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Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 405-412, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982291


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of hippocampal neurodevelopment in the antidepressant effect of baicalin.@*METHODS@#Forty male Institute of Cancer Research mice were divided into control, corticosterone (CORT, 40 mg/kg), CORT+baicalin-L (25 mg/kg), CORT+baicalin-H (50 mg/kg), and CORT+fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) groups according to a random number table. An animal model of depression was established by chronic CORT exposure. Behavioral tests were used to assess the reliability of depression model and the antidepressant effect of baicalin. In addition, Nissl staining and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the effect of baicalin on hippocampal neurodevelopment in mice. The protein and mRNA expression levels of neurodevelopment-related factors were detected by Western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Baicalin significantly ameliorated the depressive-like behavior of mice resulting from CORT exposure and promoted the development of dentate gyrus in hippocampus, thereby reversing the depressive-like pathological changes in hippocampal neurons caused by CORT neurotoxicity. Moreover, baicalin significantly decreased the protein and mRNA expression levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and upregulated the expression levels of cell cycle protein D1, p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), doublecortin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (all P<0.01). There were no significant differences between baicalin and fluoxetine groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Baicalin can promote the development of hippocampal neurons via mTOR/GSK3β signaling pathway, thus protect mice against CORT-induced neurotoxicity and play an antidepressant role.

Male , Animals , Mice , Corticosterone , Fluoxetine/metabolism , Depression/chemically induced , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Hippocampus , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Behavior, Animal , Disease Models, Animal , Mammals/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 401-408, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038546


Abstract Background: Stress is defined as a complicated state that related to homeostasis disturbances, over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses. Cardiac preconditioning reduces myocardial damages. Objective: This study was designed to assess the cardioprotective effects of acute physical stress against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups; (1) IR (n = 8): rats underwent I/R, (2) Acute stress (St+IR) (n = 8): physical stress induced 1-hour before I/R, (3) Sympathectomy (Symp+IR) (n = 8): chemical sympathectomy was done 24-hours before I/R and (4) Sympathectomy- physical stress (Symp+St+IR) (n = 8): chemical sympathectomy induced before physical stress and I/R. Chemical sympathectomy was performed using 6-hydroxydopamine (100 mg/kg, sc). Then, the hearts isolated and located in the Langendorff apparatus to induce 30 minutes ischemia followed by 120 minutes reperfusion. The coronary flows, hemodynamic parameters, infarct size, corticosterone level in serum were investigated. P < 0.05 demonstrated significance. Results: Physical stress prior to I/R could improve left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and rate product pressure (RPP) of the heart respectively, (63 ± 2 versus 42 ± 1.2, p < 0.05, 70 ± 2 versus 43 ± 2.6, p < 0.05) and reduces infarct size (22.16 ± 1.3 versus 32 ± 1.4, p < 0.05) when compared with the I/R alone. Chemical sympathectomy before physical stress eliminated the protective effect of physical stress on I/R-induced cardiac damages (RPP: 21 ± 6.6 versus 63 ± 2, p < 0.01) (LVDP: 38 ± 4.5 versus 43 ± 2.6, p < 0.01) (infarct size: 35 ± 3.1 versus 22.16 ± 1.3, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Findings indicate that acute physical stress can act as a preconditional stimulator and probably, the presence of sympathetic nervous system is necessary.

Resumo Fundamento: O estresse é definido como um estado complicado de distúrbios da homeostase, hiperatividade do sistema nervoso simpático e das respostas do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal. O pré-condicionamento cardíaco diminui os danos do miocárdio. Objetivo: Esse estudo avaliou os efeitos cardioprotetores do estresse físico agudo contra a lesão por isquemia-reperfusão (I/R) através da ativação do sistema nervoso simpático. Métodos: Trinta e dois ratos machos Wistar foram divididos em quatro grupos; (1) IR (n = 8): ratos submetidos a I/R, (2) Estresse agudo (St+IR) (n = 8): estresse físico induzido 1 hora antes da I/R, (3) Simpatectomia (Symp+IR) (n = 8): a simpatectomia química foi realizada 24 horas antes da I/R e (4) Simpatectomia-estresse físico (Symp+St+IR) (n = 8): simpatectomia induzida antes do estresse físico e da I/R. A simpatectomia química foi realizada com 6-hidroxidopamina (100 mg/kg, SC). Em seguida, os corações foram isolados e colocados em aparato de Lagendorff por 30 minutos para induzir isquemia, seguida de reperfusão por 120 minutos. Os fluxos coronarianos, os parâmetros hemodinâmicos, o tamanho do infarto e os níveis de corticosterona plasmática foram investigados. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: O estresse físico anterior à I/R pode melhorar a pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE) e duplo produto (DP), respectivamente, (63 ± 2 versus 42 ± 1,2, p < 0,05, 70 ± 2 versus 43 ± 2,6, p < 0,05) e reduzir o tamanho do infarto (22,16 ± 1,3 versus 32±1,4, p < 0,05) quando comparado com a I/R isoladamente. A simpatectomia química antes do estresse físico eliminou o efeito protetor do estresse físico sobre os danos cardíacos induzidos pela I/R (DP: 21 ± 6,6 versus 63 ± 2, p < 0,01) (PDVE: 38 ± 4,5 versus 43 ± 2,6, p < 0,01) (tamanho do infarto: 35 ± 3,1 versus 22,16 ± 1,3, p < 0,01). Conclusão: Os achados indicam que o estresse físico agudo pode funcionar como um estimulador pré-condicional e, provavelmente, a presença do sistema nervoso simpático é necessária.

