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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1175-1187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970431

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the changes of bacterial community structure and function in the early, middle and late stage of aerobic composting of chicken manure, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods were used to determine and analyze the 16S rRNA sequence of samples at different stages of composting. Wayne analysis showed that most of the bacterial OTUs in the three composting stages were the same, and only about 10% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed stage specificity. The diversity indexes including Ace, Chao1 and Simpson showed a trend of increasing at first, followed by decreasing. However, there was no significant difference among different composting stages (P < 0.05). The dominant bacteria groups in three composting stages were analyzed at the phylum and genus levels. The dominant bacteria phyla at three composting stages were the same, but the abundances were different. LEfSe (line discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size) method was used to analyze the bacterial biological markers with statistical differences among three stages of composting. From the phylum to genus level, there were 49 markers with significant differences among different groups. The markers included 12 species, 13 genera, 12 families, 8 orders, 1 boundary, and 1 phylum. The most biomarkers were detected at early stage while the least biomarkers were detected at late stage. The microbial diversity was analyzed at the functional pathway level. The function diversity was the highest in the early stage of composting. Following the composting, the microbial function was enriched relatively while the diversity decreased. This study provides theoretical support and technical guidance for the regulation of livestock manure aerobic composting process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Manure/microbiology , Chickens/genetics , Composting , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Soil , Bacteria/genetics
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6361-6370, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008834

ABSTRACT

Moutan Cortex(MC) residues produced after the extraction of MC can be re-extracted for active components and used to produce organic fertilizer and animal feed. However, they are currently disposed as domestic waste, which pollutes the environment. This study analyzed the chemical composition of the medicinal material, residues, and residue compost of MC by UPLC-UV-Q-TOF-MS. Furthermore, the nutrient composition of MC residues and the residue compost was analyzed. The results showed that:(1)MC residues had lower content of chemicals than the medicinal material, and content of paeonol, gallic acid, and galloylglucose in MC residues were about 1/3 of that in the medicinal material. The content of chemicals were further reduced after residue composting, and the quantitative compounds were all below the limits of detection.(2)Compared with MC residues, the residue compost showed the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and organic matter content increasing by 122.67%, 31.32%, 120.39%, and 32.06%, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that the MC residues can be used to re-extract active compounds such as paeonol, gallic acid, and galloylglucose. The MC residue compost is a high-quality organic fertilizer containing minimal content of chemicals and can be widely used in the cultivation of Chinese medicinal herbs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Composting , Fertilizers , Soil/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins , Nutrients , Acetophenones , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Paeonia
3.
Saúde Soc ; 32(2): e220535pt, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450446

ABSTRACT

Resumo A presença de fármacos residuais no ambiente é um problema crescente e de abrangência global, com ampla quantidade de pesquisas visando sua quantificação. Porém, seu comportamento e efeitos, tanto no ambiente quanto para o ser humano, ainda não são bem conhecidos. Neste trabalho foram avaliados sete fármacos: Atenolol, Carbamazepina, Clonazepan, Ibuprofeno, Paracetamol, Sinvastatina e Fluoxetina, em amostras de lodo proveniente de uma estação de tratamento de esgotos do sistema público. A extração dos compostos na matriz foi baseada na sua lixiviação em água e a quantificação analítica foi determinada por um sistema de cromatógrafo líquido de ultra performance, acoplado ao espectrômetro de massas. Os resultados indicam a possível movimentação de alguns fármacos da fase aquosa para a sólida. Observou-se que a compostagem do lodo pode favorecer a biodegradação ou mobilização dos compostos, pois houve redução significativa nas concentrações, quando comparados os valores obtidos antes e após o processo de compostagem. A não detecção de um composto não significa necessariamente que ele tenha sido degradado por microrganismos, entretanto, estudos pretéritos chegaram a resultados semelhantes, o que corrobora para a adequação da proposta metodológica e dos procedimentos adotados, contribuindo para a produção de resultados confiáveis.


Abstract The presence of residual drugs in the environment is a growing global issue, with many studies seeking to quantify it. However, its behavior and effects, both on the environment and on humans are still mostly unknown. In this study, seven drugs were evaluated: Atenolol, Carbamazepine, Clonazepam, Ibuprofen, Paracetamol, Simvastatin, and Fluoxetine, from samples of sludge from a sewage treatment plant of the public system. The extraction of the compounds from the matrix was based on the leaching of the compounds in water and the analytical quantification was determined by an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph system, coupled to the mass spectrometer. The data indicate the possible movement of some drugs from aqueous to solid phase. We observed that the composting of the sludge could favor the biodegradation or mobilization of the compounds since there was a significant reduction in the concentrations, when comparing the values obtained before and after the composting process. The non-detection of a compound does not necessarily mean that it has been fully degraded by microorganisms; however, past studies reached similar results, which corroborates the adequacy of the methodological proposal and the adopted procedures, contributing to the production of reliable results.


Subject(s)
Composting , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Toxic Wastes , Iodine
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 110 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444053

ABSTRACT

Dentre os serviços de limpeza pública destaca-se a grande quantidade de resíduos orgânicos (resíduos verdes e de feira livre) resultantes da manutenção e conservação de áreas verdes e da arborização urbana como galhos, gravetos, troncos, cascas, folhas, aparas de capina e roçada de áreas públicas, assim como aqueles provenientes das sobras de feiras livres como frutas, legumes, verduras além de carcaças de peixes, moluscos e crustáceos. Estes resíduos representam uma biomassa preciosa e de composição variada, que podem ter uma destinação mais nobre ao invés de gerar altos custos e ocupar espaço nos sistemas de disposição final dos municípios. A solução para esse problema pode ser um conjunto variado de alternativas de valorização, que merecem um estudo na área. Nesse contexto, o presente estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar e apontar os caminhos de valorização dos resíduos orgânicos no município de São Roque - SP. Para tanto, foi feita a seleção de áreas para coleta dos resíduos verdes e de feira livre gerados in situ. A intenção foi caracterizar estes resíduos para buscar a solução mais adequada de valorização. Além disso, foi feita uma busca em literatura para apoiar nesta etapa de encontro dos melhores recursos tecnológicos e obter uma resposta sustentável. Os resultados obtidos sustentam uma reflexão do atual panorama dos resíduos orgânicos, sua geração e tratamento, assim como o compromisso em relação à sua destinação e valorização. Portanto, com um desfecho satisfatório, a compostagem por leiras estáticas aeradas demonstrou possuir um desenvolvimento que atende melhor às atuais necessidades da cidade em relação às outras tecnologias estudadas. Com características e controles necessários para a produção de um composto de qualidade, dentro dos padrões exigidos por lei e nas condições de tempo e área demandadas pelo município de São Roque - SP, sendo uma solução viável para vencer esse desafio na gestão dos RSU localmente e assim contribuir na edificação de cidades mais sustentáveis pelo Brasil.


Among the public cleaning services, the large amount of organic waste (green waste and free fair waste) resulting from the maintenance and conservation of green areas and urban afforestation stands out, such as branches, sticks, trunks, bark, leaves, weeding and mowing from public areas, as well as those from leftovers from free fairs such as fruits, vegetables, greens, as well as carcasses of fish, molluscs and crustaceans. These residues represent a precious biomass with varied composition, which can have a more noble destination instead of generating high costs and occupying space in the municipal final disposal systems. The solution to this problem can be a varied set of valuation alternatives, which deserve a study in the area. In this context, the present study aimed to characterize and point out the ways of valuing organic waste in the municipality of São Roque - SP. For this purpose, the selection of areas for the collection of green waste and open-air waste generated in situ was made. The intention was to characterize these residues in order to find the most appropriate recovery solution. In addition, a literature search was carried out to support this step in finding the best technological resources and obtaining a sustainable response. The results obtained support a reflection on the current panorama of organic waste, its generation and treatment, as well as the commitment in relation to its destination and valorization. Therefore, with a satisfactory outcome, composting using aerated static windrows demonstrated a development that better meets the current needs of the city in relation to the other technologies studied. With characteristics and controls necessary for the production of a quality compost, within the standards required by law and in the conditions of time and area demanded by the municipality of São Roque - SP, being a viable solution to overcome this challenge in the management of MSW locally and thus contribute to the construction of more sustainable cities in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Solid Waste , Composting , Waste Management , Garbage
5.
Rev. tecnol. (St. Tecla, En línea) ; (15): 27-30, ene.-dic. 2022. tab.^c28 cm.
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1412635

ABSTRACT

En el beneficiado del cacao se producen una gran cantidad de residuos, las mazorcas generalmente son desechadas dentro de los mismos cultivos y genera problemáticas como la proliferación de insectos y microorganismos patógenos. De estos desechos las cáscaras son las de mayor relevancia. La Escuela de Ingeniería Química de ITCA-FEPADE evaluó añadirle valor a este subproducto, incorporando desechos de cáscara de cacao en la formulación de un sustrato para el cultivo de plántulas de hortalizas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue obtener un sustrato orgánico que sirva de soporte material y nutritivo a partir de cáscaras de cacao criollo. La biomasa vegetal se caracterizó teniendo en cuenta parámetros como el porcentaje de humedad, pH, porcentaje de cenizas, contenido de potasio, nitrógeno y fósforo. Se ejecutaron pruebas comparativas de formulación del sustrato, siembra, cultivo y crecimiento de las plántulas de hortalizas de tomate y pepino, obteniendo como resultado la fórmula óptima de un sustrato y abono orgánico y el mejor medio de desarrollo. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que, a partir de un adecuado procesamiento y aprovechamiento de las cáscaras de cacao, se puede transformar este desecho en un producto biomaterial alternativo que genera una opción de bioprospección agroindustrial. Los valores obtenidos en la caracterización fisicoquímica de las cáscaras de las mazorcas, dependen de condiciones como el tipo de suelo, variables agrometeorológicas, calidad de agua, abono y especie de la planta de cacao. El escenario de siembra condiciona el desarrollo óptimo de las plántulas; los factores como requerimiento de agua, distribución de nutrientes y estabilidad de las plántulas, se ven afectados por la relación del espacio de germinación. Como resultado de la caracterización fisicoquímica, se obtuvo: pH de 5.7, cenizas 18.83%, humedad 73.56%, celulosa 21.39%, lignina 39.81%, nitrógeno total 0.02%, fósforo total 0.02% y ausencia de potasio.


In the cacao beneficiation, a large amount of waste is produced, generally, the cacao pods are discarded within the same crops and generate problems such as the proliferation of insects and pathogenic microorganisms. The shell are the most relevant this waste. In Escuela de Ingeniería Química of ITCA-FEPADE the incorporation of cacao shell waste in the formulation of a substrate for growing vegetables was evaluated because the giving benefit to these by-products. The objective of this research was to obtain a substrate that serves as material and nutritional support for vegetable seedlings, from creole cacao shells. The vegetal biomass was characterized taking into account parameters such as moisture percentage, pH, ash percentage, potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus content. Subsequently, comparative tests of formulation, planting and growth of vegetable tomato and cucumber seedlings were carry out, obtaining as result, the optimal formula for the substrate and the best development environment. It concludes that, through an adequate processing and use of the cacao shell, it is possible to transform a waste into an alternative biomaterial product that generates an agro industrial bioprospecting option. The values obtained in the physicochemical characterization of the shells of cacao pods depend on conditions such as soil type, agrometeorological variables, water quality, fertilizer and cacao plant species. The planting environment determines the optimal development of the seedlings, factors such as water requirement, nutrient distribution and seedling stability seems affected because relation of the germination space. The results of the characterization were a pH of 5.7, ashes 18.83%, humidity 73.56%, cellulose 21.39%, lignin 39.81%, total nitrogen 0.02%, total phosphorus 0.02%, and total phosphorus 0.02% and an absence of potassium.


Subject(s)
Cacao/chemistry , Composting/methods , Garbage , Waste Products , Nutrients , Fertilizers , Bioprospecting
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38029, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395418

ABSTRACT

The carbonized rice husk (CRH) is an agro-industrial residue with great potential for use in mixtures with other substrates for the production of vegetable seedlings. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of CRH to the commercial substrate for the production of greenhouse seedlings. The evaluated vegetables were lettuce, broccoli and mustard, cultivated in polystyrene foam (Styrofoam®) trays. Five treatments were evaluated: 100% of the commercial substrate (CS); 25% of CRH + 75% of CS; 50% of CRH + 50% of CS; 75% CRH + 25% CS; and 100% CRH, in a completely randomized design with twelve replicates. The substrates were evaluated for their physical and chemical characteristics. The morphometric evaluations were: number of leaves per plant, plant height, shoot fresh matter yield, root length, and shoot and root dry matter yield. The data were submitted to regression analysis, and the homogeneity of the variance between the experiments was confirmed by the Cochran test. With the addition of CRH to the substrate, there was an increase in total porosity and P content and a reduction in density, water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, and N, K, S, Ca and Mg contents. The carbonized rice husk added to the commercial substrate is a viable alternative for the production of lettuce, broccoli and mustard seedlings. The quality of the vegetable seedlings was higher when there was a 25% CRH + 75% CS mixture.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/growth & development , Composting , Molting , Horticulture
7.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; 20220100. 54 p. ilus.^c28 cm., tab..
Monography in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1400061

ABSTRACT

En el beneficiado del cacao se producen una gran cantidad de residuos, las mazorcas generalmente son desechadas dentro de los mismos cultivos y genera problemáticas como la proliferación de insectos y microorganismos patógenos. De estos desechos las cáscaras son las de mayor relevancia. La Escuela de Ingeniería Química de ITCA-FEPADE evaluó añadirle valor a este subproducto, incorporando desechos de cáscara de cacao en la formulación de un sustrato para el cultivo de plántulas de hortalizas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue obtener un sustrato orgánico que sirva de soporte material y nutritivo a partir de cáscaras de cacao criollo. La biomasa vegetal se caracterizó teniendo en cuenta parámetros como el porcentaje de humedad, pH, porcentaje de cenizas, contenido de potasio, nitrógeno y fósforo. Se ejecutaron pruebas comparativas de formulación del sustrato, siembra, cultivo y crecimiento de las plántulas de hortalizas de tomate y pepino, obteniendo como resultado la fórmula óptima de un sustrato y abono orgánico y el mejor medio de desarrollo. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que, a partir de un adecuado procesamiento y aprovechamiento de las cáscaras de cacao, se puede transformar este desecho en un producto biomaterial alternativo que genera una opción de bioprospección agroindustrial.


In the cacao beneficiation, a large amount of waste is produced, generally, the cacao pods are discarded within the same crops and generate problems such as the proliferation of insects and pathogenic microorganisms. The shell are the most relevant this waste. In Escuela de Ingeniería Química of ITCA-FEPADE the incorporation of cacao shell waste in the formulation of a substrate for growing vegetables was evaluated because the giving benefit to these by-products. The objective of this research was to obtain a substrate that serves as material and nutritional support for vegetable seedlings, from creole cacao shells. The vegetal biomass was characterized taking into account parameters such as moisture percentage, pH, ash percentage, potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus content. Subsequently, comparative tests of formulation, planting and growth of vegetable tomato and cucumber seedlings were carry out, obtaining as result, the optimal formula for the substrate and the best development environment. It concludes that, through an adequate processing and use of the cacao shell, it is possible to transform a waste into an alternative biomaterial product that generates an agro industrial bioprospecting option.


Subject(s)
Waste Products , Cacao , Composting/methods , Research , Biomass , Seedlings
8.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 748-756, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1412441

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus fumigatus es un hongo con características de saprofito que crece en las partes muertas y en descomposición de la materia orgánica. La presencia de terapias inmunosupresoras o de antifúngicos pueden convertirlo en un patógeno fúngico oportunista causante de enfermedades como aspergilosis pulmonar crónica (CPA), aspergilosis invasiva aguda y síndrome de alergias. Pacientes que sufren de enfermedad pulmonar severa como la pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar aspergilosis pulmonar crónica y aspergilosis pulmonar necrosante crónica (CNPA) que pueden causar crecimiento de hongos en los tejidos dañados. Por otro lado, una de las fuentes más comunes de estos hongos son la generación de compost. Estos fertilizantes orgánicos no dañan al medio ambiente y podrían resultar una estrategia eficaz para salvaguardar el medio ambiente. El compost orgánico promueve el suelo con mejor capacidad de retención de agua y resistencia a la sequía. Entre los residuos agrícolas postcosecha más comunes utilizados en la formación de compost, se pueden mencionar a las cáscaras de yuca, de maní, de frutas y verduras, desechos de cervecería, cascarilla de cacao, cascarilla de cola, maíz, conchas de plátano (Musa paradisiaca). Esta investigación tuvo por objetivo determinar la calidad del compost producido a partir de la cáscara de plátano con el fin de aprovechar hasta un 70% de su biomasa en la Municipalidad Provincial de Leoncio Prado, Perú. Los resultados mostraron que la la degradación aerobia de la cáscara de M. paradisiaca generó emisiones de CO2 (88,61%), así como compost (6,57 %) y lixiviados (4,82 %). Sin embargo, los efectos fitotóxicos usando el índice de germinación mostraron una inhibición completa de las semillas probadas posiblemente debido al gran contenido de minerales (alto contenido de salinidad del compost y lixiviado), presencia de metales pesados, compuestos orgánicos presentes, o la presencia de hongos tales como el A. fumigatus(AU)


Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that grows on dead and decomposing parts of organic matter. The presence of immunosuppressive or antifungal therapies can make it an opportunistic fungal pathogen causing diseases such as chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), acute invasive aspergillosis, and allergy syndrome. Patients suffering from severe lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of developing chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) which can cause fungal growth in damaged tissues. On the other hand, one of the most common sources of these fungi is the generation of compost. These organic fertilizers do not harm the environment and could be an effective strategy to safeguard the environment. Organic compost promotes soil with better water holding capacity and drought resistance. Among the most common postharvest agricultural residues used in the formation of compost, we can mention cassava shells, peanut shells, fruit and vegetable shells, brewery waste, cocoa shells, tail shells, corn, banana shells (Musa paradisiaca). The objective of this research was to determine the quality of the compost produced from the banana peel in order to take advantage of up to 70% of its biomass in the Provincial Municipality of Leoncio Prado, Peru. The results showed that the aerobic degradation of the shell of M. paradisiaca generated CO2 emissions (88.61%), as well as compost (6.57%) and leachates (4.82%). However, the phytotoxic effects using the germination index showed a complete inhibition of the tested seeds, possibly due to the high mineral content (high salinity content of the compost and leachate), the presence of heavy metals, organic compounds present, or the presence of fungi such as A. fumigatus(AU)


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus , Composting , Musa , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Fertilizers , Fungi , Antifungal Agents
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 235 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354322

ABSTRACT

O comportamento e o destino dos fármacos e seus metabólitos no meio aquático, assim como seus efeitos na biota e saúde humana, têm sido objeto de estudos em âmbito global. No entanto, poucas pesquisas relacionam parâmetros operacionais e físico-químicos à remoção dos fármacos em Estações de Tratamento de Esgotos (ETE). Os principais processos responsáveis pela redução da concentração destes contaminantes na fase aquosa, durante o tratamento de esgotos, são a biodegradação e a sorção à fase sólida. No que diz respeito à qualidade dos lodos produzidos, um aspecto ainda pouco estudado refere-se à identificação de poluentes emergentes, substâncias presentes no ambiente e que usualmente não são monitoradas, especialmente pela ausência de regulamentação legal nos países, podendo apresentar risco potencial à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente. Desse modo, o presente estudo tem por objetivo identificar, quantificar e avaliar a eficiência de remoção de fármacos presentes em biossólidos provenientes de uma ETE, antes e após o processo de compostagem, utilizando técnicas de cromatografia UFLCTM e espectrometria MS-MS, e avaliar os fármacos escolhidos para estudo, com base no modelo QSAR (ECOSAR-EPA), visando identificar o potencial de bioacumulação e ecotoxicidade dessas substâncias no ambiente, de acordo com as propriedades físico-químicas. De acordo com os resultados obtidos observa-se que houve redução na concentração dos compostos avaliados, indicando tendência à biodegradação ou redução na biodisposição dos mesmos. O processo de compostagem estudado, além de mostrar-se adequado para a produção de um biossólido com características compatíveis com as requeridas para o uso agrícola, possibilitou constatar a eficiência do processo como alternativa para o tratamento desses contaminantes presentes no lodo de esgotos. Possíveis interações que possam ocorrer com outros fármacos presentes no ambiente, em relação a concentrações residuais e metabólitos gerados, os quais não foram investigados no presente estudo, apontam para a necessidade de estudos em relação aos mecanismos farmacocinéticos e farmacodinâmicos para entendimento dos mecanismos de reação envolvidos na formação e toxicidade de seus metabólitos. A presença destes compostos nas várias matrizes ambientais denota a importância das pesquisas nessa área, e a adoção de boas práticas operacionais visando garantir a qualidade e a segurança requeridas na utilização benéfica do lodo de esgotos, principalmente para fins agrícolas.


The behavior and fate of drugs and their metabolites in the aquatic environment, as well as their effects on biota and human health, have been the object of studies on a global scale. However, few research relate operational and physicochemical parameters to the removal of drugs in Sewage Treatment Plants (ETE). The main processes responsible for reducing the concentration of these contaminants in the aqueous phase, during sewage treatment, are biodegradation and sorption to the solid phase. Regarding the quality of the sludge produced, an aspect that has still been poorly studied refers to the identification of emerging pollutants, substances present in the environment that are usually not monitored, especially due to the lack of legal regulations in the countries, which may present a potential risk to health. human and the environment. Thus, this study aims to identify, quantify, and evaluate the efficiency of removal of drugs present in biosolids from an ETE, before and after the composting process, using UFLCTM chromatography and MS-MS spectrometry techniques, and evaluate the drugs chosen for study, based on the QSAR model (ECOSAR-EPA), to identify the bioaccumulation potential and ecotoxicity of these substances in the environment, according to their physicochemical properties. According to the results obtained, it is observed that there was a reduction in the concentration of the compounds evaluated, indicating a tendency to biodegradation or a reduction in their biodisposition. The composting process studied, in addition to being suitable to produce biosolids with characteristics compatible with those required for agricultural use, made it possible to verify the efficiency of the process as an alternative for the treatment of these contaminants present in sewage sludge. Possible interactions that may occur with other drugs present in the environment, in relation to residual concentrations and generated metabolites, which were not investigated in this study, point to the need for studies in relation to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms to understand the reaction mechanisms involved in the formation and toxicity of its metabolites. The presence of these compounds in the various environmental matrices denotes the importance of research in this area, and the adoption of good operational practices to ensure the quality and safety required in the beneficial use of sewage sludge, mainly for agricultural purposes.


Subject(s)
Sewage , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Composting , Biosolids , Wastewater Treatment Plants
10.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(5): 1048-1054, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1428436

ABSTRACT

A medida que a se avanza en el siglo XXI, los sistemas de energía deben alejarse de los combustibles fósiles y aumentar la capacidad de las energías renovables si se quieren cumplir los objetivos de temperaturas máximas del Acuerdo de París. Sin embargo, debido a los desafíos en la adopción de tecnologías bajas en carbono, ciertas áreas de los sistemas energéticos globales son difíciles de controlar y descarburar. Por otra parte, el compostaje es una de las prácticas de gestión de residuos orgánicos más importantes que se puede utilizar para lograr la sostenibilidad del suelo y del medio ambiente. El compost tiene un mínimo impacto en algunas emisiones, y puede ayudar a controlar la huella de carbono y limitar los efectos ambientales negativos de los métodos de eliminación de desechos más deficientes. La investigación tuvo por objetivo determinar la calidad de producir biogás y biometano a partir de la cáscara de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L.). Metodológicamente se desarrolló una investigación aplicada, con nivel de investigación de tipo experimental. Las cáscaras de plátano se colectaron de la planta de compostaje de la Municipalidad Provincial de Leoncio Prado, Perú. De la muestra se prepararon cinco sub muestras para la producción de biogás y cinco muestras adicionales para la producción de biometano. Los sistemas mostraron una producción de 0,067 m3 BG/Kg ST de biogás y 0,059 m3CH4/Kg ST de biometano, que generó subproductos como el biol y biosol. Estos resultados presentaron una baja toxicidad al ser sometidos a pruebas germinativas, concluyéndose que solo el 11,5% de la cáscara introducida al biorreactor se degrado y de esta fracción solo el 2,8% se convirtió en biogás(AU)


As progress is being made in the 21st century, energy systems must move away from fossil fuels and increase the capacity of renewable energies if you want to meet the maximum temperatures objectives of the Paris Agreement. However, due to the challenges in the adoption of low carbon technologies, certain areas of global energy systems are difficult to control and decarbure. On the other hand, composting is one of the most important organic waste management practices that can be used to achieve soil and environmental sustainability. The compost has a minimum impact on some emissions, and can help control the carbon footprint and limit the negative environmental effects of the most deficient waste removal methods. The research aimed to determine the quality of producing biogas and biomethane from the banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.). Methodologically, an applied investigation was developed, with experimental research level. The banana peels were collected from the composting plant of the Provincial Municipality of Leoncio Prado, Peru. From the sample, five sub samples were prepared for the production of biogas and five additional samples for biomethane production. The systems showed a production of 0.067 m3 bg/kg ST of biogas and 0.059 m3ch4/kg ST of biomethane, which generated by -products such as biol and biosol. These results presented a low toxicity when they were subjected to germinative evidence, concluding that only 11.5% of the shell introduced into the bioreactor was degraded and of this fraction only 2.8% became biogas(AU)


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Musa/metabolism , Biofuels/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Composting , Anaerobic Digestion , Musa/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Renewable Energy
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 658-664, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278358

ABSTRACT

Most sandy soils have low natural fertility and low levels of organic matter, making nitrogen (N) fertilization essential. Thus, five doses of N were applied (0, 75, 125, 175 and 225mg dm-³) in a randomized block design to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the morphogenetic, structural and production characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in a Quartzarenic neosoil. The doses of N did not affect the height of the canopy. The leaf elongation rate, final leaf length and number of live leaves increased linearly at the doses of N. Leaf appearance rate, stem elongation rate, leaf lifespan, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate and tiller density showed a quadratic response to the rates There was also an effect of N rates in herbage mass, leaf mass, stem mass, which increased linearly. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu cultivated in Quartzarenic neosoil requires higher doses of N, 175 and 225mg dm-³. Under these conditions, increases in its morphogenetic, structural and productive characteristics are observed. These findings may not be repeated in the most fertile soils with the greatest capacity to supply N.(AU)


A maioria dos solos arenosos tem baixa fertilidade natural e baixos teores de matéria orgânica, tornando a adubação com nitrogênio (N) essencial. Assim, foram aplicadas cinco doses de N (0, 75, 125, 175 e 225mg dm-³) em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, para se avaliarem os efeitos da adubação com nitrogênio nas características morfogênicas, estruturais e produtivas da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, em um Neossolo Quartzarênico. As doses de N não afetaram a altura do dossel. A taxa de alongamento foliar, o comprimento final da folha e o número de folhas vivas aumentaram linearmente em função das doses de N. A taxa de aparecimento de folhas, a taxa de alongamento do caule, o tempo de vida da folha, o filocrono, a taxa de senescência foliar e a densidade de perfilhos apresentaram resposta quadrática às doses de N. A massa da forragem, a massa foliar e a massa do caule aumentaram linearmente. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu cultivada em Neossolo Quartzarênico requer maiores doses de N, 175 e 225mg dm-³. Nessas condições, são observados aumentos em suas características morfogenéticas, estruturais e produtivas. Esses achados podem não se repetir nos solos mais férteis e com maior capacidade de suprir N.(AU)


Subject(s)
Urea , Brachiaria/anatomy & histology , Brachiaria/chemistry , Soil Characteristics/analysis , Composting
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(Supplement1): 71-82, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355140

ABSTRACT

Although the demand for organic fertilizers in agriculture is growing, it remains incipient in some production sectors, such as medicinal plant production, which does not possess specific technology for its development. Solid residues are highly contaminant to water sources, soil, populations and biodiversity but can potentially be used to produce organic composts and vermicompost, such production not only enables nutrient recycling but also acts on soil conditioning, increasing soil organic matter and improving its physical, chemical and biological characteristics, as well as strengthening organic production with an emphasis on medicinal plant production. In this context, recommendations for and applications of organic fertilizers available in the market were reviewed; in addition, the imminent socioeconomic demand for organic compost and vermicompost production was contextualized based on residues from coffee and sugarcane production and cattle farming for application to the medicinal plant production chain. It is concluded that although these sectors produce a considerable amount of residues, they are not being reused in formulation of organic composts and vermicompost, and commercial organic fertilizers recommended for medicinal plant production were not found. Thus, the formulation of vermicomposting and composting from the reuse of agricultural residues, are potential social, economic technologies and tools to be valued and disseminated to traditional and family farmers. (AU)


Embora a demanda por fertilizantes orgânicos na agricultura seja crescente, ela ainda é incipiente em alguns setores produtivos, como a produção de plantas medicinais, que não possui tecnologia específica para seu desenvolvimento. Os resíduos sólidos são altamente contaminantes para fontes de água, solo, populações e biodiversidade, mas podem ser potencialmente utilizados para a produção de compostos orgânicos e vermicomposto, tal produção não só possibilita a reciclagem de nutrientes, mas também atua no condicionamento do solo, aumentando a matéria orgânica do solo e melhorando seu aspecto físico, químico e características biológicas, além do fortalecimento da produção orgânica com ênfase na produção de plantas medicinais. Nesse contexto, foram revisadas as recomendações e aplicações dos fertilizantes orgânicos disponíveis no mercado; além disso, a iminente demanda socioeconômica pela produção de composto orgânico e vermicomposto foi contextualizada a partir dos resíduos da produção de café, cana-de-açúcar e pecuária para aplicação na cadeia produtiva de plantas medicinais. Conclui-se que embora esses setores produzam uma quantidade considerável de resíduos, eles não estão sendo reaproveitados na formulação de compostos orgânicos e vermicomposto, e não foram encontrados fertilizantes orgânicos comerciais recomendados para a produção de plantas medicinais. Sendo assim, a formulação de vermicompostagem e compostagem a partir do reaproveitamento de resíduos agropecuários, são potenciais tecnologias sociais, econômicas e ferramentas a serem valorizadas e disseminadas para os agricultores tradicionais e familiares. (AU)


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Composting , Worm Composting , Organic Agriculture , Solid Waste Use
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 1828-1844, 01-11-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147944

ABSTRACT

Using residues generated in agriculture to produce seedlings is an economically interesting alternative, besides being a way to reduce the environmental impacts caused by their inadequate disposal. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of using coffee chaff (CC) and organic compost (OC) as substrate components for the production of Formosa papaya seedlings and the potential of grape pomace (GP), a vitiviniculture residue, in the composition of substrates for the production of okra and zucchini seedlings. We carried out two trials in a completely randomized design (CRD): the first had seven treatments and six replicates: T0: 100% commercial substrate Bioplant® (CS); from T1 to T6: increasing proportions of CC and decreasing of CC: 10/90; 20/80; 30/70; 40/60; 50/50 e 60/40%. The second had six treatments and six replicates, with increasing proportions of GP and decreasing proportions of CS: 0/100; 10/90; 20/80; 30/70; 40/60 and 50/50%.In the first trial we evaluated the number of leaves, root length, seedling height, stem diameter, shoot dry mass, root dry mass, total dry mass and Dickson Quality Index (DQI) at 59 days after sowing. The second trial was performed at 12 and 18 DAS and we analyzed the number of leaves, plant height, root length, collar diameter, shoot dry mass, root dry mass, total dry mass and Dickson Quality Index (DQI). Variables that met the assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity were subjected to Dunnett's test. The substrate composed of coffee chaff and organic compost has a high potential to be used as an alternative substrate due to promote better quality of papaya seedlings compared to the commercial substrate. Alternative substrate containing 60% coffee chaff and 40% organic compost is recommended for the production of Formosa papaya seedlings in tubes. The grape pomace (GP) has a high potential to be used as component in substrate for the production of okra and zucchini seedlings compared to the commercial substrate (CS) only. Alternative substrate composed of 50% GP and 50% CS is recommended for the production of zucchini seedlings, while substrate composed of 10% GP and 90% CS is recommended for the production of okra seedlings.


A utilização de resíduos advindos da agricultura apresenta-se como uma alternativa interessante do ponto de vista econômico, para a obtenção de mudas, além de ser uma forma de diminuir os impactos ambientais causados pelo descarte inadequado destes resíduos no ambiente. Objetivou-se avaliar a potencialidade de utilização da moinha de café e composto orgânico como componentes de substratos para produção de mudas de mamão Formosa, e a potencialidade dos resíduos da vitivinicultura como componentes de substratos para produção de mudas de abóbora e quiabo. Na produção de mudas de mamão formosa, o experimento foi realizado no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com sete tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo: T0 = 100% de substrato comercial Bioplant® (SC), e do T1 ao T6, proporções crescentes de moinha de café (MC) e decrescentes de composto orgânico (CO): 10/90; 20/80; 30/70; 40/60; 50/50 e 60/40%. Na produção de mudas de abóbora e quiabo, o experimento foi realizado no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com seis tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo proporções crescentes de bagaço de uva (BU) e decrescentes de substrato comercial (SC): 0/100; 10/90; 20/80; 30/70; 40/60 e 50/50%. Aos 59 DAS foram avaliados o número de folhas, altura da muda, diâmetro do caule, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, radicular e total da muda e o Índice de Qualidade de Dickson (IQD) em mudas de mamão formosa. As avaliações nas mudas de abóbora e quiabo foram realizadas aos 12 e 18 DAS, respectivamente, e as variáveis analisadas foram o número de folhas, altura da planta, comprimento da raiz, diâmetro do coleto, massa seca da parte aérea, massa seca da raiz, massa seca total e o IQD. O substrato composto por moinha de café e composto orgânico possui elevado potencial de uso em razão de promover melhor qualidade de mudas de mamoeiro quando comparado com o substrato comercial. Recomenda-se o substrato alternativo contendo 60% de moinha de café e 40% de composto orgânico, em substituição ao substrato convencional, na produção de mudas de mamão Formosa em tubetes. O bagaço de uva possui elevado potencial para ser usado como componente de substrato na produção de mudas de abóbora e quiabo quando comparado com o uso isolado do substrato comercial. Para produção de mudas de abóbora recomenda-se o uso do substrato composto por 50% de BU e 50% de SC, já para a produção de mudas de quiabo recomenda-se um substrato composto por 10% de BU e 90% de SC.


Subject(s)
Composting , Wine Industry
14.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(1, cont.): e2304, 20200000. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129300

ABSTRACT

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is a crop that has a high demand for all the essential macronutrients. To be used efficiently, these should be at sufficient levels and balanced. The application of amino acids can influence the efficiency of nitrogen fertilisation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the productivity and economic viability of the 'M-6410 IPRO®' soybean under different doses of the amino-acid complex, Torped Gold®. Different doses of the organo-mineral class-A fertiliser complexed with amino acids (Torped Gold®) were used. The treatments were arranged in a randomised block design of five treatments with four replications for a total of 20 experimental units. T1 - water applied as control (0.0%), T2 - 80% of the manufacturer's recommended dose (80%), T3 - 100% of the recommended dose (100%), T4 - 20% more than the recommended dose (120%) and T5 ­ Double the recommended dose (200%). The lowest production was found for T1 (control), with a productivity of 1495 kilograms per hectare. The manufacturer's recommended dose (100%), 20% more than the recommended dose (120%) and double the dose (200%) gave a productivity of 1873, 1883 and 1905 kg ha-1 respectively. There was an increase in productivity of the order of 6 bag ha-1 and there was no need to adjust the dose recommended by the manufacturer.(AU)


A soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) é uma cultura muito exigente em todos os macronutrientes essenciais. Os quais devem estar em níveis suficientes e equilibrados para um aproveitamento eficiente. A aplicação de aminoácidos pode influenciar na eficácia da adubação nitrogenada. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e a viabilidade econômica da soja M-6410 IPRO® em diferentes dosagens do complexo de aminoácido Torped Gold®. Foram utilizadas diferentes dosagens do fertilizante organomineral classe A, complexados com aminoácidos (Torped Gold). Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento de blocos casualizados, sendo cinco tratamentos com quatro repetições totalizando 20 unidades experimentais. T1: aplicação de água como controle (0,0%); T2: 80% da dose recomendado pelo fabricante (80%), T3: dose recomendada (100%), T4: 20% a mais, que a dose recomendada (120%) e T5: o dobro da dose recomendada (200%). Constatou-se menor produção no T1 (controle), com produtividade de 1495 quilogramas por hectares. Dosagens recomendada pelo fabricante (100%), 20% a mais que a dose recomendada (120%) e o dobro da dose (200%), proporcionaram produtividades, de 1873, 1883 e 1905 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Houve incremento na produtividade na ordem de 6 (seis) sacas ha-¹, não havendo necessidade de ajustar a dose recomendada pelo fabricante.(AU)


La soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) es un cultivo muy exigente en todos los macronutrientes esenciales. Los cuales deben estar en niveles suficientes y equilibrados para un uso eficiente. La aplicación de aminoácidos puede influir en la eficacia de la fertilización con nitrógeno. El objetivo del estudio ha sido evaluar la productividad y viabilidad económica de la soja M-6410 IPRO® en diferentes dosis del complejo de aminoácidos Torped Gold®. Se utilizaron diferentes dosis de fertilizante organomineral clase A, complejados con aminoácidos (Torped Gold). Los tratamientos se organizaron en un diseño de bloques al azar, siendo cinco tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones totalizando 20 unidades experimentales. T1: aplicación de agua como control (0.0%); T2: 80% de la dosis recomendada por el fabricante (80%), T3: dosis recomendada (100%), T4: 20% más que la dosis recomendada (120%) y T5: dos veces la dosis recomendada (200%) . En T1 (control) se encontró menor producción, con una productividad de 1495 kilogramos por hectárea. Las dosis recomendadas por el fabricante (100%), 20% más que la dosis recomendada (120%) y el doble de la dosis (200%), proporcionaron rendimientos de 1873, 1883 y 1905 kg ha-¹, respectivamente. Hubo un aumento de productividad del orden de 6 (seis) sacos ha-¹, sin necesidad de ajustar la dosis recomendada por el fabricante.(AU)


Subject(s)
Glycine max/growth & development , Composting , Economics , Efficiency , Amino Acids
15.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 42: e46412, fev. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460906

ABSTRACT

The Achillea millefolium L. is a perennial herb with important antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and antioxidant properties. This research aimed to investigate the effect of shading (75%; black net) and nitrogen fertilization (0, 75 and 150 kg urea ha-1) on the nitrogen metabolism, essential oil yield and antimicrobial activity of A.millefolium at vegetative- and reproductive-stage. The evaluated parameters varied depending on the organ and the phenological stage of the plant considered. Overall, our findings indicated that shading decreased nitrogen assimilation. Decreased activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase were observed on shaded plants during reproductive and vegetative stages, respectively. Nitrate and total amino acid levels increased in shaded plants at the vegetative stage. Regarding nitrogen supply, the improved nitrogen metabolism and essential oil yield values were accompanied by intermediate concentrations of urea (75 kg ha-1). Plants fertilized with 75 kg urea ha-1 produced the highest amino acids concentration (vegetative stage), ammonium concentration (vegetative stage) and essential oil yield (reproductive stage). Shading or nitrogen supply did not influence the microbial activity of A. millefolium essential oil.However, the essential oil of leaves and flowers were highly effective against fungi and bacteria, especially gram-positive bacteria. In conclusion, the current study showed that full light and 75 kg urea ha-1 enhanced the nitrogen metabolism of A. millefolium in both vegetative and reproductive stages.


Subject(s)
Achillea/metabolism , Achillea/microbiology , Achillea/chemistry , Composting , Nitrogen Compounds/metabolism , Nitrogen Compounds/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents , Shadowing Technique, Histology
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 68(4)2020.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1507736

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Estimating aboveground biomass (AGB) in protected forests is a challenge, due to high costs and legal restrictions for direct assessments, and also to frequently weak estimation provided by general AGB equations. Objective: We propose a new approach that uses dead fallen trees (DFTs) to improve AGB estimation. We aim to analyse if the adjustment of allometric models based on DFTs provides a suitable local equation for AGB estimation or helps to validate existing pantropical or regional allometric equations. Methods: The study was carried out at the Dois Irmãos State Park (PEDI), Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. Along 4 000 m, using the line intersect technique, we sampled 37 recent dead fallen trees ranging from 7.6 to 92.3 cm in diameter and from 8.6 to 29.4 m in height. Nine models were adjusted, and the best equation (local) was compared to regional and pantropical equations. Results: Oneequation (AGBkg= 1.5292* DBH2.0601*TH-0.2187) produced biomass estimates which did not differ from the observed values (P > 0.05). Differently from the others, this equation overestimated AGB in only 2.8 % and, along with other parameters of analysis (R2 adj and Syx %) had the best overall performance. Analysing the performance of the local equationversusavailable equations for estimating AGB, we found that only the local and the pantropical equations by Pearson et al. (2005) estimated values that were not significantly different from observed values. However, the local equation is more appropriate for local estimation of AGB, since it has the lowest RSME and CV. Conclusions: Based on the proposed approach, we were able to offer a local equation for tree AGB estimation based on fallen trees. The DFT method is efficient regarding time and costs, avoiding tree logging in protected forests and helps to guide the choice of a proper equation for forest AGB demands.


Introducción: La estimación de la biomasa aérea (AGB) en los bosques protegidos es un desafío, debido a los altos costos y las restricciones legales para las evaluaciones directas, y también a una estimación con frecuencia débil proporcionada por las ecuaciones generales de AGB. Objetivo: Proponemos un nuevo enfoque que utiliza los árboles muertos caídos (DFT) para mejorar la estimación de AGB. Nuestro objetivo es responder si el ajuste de modelos alométricos basados en DFT proporciona una ecuación local adecuada para la estimación de AGB o ayuda a validar las ecuaciones alométricas pantropicales o regionales existentes. Métodos: El estudio se realizó en el Parque Estatal Dois Irmãos (PEDI), Pernambuco, Nordeste de Brasil. En el espacio de 4 000 m, utilizando la técnica de intersección de líneas, se tomaron muestras de 37 árboles muertos recientemente que van desde 7.6 a 92.3 cm de diámetro y 8.6 a 29.4 m de altura. Se ajustaron nueve modelos y se comparó la mejor ecuación (local) con las ecuaciones regionales y pantropicales. Resultados: Una ecuación (AGBkg = 1.5292 * DBH2.0601 * TH-0.2187) determinó estimaciones de biomasa que no diferían de los valores observados (p> 0.05). A diferencia de las otras, esta ecuación sobreestimó AGB en solo 2.8 % y, junto con otros parámetros de análisis (R2 adj y Syx %), presentó el mejor rendimiento general. Analizando el rendimiento de la ecuación local versus las ecuaciones disponibles para estimar AGB, encontramos que solo las ecuaciones locales y pantropicales de Pearson et al. (2005) estimaron valores que no fueron significativamente diferentes de los valores observados. Sin embargo, la ecuación local es más apropiada para la estimación local de AGB, ya que tiene el RSME y CV más bajos. Conclusiones: Con base en el enfoque propuesto, pudimos proponer una ecuación local para la estimación de AGB basada en árboles caídos. La estimación basada en DFT es eficiente en términos de tiempo y costo, evita la tala de árboles en bosques protegidos y ayuda a guiar la elección de una ecuación adecuada para las demandas de AGB forestales.


Subject(s)
Composting , Forests , Biomass , Brazil
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 589-593, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001490

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability to degrade organic matter by edaphic macrofauna (worms), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and hydrogenation potential (pH) during the vermicomposting process in different organic residues. The treatments were constituted by organic residues of animal origin (bovine, ovine and equine manure) and vegetable (herb-checkmate and coffee drag), which were conditioned in plastic pots with a capacity of 10 liters, comprising five treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, with five replications. Were inoculated 150 earthworms of the species Eisenia foetida, into each plot. After 87 days, the evaluation of the multiplication of the earthworms was carried out, through its manual count and its cocoons. At the beginning and at the end of the experiment, the samples were submitted to analysis of humidity at 60 °C, pH, volumetric density, chemical analysis of macronutrients and C/N ratio. There was a dominance of worms and cocoons in the process of vermicomposting in the residues of ovine manure and herb-checkmate. The macronutrients (P, K and Mg) and C/N ratio were higher in the vegetal residues, while for N higher values were found in ovine manure and coffee drag treatments, and for Ca higher value among treatments was observed in the coffee drag treatment at the end and the lowest value at initiation. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the importance of the edaphic macrofauna to the vermicomposting process, since it allows more information about its influence on the continuity of soil organic matter decomposition processes.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar a capacidade de degradar a matéria orgânica pela macrofauna edáfica (minhocas), a relação carbono/nitrogênio (C/N) e o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH), durante o processo da vermicompostagem em diferentes resíduos orgânicos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por resíduos orgânicos de origem animal (esterco bovino, ovino e equino) e vegetal (resíduo de erva-mate e borra-de-café), os quais foram acondicionados em vasos plásticos com capacidade de 10 litros, compondo cinco tratamentos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualisado, com cinco repetições. Foram inoculadas 150 minhocas da espécie Eisenia foetida, em cada recipiente. Após 87 dias, foi realizada a avaliação da multiplicação das minhocas, através da sua contagem manual e seus casulos. Os resíduos foram submetidos, ao inicio e ao final do experimento, a análises de umidade a 60 °C, pH, densidade volumétrica, análise química de macronutrientes e relação C/N. Houve uma dominância de minhocas e casulos no processo da vermicompostagem nos resíduos de esterco ovino e erva-mate. Observou-se para os macronutrientes (P, K e Mg) e para a relação C/N uma maior quantidade nos resíduos vegetais, enquanto que para N valores maiores foram encontrados nos tratamentos esterco ovino e borra-de-café, e para Ca o maior valor entre os tratamentos foi observado no tratamento com borra de café ao final e o menor valor no inicio. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo demonstram a importância da macrofauna edáfica para o processo da vermicompostagem por possibilitar maiores informações sobre sua influência na continuidade dos processos de decomposição da matéria orgânica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Composting , Garbage , Manure/analysis , Biodegradation, Environmental , Brazil , Cattle , Carbon/analysis , Sheep, Domestic , Horses , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrogen/analysis
18.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(3): 191-200, set. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041824

ABSTRACT

Diversity and abundance of the denitrifying genes nirK, nirS and nosZ were investigated in cow manure compost using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), respectively. These three genes were detected in all the stages of the composting process. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nirK gene was closely related to Rhizobiales, Burkholderiales, the nirS gene was closely related to Pseudomonadales and Burkholderiales, and the nosZ gene was closely related to Rhodospirillales, Rhizobiales, Pseudomonadales, and Alteromonadales. qPCR results showed that the abundance of these three genes (nirK, nirS and nosZ) reached the peak value in the late thermophilic stage of composting and abundance of the nirK gene was higher than that of the nosZ gene and the nirS gene. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the diversity of the nirK and nirS genes was significantly correlated with ammonium (p < 0.05), the diversity of the nosZ gene was significantly correlated with pH (p < 0.05) and the abundance of the nirK nirS and nosZ genes was significantly correlated with temperature (p< 0.05).


La diversidad y la abundancia de los genes desnitrificadores nirK, nirS, nosZ en el compost de estiércol de vaca se investigaron por medio de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa seguida de electroforesis en gel con gradiente de desnaturalización (PCR-DGGE) y por PCR cuantitativa (qPCR) en tiempo real, respectivamente. Estos 3 genes fueron detectados durante todas las fases del compostaje. El análisis filogenético mostró estrecha relación del gen nirK con Rhizobiales y Burkholderiales, del gen nirS con Pseudomonadales y Burkholderiales y del gen nosZ con Rhodospirillales, Rhizobiales, Pseudomonadales y Alteromonadales. Los resultados de la qPCR mostraron que la abundancia de los genes nirK, nirSy nosZ alcanzó el valor máximo en la fase termofílica tardía del compostaje, y que la abundancia del gen nirK era más elevada que los de los genes nosZ y nirS. El análisis de redundancia (RDA) mostró que la diversidad de los genes nirK y nirS estaba significativamente correlacionada con la concentración de amonio (p<0,05), mientras que la del gen nosZ estaba significativamente correlacionada con el pH (p<0,05). También mostró que la abundancia de los genes nirK, nirS y nosZ estaba significativamente correlacionada con la temperatura (p<0,05).


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Soil Microbiology , Composting , Denitrification/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Phylogeny , Temperature , Biodiversity , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ammonium Compounds/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Manure/microbiology
19.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 22(4): 109-114, out-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1052859

ABSTRACT

A Palma Forrageira é uma planta xerófila de grande importância para a manutenção da pecuária nordestina, sobretudo, durante os períodos de estiagem. No entanto, diante da necessidade da recuperação dos palmais destruídos pela cochonilha do carmim, faz-se necessário conhecer os efeitos das práticas de manejo sobre as novas variedades introduzidas. Nesse sentido, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação e fontes de adubação orgânica sobre a morfometria de cladódios da palma forrageira 'Orelha de Elefante Mexicana' (Opuntia stricta [Haw.] Haw.) cultivada no Semiárido. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Riachão, Boa Vista, Paraíba. A área de plantio utilizada estava no segundo ciclo depois de dois anos de implantação. Utilizou-se um fatorial duplo 3 x 6 (tipos de adubação; lâminas de irrigação) em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Utilizaram-se dois tipos de esterco, bovino e caprino e a testemunha, associados com a ausência de irrigação e cinco lâminas diferentes (0; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5; 4,5 e 5,5 L de água por semana por planta). Ao fim de três meses, foram mensurados a área do cladódio, índice de área de cladódio e volume de cladódios total. Observou-se efeito significativo a 1% de probabilidade, pelo Teste F, da lâmina de irrigação sob todos os parâmetros analisados, sendo a lâmina de 5,5 L/semana a que propiciou os melhores resultados para a maioria das variáveis. Os tipos de esterco isoladamente não diferiram estatisticamente entre si, no entanto, o esterco caprino associado com a irrigação apresentou melhores resultados.(AU)


The forage palm is a xerophilous crop of great importance for the maintenance of livestock in the Northeast region of Brazil during periods of drought. However, due to the need to recover the palm trees destroyed by the prickly pear cochineal, it is important to know the effects of management practices on the new varieties that have been introduced in the area. In this sense, this study aimed at evaluating the effect of different irrigation levels and sources of organic fertilization on the morphometric attributes of forage palm cladodes of the Erect Prickly Pear (Opuntia stricta [Haw.] Haw.) grown in a semi-arid environment. The experiment was conducted at Fazenda Riachão, in the city of Boa Vista, state of Paraíba. The planting area used was at its second cycle after two years of implantation. Two types of manure ­ cattle and goat, as well as control, associated with absence of irrigation and five different levels of irrigation, ranging from 0; 1.5; 2.5; 3,.5; 4.5 and 5.5 L of water per week per plant were used. A 3 x 6 double factorial model (types of fertilization, irrigation levels) was used in a randomized block design, with five replications. At the end of a three-months' period, the cladode area, cladode area index, and total cladode volume were measured. A significant effect could be observed at 1% probability by F Test regarding the irrigation level for all analyzed parameters, with the 5.5 L/week irrigation mode providing the best results for most of the studied parameters. The manure types alone did not differ statistically from each other; however, the goat manure associated with irrigation presented better results than those for cattle manure.(AU)


La palma forrajera es una planta xerófila de gran importancia para el mantenimiento del ganado del noreste, especialmente durante los períodos de sequía. Sin embargo, en vista de la necesidad de recuperación de las palmas destruidas por la cochinilla carmínica, es necesario conocer los efectos de las prácticas de manejo en las nuevas variedades introducidas. En ese sentido, esta investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de diferentes cuchillas de riego y fuentes de fertilización orgánica en la morfometría de cladodios de la palma forrajera 'Oreja de Elefante Mexicano' (Opuntia stricta [Haw.] Haw.) cultivada en el Semiárido. El experimento se realizó en la Hacienda Riachão, Boa Vista, Paraíba. El área de plantación utilizada estaba en el segundo ciclo después de dos años de implantación. Se usó un factorial doble 3 x 6 (tipos de fertilización; cuchillas de riego) en un diseño de bloques al azar con cinco repeticiones. Se utilizaron dos tipos de estiércol, siendo de ganado y cabras y el control, asociados con la ausencia de riego y cinco diapositivas diferentes (0; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5; 4.5 y 5.5 L de agua por semana por planta). Después de tres meses, se midieron el área del cladodio, el índice del área del cladodio y el volumen total del cladodio. Se observó un efecto significativo con una probabilidad del 1%, mediante la Prueba F, de la cuchilla de riego bajo todos los parámetros analizados, con la cuchilla de 5.5 L/semana proporcionando los mejores resultados para la mayoría de las variables. Los tipos de estiércol por sí solos no difirieron estadísticamente, sin embargo, el estiércol de cabra asociado con el riego presentó mejores resultados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Composting/methods , Opuntia/growth & development , Agricultural Irrigation/methods , Semi-Arid Zone
20.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 22(2): 53-58, abr-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052604

ABSTRACT

A disponibilidade do nitrogênio (N) e do potássio (K) e a adequada proporção entre os dois são de grande importância para a realização de processos como crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de fontes e doses de K em associação ao N em cobertura via foliar sobre as características produtivas do trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivado em sistema de semeadura direta, em sucessão à cultura da soja. O experimento foi desenvolvido no ano de 2018 no município de Juranda, região centro oeste do Paraná. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 5 x 1, com seis repetições, totalizando 30 parcelas experimentais, K e KN em combinação, em fase fenológicas diferentes, fase V5 (emborrachamento) e fase R7 (enchimento de grãos). Foram avaliados, tamanho de espiga, quantidade de grão por espiga, e peso de grão, para avaliar os reais benefícios da aplicação da adubação potássica via foliar. Para o número de espigas somente o tratamento com K em enchimento não diferiu do controle. No parâmetro número de grãos obteve-se os melhores resultados em K no emborrachamento e K e N no enchimento, entretanto, na massa de mil grãos o K no enchimento obteve a melhor média (40,75 g planta-1) em relação controle. Conclui-se que, a utilização do K via foliar aumenta o comprimento das espigas, número de grãos e massa de mil grãos e a aplicação do produto comercial K-40 no estádio de R7 aumenta em cerca de 30% a produtividade quando comparado ao controle.(AU)


The availability of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) and the adequate ratio between the two are of great importance for processes such as growth and development of plants. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effect of sources and doses of K in association with N in foliar cover on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production grown under no-tillage system after soybean crop. The experiment was carried out in 2018 in the municipality of Juranda, central-western region of Paraná. The study used an experimental design in randomized blocks in a 5 x 1 factorial scheme, with 6 replicates, totaling 30 experimental plots, K and KN in combination, different phenological phases, V5 (rubberizing) and R7 (grain filling) phases. Ear size, grain per ear, and grain weight were assessed to evaluate the real benefits of foliar application of potassium fertilization. For the number of ears, treatment only with K during filling did not differ from the control; for number of grains per ear, the best results were obtained in K in the rubberizing, and K and N in the filling stages. However, for the weight of thousand grains, K in the filling stage presented the best mean (40.75 g plant-1) in the control ratio. It can be concluded that the use of K via foliar application increases the length of the ear, number of grains and weight per thousand grains. Application of the commercial product K-40 at the R7 stage increases yield by about 30%.(AU)


La disponibilidad del nitrógeno (N) y del potasio (K) y la adecuada proporción entre los dos son de gran importancia para la realización de procesos como crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas. Este trabajo objetivó evaluar el efecto de fuentes y dosis de K en asociación al N en cobertura foliar sobre las características productivas del trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivado en sistema de siembra directa, en sucesión al cultivo de la soja. El experimento se desarrolló en el año 2018 en el municipio de Juranda, región centro oeste de Paraná. El planteamiento experimental adoptado fue de bloques casualizados en esquema factorial 5 x 1, con seis repeticiones, totalizando 30 parcelas experimentales, K y KN en combinación, en fase fenológicas diferentes, fase V5 (encauchadas) y fase R7 (relleno de granos). Se evaluaron, tamaño de espiga, cantidad de grano por espiga, y peso de grano, para evaluar los reales beneficios de la aplicación de la fertilización potásica vía foliar. Para el número de espigas solamente el tratamiento con K en relleno no difirió del control. En el parámetro número de granos se obtuvo los mejores resultados en K en el encauche y K y N en el relleno, sin embargo, en la masa de mil granos el K en el relleno obtuvo la mejor media (40,75 g planta-1) en relación control. Se concluye que, la utilización del K vía foliar aumenta la longitud de las espigas, número de granos y masa de mil granos y la aplicación del producto comercial K-40 en la fase de R7 aumenta en un 30% la productividad mientras comparado al control.(AU)


Subject(s)
Potassium , Composting/economics , Crops, Agricultural/economics , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Triticum
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