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os preços das aves, o número de espécies vendidas e a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves nas duas divisões.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Birds , Commerce/statistics & numerical data
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 608-613, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970529

ABSTRACT

This paper introduced the overview of the "eight trends" of Chinese medicinal materials(CMM) industry in 2021, analyzed the problems of CMM production, and put forward development suggestions. Specifically, "eight trends" could be summarized as follows.(1) The growing area of CMM tended to be stable, and some provinces began to release the local catalog of Dao-di herbs.(2) The protection process of new varieties accelerated, and a number of excellent varieties were bred.(3) The theory of ecological cultivation was further enriched, and the demonstration effect of ecological cultivation technology was prominent.(4) Some CMM realized complete mechanization and formed typical model cases.(5) The number of cultivation bases using the traceability platform increased, and provincial internet trading platforms were set up.(6) The construction of CMM industrial clusters accelerated, and the number of provincial-level regional brands increased rapidly.(7) Many new agricultural business entities were founded nationwide, and a variety of methods were used to drive the intensified development of CMM.(8) A number of local TCM laws were promulgated, and the management regulation of food and medicine homology substances catalogs was issued. On this basis, four suggestions for CMM production were proposed.(1) It is suggested to speed up the formulation of the national catalog of Dao-di herbs and carry out the certification of Dao-di herbs production bases.(2) Ecological planting of forest and grassland medicine should be further strengthened in terms of technical research and promotion based on the principle of ecological priority.(3) The basic work of disaster prevention should be paid more attention and technical measures for disaster mitigation should be developed.(4) The planted area of commonly used CMM should be incorporated into the national regular statistical system.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Certification , Commerce , Industry , China
18.
Odontol. vital ; (37)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1422182

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La gerencia empresarial, a lo largo de la historia, se ha preocupado por alcanzar objetivos y metas mediante la utilización de estrategias con el fin de tratar de garantizar los réditos que le permitan seguir trabajando en el tiempo. El interés de lograr alcanzar la eficiencia empresarial ha sido clave para que los investigadores modernos hayan realizado importantes aportes a la epistemología de las ciencias administrativas. Surge entonces la pregunta en la mente de los administradores: ¿Es de importancia la aplicación de indicadores claves de desempeño en la gerencia estratégica de las empresas de salud? Los indicadores claves de desempeño, o KPIs por sus siglas en inglés, forman parte del conjunto de métricos que la administración moderna utiliza para saber si el negocio está logrando los objetivos y metas planteadas por la gerencia. El tablero de mando integral de Kaplan y Norton, desde su aparición en el año de 1992, ha sido también de gran valor para la gerencia estratégica empresarial. Objetivo: Presentar la importancia que tiene la utilización de los indicadores claves de desempeño al ser aplicados en la gerencia estratégica de las empresas de salud. Metodología: Basada en el paradigma cualitativo-descriptivo de investigación acción, el cual se sustentó en literatura científica publicada entre los años 2017 y 2021 apoyado en las plataformas Google Scholar y SciELO. Los criterios de inclusión fueron artículos y textos que abordaran los temas de: indicadores claves de desempeño, inteligencia de negocios, gerencia estratégica y tablero de mando integral. Resultado y Conclusiones: El continuo monitoreo del ambiente competitivo en el que la empresa está inmerso, permite la adaptación de los métricos de acuerdo con los cambios del entorno. En la medida en que los métricos permitan a la empresa volverse líquida, es decir, facilitar que se amolde a los cambios en el medioambiente económico, se facilitará la toma de decisiones de negocios eficaces y oportunas.


Introduction: Business management throughout history has been concerned with achieving objectives and goals, through the use of strategies in order to try to guarantee the revenues that allow it to continue operating over time. The interest in achieving business efficiency has been key for modern researchers to have made important contributions to the epistemology of administrative sciences. The question then arises in the minds of administrators: Is it important to apply key performance indicators in the strategic management of health companies? Key performance indicators, or KPIs for its acronym in English, are part of the set of metrics that modern management uses to know if the business is achieving the objectives and goals set by senior management. Kaplan and Norton's Balanced Scorecard, since its appearance in 1992, has also been of great value for strategic business management. Objective: To present the importance of the use of key performance indicators when applied in the strategic management of health companies Methodology: Based on the qualitative-descriptive and hermeneutical paradigm in the which was based on studies between 2017 and 2021 supported by the Google Scholar and SciELO platforms. The inclusion criteria were articles and texts that addressed the topics of: key performance indicators, business intelligence, strategic management and balanced scorecard. Results and Conclusions: The continuous monitoring of the competitive environment in which the company is immersed, allows the adaptation of the metrics according to changes in the environment. To the extent that the metrics allow the company to become liquid, that is, make it easier to adapt to changes in the economic environment, effective and timely business decision-making will be facilitated.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Competitive Behavior , Employee Performance Appraisal , Organization and Administration
19.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 55(3)set. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401770

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Este artigo estima o impacto das medidas de distanciamento social sobre a incidência de COVID-19 a partir de uma perspectiva multissetorial. Métodos: O desenho de pesquisa utiliza um modelo de regressão em painel para analisar a relação entre restrições de mobilidade em diferentes setores econômicos e a dinâmica longitudinal da doença nos estados do Brasil. Resultados: Os principais resultados indicam que apenas os coeficientes das variáveis que representam os setores de restaurantes (p-valor < 0,05), compras (p-valor < 0,05) e transporte (p-valor < 0,001) obtiveram significância estatística. Em especial, o transporte (ß= -0,674) é a variável que mais influencia a variação do número de casos de COVID-19. Conclusões: As evidências reportadas nesta pesquisa podem auxiliar o processo de tomada de decisão dos gestores governamentais a respeito da eficácia de intervenções não farmacológicas como instrumento para reduzir a disseminação da COVID-19 (AU)


Objective: This article estimates the impact of social distancing measures on the incidence of COVID-19 from a multisectoral perspective. Methods: The research design uses a panel regression model to analyze the relationship between mobility restrictions in different economic sectors and the longitudinal dynamics of the infection across Brazilian states. Results: The main results indicate that only the coefficients for the restaurant (p-value < 0.05), shopping (p-value < 0.05), and transport sectors (p-value < 0.001) reached statistical significance. In particular, transport (ß = -0.674) is the variable with the strongest impact on the variation in the number of COVID-19 cases. Conclusions: The evidence reported in this research can assist the decision-making process of government managers regarding the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions as a tool to reduce the spread of COVID-19


Subject(s)
Humans , Incidence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Commerce , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control
20.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(1): 245-259, Mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375595

ABSTRACT

Resumo Dos letrados que pensaram a economia portuguesa no século XVII, talvez Duarte Ribeiro de Macedo seja o mais conhecido. Formado em direito e em filosofia, Macedo escreveu diferentes discursos sobre a introdução de manufaturas e o maior aproveitamento dos recursos naturais encontrados nas colônias portuguesas. Em seu "Discurso sobre os gêneros para o comércio, que há no Maranhão e Pará" (1633), apresentou 37 gêneros de elevado potencial econômico e que estariam disponíveis no Maranhão e no Pará. Este trabalho se dedica à transcrição desse manuscrito inédito e à apresentação das propostas de Macedo acerca das potencialidades econômicas maranhenses.


Abstract Duarte Ribeiro de Macedo may be the best-known scholar that contemplated the Portuguese economy in the seventeenth century. Macedo had degrees in law and philosophy, and wrote various texts on the introduction of manufacturing and best way to utilize the natural resources found in Portugal's colonies. In Discurso sobre os gêneros para o comércio, que há no Maranhão e Pará [Discussion on the genera in Maranhão and Pará for trade] (1633), he introduces 37 plants with superior economic potential that were available in Maranhão and Pará. Here this groundbreaking manuscript is transcribed, and Macedo's suggestions about the economic potential of Maranhão are introduced.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Natural Resources Exploitation , Economics , Brazil , History, 17th Century
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