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1.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Online) ; 43(2): 55-60, maio-ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1362040

ABSTRACT

As multifatoriedades do aumento da SHAOS têm diversas causas, desdês de obesidades até sedendarismo de grande proporção. No entanto a ciência tem feito grandes esforços para isso se altere. Mesmo assim muito tem que se pesquisar para um tratamento efetivo que seja capaz de ajudar o paciente a ter um sono reparador e uma qualidade de vida mais satisfatória. A sofisticação dos CPAP, melhores alternativas para o tratamento se sofisticaram de tal em volume, barulho e tamanho que estão aumentanto em muito sua utilização. Os mini-cpaps são uma prova disso. No entanto ainda nos confrontamos com a baixa adesão do tratamento frente ao desconforto causado. Ao aparelhos intra-orais são uma alternativa viáveis para os casos de IAH (índice de apneia e hipopneia) leve, moderada e ronco primário. Importante frisar que sem um exame de polissografia e teleradiografias laterais o Cirurgião Dentista não pode fazer nada(AU)


The multifactorial causes of the increase in SHAOS have several causes, from obesity to a large sedentary lifestyle. However science has made great efforts to change this. Even so, much remains to be researched for an effective treatment that is capable of helping the patient to have a restful sleep and a more satisfactory quality of life. The sophistication of CPAP, the best alternatives for treatment, has become so sophisticated in volume, noise and size that its use is greatly increasing. The mini-cpaps are proof of that. However, we are still faced with the low adherence to the treatment due to the discomfort caused. Intraoral appliances are a viable alternative for cases of mild, moderate AHI (apnea and hypopnea index) and primary snoring. It is important to emphasize that without a polysomnography exam and lateral teleradiographies, the Dental Surgeon cannot do anything(AU)


Subject(s)
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 89-98, abril 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363662

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los beneficios de la ventilación asistida ajustada neuronalmente (NAVA) en los recién nacidos prematuros son inciertos. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar si la NAVA no invasiva (NIV) era más beneficiosa para los recién nacidos prematuros que la presión positiva continua nasal (NCPAP). Diseño del estudio: metanálisis de tres ensayos clínicos: dos ensayos controlados aleatorizados y un estudio de grupos cruzados. Se comparó la NAVA-NIV con la NCPAP y se informó sobre el fracaso del tratamiento, la mortalidad y los eventos adversos como resultados principales. Resultados: tres estudios con 173 pacientes (89 recibieron NAVA-NIV) cumplieron los criterios de inclusión en este metanálisis. No se observaron diferencias en el fracaso del tratamiento entre la NAVA-NIV y la NCPAP (razón de riesgos [RR] = 1,09; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95 % = 0,65-1,84; diferencia de riesgos = 0,02; IC95% = -0,10-0,14; I2 = 33 %; P = 0,23). De manera similar, no hubo diferencias en la mortalidad (RR = 1,52; IC95% = 0,51-4,52; no aplica heterogeneidad). En comparación con la NCPAP, la NAVA-NIV redujo significativamente el uso de cafeína (RR = 0,85; IC 95% = 0,74-0,98; I2 = 71 %; P = 0,03). Conclusiones: en comparación con la NCPAP, no hay evidencia suficiente para sacar una conclusión sobre los beneficios o daños de la NAVA-NIV en los recién nacidos prematuros. Los hallazgos de esta revisión deben confirmarse en ensayos clínicos con una metodología rigurosa y potencia adecuada


Introduction: The benefits of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) in preterm infants are unclear. This study aimed to explore if noninvasive NAVA is more beneficial for preterm infants than nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). Study design: Meta-analysis was performed in three clinical trials comprising two randomized controlled trials and one crossover study. We compared NIV-NAVA and NCPAP and reported treatment failure, mortality, and adverse events as the primary outcomes. Results: Three studies including 173 patients (89 of whom underwent NIV-NAVA) were eligible for this meta-analysis. This review found no difference in treatment failure between NIV-NAVA and NCPAP (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.84; RD 0.02, 95% CI -0.10-0.14; I2=33%, P=0.23). Similarly, there was no difference in mortality (RR 1.52, 95% CI 0.51-4.52, heterogeneity not applicable). Compared with NCPAP, NIV-NAVA significantly reduced the use of caffeine (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.98, I2=71%, P=0.03). Conclusions: Compared with NCPAP, there is insufficient evidence to conclude on the benefits or harm of NIV-NAVA therapy for preterm infants. The findings of this review should be confirmed using methodologically rigorous and adequately powered clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Interactive Ventilatory Support/adverse effects , Infant, Premature , Treatment Failure , Cross-Over Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects
3.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(5): 757-772, Nov 11, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353564

ABSTRACT

Considerando a Síndrome de Hipoventilação da Obesidade (SHO) como potencialmente tratável, encontra-se dificuldade em comparar ensaios clínicos devido às diferentes titulações da ventilação mecânica não invasiva (VNI) e da pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas (CPAP). Objetivou-se realizar uma revisão integrativa da literatura com utilização de pressão positiva como método terapêutico. Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados, utilizando CPAP comparado a VNI como tratamento. A busca ocorreu nas bases de dados PubMed e Web of Science, incluindo-se estudos publicados entre 2008 e 2017. Foram selecionados 4 artigos, dois estudos comparando CPAP e binível. Apresentaram semelhança na melhora entre os grupos. O terceiro estudo comparou com grupo controle, sendo ambas eficientes em relação ao GC com melhora na PaCO2, Bic, sintomas clínicos, parâmetros polissonográficos e efeitos secundários. O quarto estudo apresentou para Suporte de Pressão Assegurada de Volume Médio (AVAPS-AE), eficácia de CPAP e binível na redução de surtos noturnos de pressão arterial. Dessa forma observa-se similar eficácia entre ambas as estratégias, e ambas são mais eficazes quando comparadas a um grupo controle. (AU)


Subject(s)
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome , Respiration, Artificial , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Obesity
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(11): e10974, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285663

ABSTRACT

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used to improve gas exchange and diaphragmatic function, among others benefits. Moreover, it can be used to increase exercise tolerance and positively influence ventilatory function and breathing pattern (BP) during exercise. However, there is no information about the long-term effects of CPAP, as an adjunct to an inpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program, on BP and heart rate variability (HRV) of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). Twenty patients were allocated to receive, after randomization, standard inpatient CR without CPAP (control group - CG) or CR with CPAP between 10 to 12 cmH2O (CPAP group - CPG) associated with the exercises. Participants were assessed preoperatively and on the discharge day, in the sitting rest position. Outcome measurements included BP variables, collected by respiratory inductive plethysmography, and HRV, collected by polar precision performance. The CPG presented lower values of percent rib cage inspiratory and expiratory contributions to tidal volume (%RCi and %RCe) at discharge time, compared to CG. No statistical differences between groups were observed for HRV variables and both groups presented lower values of these indices, compared to preoperative ones. In this context, the patients who received CPAP throughout the whole rehabilitation program were discharged with a better BP, which could indicate more synchronized breathing. CPAP did not influence cardiac autonomic modulation in the long term.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Respiration , Coronary Artery Bypass , Heart Rate
6.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(5): 647-653, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132646

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with positive airway pressure in children is restricted due to concerns that it could affect maxilla growth over time. Objective: To undertake a systematic review of the literature about the long-term impact of using a positive airway pressure mask on the midface in growing individuals. Methods: The literature search was conducted in September 2019 using the keywords ("long-term" OR "long term" OR "side effects" OR longitudinal) AND (children OR child OR preschool OR adolescents OR adolescent OR infant OR infants) AND (craniofacial OR "mid-face" OR midface OR midfacial OR facial OR maxillary) AND ("airway pressure" OR ventilation) in the databases PubMed, Web of Science and Lilacs. The search included papers published in English, until September 2019, on the effects of positive airway pressure on midfacial growth. Results: The search strategy identified five studies: two case reports, two cross-sectional studies and one retrospective cohort study. All studies evaluated the long-term effects of a using a nasal mask on the midface in children and adolescents; four showed midface hypoplasia and one no showed difference post- treatment compared to a control. Conclusion: Most of the studies demonstrated that long-term use of nasal positive airway pressure in childhood/adolescence is associated with midface hypoplasia.


Resumo Introdução: O tratamento da apneia obstrutiva do sono com pressão positiva nas vias aéreas em crianças é restrito devido a preocupações de que possa afetar o crescimento da maxila em longo prazo. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre o impacto em longo prazo do uso de uma máscara de pressão positiva nas vias aéreas na face média em indivíduos em crescimento. Método: A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada em setembro de 2019 utilizando as palavras-chave (long-term OR side effects OR longitudinal) AND (children OR child OR preschool OR adolescents OR adolescent OR infant OR infants) AND (craniofacial OR mid-face OR midface OR midfacial OR facial OR maxillary) AND (airway pressure OR ventilation) nas bases de dados PubMed, Web of Science e Lilacs. A pesquisa incluiu artigos publicados em inglês, até setembro de 2019, sobre os efeitos da pressão positiva nas vias aéreas no crescimento médio-facial. Resultados: A estratégia de busca identificou cinco estudos: dois relatos de casos, dois estudos transversais e um estudo de coorte retrospectivo. Todos os estudos avaliaram os efeitos em longo prazo do uso de máscara nasal na face média em crianças e adolescentes; quatro apresentaram hipoplasia da face média e um paciente não mostrou diferença após o tratamento em comparação com um controle. Conclusão: A maioria dos estudos demonstrou que o uso prolongado da pressão positiva nas vias aéreas nasal na infância/adolescência está associado à hipoplasia da face média.


Subject(s)
Humans , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Maxilla
7.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(5): 44-50, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1133688

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The most prescribed treatment option for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is CPAP; however, its adherence is limited. Oral Appliance therapy (OAT) is frequently an option or even an adjuvant, being the mandibular advancement Oral Appliance (OAm) the most used prescription. It modifies the upper airway, improving the airway patency. OAm construction is based on the occlusal plane to disocclusion. In this study, the DIORS® appliance was used, a singular OAm, based on Neuro-Occlusal Rehabilitation concepts, that uses Camper's plane as a disocclusion reference, in order to achieve neuromuscular balance and functional stability. Objective: This study primarily aimed to assess the DIORS® effectiveness in relation to clinical and polysomnographic outcomes. It was also evaluated if the use of DIORS® is as effective as titrated CPAP to treat CPAP non-adherent patients. Methods: Twenty patients were included in this study. Objective and subjective clinical data were assessed at a sleep laboratory using all-night polysomnography, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), taken at three moments: Baseline, CPAP titration, and using DIORS®. Analysis of respiratory parameters as apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), oxyhemoglobin saturation levels, the arousal index and daytime sleepiness were taken as criteria for a successful OAT. Results: Respiratory and arousal parameters improved in both therapies, while DIORS® promoted a better ESS. Conclusion: Results from the present work support that DIORS® is a viable and effective adjuvant therapy for patients with moderate to severe OSA non-adherent to CPAP.


RESUMO Introdução: A opção mais indicada para tratamento da apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) é o CPAP; contudo, a aderência é limitada. A Terapia com Aparelho Oral (TAO) é, frequentemente, uma opção, ou mesmo um adjuvante. A prescrição mais utilizada é o Aparelho Oral de avanço mandibular (AOm). O AOm modifica a via aérea superior, melhorando a patência do espaço aéreo. A construção do AOm se baseia no plano de oclusão para desoclusão. No presente estudo, usamos o DIORS®, um AOm diferente, baseado nos conceitos da Reabilitação Neuro-Oclusal (RNO), que utiliza o Plano de Camper como referência da desoclusão para alcançar o equilíbrio neuromuscular e estabilidade funcional. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal abordar a eficácia do DIORS®, considerando-se os resultados clínicos e polissonográficos. Adicionalmente, foi avaliado, também, se o uso desse AOm é tão eficaz quanto a titulação do CPAP para tratar pacientes com AOS não aderentes ao CPAP. Métodos: Vinte pacientes foram incluídos neste estudo. Dados clínicos objetivos e subjetivos foram avaliados em um laboratório de sono usando polissonografia de noite inteira e a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth (ESE) observando-se três momentos: inicial, titulação do CPAP e usando o DIORS®. Os critérios de sucesso da TAO foram assumidos pela análise dos parâmetros respiratórios como Índice de Apneia e Hipopneia (IAH) e níveis de saturação de oxi-hemoglobina, o índice de despertar e a sonolência diurna. Resultados: Em ambas as terapias, os parâmetros respiratórios e de despertares melhoraram. Adicionalmente, uma melhora na ESE foi alcançada com o DIORS®. Conclusão: Os resultados do presente trabalho apoiam que o DIORS® é uma terapia adjuvante viável e bastante eficaz para pacientes com AOS moderada a grave não aderentes ao CPAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mandibular Advancement , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Treatment Outcome , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(4): 422-431, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135054

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness and complications caused by the use of the high-flow nasal cannula in relation to the post-extubation continuous positive airway pressure system in preterm newborns. Data Sources: The searches were performed from January 2013 to December 2018 in the PubMed and Embase databases, as well as a manual search on the internet. Data Synthesis: Two reviewers independently conducted the search, and a third reviewer resolved questions that arose. Ninety-eight articles from the chosen sources were evaluated, and 66 were discarded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria (inadequate topic, age range, or design, in addition to the duplicates). Fifteen articles were read in full, and five more were discarded due to inadequacy to the topic or design. There were ten articles left for systematic review and four for meta-analysis. The study showed non-inferiority in terms of therapeutic failure of the high-flow nasal cannula in relation to continuous positive airway pressure after extubation of preterm newborns. In the meta-analysis, nasal trauma was significantly lower in patients submitted to the high-flow nasal cannula compared to those using continuous positive airway pressure (p < 0.00001). Conclusion: The high-flow nasal cannula is not inferior to continuous positive airway pressure for post-extubation respiratory support in preterm newborns with a gestational age of 32 weeks or less and greater than 28 weeks, in addition to resulting in less nasal trauma.


Resumo Objetivo: Realizar revisão sistemática e metanálise para avaliar efetividade e complicações decorrentes do uso da cânula nasal de alto fluxo em relação ao sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas no período pós-extubação em recém-nascidos prematuros. Fontes dos dados: As buscas foram feitas de janeiro de 2013 a dezembro de 2018 nas bases de dados PubMed, Embase e busca manual em arquivos da internet. Resumo dos dados: Dois revisores fizeram a busca de forma independente, um terceiro revisor ficou para dirimir dúvidas. Foram avaliados 98 artigos das fontes escolhidas, 66 descartados por não se enquadrar nos critérios de inclusão (tema, faixa etária ou desenho inadequados, além dos duplicados). Foram lidos 15 artigos na íntegra, foram descartados mais 5 por inadequação ao tema ou desenho. Restaram 10 artigos para revisão sistemática e 4 para metanálise. O estudo evidenciou não inferioridade em termos de falha terapêutica da cânula nasal de alto fluxo em relação ao sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas na pós-extubação de recém-nascidos prematuros. Na metanálise, foi significativamente menor o trauma nasal nos pacientes em cânula nasal de alto fluxo em relação ao que usaram sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas (p < 0,00001). Conclusão: A cânula nasal de alto fluxo não é inferior ao sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas para o suporte respiratório pós-extubação de recém-nascidos prematuros com idade gestacional igual a ou menor do que 32 semanas e maior do que 28 semanas, além de provocar menos trauma nasal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Airway Extubation , Cannula , Infant, Premature , Gestational Age , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 319-325, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138486

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O teste de apneia com desconexão do ventilador mecânico representa riscos durante a determinação da morte encefálica, especialmente em pacientes hipoxêmicos. Descrevemos a realização do teste de apneia sem desconexão do ventilador mecânico em dois pacientes. O primeiro caso é o de um menino de 8 anos, admitido com hipoxemia grave por pneumonia. Apresentou parada cardiorrespiratória, seguida de coma não responsivo por encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica. Dois exames clínicos constataram ausência de reflexos de tronco, e o Doppler transcraniano revelou parada circulatória encefálica. Realizaram-se três tentativas de teste de apneia, que foram interrompidas por hipoxemia, sendo então realizado teste de apneia sem desconexão do ventilador mecânico, ajustando a pressão contínua nas vias aéreas em 10cmH2O e fração inspirada de oxigênio em 100%. A saturação de oxigênio manteve-se em 100% por 10 minutos. A gasometria pós-teste foi a seguinte: pH de 6,90, pressão parcial de oxigênio em 284,0mmHg, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono em 94,0mmHg e saturação de oxigênio em 100%. O segundo caso é de uma mulher de 43 anos, admitida com hemorragia subaracnóidea (Hunt-Hess V e Fisher IV). Dois exames clínicos constataram coma não responsivo e ausência de todos os reflexos de tronco. A cintilografia cerebral evidenciou ausência de captação de radioisótopos no parênquima cerebral. A primeira tentativa do teste de apneia foi interrompida após 5 minutos por hipotermia (34,9oC). Após reaquecimento, o teste de apneia foi repetido sem desconexão do ventilador mecânico, evidenciando-se manutenção do volume residual funcional com tomografia de bioimpedância elétrica. Gasometria pós-teste de apneia apresentava pH em 7,01, pressão parcial de oxigênio em 232,0mmHg, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono 66,9mmHg e saturação de oxigênio em 99,0%. O teste de apneia sem desconexão do ventilador mecânico permitiu a preservação da oxigenação em ambos os casos. O uso de pressão contínua nas vias aéreas durante o teste de apneia parece ser uma alternativa segura para manter o recrutamento alveolar e a oxigenação durante determinação da morte encefálica.


ABSTRACT The apnea test, which involves disconnection from the mechanical ventilator, presents risks during the determination of brain death, especially in hypoxemic patients. We describe the performance of the apnea test without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator in two patients. The first case involved an 8-year-old boy admitted with severe hypoxemia due to pneumonia. He presented with cardiorespiratory arrest, followed by unresponsive coma due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Two clinical exams revealed the absence of brainstem reflexes, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound revealed brain circulatory arrest. Three attempts were made to perform the apnea test, which were interrupted by hypoxemia; therefore, the apnea test was performed without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator, adjusting the continuous airway pressure to 10cmH2O and the inspired fraction of oxygen to 100%. The oxygen saturation was maintained at 100% for 10 minutes. Posttest blood gas analysis results were as follows: pH, 6.90; partial pressure of oxygen, 284.0mmHg; partial pressure of carbon dioxide, 94.0mmHg; and oxygen saturation, 100%. The second case involved a 43-year-old woman admitted with subarachnoid hemorrhage (Hunt-Hess V and Fisher IV). Two clinical exams revealed unresponsive coma and absence of all brainstem reflexes. Brain scintigraphy showed no radioisotope uptake into the brain parenchyma. The first attempt at the apnea test was stopped after 5 minutes due to hypothermia (34.9°C). After rewarming, the apnea test was repeated without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator, showing maintenance of the functional residual volume with electrical bioimpedance. Posttest blood gas analysis results were as follows: pH, 7.01; partial pressure of oxygen, 232.0mmHg; partial pressure of carbon dioxide, 66.9mmHg; and oxygen saturation, 99.0%. The apnea test without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator allowed the preservation of oxygenation in both cases. The use of continuous airway pressure during the apnea test seems to be a safe alternative in order to maintain alveolar recruitment and oxygenation during brain death determination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Apnea/diagnosis , Brain Death/diagnosis , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Oxygen/blood , Partial Pressure , Respiration, Artificial , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Hypoxia/diagnosis
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(2): 174-179, March-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132578

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Manual titration is the gold standard to determinate optimal continuous positive airway pressure, and the prediction of the optimal pressure is important to avoid delays in prescribing a continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Objective: To verify whether anthropometric, polysomnographic, cephalometric, and upper airway clinical assessments can predict the optimal continuous positive airway pressure setting for obstructive sleep apnea patients. Methods: Fifty men between 25 and 65 years, with body mass indexes of less than or equal to 35 kg/m2 were selected. All patients had baseline polysomnography followed by cephalometric and otolaryngological clinical assessments. On a second night, titration polysomnography was carried out to establish the optimal pressure. Results: The average age of the patients was 43 ± 12.3 years, with a mean body mass index of 27.1 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and an apnea-hypopnea index of 17.8 ± 10.5 events per hour. Smaller mandibular length (p = 0.03), smaller atlas-jaw distance (p = 0.03), and the presence of a Mallampati III and IV (p = 0.02) were predictors for higher continuous positive airway pressure. The formula for the optimal continuous positive airway pressure was: 17.244 − (0.133 × jaw length) + (0.969 × Mallampati III and IV classification) − (0.926 × atlas-jaw distance). Conclusion: In a sample of male patients with mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnea, the optimal continuous positive airway pressure was predicted using the mandibular length, atlas-jaw distance and Mallampati classification.


Resumo Introdução: A titulação manual é o padrão-ouro para determinar a pressão ideal para o tratamento com a pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas; e a predição da pressão ideal é importante para evitar retardos na sua prescrição. Objetivo: Verificar se as avaliações clínicas antropométricas, polissonográficas, cefalométricas e das vias aéreas superiores podem predizer a configuração ideal da pressão do aparelho de pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas para pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono. Método: Foram selecionados 50 homens entre 25 e 65 anos, com índice de massa corporal menor ou igual a 35 kg/m2. Todos os pacientes fizeram polissonografia basal, seguida de avaliações clínicas cefalométricas e otorrinolaringológicas. Na segunda noite, foi feita polissonografia de titulação para estabelecer a pressão ideal. Resultados: A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 43 ± 12,3 anos, com índice de massa corporal médio de 27,1 ± 3,4 kg/m2 e índice de apneia-hipopneia de 17,8 ± 10,5 eventos por hora. Menor comprimento mandibular (p = 0,03), menor distância atlas-maxila (p = 0,03) e a presença de Mallampati III e IV (p = 0,02) foram preditores de pressão mais elevada. A fórmula para a pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas foi: 17,24 - (0,133 × comprimento da mandíbula) + (0,969 × classificação de Mallampati III e IV) - (0,926 × distância atlas-mandíbula). Conclusão: Em uma amostra de homens com apneia obstrutiva do sono leve a moderada, a pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas foi predita com o comprimento mandibular, a distância atlas-mandíbula e a classificação de Mallampati.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Body Mass Index , Cephalometry , Polysomnography
12.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(1): 64-71, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1178760

ABSTRACT

La presión positiva continua en las vías aéreas (CPAP) es el tratamiento estándar más eficaz para el síndrome de apneas e hipopneas obstructivas del sueño (SAHOS). La falta de adherencia se debe con frecuencia a la incomodidad o el disconfort generados por efectos secundarios relacionados con las máscaras. La aceptación de la CPAP depende en gran medida de la selección de la interfaz adecuada y para ello se requiere de experiencia del personal, de la posibilidad de seleccionar el modelo que mejor se adapta a cada paciente, y de que las interfaces cumplan con requisitos mínimos para proporcionar confort y eficacia terapéutica. La evidencia actual sugiere que la máscara nasal es mejor tolerada, requiere menor presión para resolver la obstrucción y se asocia con una mejor calidad de sueño y adherencia al tratamiento. Por lo tanto, máscaras o almohadillas nasales deben ser la primera opción. Máscaras oronasales pueden ser apropiadas cuando no se tolere la máscara nasal o la fuga bucal documentada persista. Los especialistas en medicina respiratoria somos responsables de controlar el proceso de selección y suministro de la máscara y de orientar a nuestros pacientes acerca de las opciones disponibles.


Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective standard treatment for the obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The lack of adherence to the treatment is frequently due to inconvenience or discomfort generated by side effects related to the masks. CPAP acceptance depends greatly on the selection of the adequate interface. To make the right choice, it is necessary to have experienced personnel and the possibility to select the model that best suits every patient. Also, interfaces must meet minimum requirements to provide comfort and therapeutic efficacy. Current evidence suggests that the nasal mask is better tolerated, requires less pressure to solve obstructions and is associated with better quality of sleep and adherence to the treatment. So, nasal masks or pillows should be the first option. Oronasal masks may be suitable when the nasal mask is not tolerated or the documented oral leakage persists. Specialists in respiratory medicine are responsible for controlling the process of selection and administration of the mask and guiding our patients on the available options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep , Therapeutics , Pulmonary Medicine , Efficacy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Masks
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886251

ABSTRACT

@#PURPOSE: With continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) being the treatment of choice for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), adherence rates to CPAP are still low without a clear consensus of causes. The Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is a general theory of human motivation that emphasizes the extent to which behaviors are relatively autonomous based on the psychological needs that are critical to supporting the process of internalization and the development of optimal motivation. This study sought to determine whether the implementation of an SDT-based intervention is effective in improving: (1) perceived competence, (2) treatment self-regulation, (3) CPAP treatment adherence, and (4) Apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) of OSA patients. METHODS. Using a true experimental pretest-posttest design, 30 purposively selected participants were randomly allocated to experimental and control groups. The SDT-based intervention included group sessions, individual sessions, and follow up phone calls in three weeks. Written permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of the East - Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc. (UERMMMCI) and the Lung Center of the Philippines. Participation was voluntary and all participants had the right to refuse or discontinue their participation at any time during the study. Data were analyzed using two way repeated-measures ANOVA, student's T-test, and chi-square. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The participants in the experimental group have increased adherence rates from Time 1 (60%) to Time 2 (92.9%) and Time 3 (85.7%). Although, when compared to the control group, no significant difference was noted across the different periods of measurement (p=0.70810, p=0870, p=0.2403). There were higher proportions of patients who eventually became adherent in the experimental group compared to the control group immediately after and 5 weeks after the intervention (p=0.0001). The experimental group had significantly better improvement in AHI compared to the control group immediately after (p=0.0152) and 5 weeks after the intervention (p=0.0022). Considering the importance of CPAP adherence in effectively treating OSA, measures to improve adherence such as SDT-based intervention could be usefully incorporated into OSA patients' treatment plans.


Subject(s)
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Personal Autonomy , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811246

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews the updated findings, including the current clinical guidelines and recent research trends, on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common sleep disorder associated with medical and mental disorders. The pathophysiology of OSA is believed to be related not only to the anatomical causes of the upper airway but also to the comparative anatomical mechanisms, such as the upper airway muscle function, arousal threshold, and loop gain. When OSA is suspected of being a clinical symptom or sign, a sleep study should be used for a diagnosis of OSA. Traditionally, continuous positive airway pressure has been the most effective first-line treatment for OSA. On the other hand, there could be a limitation of long-term compliance and new therapies that are suitable for the diverse mechanisms of OSA have been proposed or studied. In the future, the treatment of enhancing the effect through a more individualized consideration should be applied for OSA.


Subject(s)
Arousal , Compliance , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Diagnosis , Hand , Mental Disorders , Respiration , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Wake Disorders
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2721-2730, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877868

ABSTRACT

Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TECSA) is a specific form of sleep-disordered breathing, characterized by the emergence or persistence of central apneas during treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. The purpose of this review was to summarize the definition, epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and treatment of TECSA. We searched for relevant articles up to January 31, 2020, in the PubMed database. The prevalence of TECSA varied widely in different studies. The potential mechanisms leading to TECSA included ventilatory control instability, low arousal threshold, activation of lung stretch receptors, and prolonged circulation time. TECSA may be a self-limited disorder in some patients and could be resolved spontaneously over time with ongoing treatment of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). However, central apneas persist even with the regular CPAP therapy in some patients, and new treatment approaches such as adaptive servo-ventilation may be necessary. We concluded that several questions regarding TECSA remain, despite the findings of many studies, and it is necessary to carry out large surveys with basic scientific design and clinical trials for TECSA to clarify these irregularities. Further, it will be vital to evaluate the baseline demographic and polysomnographic data of TECSA patients more carefully and comprehensively.


Subject(s)
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Lung , Respiration , Sleep Apnea, Central/therapy , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879770

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in neonates.@*METHODS@#PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China Biology Medicine disc, Wanfang Database, CNKI, and Weipu Database were searched for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of HFNC versus nCPAP in the treatment of neonatal RDS published up to April 1, 2020. RevMan5.3 software was used to perform a Meta analysis of the eligible RCTs.@*RESULTS@#A total of 12 RCTs were included, with 2 861 neonates in total, among whom 2 698 neonates (94.30%) had a gestational age of ≥28 weeks and 163 (5.70%) had a gestational age of 0.05). For primary respiratory support and post-extubation respiratory support, the HFNC group had a significantly lower incidence rate of nasal injury than the nCPAP group (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Based on the current clinical evidence, HFNC has a higher failure rate than nCPAP when used as primary respiratory support for neonates with RDS, and therefore it is not recommended to use HFNC as the primary respiratory support for neonates with RDS. In RDS neonates with a gestational age of ≥28 weeks, HFNC can be used as post-extubation respiratory support in the weaning phase.


Subject(s)
Cannula , China , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(3): e20180422, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101261

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the construct validity and reproducibility of the six-minute step test (6MST) in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods: We evaluated 48 volunteers diagnosed with OSA and treated with CPAP for at least two months. The volunteers underwent the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and the 6MST, in random order and on different days, with an interval of, at most, seven days between the two tests. Results: A moderate positive correlation was found between the distance walked on the 6MWT and the number of steps climbed on the 6MST (r = 0.520; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two 6MSTs in terms of the number of steps climbed (121.7 ± 27.1 vs. 123.6 ± 26.7). Reproducibility for performance on the 6MST and for cardiovascular variables was considered excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.8). Regarding cardiovascular responses, the 6MST produced higher values than did the 6MWT for HR at six minutes, percent predicted maximum HR, and leg fatigue at six minutes, as well as for systolic blood pressure at six minutes and at one minute of recovery. Conclusions: The 6MST is valid and reproducible, producing greater cardiovascular stress than does the 6MWT. However, the 6MST is also characterized as a submaximal test for the assessment of exercise tolerance in individuals with OSA treated with CPAP.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a validade do constructo e a reprodutibilidade do teste de degrau de seis minutos (TD6) em indivíduos com apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) tratados com continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas). Métodos: Foram avaliados 48 voluntários com diagnóstico de AOS e tratados com CPAP há, no mínimo, dois meses. Os voluntários foram submetidos ao teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6) e ao TD6, em ordem aleatória e em dias diferentes, com um intervalo de, no máximo, sete dias entre os dois testes. Resultados: Foi observada uma correlação positiva moderada entre a distância percorrida no TC6 e o número de subidas no TD6, (r = 0,520; p < 0,001). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no número de subidas entre os dois TD6 (121,7 ± 27,1 vs. 123,6 ± 26,7 degraus). A reprodutibilidade para o desempenho no TD6 e para as variáveis cardiovasculares foi considerada excelente (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse > 0,8). Com relação às respostas cardiovasculares, quando comparado ao TC6, o TD6 apresentou maiores valores em relação a FC no sexto minuto, percentual do predito da FC máxima, fadiga de membros inferiores no sexto minuto e pressão arterial sistólica no sexto minuto e no primeiro minuto da fase de recuperação. Conclusões: O TD6 é válido, reprodutível e causa maior estresse cardiovascular quando comparado ao TC6. No entanto, o TD6 também se caracteriza como um teste submáximo para a avaliação da tolerância ao esforço em indivíduos com AOS tratados com CPAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Exercise Test/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods
19.
Insuf. card ; 14(4): 135-140, Octubre-Diciembre 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053194

ABSTRACT

Introdução. Pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) portadores de apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) tem taxas de morbi mortalidade elevados e o tratamento com a pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas (CPAP) pode reduzir estes riscos. Objetivo geral. Realizar uma revisão sistemática de ensaios clínicos randomizados sobre os efeitos da terapia por CPAP em pacientes com IC portadores de AOS. Fontes de informação. Pesquisamos as bases de dados eletrônicas PubMed, Embase, Web of Science e Lilacs nos últimos 10 anos, sem limites de linguagem. Critérios de elegibilidade. Ensaios clínicos randomizados, estudos de pacientes com IC apresentando fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) reduzida (<50%) portadores de apneia obstrutiva do sono e que fossem tratados com CPAP. Resultados. A FEVE aumentou consideravelmente nos grupos que receberam a terapia por CPAP (média basal: 30,6%; média pós CPAP: 36,7%), assim como a saturação de oxigênio (SaO2) (média basal: 94%; média pós CPAP: 95,3%) e houve redução no índice de apneia/hipopneia (média basal: 39,6; média pós CPAP: 12,3). Conclusões. Nossa revisão sistemática de ensaios clínicos randomizados confirma que a terapia por CPAP em pacientes com IC portadores de AOS melhora variáveis preditoras de morbi mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Heart Failure
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