Animals , Male , Rats , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Heart/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Corticosterone/blood , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Circulation/physiology
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(2): 5-10, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009994


The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that infects about 20 million people worldwide and causes immune-mediated diseases of the nervous system. The classical neurological presentation of HTLV-1 infection is the so-called HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). However, HAM/ TSP is not the only neurological outcome that can result from HTLV-1 infection. In this Review it is made an update on the many aspects of this important neurological condition, the HTLV-1 neurological complex.

O vírus linfotrópico de células T humanas tipo 1 (HTLV-1) é um retrovírus que infecta cerca de 20 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e causa doenças imunomediadas do sistema nervoso. A apresentação neurológica clássica da infecção pelo HTLV-1 é a chamada paraparesia espástica tropical / mielopatia associada ao HTLV-1 (HAM/TSP). HAM / TSP,no entanto, não é o único desfecho neurológico que pode resultar da infecção pelo HTLV-1. Nesta revisão, é feita uma atualização sobre vários aspectos desta importante condição neurológica, o complexo neurológico do HTLV-1.

Humans , HTLV-I Infections/complications , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Corticosterone/therapeutic use , HTLV-I Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Diagnosis, Differential , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 611-622, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765963


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms may develop when we fail to adapt to various stressors of our daily life. Central oxytocin (OXT) can counteract the biological actions of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and in turn attenuates stress responses. Administration (intracerebroventricular) of OXT significantly antagonized the inhibitory effects of chronic complicated stress (CCS) on GI dysmotility in rats. However, intracerebroventricular administration is an invasive pathway. Intranasal administration can rapidly deliver peptides to the brain avoiding stress response. The effects of intranasal OXT on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and GI motility in CCS conditions have not been investigated. METHODS: A CCS rat model was set up, OXT 5, 10, or 20 μg were intranasal administered, 30 minutes prior to stress loading. Central CRF and OXT expression levels were analyzed, serum corticosterone and OXT concentrations were measured, and gastric and colonic motor functions were evaluated by gastric emptying, fecal pellet output, and motility recording system. RESULTS: Rats in CCS condition showed significantly increased CRF expression and corticosterone concentration, which resulted in delayed gastric emptying and increased fecal pellet output, attenuated gastric motility and enhanced colonic motility were also recorded. OXT 10 μg or 20 μg significantly reduced CRF mRNA expression and the corticosterone concentration, OXT 20 μg also helped to restore GI motor dysfunction induced by CCS. CONCLUSION: Intranasal administration of OXT has an anxiolytic effect and attenuates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to CCS, and gave effects which helped to restore GI dysmotility, and might be a new approach for the treatment of stress-induced GI motility disorders.

Animals , Rats , Administration, Intranasal , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Brain , Colon , Corticosterone , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gastric Emptying , Gastrointestinal Motility , Models, Animal , Oxytocin , Peptides , RNA, Messenger
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 264-274, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776886


Atractylenolide III (ATL-III), a sesquiterpene compound isolated from Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has revealed a number of pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer activity, and neuroprotective effect. This study aimed to evaluate the cytoprotective efficiency and potential mechanisms of ATL-III on corticosterone injured rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Our results demonstrate that ATL-III increases cell viability and reduces the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The results suggest that ATL-III protects PC12 cells from corticosterone-induced injury by inhibiting the intracellular Ca overloading, inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulating the MAPK/NF-ΚB inflammatory pathways. These findings provide a novel insight into the molecular mechanism by which ATL-III protected the PC12 cells against corticosterone-induced injury for the first time. Our results provide the evidence that ATL-III may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of depression.

Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Calcium , Metabolism , Cell Survival , Corticosterone , Toxicity , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Metabolism , Lactones , Pharmacology , Mitochondria , Metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , PC12 Cells , Phosphorylation , Sesquiterpenes , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 6(2): 145-151, 02/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882700


Introdução: a depressão é uma doença altamente prevalente na população mundial e apesar de não ter sua causa estabelecida, algumas teorias tentam esclarecer sua etiologia. A rutina é um flavonoide pertencente à classe dos flavonóis, que tem propriedades anti-inflamatória e antioxidante. Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos antidepressivos da rutina em um modelo crônico induzido por corticosterona em camundongos. Metodologia: foram utilizados camundongos Swiss fêmeas (25-30g) que receberam corticosterona 20mg/kg ou tween 3% por 21dias. Outros grupos receberam corticosterona por 14 dias e entre 15o ao 21o dia de tratamento, rutina (0,2, 2,0 e 10mg/kg) ou fluoxetina10mg/kg ou diazepam 1mg/Kg. Uma hora após a última administração, os animais passaram pelos testes de campo aberto, labirinto em cruz elevada e nado forçado. Após os testes, os animais foram sacrificados por decapitação e as áreas cerebrais córtex pré-frontal, hipocampo e corpo estriado dissecados. Para análise entre os grupos foi usado o teste "t" de Student e para comparação múltipla dos parâmetros utilizará a Análise de Variância (ANOVA). Resultados: a corticosterona foi capaz de induzir a depressão nos animais. No teste de campo aberto, a rutina 0,2, 2,0 e 10mg/kg reduziram a locomoção. A menor dose da rutina apresentou melhor resposta, aumentando o número de entrada e tempo de permanência no braço aberto no teste de labirinto em cruz elevada. Também reduziu significativamente o tempo de imobilização no teste de nado forçado. Conclusão: a substância apresentou atividades ansiolítica e antidepressiva.

Introduction: Depression is a highly prevalent disease in the world population, and, although its cause is not established, several theories try to clarify its etiology. Rutin is a flavonoid belonging to the subclass of flavonoids, which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Objective: to evaluate the antidepressant effects of rutin in a chronic model induced by corticosterone in mice. Methods: Female Swiss mice (25-30g) receiving 20mg / kg corticosterone or 3% tween for 21 days were used. Other groups received corticosterone for 14 days and between 15 and 21 days of treatment, rutin (0.2, 2.0 and 10mg / kg) or fluoxetine 10mg / kg or diazepam 1mg / kg. One hour after the last administration, the animals underwent open field tests, elevated cross labyrinth and forced swimming. After the tests, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation and the cerebral areas, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum dissected. Student's t-test was used for the analysis between the groups, and Variance Analysis (ANOVA) was used for multiple comparison of the parameters. Results: Corticosterone was able to induce depression in animals. In the open field test, routine 0.2, 2.0 and 10mg / kg reduced the locomotion. The lower dose of rutin presented better response, increasing the number of entry and length of stay in the open arm in the high cross maze test. It also significantly reduced stall time in the forced swim test. Conclusion: the substance presented anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

Depression , Rutin , Corticosterone
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 422-433, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718218


OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychiatric manifestations like depression and cognitive dysfunction commonly occur in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the context of the brain-gut axis model, colitis can lead to alteration of brain function in a bottom-up manner. Here, the changes in the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammation-related markers in the brain in colitis were studied. METHODS: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was used to generate a mouse model of colitis. Mice were treated with DSS for 3 or 7 days and sacrificed. We analyzed the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the expression of GFAP, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala. Additionally, the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum cortisol/corticosterone were measured. RESULTS: Alteration of inflammatory-related markers varied depending on the brain region and exposure time. In the hippocampus, COX-2 mRNA, GFAP mRNA, and GFAP expression were upregulated during exposure to DSS. However, in the hypothalamus, COX-2 mRNA was upregulated only 3 days after treatment. In the amygdala, BDNF and COX-2 mRNAs were downregulated. CRP and corticosterone expression increased with DSS treatment at day 7. CONCLUSION: IBD could lead to neuroinflammation in a bottom-up manner, and this effect varied according to brain region. Stress-related hormones and serum inflammatory markers, such as CRP, were upregulated from the third day of DSS treatment. Therefore, early and active intervention is required to prevent psychological and behavioral changes caused by IBD, and region-specific studies can help understand the precise mechanisms by which IBD affects the brain.

Animals , Mice , Amygdala , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , C-Reactive Protein , Colitis , Corticosterone , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Depression , Dextrans , Gene Expression , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Hippocampus , Hypothalamus , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , RNA, Messenger , Sodium
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 65-68, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773801


OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of 6-week intensive training on renal function in rats and the mechanism of exercise-induced proteinuria.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six male SD rats, aged 6 weeks, were divided into two groups, including a control group(C,=12)and an overtraining group(M,=24). After the rats adapted to feeding for 4 d, group C did not carry out any exercise, and the M group did 6-week of increasing load swimming, 6 days a week, once a day. Started with the load of 1%weight at the beginning of the 4 week,and gradually increased (to 6% weight). Took a single urine from both groups 30 min after the end of the training. Blood was taken from the main ventral vein, and the bilateral kidneys were to be tested. The levels of tested urine protein, microalbumin and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin(NGAL) was determined by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assaytest. The content of urine creatinine was tested with alkaline picric acid method,. The serum levels of colorimetric method to determine serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were determined by colorimetric method. The expression of Nephrin in renal tissue was detected by Western blot and the radioimmunoassay was used to test serum testosterone, corticosterone and renin-angiotensin system related index.@*RESULTS@#Compared with group C, the serum testosterone/cortisone(T/C) of group M was decreased significantly (<0.01). The urine total protein(TP), microalbumin (mAlb), microalbumin/creatinine (mAlb/CRE), NGAL, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine(SCr) were increased significantly (<0.01). The abnormality of glomerular structure was obvious, and the paller scores were higher. The protein expression of Nephrin was obviously down decreased (<0.01). The renin activity (Ra) and angiotension Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) in renal and circulating blood were decreased significantly (<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The effects of 6-week intensive training on renal function in rats and the mechanism of exercise-induced proteinuria may be that overtraining can induce the continuous excitation of Reninrenin activity in renal and circulating blood, down-regulated the expression of Nephrin, lead to abnormality of renal structure and function, and proteinuria.

Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Corticosterone , Blood , Creatinine , Blood , Kidney , Membrane Proteins , Metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Proteinuria , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Renin-Angiotensin System , Testosterone , Blood
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 948-959, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010435


Stress affects the male reproductive system and can cause sub-fertility or infertility. Although Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) extract has been shown to have high antioxidant capacity and protective properties in damaged tissue, the preventive effects of PE extract on testicular function from stress-related impairment have never been demonstrated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PE aqueous leaf extract on testicular impairment and protein marker changes in rats suffering from chronic stress. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: a control group, a chronic stress (CS) group, and two groups with CS that received different doses of PE extract (50 or 100 mg/kg body weight (BW)). In the treatment groups, the animals were given PE extract daily before stress induction for 42 consecutive days. Stress was induced through immobilization (4 h/d) followed by forced cold swimming (15 min/d). Sperm quality and the histology of the testes and caudal epididymis were examined, as were levels of serum corticosterone, testosterone, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The expressions of testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins were investigated using immuno-Western blot analysis, as these proteins are assumed to play important roles in spermatogenesis and androgen synthesis. The results showed that PE (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased sperm concentration and testosterone levels, while decreasing corticosterone levels, MDA levels, sperm head abnormalities, and acrosome-reacted sperm in CS rats. In addition, PE at both doses was found to diminish testicular histopathology in the CS rats. We also found that 50 mg/kg BW of PE significantly improved StAR protein expression and altered the intensities of some tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in testis. We conclude that PE leaf extract at 50 mg/kg BW can prevent testicular damage in rats with CS.

Animals , Male , Rats , Acrosome Reaction , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Corticosterone/blood , Epididymis/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/blood , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sperm Count , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Stress, Physiological , Testis/drug effects , Testosterone/blood , Tyrosine/chemistry
Korean Journal of Physical Anthropology ; : 19-26, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713561


Although commercialization of mobile phones has raised much concerns about the effects of radiofrequency radiation on the human body, few experimental studies have been conducted on the effects of radiofrequency radiation on physiological homeostasis, immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, we presently investigated the effect of 835 MHz radiofrequency radiation on spontaneous wheel exercise, hormone and cytokines levels in the plasm of mice. Mice were divided into 4 groups as control, exercise, radiofrequency radiation, radiofrequency radiation & exercise group. The body weight, corticosterone and blood cytokine levels were checked for 10 weeks. Followed by the exposure to radiofrequency radiation for 6 hours a day, the more increase in body weight was observed in the radiofrequency radiation & exercise group than in the spontaneous exercise group. When the amount of spontaneous exercise was measured for 10 weeks, the amount of exercise was increased in the both control and spontaneous exercise group, while the amount of exercise was decreased in the radiofrequency radiation group. To determine whether the homeostasis, immune and inflammatory responses are indirectly affected by radiofrequency radiation exposure, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p70), TNF-α, IFNγ, and GM-CSF were measured by ELISA kit, respectively. As a result, the blood levels of IL-6, IL-12 (p70) and TNF-α in the spontaneous exercise group were higher than that of control group, and each cytokine levels in the radiofrequency radiation & exercise group were lower than that of control group. However, the corticosterone, IL-1β, IFNγ and GM-CSF didn't show statistically significant differences in all groups. It has been confirmed that exposure to high frequency electromagnetic waves for a long time can affect the amount of exercise, body weight, and some inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12 (p70) and TNF-α.

Animals , Mice , Body Weight , Cell Phone , Corticosterone , Cytokines , Electromagnetic Radiation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Homeostasis , Human Body , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-6 , Radiation Exposure
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(11): e7541, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951721


We previously found that acute exercise inhibited the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats by causing an acid-base imbalance. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide in this phenomenon. Male rats were divided into exercise or sedentary group and were subjected to a 15-min swim session against a load (2.5 or 5% b.w.). The rate of gastric emptying was evaluated after 5, 10, or 20 min postprandially. Separate groups of rats were treated with vehicle (0.9% NaCl, 0.1 mL/100 g, ip) or one of the following agents: atropine (1.0 mg/kg, ip), the NO non-selective inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10.0 mg/kg, ip), or the selective cGMP inhibitor 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 5.0 mg/kg, ip), the i-NOS non-specific inhibitor (aminoguanidine; 10.0 mg/kg, ip), the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist (astressin; 100 µg/kg, ip), or the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor antagonist Lys1, Pro2,5, Arg3,4, Tyr6 (100 µg/kg, ip). Compared to sedentary rats, both the 2.5 and 5% exercise groups exhibited higher (P<0.05) values of blood lactate and fractional gastric dye recovery. Corticosterone and NO levels increased (P<0.05) in the 5% exercised rats. Pretreatment with astressin, VIP antagonist, atropine, L-NAME, and ODQ prevented the increase in gastric retention caused by exercise in rats. Acute exercise increased gastric retention, a phenomenon that appears to be mediated by the NO-cGMP pathway, CRF, and VIP receptors.

Animals , Male , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Guanosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Gastric Emptying/physiology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Reference Values , Atropine/pharmacology , Time Factors , Corticosterone/blood , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/antagonists & inhibitors , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gastric Emptying/drug effects
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 347-355, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888758


Abstract In order to achieve successful captive breeding the Podocnemis expansa, it is necessary to study their reproductive endocrinology. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and characterize plasma concentrations in gonadotrophic, gonadic, corticosterone and prolactin hormones from Giant Amazon Turtles under captive conditions. Blood samples were collected over a 15 month period. The samples were assayed by the use of radioimmunoassay, prolactin, corticosterone, LH, FSH, testosterone, 17β-estradiol and progesterone. We verified significant seasonal pattern increase in 17β-estradiol levels and decrease in progesterone levels in the course of a year, which indicates vitellogenesis. This is related to normal ovarian cycles and possibly to the functional integrity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis of captive females. There were negative correlations between testosterone and corticosterone in the male samples, suggestive of stress (management stress) on the reproductive system. The plasma concentrations of gonadotrophic, gonadic, prolactin and corticosterone hormones may be used as a reference for further research and possible therapeutic approaches. The data collected during this research are unprecedented for this species and may serve as a reference for future research regarding the reproductive cycle of this turtle, also allowing reproductive management while in captivity. Information about these hormones must be gathered from wild populations during different periods of the year for better clarification of the reproductive physiology of this species.

Resumo Com o objetivo de obter reprodução em cativeiro de Podocnemis expansa, é necessário reunir o conhecimento a respeito de sua endocrinologia reprodutiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e caracterizar as concentrações plasmáticas de hormônios gonadotróficos, gonadais, corticosterona e prolactina em Tartarugas da Amazônia em condições de cativeiro. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas durante 15 meses. As amostras foram ensaiadas pelo uso de um radioimunoensáio, prolactina, corticosterona, LH, FSH, testosterona, 17β-estradiol e progesterona. Verificou-se aumento de padrão sazonal significativo nos níveis de 17β-estradiol e diminuição dos níveis de progesterona ao longo do ano, o que indica o recrutamento folicular. Isto está relacionado com ciclos ovarianos normais e possivelmente para a integridade funcional do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-gônadas de fêmeas em cativeiro. Houve correlação negativa entre testosterona e corticosterona nas amostras do sexo masculino, sugestivos de efeito do estresse de manejo sobre o sistema reprodutivo. As concentrações plasmáticas de hormônios gonadotrofinas, gonadais, prolactina e hormônios corticosterona pode ser usado como referência para futuras pesquisas e possíveis abordagens terapêuticas. Os dados médios coletados durante a pesquisa são inéditos para a espécie e pode servir como referência para futuras pesquisas sobre o sistema reprodutivo da tartaruga, também permitindo manejo reprodutivo em cativeiro. Informações sobre esses hormônios devem ser recolhidas a partir de natureza selvagem em diferentes períodos do ano para melhor esclarecimento da fisiologia da reprodução desta espécie.

Animals , Male , Female , Turtles/physiology , Hormones/blood , Progesterone/blood , Prolactin/blood , Corticosterone/blood , Estradiol/blood
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(2): 98-105, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904574


Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation), or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

Resumo Introdução: Comportamentos agonísticos ajudam a garantir a sobrevivência, oferecem vantagem na competição e comunicam status social. O paradigma residente-intruso, modelo animal baseado em confrontos intraespecíficos entre machos, pode ser uma ferramenta etológica relevante para investigar a neurobiologia do comportamento agressivo. Objetivos: Analisar os mecanismos comportamentais e neurobiológicos do comportamento agressivo em camundongos Swiss machos expostos a confrontos repetidos no paradigma residente-intruso. Métodos: A análise comportamental foi realizada em associação com medidas de corticosterona plasmática em camundongos expostos repetidamente a um rival em potencial próximo, porém inacessível (instigação social), ou a 10 sessões de instigação social seguidas de encontros agressivos diretos. Além disso, o fator de liberação de corticotrofina (CRF) e o fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BNDF) foram medidos no encéfalo desses animais. Camundongos controles não foram expostos à instigação social ou confrontos agressivos. Resultados: Os camundongos expostos a confrontos agressivos exibiram um padrão semelhante de comportamentos agressivos e não agressivos típicos da espécie na primeira e na última sessão. Em contraste com instigação social apenas, confrontos agressivos repetidos promoveram aumento na corticosterona plasmática. Após 10 sessões de confrontos agressivos, os camundongos apresentaram uma tendência não significativa de redução dos níveis de CRF no hipocampo, que se correlacionaram inversamente com os níveis plasmáticos de corticosterona. Por outro lado, sessões repetidas de instigação social ou confronto agressivo não alteraram as concentrações de BDNF no córtex pré-frontal e hipocampo. Conclusão: A exposição a episódios repetidos de encontros agressivos não promoveu habituação ao longo do tempo. Adicionalmente, o CRF parece estar envolvido nas respostas fisiológicas aos estressores sociais.

Animals , Male , Corticosterone/blood , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Aggression/physiology , Limbic System/metabolism , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Analysis of Variance , Habituation, Psychophysiologic/physiology , Housing, Animal , Mice
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 135-143, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110251


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Wistar rat dams exposed to limited nesting stress (LNS) from post-natal days (PND) 2 to 10 display erratic maternal behavior, and their pups show delayed maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and impaired epithelial barrier at PND10 and a visceral hypersensitivity at adulthood. Little is known about the impact of early life stress on the offspring before adulthood and the influence of sex. We investigated whether male and female rats previously exposed to LNS displays at weaning altered corticosterone, intestinal permeability, and microbiota. METHODS: Wistar rat dams and litters were maintained from PND2 to 10 with limited nesting/bedding materials and thereafter reverted to normal housing up to weaning (PND21). Control litters had normal housing. At weaning, we monitored body weight, corticosterone plasma levels (enzyme immunoassay), in vivo intestinal to colon permeability (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4 kDa) and fecal microbiota (DNA extraction and amplification of the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene). RESULTS: At weaning, LNS pups had hypercorticosteronemia and enhanced intestinal permeability with females > males while body weights were similar. LNS decreased fecal microbial diversity and induced a distinct composition characterized by increased abundance of Gram positive cocci and reduction of fiber-degrading, butyrate-producing, and mucus-resident microbes. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that chronic exposure to LNS during the first week post-natally has sustained effects monitored at weaning including hypercorticosteronemia, a leaky gut, and dysbiosis. These alterations may impact on the susceptibility to develop visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats and have relevance to the development of irritable bowel syndrome in childhood.

Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Rats , Body Weight , Colon , Corticosterone , Dysbiosis , Gram-Positive Cocci , Housing , Hypersensitivity , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Maternal Behavior , Microbiota , Permeability , Plasma , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Stress, Psychological , Weaning
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 464-476, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58345


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric hypersensitivity contributes to abdominal pain in patients with functional dyspepsia. Recent studies showed that hormones induced by stress are correlated with visceral hypersensitivity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying gastric hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was designed to investigate the roles of corticosterone (CORT) on excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the stomach. METHODS: DRG neurons innervating the stomach were labeled by DiI injection into the stomach wall. Patch clamp recordings were employed to examine neural excitability and voltage-gated sodium channel currents. Electromyograph technique was used to determine the responses of neck muscles to gastric distension. RESULTS: Incubation of acutely isolated DRG neurons with CORT significantly depolarized action potential threshold and enhanced the number of action potentials induced by current stimulation of the neuron. Under voltage-clamp mode, incubation of CORT enhanced voltage-gated sodium current density of the recorded neurons. Pre-incubation of GF109203X, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, blocked the CORT-induced hyperexcitability and potentiation of sodium currents. However, pre-incubation of H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, did not alter the sodium current density. More importantly, intraperitoneal injection of CORT produced gastric hypersensitivity of healthy rats, which was blocked by pre-administration of GF109203X but not H-89. CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly suggest that CORT rapidly enhanced neuronal excitability and sodium channel functions, which is most likely mediated by protein kinase C but not protein kinase A signaling pathway in DRG neurons innervating the stomach, thus underlying the gastric hypersensitivity induced by CORT injection.

Animals , Humans , Rats , Abdominal Pain , Action Potentials , Corticosterone , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Dyspepsia , Ganglia , Ganglia, Spinal , Hypersensitivity , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Neck Muscles , Neurons , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Sodium , Sodium Channels , Spinal Nerve Roots , Stomach , Visceral Pain
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 192-202, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115765


OBJECTIVE: Rebampide is a gastroprotective agent used to treat gastritis. It possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis effects, but the mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. The objective of this study was to explore mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of rebamipide in inflammatory arthritis. METHODS: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in DBA/1J mice. DBA/1J mice were immunized with chicken type II collagen, then treated intraperitoneally with rebamipide (10 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) or vehicle (10% carboxymethylcellulose solution) alone. Seven weeks later, plasma samples were collected. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics study and metabolite biomarkers were identified through multivariate data analysis. RESULTS: Low dose rebamipide treatment reduced the clinical arthritis score compared with vehicle treatment, whereas high dose rebamipide in CIA aggravated arthritis severity. Based on multivariate analysis, 17 metabolites were identified. The plasma levels of metabolites associated with fatty acids and phospholipid metabolism were significantly lower with rebamipide treatment than with vehicle. The levels of 15-deoxy-Δ¹²,¹⁴ prostaglandin J2 and thromboxane B3 decreased only in high dose-treated groups. Certain peptide molecules, including enterostatin (VPDPR) enterostatin and bradykinin dramatically increased in rebamipide-treated groups at both doses. Additionally, corticosterone increased in the low dose-treated group and decreased in the high dose-treated group. CONCLUSION: Metabolomics analysis revealed the anti-inflammatory effects of rebamipide and suggested the potential of the drug repositioning in metabolism- and lipid-associated diseases.

Animals , Mice , Arthritis , Arthritis, Experimental , Biomarkers , Bradykinin , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium , Chickens , Collagen Type II , Corticosterone , Drug Repositioning , Fatty Acids , Gastritis , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolism , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Multivariate Analysis , Plasma , Statistics as Topic , Therapeutic Uses
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1008-1013, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297165


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of corticosterone on the expression of the neuronal migration protein lissencephaly 1 (LIS1) in developing cerebral cortical neurons of fetal rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons of fetal Wistar rats were divided into control group, low-dose group, and high-dose group. The neurons were exposed to the medium containing different concentrations of corticosterone (0 μmol/L for the control group, 0.1 μmol/L for the low-dose group, and 1.0 μmol/L for the high-dose group). The neurons were collected at 1, 4, and 7 days after intervention. Western blot and immunocytochemical staining were used to observe the change in LIS1 expression in neurons.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Western blot showed that at 7 days after intervention, the low- and high-dose groups had significantly higher expression of LIS1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cerebral cortical neurons than the control group (P<0.05), and the high-dose group had significantly lower expression of LIS1 in the cytoplasm of cerebral cortical neurons than the low-dose group (P<0.05). Immunocytochemical staining showed that at 1, 4, and 7 days after corticosterone intervention, the high-dose group had a significantly lower mean optical density of LIS1 than the control group and the low-dose group (P<0.05). At 7 days after intervention, the low-dose group had a significantly lower mean optical density of LIS1 than the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Corticosterone downregulates the expression of the neuronal migration protein LIS1 in developing cerebral cortical neurons of fetal rats cultured in vitro, and such effect depends on the concentration of corticosterone and duration of corticosterone intervention.</p>

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase , Genetics , Cells, Cultured , Cerebral Cortex , Metabolism , Corticosterone , Pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fetus , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Genetics , Rats, Wistar
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(1): 67-77, ene.-mar. 2016. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-779533


Introducción. En diversos modelos animales, incluido el de la separación materna durante la lactancia, se ha demostrado que las experiencias tempranas adversas, como el maltrato, el abandono materno y el estrés psicosocial, pueden favorecer el desarrollo de algunas enfermedades mentales, pero no se han descrito completamente varios de los cambios que se producen en el sistema neuroendocrino. Objetivo. Determinar si la separación materna durante la lactancia modificaba los niveles basales de neurohormonas como la corticosterona, la corticotropina (ACTH), la oxitocina y la vasopresina (ADH), en ratas jóvenes (35 días) y adultas (90 días). Materiales y métodos. Se separaron ratas Wistar de sus madres durante dos periodos de tres horas diarias a lo largo de los 21 días de lactancia. A los 35 y 90 días se tomaron muestras de los grupos de las ratas de control y de las separadas de la madre, para obtener el suero y posteriormente medir cada una de las hormonas mediante un ensayo inmunoenzimático. Resultados. Las concentraciones de corticosterona fueron mayores en las hembras adultas de control que en el resto de los grupos, y menores en los machos adultos de control. Las de ACTH fueron mayores en los machos y hembras jóvenes separadas de la madre que en los grupos de adultos. Los niveles de oxitocina fueron significativamente mayores en las hembras adultas separadas de la madre que en los otros grupos y significativamente menores en los machos adultos. En cuanto a la vasopresina, los grupos separados de la madre tuvieron concentraciones menores, en comparación con los grupos de jóvenes y adultos de control. Conclusiones. Estos resultados muestran que el estrés temprano al que fueron sometidas las ratas, produjo cambios en las respuestas del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-suprarrenal, las cuales variaron según el sexo y la edad.

Introduction: Work with different animal models including that of maternal separation during nursing has shown that early adverse experiences such as abuse, maternal abandonment and psychosocial stress may favor the development of various psychopathologies. However, several neuroendocrine changes have not been completely described yet. Objective: To establish whether maternal separation during nursing modifies the basal levels of neurohormones such as corticosterone, ACTH, oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile and adult rats (aged 35 and 90 days, respectively). Materials and methods: Wistar rats were separated from their mothers for two periods of 3 hours per day during the 21 days of nursing. Once these rats had reached 35 and then 90 days of age, blood samples were taken from both the separated and control groups to obtain serum for immunoenzymatic assays and measure the levels of each of the hormones. Results: Concentrations of corticosterone were higher in control adult females in comparison with the rest of the groups and lower in the control adult males. Those of ACTH were higher in the separated young males and females than in the adult groups. Oxytocin levels were significantly higher in the separated adult females in comparison with the other groups and significantly lower in the adult males. With respect to vasopressin, the separated groups had lower concentrations than the young and adult control groups. Conclusions: These results show that the early stress to which rats were submitted produced changes in the basal responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, that these responses were distinct in males and females and that they also differed according to age.

Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Arginine Vasopressin/blood , Corticosterone/blood , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/blood , Oxytocin/blood , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Maternal Deprivation , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Pituitary-Adrenal System/growth & development , Arginine Vasopressin/metabolism , Corticosterone/metabolism , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Oxytocin/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/growth & development
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 215-223, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331663


Environmental stress (ES) is commonly used in producing chronic unpredictable mild stress to study pathogenesis of depression, including the regulatory role of circadian system on depression. However, the direct effect of ES on the circadian system has been rarely explored. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of ES on depression-like behaviors and diurnal rhythm of plasma hormone/peptide levels in male rats. Rats were allocated into control group (CON group), low frequency ES group (LF group) and high frequency ES group (HF group). Sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), weight gain, food and water intake were conducted to assess depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. A total of 7 times of the tail venous blood was collected with an interval of 4 h during 24 h from other rats who subjected to the same procedures of ES but not the behavioral tests. The alterations of diurnal rhythm of peripheral plasma corticosterone (CORT) and melatonin, and changes of the cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y and leptin levels at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0 were detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that ES led to a disturbance of diurnal rhythm of CORT and melatonin in the plasma. Besides, it also increased plasma leptin level and decreased body weight gain, but it did not produce depression- and anxiety-like behaviors compared with those rats in the control group. In short, our findings indicated that the ES could induce a disturbance of diurnal rhythm of plasma CORT and melatonin in male rats.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anxiety , Behavior, Animal , Circadian Rhythm , Corticosterone , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Leptin , Melatonin , Neuropeptide Y , Stress, Physiological
Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine ; (12): 574-579, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328258


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of osthole (Ost) on adrenocortical function in Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells were taken as subjects in this experiment. In 10.0%, 1.0%, and 0.1% serum DMEM-F12 medium, Y1 cells were treated with 1, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 micromol/L Ost for 24 and 48 h. 0.1% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) was taken as negative control group and 1 mmol/L (Bu) 2cAMP as positive control group. Cell growth morphology was observed under inverted microscope. Contents of corticosterone were tested by ELISA. Expression levels of steroids synthase such as Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp21a1, Hsd3b2, Cyp11b1, Cyp11b2, Cyp17a1, and Hsd17b3 mRNA were detected by Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Y1 cell proliferation was obviously inhibited by 100 and 200 micromol/L Ost, and its inhibitory effect was more significant in 0.1% serum medium. Compared with the negative control group, gene expressions of Star, Cyp11a1 , Cyp21a1, Hsd3b2, Cyp11b1, Cyp17a1, and Hsd17b3 were significantly enhanced in the posi- tive control group (P < 0.05). Y1 cell corticosterone levels significantly increased in 50 micromol/L Ost treatment group after 24-and 48-h intervention (P < 0.05). Contents of corticosterone increased more obviously in 25 and 50 +/- mol/L Ost treatment groups after 48-h intervention, as compared with 24-h intervention (P < 0.01). After 24-h intervention, expression levels of Star, Cyp21a1, and Hsd3b2 genes were significantly up-regulated in 25 and 50 lLmol/L Ost groups (P < 0.05). Star gene expression was further enhanced after 48-h intervention (P < 0.05). However, Ost showed no effect on Cyp11a1 (P > 0.05). Additionally, gene expressions of Cyp11b1 and Cyp17a1 were significantly enhanced by 10, 25, and 50 pLmolIL Ost after treatment for 24 and 48 h (P < 0.05). Ost showed no obvious effect on Cyp11b2 and Hsd17b3 expressions.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Ost could regulate adrenal cortex function and promote corticosterone synthesis and secretion through strengthening gene expressions of steroidogenic enzymes.</p>

Animals , Mice , Adrenal Cortex , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms , Pathology , Corticosterone , Coumarins , Pharmacology , Gene Expression , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured