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Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(2): 185-196, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522082


BACKGROUND: Severity assessment in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) allows to guide the site of care (ambulatory or hospitalization), diagnostic workup and treatment. AIM: To examine the performance of twelve severity predictive indexes (CRB65, CURB65, PSI, SCAP, SMART-COP, REA-ICU, ATS minor criteria, qSOFA, CALL, COVID GRAM, 4C, STSS) in adult patients hospitalized for CAP associated with SARS-CoV-2. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective clinical study conducted between April 1 and September 30, 2020 in adult patients hospitalized for CAP associated with COVID-19 in a clinical hospital. The recorded adverse events were admission to the critical care unit, use of mechanical ventilation (MV), prolonged length of stay, and hospital mortality. The predictive rules were compared based on their sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Adverse events were more common and hospital stay longer in the high-risk categories of the different prognostic indices. CURB-65, PSI, SCAP, COVID GRAM, 4 C and STSS predicted the risk of death accurately. PSI, SCAP, ATS minor criteria, CALL and 4 C criteria were sensitive in predicting the risk of hospital mortality with high negative predictive value. The performance of different prognostic indices decreased significantly for the prediction of ICU admission, use of mechanical ventilation, and prolonged hospital length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of the prognostic indices differs significantly for the prediction of adverse events in immunocompetent adult patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia associated with COVID-19.

Humans , Adult , Pneumonia , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 146-153, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970254


Objective: To investigate the epidemiology and hospitalization costs of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Shanghai. Methods: A retrospective case summary was conducted on 63 614 hospitalized children with CAP in 59 public hospitals in Shanghai from January 2018 to December 2020. These children's medical records, including their basic information, diagnosis, procedures, and costs, were extracted. According to the medical institutions they were admitted, the patients were divided into the children's hospital group, the tertiary general hospital group and the secondary hospital group; according to the age, they were divided into <1 year old group, 1-<3 years old group, 3-<6 years old group, 6-<12 years old group and 12-18 years old group; according to the CAP severity, they were divided into severe pneumonia group and non-severe pneumonia group; according to whether an operation was conducted, the patients were divided into the operation group and the non-operation group. The epidemiological characteristics and hospitalization costs were compared among the groups. The χ2 test or Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for the comparisons between two groups as appropriate, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was conducted for comparisons among multiple groups. Results: A total of 63 614 hospitalized children with CAP were enrolled, including 34 243 males and 29 371 females. Their visiting age was 4 (2, 6) years. The length of stay was 6 (5, 8) days. There were 17 974 cases(28.3%) in the secondary hospital group, 35 331 cases (55.5%) in the tertiary general hospital group and 10 309 cases (16.2%) in the children's hospital group. Compared with the hospitalizations cases in 2018 (27 943), the cases in 2019 (29 009) increased by 3.8% (1 066/27 943), while sharply declined by 76.2% (21 281/27 943) in 2020 (6 662). There were significant differences in the proportion of patients from other provinces and severe pneumonia cases, and the hospitalization costs among the children's hospital, secondary hospital and tertiary general hospital (7 146 cases(69.3%) vs. 2 202 cases (12.3%) vs. 9 598 cases (27.2%), 6 929 cases (67.2%) vs. 2 270 cases (12.6%) vs. 9 397 cases (26.6%), 8 304 (6 261, 11 219) vs. 1 882 (1 304, 2 796) vs. 3 195 (2 364, 4 352) CNY, χ2=10 462.50, 9 702.26, 28 037.23, all P<0.001). The annual total hospitalization costs of pediatric CAP from 2018 to 2020 were 110 million CNY, 130 million CNY and 40 million CNY, respectively. And the cost for each hospitalization increased year by year, which was 2 940 (1 939, 4 438), 3 215 (2 126, 5 011) and 3 673 (2 274, 6 975) CNY, respectively. There were also significant differences in the hospitalization expenses in the different age groups of <1 year old, 1-<3 years old, 3-<6 years old, 6-<12 years old and 12-18 years old (5 941 (2 787, 9 247) vs. 2 793 (1 803, 4 336) vs. 3 013 (2 070, 4 329) vs. 3 473 (2 400, 5 097) vs. 4 290 (2 837, 7 314) CNY, χ2=3 462.39, P<0.001). The hospitalization cost of severe pneumonia was significantly higher than that of non-severe cases (5 076 (3 250, 8 364) vs. 2 685 (1 780, 3 843) CNY, Z=109.77, P<0.001). The cost of patients who received operation was significantly higher than that of whom did not (10 040 (4 583, 14 308) vs. 3 083 (2 025, 4 747) CNY, Z=44.46, P<0.001). Conclusions: The number of children hospitalized with CAP in Shanghai decreased significantly in 2020 was significantly lower than that in 2018 and 2019.The proportion of patients from other provinces and with severe pneumonia are mainly admitted in children's hospitals. Hospitalization costs are higher in children's hospitals, and also for children younger than 1 year old, severe cases and patients undergoing operations.

Infant , Female , Male , Humans , Child , Retrospective Studies , China/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric , Pneumonia/therapy
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 633-638, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982005


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the distribution characteristics of non-bacterial pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 1 788 CAP children admitted to Shenyang Children's Hospital from December 2021 to November 2022 were selected. Multiple RT-PCR and capillary electrophoresis were used to detect 10 viral pathogens and 2 atypical pathogens, and serum antibodies of Chlamydial pneumoniae (Ch) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) were detected. The distribution characteristics of different pathogens were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 1 788 CAP children, 1 295 children were pathogen-positive, with a positive rate of 72.43% (1 295/1 788), including a viral pathogen positive rate of 59.68% (1 067/1 788) and an atypical pathogen positive rate of 22.04% (394/1 788). The positive rates from high to low were MP, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza B virus (IVB), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), influenza A virus (IVA), bocavirus (BoV), human adenovirus (HADV), Ch, and human coronavirus (HCOV). RSV and MP were the main pathogens in spring; MP had the highest positive rate in summer, followed by IVA; HMPV had the highest positive rate in autumn; IVB and RSV were the main pathogens in winter. The positive rate of MP in girls was higher than that in boys (P<0.05), and there were no significant differences in other pathogens between genders (P>0.05). The positivity rates of certain pathogens differed among age groups (P<0.05): the positivity rate of MP was highest in the >6 year-old group; the positivity rates of RSV and Ch were highest in the <1 year-old group; the positivity rates of HPIV and IVB were highest in the 1 to <3 year-old group. RSV, MP, HRV, and HMPV were the main pathogens in children with severe pneumonia, while MP was the primary pathogen in children with lobar pneumonia, and MP, IVB, HMPV, RSV, and HRV were the top 5 pathogens in acute bronchopneumonia.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MP, RSV, IVB, HMPV, and HRV are the main pathogens of CAP in children, and there are certain differences in the positive rates of respiratory pathogens among children of different ages, genders, and seasons.

Humans , Child , Female , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Antibodies , Community-Acquired Infections , Hospitalization , Influenza B virus , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 322-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985870


Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and the risk factors of severe human metapneumovirus (hMPV)-associated community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Methods: A retrospective case summary was conducted. From December 2020 to March 2022, 721 children who were diagnosed with CAP and tested positive for hMPV nucleic acid by PCR-capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of nasopharyngeal secretions at the Yuying Children's Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University were selected as the research objects. The clinical characteristics, epidemiological characteristics and mixed pathogens of the two groups were analyzed. According to CAP diagnostic criteria, the children were divided into the severe group and the mild group. Chi-square test or Mann-Whitney rank and contrast analysis was used for comparison between groups, while multivariate Logistic regression was applied to analyze the risk factors of the severe hMPV-associated CAP. Results: A total of 721 children who were diagnosed with hMPV-associated CAP were included in this study, with 397 males and 324 females. There were 154 cases in the severe group. The age of onset was 1.0 (0.9, 3.0) years, <3 years old 104 cases (67.5%), and the length of hospital stay was 7 (6, 9) days. In the severe group, 67 children (43.5%) were complicated with underlying diseases. In the severe group, 154 cases (100.0%) had cough, 148 cases (96.1%) had shortness of breath and pulmonary moist rales, and 132 cases (85.7%) had fever, 23 cases (14.9%) were complicated with respiratory failure. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in 86 children (55.8%), including CRP≥50 mg/L in 33 children (21.4%). Co-infection was detected in 77 cases (50.0%) and 102 strains of pathogen were detected, 25 strains of rhinovirus, 17 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 15 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 12 strains of Haemophilus influenzae and 10 strains of respiratory syncytial virus were detected. Six cases (3.9%) received heated and humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, 15 cases (9.7%) were admitted to intensive care unit, and 2 cases (1.3%) received mechanical ventilation. In the severe group, 108 children were cured, 42 children were improved, 4 chlidren were discharged automatically without recovery and no death occurred. There were 567 cases in the mild group. The age of onset was 2.7 (1.0, 4.0) years, and the length of hospital stay was 4 (4, 6) days.Compared with the mild group, the proportion of children who age of disease onset <6 months, CRP≥50 mg/L, the proportions of preterm birth, congenital heart disease, malnutrition, congenital airway malformation, neuromuscular disease, mixed respiratory syncytial viruses infection were higher (20 cases (13.0%) vs. 31 cases (5.5%), 32 cases (20.8%) vs. 64 cases (11.3%), 23 cases (14.9%) vs. 44 cases (7.8%), 11 cases (7.1%) vs. 18 cases (3.2%), 9 cases (5.8%) vs. 6 cases (1.1%), 11 cases (7.1%) vs. 12 cases (2.1%), 8 cases (5.2%) vs. 4 cases (0.7%), 10 cases (6.5%) vs. 13 cases (2.3%), χ2=0.42, 9.45, 7.40, 4.94, 11.40, 8.35, 3.52, 6.92, all P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age<6 months (OR=2.51, 95%CI 1.29-4.89), CRP≥50 mg/L (OR=2.20, 95%CI 1.36-3.57), prematurity (OR=2.19, 95%CI 1.26-3.81), malnutrition (OR=6.05, 95%CI 1.89-19.39) were the independent risk factors for severe hMPV-associated CAP. Conclusions: Severe hMPV-associated CAP is most likely to occur in infants under 3 years old and has a higher proportion of underlying diseases and co-infection. The main clinical manifestations are cough, shortness of breath and pulmonary moist rales, fever. The overall prognosis is good. Age<6 months, CRP≥50 mg/L, preterm birth, malnutrition are the independent risk factors for severe hMPV-associated CAP.

Infant , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Retrospective Studies , Cough , Coinfection , Premature Birth , Respiratory Sounds , Metapneumovirus , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Dyspnea , Malnutrition
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 91-99, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969849


Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third leading cause of death worldwide and one of the most commonly infectious diseases. Its epidemiological characteristics vary with host and immune status, and corresponding pathogen spectrums migrate over time and space distribution. Meanwhile, with the outbreak of COVID-19, some unconventional treatment strategies are on the rise. This article reviewed the epidemiological characteristics, pathogen spectrum and treatment direction of CAP in China over the years, and aimed to provide guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of CAP in clinical practice.

Humans , COVID-19 , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Causality , Risk Factors
Cambios rev med ; 21(2): 876, 30 Diciembre 2022. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1413849


INTRODUCCIÓN. La epidemia de influenza y sus complicaciones profundizaron el estudio de las neumonías virales en cuidados intensivos. En nuestro país hay pocos datos sobre este tema. OBJETIVOS. Realizar una caracterización demográfica y clínica de pacientes críticos con neumonía por Influenza A H1N1 en un hospital de tercer nivel de complejidad. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio observacional, analítico, retrospectivo, con análisis univariante y multivariante. Población de 293 y muestra de 44 datos de historias clínicas electrónicas de pacientes diagnosticados con A H1N1 ingresados a la Unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín en el período enero 2016 a diciembre de 2018. Como criterios de inclusión se consideró a todos los pacientes adultos mayores de 18 años que ingresaron a la UCI, con el diagnóstico de neumonía comunitaria grave con confirmación por reacción de cadena de polimerasa en tiempo real para influenza A H1N1 en hisopado nasal o aspirado traqueal. Se excluyó a pacientes embarazadas con diagnóstico de influenza A H1N1, pacientes con más de 48 horas de ingreso hospitalario previo a su ingreso a UCI, pacientes con datos insuficientes en los registros. Los datos se obtuvieron del sistema AS-400. El análisis estadístico se realizó en el programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences, versión 22. El nivel de significación fue una p<0.05. RESULTADOS. La prevalencia en pacientes críticos de neumonía por influenza A H1N1 durante 2016-2018 fue de 16,72%, la mediana de edad fue de 55 años, 25% masculinos, 34% obesos, 34% con hipertensión arterial. Escala "Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II" 23,50, "Simplified Acute Physiologic Score III" 54, "Sepsis related Organ Failure Assessment" 11,50, Lactato deshidrogenasa 99,50, Procalcitonina 0,99; 9 días de ventilación mecánica invasiva, 10,50 días de estancia en la unidad. El 91% presentó shock séptico, 59% lesión renal aguda. El 89% tuvo Síndrome de Distrés Respiratorio del Adultos, 69% fue grave, 87% usó ventilación mecánica, 38,50% corticoides, 36% posición prona, Presión parcial de oxígeno/Fracción inspirada de oxígeno 74, volumen tidal/kilogramo de 7 mililitros, presión plateau de 27,50 centímetros de agua. La mortalidad general en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos fue de 38,63% y a los 28 días de 63,60%, en shock séptico fue 42,50% y en Síndrome de Distrés Respiratorio del Adultos del 41,02%. El análisis de regresión logística multivariable identificó como factores independientes asociados a mortalidad el incremento de Lactato deshidrogenasa (OR 2,69, 9% IC 1,090-6,642) y Procalcitonina (OR 2,51, IC 1,005-6,272). CONCLUSIONES. Las características, frecuencia y mortalidad de este grupo de pacientes críticos con neumonía por influenza A H1N1 son similares a lo reportado en la literatura mundial.

INTRODUCTION. The influenza epidemic and its complications deepened the study of viral pneumonias in intensive care. In our country there is little data on this subject. OBJECTIVES. To perform a demographic and clinical characterization of critical patients with pneumonia due to pneumonia due to Influenza A H1N1 in a third level hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Observational, analytical, retrospective study, with univariate and multivariate analysis. We compared the groups of dead patients and survivors. The significance level was p<0,05. RESULTS. The prevalence in critically ill patients of influenza A H1N1 pneumonia during 2016-2018 was 16,72%, 44 cases were collected, median age 55 years, 25% male, 34% obese, 34% with arterial hypertension. APACHE II 23,50, SAPS III 54, SOFA 11,50, LDH 99,50, PCT 0,99, 9 days of invasive mechanical ventilation, 10,50 days of unit stay. 91% presented septic shock, 59% with acute kidney injury 89% had ARDS, 69% were severe, 87% used mechanical ventilation, 38,50% corticosteroids, 36% prone position, PaO2/FiO2 74, tidal volume/kg of 7 ml, plateau pressure of 27,50 cmH2O. Overall mortality in the ICU was 38,63% and at 28 days was 63,60%, in septic shock it was 42,50% and in Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome it was 42,50%. was 42,50% and 41,02% in Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome. The ultivariate logistic regression analysis identified as independent factors associated with mortality, the increase in LDH (OR 2,69, 9% CI 1,090-6,642) and PCT (OR 2,51, CI 1,005-6,272). CONCLUSIONS. The characteristics, frequency and mortality of this group of critical patients with pneumonia due to influenza A H1N1 are similar to those reported in the world literature.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Community-Acquired Infections , Sepsis , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Respiration, Artificial , Shock, Septic , Comorbidity , Mortality , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Diagnosis , Ecuador , Medication Therapy Management , Intensive Care Units
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-14, sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518667


La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad constituye una de las afecciones respiratorias que provoca más demanda de asistencia médica, y es responsable del mayor número de fallecidos por enfermedades infecciosas en Cuba. El objetivo del estudio ha sido determinar el comportamiento de características seleccionadas en pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía y precisar la existencia de asociaciones entre algunas de estas características.Se realizó un estudio observacional, con diseño descriptivo, que incluyó 1,809 pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía entre enero de 2012 y febrero de 2020. Fueron analizadas características relacionadas con las condiciones de base, clínico-radiológicas, y relativas al manejo y la evolución, mediante análisis bivariante y multivariante (regresión logística). La serie estuvo constituida fundamentalmente por pacientes ancianos (79%), mientras que el 20% presentaba la condición de encamamiento. Esta condición se asoció significativamente con el estado de demencia avanzada (OR 7,6[5,5;10,4]), y fue determinante en la presentación "solapada" del proceso (OR 1,5[1,09;2]). La presentación "solapada" de la neumonía estuvo significativamente asociada al ingreso tardío (OR 1,6[1,2;2,2]). Como conclusiones se ratifica el lugar que ocupan varios elementos en las características de la morbilidad por neumonía: edad avanzada, presencia de comorbilidades, y presentación no clásica del proceso. Fueron constatadas interrelaciones de importancia práctica entre la presencia de comorbilidades particulares, las formas clínicas de presentación, el momento del ingreso, y la utilización de antimicrobianos durante la atención prehospitalaria del paciente. Se destaca el papel del encamamiento en la extensión radiológica del proceso neumónico y en la presencia de derrame pleural de mediana o gran cuantía al momento del ingreso.

Community-acquired pneumonia is one of the respiratory conditions that causes the greatest demand for medical care, and is responsible for the largest number of deaths from infectious diseases in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the behavior of selected characteristics in patients hospitalized for pneumonia and to specify the existence of associations between some of these characteristics. An observational study, with a descriptive design, was carried out, which included 1,809 patients hospitalized for pneumonia between January 2012 and February 2020. Characteristics related to the basic, clinical-radiological conditions, and relative to management and evolution were analyzed, through analysis bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression). The series consisted mainly of elderly patients (79%), while 20% were bedridden. This condition was significantly associated with the state of advanced dementia (OR 7.6[5.5;10.4]) and was decisive in the "overlapping" presentation of the process (OR 1.5[1.09;2]). The "overlapping" presentation of pneumonia was significantly associated with late admission (OR 1.6[1.2;2.2]). As conclusions, the place occupied by several elements in the characteristics of pneumonia morbidity is ratified: advanced age, presence of comorbidities, and non-classical presentation of the process. Interrelationships of practical importance were found between the presence of comorbidities, the clinical forms of presentation, the time of admission, and the use of antimicrobials during the patient's prehospital care. The role of bed rest in the radiological extension of the pneumonic process and in the presence of medium or large pleural effusion at the time of admission is highlighted.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Patient Admission , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pleural Effusion/epidemiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Time Factors , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Logistic Models , Analysis of Variance , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Dementia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Bedridden Persons , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(2): 96-105, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407775


Resumen En la práctica clínica, la radiografía de tórax permite confirmar el diagnóstico y la extensión de la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC). Objetivos: Examinar las características radiográficas de la NAC según el agente causal y el grado de concordancia interobservador (CI) en la descripción de los hallazgos radiográficos. Métodos: Se evaluaron las radiografías de tórax de 300 pacientes adultos inmunocompetentes hospitalizados por NAC, tres residentes de radiología consignaron el patrón de los infiltrados pulmonares, su localización anatómica y extensión, la presencia de derrame pleural y otros hallazgos radiográficos. Se realizaron cultivos de esputo, hemocultivos, pruebas serológicas y técnicas de biología molecular de hisopado nasofaríngeo para identificar los principales patógenos respiratorios. Resultados: Las manifestaciones clínicas y los hallazgos de la radiografía de tórax fueron similares en las neumonías causadas por diferentes patógenos respiratorios: bacterias clásicas, virus respiratorios y microorganismos atípicos. En las neumonías bacterianas predominó el patrón de relleno alveolar de distribución lobar, en las neumonías vírales y atípicas predominó el patrón intersticial o mixto alvéolo-intersticial con opacidades en vidrio esmerilado. La CI fue satisfactoria (kappa > 0,6) para determinar el patrón principal de los infiltrados pulmonares, su localización anatómica y la presencia de derrame pleural, su localización y extensión. La CI fue moderada (kappa 0,4-0,6) para definir la extensión de la neumonía y detectar signos radiológicos asociados a congestión pulmonar. Conclusión: Los hallazgos de la radiografía de tórax no permitieron identificar con precisión el agente causal de la neumonía, siendo útil en la caracterización de los infiltrados pulmonares y para detectar complicaciones como el derrame paraneumónico.

In a clinical setting the chest radiograph is the reference standard in establishing the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Objectives: This study aimed to assess interobserver reliability (IR) of radiographic findings and the relationship to different respiratory pathogens in CAP. Methods: Chest radiographs of 300 immunocompetent adult patients hospitalized with pneumonia, obtained from a database, were reviewed by three residents of radiology without specific clinical information. Main pattern of pulmonary infiltrates, topographic localization, extent of pneumonia, presence of pleural fluid, thickened bronchial walls, lymphadenopathy and air bronchogram were scored. Sputum and blood cultures, serological tests and nasopharyngeal swab for respiratory virus detection by molecular diagnostic techniques were performed to identify the causative pathogen. Results: Clinical manifestations and chest X-ray findings were similar in pneumonias caused by different respiratory pathogens: classic bacteria, respiratory viruses and atypical microorganisms. The alveolar pattern of lobar distribution predominated in bacterial pneumonia; meanwhile, interstitial or mixed alveolar-interstitial pattern with ground glass opacities predominated in viral and atypical pneumonias. IR was fair to good (kappa > 0.6) for determining the main pattern of infiltrates, anatomical location and the presence of pleural effusion, their anatomical location and extension. IR was moderate (kappa 0.4-0.6) for determining the extent of pneumonia and signs of congestive heart failure. Conclusion: Simple features such as main pattern description, anatomical location, identifying the involved lobes and pleural fluid recognition showed fair to excellent interobserver reliability. Chest radiographs was of limited value in predicting the causative pathogen but were of beneficial use to characterize pulmonary infiltrates and to detect complications such as parapneumonic effusion.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Community-Acquired Infections/etiology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnostic imaging , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Viruses/isolation & purification , Radiography, Thoracic , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Immunocompetence
Rev. am. med. respir ; 22(2): 134-142, jun. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1441118


Introducción: La estratificación de riesgo del paciente con neumonía adquirida en la comunidad constituye una acción médica de mucho valor en la evaluación integral del enfermo. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de un instrumento para la estratificación de pacientes con neumonía en la valoración pronóstica al momento del ingreso. Material y métodos: Investigación descriptiva, que abarcó 2203 pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía comunitaria, divididos en cinco series entre los años 2009 y 2020; se calculó la letali dad por clase y por categoría de estratificación. En el análisis estadístico, se utilizó la razón de productos cruzados (Odds Ratio) con su intervalo de confianza de 95%. Resultados: Se observó un incremento progresivo de la letalidad desde la clase ligera hasta la grave, tanto para el total de casos (ligera: 5%; moderada: 17%; grave: 59%), como en cada una de las series. Hubo significación estadística en las diferencias en la letalidad entre la neumonía grave y la neumonía moderada (OR 7[5,6;8,6]). En los pacientes con neumonía moderada y en los pacientes con neumonía grave al ingreso, la letalidad fue mayor en la categoría B que en la A (neumonía moderada: 18% vs. 11%, OR 1,7[1;2,7]; neumonía grave: 68% vs. 29%, OR 5,2[3,4;8]). Conclusiones: Se demostró la utilidad del instrumento empleado en la predicción del curso evolutivo del paciente con neumonía, además de su valor orientador para la toma de decisiones. El comportamiento de la letalidad en los diferentes estratos del instrumento avala la manera en que ha sido concebido.

Background: Risk stratification of patients with community-acquired pneumonia is a very important process for the comprehensive evaluation of the patient. Objective: To determine the usefulness of a tool that was created for the stratifica tion of patients with pneumonia in the prognostic assessment on admission. Materials and Methods: Descriptive research including 2,203 patients diagnosed with community pneumonia, divided in five series between 2009 and 2020; the mortality rate was calcu lated according to the stratification class and category. For the statistical analysis, we used the cross-product ratio (Odds Ratio) with its 95% confidence interval. Results: We observed a progressive increase in mortality from mild to severe class, both in the total number of cases (mild: 5%; moderate: 17%; severe: 59%) and in each one of the series. There was statistical significance in the mortality differences between severe and moderate pneumonia (OR 7[5.6;8.6]). In patients who had moderate and severe pneumonia on admission, the mortality in category B was higher than in cat egory A (moderate pneumonia: 18% vs. 11%, OR 1.7[1;2.7]; severe pneumonia: 68% vs. 29%, OR 5.2[3.4;8]). Conclusions: We have proven the usefulness of the tool in predicting the progression of patients with pneumonia and its importance in guiding the decision-making process. The behavior of the mortality rate in the different strata of the tool supports the purpose envisioned for it.

Humans , Community-Acquired Infections
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 17(44): 3067, 20220304. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1379772


Introdução: Infecção urinária é motivo comum de consulta na Atenção Primária, requerendo tratamento empírico. Para a seleção do antimicrobiano, é necessário conhecer o perfil de resistência dos uropatógenos na comunidade. Objetivo: Analisar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana em uroculturas realizadas em pacientes da Atenção Primária à Saúde do Serviço de Saúde Comunitária do Grupo Hospitalar Conceição, de julho de 2017 a junho de 2019. Métodos: Estudo transversal, observacional e descritivo com uroculturas de pacientes ambulatoriais das Unidades de Saúde do Serviço de Saúde Comunitária do Grupo Hospitalar Conceição, nas Zonas Norte e Nordeste de Porto Alegre, de julho de 2017 a junho de 2019. Os dados das uroculturas foram fornecidos pelo laboratório do Grupo Hospitalar e analisados por meio das proporções, por sexo, micro-organismo e resistência antimicrobiana. Resultados: Encontraram-se 2.000 uroculturas positivas no período, principalmente por Escherichia coli (75,50%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7,80%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4,95%), Enterococcus specie (3,35%) e Proteus mirabilis (2,85%). Entre os antibióticos orais testados, a maior resistência foi para ampicilina (48,95%), seguida por sulfametoxazol+trimetoprima (25,85%), norfloxacino (18,05%), ciprofloxacino (18,00%), amoxicilina+clavulanato (11,05%) e nitrofurantoína (8,60%). Considerando-se apenas E. coli, as resistências foram 47,75% para ampicilina, 29,74% para sulfametoxazol+trimetoprima, 19,74% para norfloxacino e ciprofloxacino, 8,08% para amoxicilina+clavulanato e 1,99% para nitrofurantoína. Conclusões: O perfil de resistência antimicrobiana nas Zonas Norte e Nordeste de Porto Alegre sugere que sejam utilizados para tratamento empírico de infecção do trato urinário nessa localidade nitrofurantoína ou amoxicilina+clavulanato.

Introduction: Urinary tract infection is a common reason for consultation in primary care, requiring empirical treatment. For the selection of the antimicrobial, it is necessary to know the resistance profile of uropathogens in the community. Objective: To analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance in urine cultures performed on primary health care patients from the Community Health Service of Grupo Hospitalar Conceição from July 2017 to June 2019. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study with urine cultures of outpatients from the Health Units from the Community Health Service of Grupo Hospitalar Conceição, in North and Northeast Porto Alegre, Brazil, from July 2017 to June 2019. The data on urine cultures were provided by the Grupo Hospitalar laboratory and analyzed through proportions, by sex, microorganism, and antimicrobial resistance. Results: Two thousand positive urine cultures were found in the period, mainly for Escherichia coli (75.50%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.80%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4.95%), Enterococcus specie (3.35%) and Proteus mirabilis (2.85%). Among the oral antibiotics tested, the most frequent resistance was to ampicillin (48.95%), followed by trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (25.85%), norfloxacin (18.05%), ciprofloxacin (18.00%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (11.05%) and nitrofurantoin (8.60%). Considering only E. coli, resistance was 47.75% to ampicillin, 29.74% to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole, 19.74% to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, 8.08% to amoxicillin-clavulanate and 1.99% to nitrofurantoin. Conclusions: The profile of antimicrobial resistance in the North and Northeast Zones of Porto Alegre suggests that nitrofurantoin or amoxicillin-clavulanate should be used for empirical treatment of urinary tract infection in this locality.

Introducción: La infección del tracto urinario es un motivo frecuente de consulta en atención primaria, requiriendo tratamiento empírico. Para la selección del antimicrobiano, es necesario conocer el perfil de resistencia de los uropatógenos en la comunidad. Objetivo: Analizar el perfil de resistencia antimicrobiana en urocultivos realizados en pacientes de atención primaria de salud de Serviço de Saúde Comunitária de Grupo Hospitalar Conceição de julio de 2017 a junio de 2019. Métodos: Estudio transversal, observacional y descriptivo con urocultivos de pacientes ambulatorios de las Unidades de Salud de Serviço de Saúde Comunitária de Grupo Hospitalar Conceição, en las Zonas Norte y Nordeste de Porto Alegre, de julio de 2017 a junio de 2019. Los datos de urocultivos fueron proporcionados por el laboratorio de Grupo Hospitalar y analizados a través de proporciones, por sexo, microorganismos y resistencia a los antimicrobianos. Resultados: En el período se encontraron 2.000 urocultivos positivos, principalmente por Escherichia coli (75,50%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7,80%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4,95%), Enterococcus especie (3,35%) y Proteus mirabilis (2,85%). Entre los antibióticos orales probados, la mayor resistencia fue para la ampicilina (48,95%), seguida de sulfametoxazol+trimetoprima (25,85%), norfloxacina (18,05%), ciprofloxacina (18,00%), amoxicilina+clavulanato (11,05%) y nitrofurantoína (8,60%). %). Considerando solo a E. coli, la resistencia fue del 47,75% para ampicilina, 29,74% para sulfametoxazol + trimetoprima, 19,74% para norfloxacina y ciprofloxacina, 8,08% para amoxicilina + clavulanato y 1,99% para nitrofurantoína. Conclusiones: El perfil de resistencia a los antimicrobianos en las regiones Norte y Nordeste de Porto Alegre sugiere que se utilizan para el tratamiento empírico de la infección del tracto urinario en esta localidad nitrofurantoína o amoxicilina+clavulanato.

Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli , Community-Acquired Infections
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408679


Introducción: Las infecciones del tracto urinario causadas por bacterias gramnegativas resistentes a los antibióticos son una preocupación creciente debido a las limitadas opciones terapéuticas. Objetivo: Analizar la tendencia de resistencia a los antibióticos en Escherichia coli resistente a la ciprofloxacina aislada de la infección del tracto urinario adquirida en la comunidad. Métodos: Estudio de series de tiempo que analiza registros de urocultivos positivos para E. coli resistente a ciprofloxacina en personas de ≥18 años de 2011 a 2017. Las tendencias en los patrones de resistencia a los antibióticos se obtuvieron mediante la regresión lineal generalizada de Prais-Winsten. El cambio porcentual anual (APC) y el intervalo de confianza del 95 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento) se calcularon a partir del coeficiente de análisis de regresión β1 y el error estándar (SE). Los valores de p < 0,05 se consideraron estadísticamente significativos. Resultados: De los datos analizados, 3363 (26,1 por ciento) fueron positivos para E. coli resistente a la ciprofloxacina. El aumento de E. coli resistente a la ciprofloxacina fue del 45,3 por ciento. Las mujeres sufrieron más infección por E. coli sensible a la ciprofloxacina (75,5 por ciento), pero los hombres tuvieron una mayor probabilidad de infectarse con E. coli resistente a la ciprofloxacina [2,132 (1,891-2,402)]. El aumento de la resistencia fue mayor para la nitrofurantoína (<0,001) y la ceftriaxona (<0,001). La prevalencia de resistencia fue alta para nitrofurantoína, norfloxacina, ácido nalidíxico, amoxicilina/clavulanato, ceftriaxona y tobramicina. A excepción de la gentamicina, que presentó una tendencia a la baja en la resistencia, los otros antimicrobianos analizados no mostraron tendencias en la resistencia a los antibióticos. Conclusiones: Hubo un aumento promedio en la resistencia a los principales antibióticos utilizados para tratar la infecciones del tracto urinario adquirida en la comunidad. Entre los antibióticos probados, solo la gentamicina mostró una tendencia a la baja en la resistencia. Estos resultados son importantes para dirigir la elección de los antimicrobianos para el tratamiento empírico de la infección urinaria adquirida en la comunidad(AU)

Introduction: Urinary tract infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Objective: To analyze the antibiotic resistance trend in ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from community-acquired urinary tract infection. Methods: Time series study analyzing records of urine cultures positive for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli in persons aged ≥18 years from 2011 to 2017. The trends in antibiotic resistance patterns were obtained using the Prais-Winsten generalized linear regression. Annual percent change (APC) and 95 percent confidence interval (CI 95 percent) were calculated from the regression analysis coefficient β1 and standard error (SE). Values of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: From the analyzed data, 3 363 (26.1 percent) were positive for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. The increase in ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli was 45.3 percent. Females suffered more infection by ciprofloxacin-sensitive E. coli (75.5 percent), but males had a higher chance of being infected with ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. [2.132 (1.891- 2.402)]. Increase in resistance was highest for nitrofurantoin (<0.001) and ceftriaxone (<0.001). Prevalence of resistance was high for nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ceftriaxone, and tobramycin. Except for gentamicin, which presented a downward trend in resistance, the other antimicrobials analyzed displayed no trends in antibiotic resistance. Conclusions: There was an average increase in resistance to the main antibiotics used to treat community-acquired UTI. Among the antibiotics tested, only gentamicin displayed a downward trend in resistance. These results are important to direct the choice of antimicrobials for the empirical treatment of community-acquired UTI(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(1): 1-16, Mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512527


Community-acquired pneumonia is recognized as one of the main infectious health problems worldwide. The objective was to determine the condition of predictors of death for a group of selected clinical conditions, and for laboratory variables frequently used in practice. Study with descriptive design, which included 967 patients with pneumonia hospitalized between 2016 and 2019, and whose information was obtained from clinical records. Statistical treatment included bivariate and multivariate analysis (logistic regression); it was used the ratio of crossed products (odds ratio) and its 95% confidence interval. Several manifestations were significantly more frequent in older adults: dyspnea (OR 1.5[1.07,2.1]), absence of productive cough (OR 1.7 [1.3, 2.4]), neuropsychological manifestations (OR 2 [1.4,2.8]), tachypnea (OR 1.5 [1.1,2.1]), arterial hypotension (OR 2.1 [1.2,3.6]), anemia (OR 1.6[1.2,2.2]), elevated creatinine (OR 1.6[1.2,2.3]) and hypoproteinemia (OR 3.3[1.9,5.7]); showed a significant association with death: absence of productive cough, neuropsychological manifestations, temperature below 36 degrees Celsius, blood pressure below 110/70 mmHg, respiratory rate above 20 per minute, hemoglobin below 100 g/L, erythrosedimentation greater than 20 mm/L, leukopenia less than 5 x 109/L and serum creatinine above 130 micromol/L. As conclusions certain clinical and laboratory conditions present in the patient at the time of hospital admission, of routine exploration in the comprehensive assessment of the patient, were predictors of death. Additionally, the existence of evident differences in the number of conditions with a predictive nature of death between the population with pneumonia under 60 years of age and the elderly, as well as in the frequency of these conditions in both subgroups, is verified.

La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad está reconocida como uno de los principales problemas de salud de tipo infeccioso al nivel mundial. La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar el carácter de predictores de fallecimiento de un grupo de condiciones clínicas seleccionadas, y de variables de laboratorio de uso frecuente en la práctica. Se realizó un estudio con diseño descriptivo, que incluyó a 967 pacientes con neumonía hospitalizados entre 2016 y 2019, y cuya información se obtuvo de los expedientes clínicos. El tratamiento estadístico incluyó análisis bivariante y multivariado (regresión logística); como estadígrafo se utilizó la razón de productos cruzados (odds ratio) y su intervalo de confianza de 95%. Entre los resultados se destacan los siguientes: varias manifestaciones fueron significativamente más frecuentes en los adultos mayores: disnea (OR 1,5[1,07;2,1]), ausencia de tos productiva (OR 1,7[1,3;2,4]), manifestaciones neuropsicológicas (OR 2[1,4;2,8]), taquipnea (OR 1,5[1,1;2,1]), hipotensión arterial (OR 2,1[1,2;3,6]), anemia (OR 1,6[1,2;2,2]), creatinina elevada (OR 1,6[1,2;2,3]) e hipoproteinemia (OR 3,3[1,9;5,7]); mostraron asociación significativa con el fallecimiento: ausencia de tos productiva, manifestaciones neuropsicológicas, temperatura por debajo de 36 grados Celsius, tensión arterial inferior a 110/70 mmHg, frecuencia respiratoria por encima de 20 por minuto, hemoglobina inferior a 100 g/L, velocidad de sedimentación eritrocitaria superior a 20 mm/L, leucopenia inferior a 5 x 109/L y creatinina sérica por encima de 130 micromol/L. Se concluye que ciertas condiciones clínicas y de laboratorio presentes en el paciente al momento del ingreso hospitalario, de exploración habitual en la valoración integral del enfermo, constituyeron predictores de fallecimiento. Adicionalmente, se comprueba la existencia de evidentes diferencias en el número de condiciones con carácter predictor de muerte entre la población con neumonía menor de 60 años y los adultos mayores, así como en la frecuencia de estas condiciones en ambos subgrupos.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/blood , Prognosis , Body Temperature , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Age Factors , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Dyspnea , Respiratory Rate , Arterial Pressure , Heart Rate , Hospitalization , Anemia
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 389-402, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939873


Few studies have described the key features and prognostic roles of lung microbiota in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP). We prospectively enrolled consecutive SCAP patients admitted to ICU. Bronchoscopy was performed at bedside within 48 h of ICU admission, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to the collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The primary outcome was clinical improvements defined as a decrease of 2 categories and above on a 7-category ordinal scale within 14 days following bronchoscopy. Sixty-seven patients were included. Multivariable permutational multivariate analysis of variance found that positive bacteria lab test results had the strongest independent association with lung microbiota (R2 = 0.033; P = 0.018), followed by acute kidney injury (AKI; R2 = 0.032; P = 0.011) and plasma MIP-1β level (R2 = 0.027; P = 0.044). Random forest identified that the families Prevotellaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Staphylococcaceae were the biomarkers related to the positive bacteria lab test results. Multivariable Cox regression showed that the increase in α-diversity and the abundance of the families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae were associated with clinical improvements. The positive bacteria lab test results, AKI, and plasma MIP-1β level were associated with patients' lung microbiota composition on ICU admission. The families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae on admission predicted clinical improvements.

Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Bacteria/classification , Chemokine CCL4/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Lung , Microbiota/genetics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Prognosis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Singapore medical journal ; : 219-224, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927281


INTRODUCTION@#We aimed to compare the early clinical manifestations, laboratory results and chest computed tomography (CT) images of COVID-19 patients with those of other community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients to differentiate CAP from COVID-19 before reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results are obtained.@*METHODS@#The clinical and laboratory data and chest CT images of 51 patients were assessed in a fever observation ward for evidence of COVID-19 between January and February 2020.@*RESULTS@#24 patients had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, whereas 27 individuals had negative results. No statistical difference in clinical features was found between COVID-19 and CAP patients, except for diarrhoea. There was a significant difference in lymphocyte and eosinophil counts between COVID-19 and CAP patients. In total, 22 (91.67%) COVID-19 patients had bilateral involvement and multiple lesions according to their lung CT images; the left lower lobe (87.50%) and right lower lobe (95.83%) were affected most often, and all lesions were located in the peripheral zones of the lung. The most common CT feature of COVID-19 was ground-glass opacity, found in 95.83% of patients, compared to 66.67% of CAP patients.@*CONCLUSION@#Diarrhoea, lymphocyte counts, eosinophil counts and CT findings (e.g. ground-glass opacity) could help to distinguish COVID-19 from CAP at an early stage of infection, based on findings from our fever observation ward.

Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , China , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnostic imaging , Diarrhea/pathology , Fever , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods