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2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To prepare monoclonal antibody against cotinine (COT) and to establish immunoassay for detecting COT in human urinary samples.@*METHODS@#BALB/c mice were immunized with synthesized cotinine-bovine serum albumin (COT-BSA) to screen monoclonal antibody with technique of cell fusion. The monoclonal antibody was used for the indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) and colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip assay for the detection of COT in human urine.@*RESULTS@#The monoclonal antibody against COT was identified by ic-ELISA with a 50%inhibitive concentration (IC@*CONCLUSIONS@#The ic-ELISA and colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip assay using the prepared monoclonal antibody against COT have been proved to be reliable for the rapid detection of COT in human urines, which may be used for monitoring of environmental tobacco smoke.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Cotinine/urine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gold Colloid , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Urinalysis/methods
3.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(6): 1670-1676, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042177

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to determine the presence of socio-environmental risk factors for the development of Green Tobacco Sickness in workers who grow Burley tobacco. Method: matched case-control study. The data collection took place in two moments: from December 2016 to January 2017 and December 2017, when the Burley tobacco was collected, through a household survey with interview application and urine collection for urinary cotinine. Results: the socio-environmental risk factors that remained associated with the disease were: bundling tobacco (p=0.047) and wearing socks (p=0.011); with protective effect were found sticking tobacco seeding of the day (p=0.006) and number of tobacco harvested per day (p=0.021). Conclusion: the steps in the Burley tobacco work process increase the exposure and risk of developing the disease. By identifying these factors, it is possible to address interdisciplinary control and prevention measures.


RESUMEN Objetivo: determinar la presencia de factores de riesgo socioambientales para el desarrollo de la Enfermedad del Tabaco Verde en trabajadores que cultivan el tabaco Burley. Método: estudio del tipo caso-control pareado. La recolección de datos ocurrió en dos momentos: de diciembre de 2016 a enero de 2017 y diciembre de 2017, período en que ocurrió la recolección del tabaco Burley, por medio de encuesta domiciliaria con aplicación de entrevista y recolección de orina para el examen de cotinina urinaria. Resultados: los factores de riesgo socioambientales que permanecieron asociados a la enfermedad fueron aferrar tabaco (p=0,047) y usar medias (p=0,011); con efecto protector fueron encontrados espetar los pies de tabaco del día (p=0,006) y el número de pies de tabaco cosechados por día (p=0,021). Conclusión: las etapas del proceso de trabajo con tabaco Burley aumentan la exposición y el riesgo de desarrollar la enfermedad. Al identificar estos factores, es posible dirigir, de forma interdisciplinaria, medidas de control y prevención.


RESUMO Objetivo: determinar a presença de fatores de riscos socioambientais para o desenvolvimento da Doença da Folha Verde do Tabaco em trabalhadores que cultivam o tabaco Burley. Método: estudo do tipo caso-controle pareado. A coleta de dados ocorreu em dois momentos: de dezembro de 2016 a janeiro de 2017 e dezembro de 2017, período em que ocorreu a colheita do tabaco Burley, por meio de inquérito domiciliar com aplicação de entrevista e coleta de urina para exame de cotinina urinária. Resultados: os fatores de riscos socioambientais que permaneceram associados à doença foram enfeixar tabaco (p=0,047) e usar meias (p=0,011); com efeito protetor foram encontrados espetar pés de tabaco do dia (p=0,006) e número de pés de tabaco colhido por dia (p=0,021). Conclusão: as etapas do processo de trabalho com tabaco Burley aumentam a exposição e o risco de desenvolver a doença. Ao identificar esses fatores, é possível direcionar, de forma interdisciplinar, medidas de controle e prevenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tobacco/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/etiology , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco/metabolism , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Tobacco Industry/methods , Tobacco Industry/standards , Tobacco Industry/statistics & numerical data , Cotinine/analysis , Cotinine/adverse effects , Cotinine/urine , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Middle Aged
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There have been inconsistent findings reported on maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and child risk of ADHD. In this study, ADHD symptoms at pre-school age children in association with prenatal passive and active tobacco smoke exposure determined by maternal plasma cotinine levels in the third trimester were investigated.@*METHODS@#This was a follow-up study of the birth cohort: the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Children whose parents answered Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to identify child ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems) and total difficulties at age 5 years with available maternal plasma cotinine level at the third trimester were included (n = 3216). Cotinine levels were categorized into 4 groups; ≦ 0.21 ng/ml (non-smoker), 0.22-0.51 ng/ml (low-passive smoker), 0.52-11.48 ng/ml (high-passive smoker), and ≧ 11.49 ng/ml (active smoker).@*RESULTS@#Maternal cotinine levels of active smokers were significantly associated with an increased risk of total difficulties (OR = 1.67) and maternal low- and high-passive smoking also increased the risk (OR = 1.11, 1.25, respectively) without statistical significance. Similarly, maternal cotinine levels of active smokers were associated with an increased risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR = 1.49). Maternal low- and high-passive smoking and active smoking increased the risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR = 1.45, 1.43, and OR = 1.59, respectively) only in boys.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggested that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may contribute to the increased risk of child total difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention at pre-school age. Pregnant women should be encouraged to quit smoking and avoid exposure to tobacco smoke.


Subject(s)
Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Epidemiology , Psychology , Child, Preschool , Cotinine , Blood , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Japan , Epidemiology , Male , Maternal Exposure , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Epidemiology , Risk , Sex Factors , Tobacco Smoking , Epidemiology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We aimed to examine the association of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke with dental caries among preschool children. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was assessed in terms of urinary cotinine concentrations and pack-years of exposure to smoking by parents and other family members at home.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study included 405 preschool children aged 3-6 years from two preschools in Japan in 2006. Information on the smoking habits of family members living with the child was obtained from parent-administered questionnaires. Dental examination was conducted to assess dental caries, that is, decayed and/or filled teeth. Urinary cotinine levels were measured using first-void morning urine samples.@*RESULTS@#Overall, 31.1% of the children had dental caries, and 29.5% had decayed teeth. Exposure to current maternal and paternal smoking was positively associated with the presence of dental caries after controlling for covariates. More than three pack-years of exposure to maternal smoking and more than five pack-years of exposure to smoking by all family members were significantly associated with the presence of dental caries as compared with no exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 5.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17-14.22, P for trend < 0.001 and OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.12-3.58, P for trend = 0.004, respectively). These exposure variables were similarly associated with the presence of decayed teeth (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.23-6.96, P for trend = 0.01 and OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 0.96-3.20, P for trend = 0.03, respectively). As compared with lowest tertile of the urinary cotinine level, the highest tertile of the urinary cotinine level was significantly associated with the presence of dental caries as well as decayed teeth; the ORs for the highest vs. lowest tertile of urinary cotinine levels were 3.10 (95% CI = 1.71-5.63, P for trend = 0.012) and 2.02 (95% CI = 1.10-3.70, P for trend = 0.10), respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These data suggest that exposure to tobacco smoke may have a dose-dependent influence on the development of caries.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Cotinine , Urine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Caries , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan , Epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Maternal Exposure , Parents , Paternal Exposure , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Tobacco Smoking , Epidemiology
6.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019018-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although smoking is associated with both low socioeconomic status and blood cadmium (Cd) levels, the association between socioeconomic status and Cd levels remains unclear. Therefore, our study aimed to examine this association and to clarify whether smoking is a confounding or mediating variable in this relationship. METHODS: Data (n=7,734) were drawn from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008- 2011), including years that contained data on blood Cd and urinary cotinine levels. We investigated the associations of income, education, and occupation with blood Cd levels. Smoking was investigated by categorizing participants by smoking status (never, former, and current) and pack-years into quartiles. The weekly frequency of rice and barley intake was analyzed to gain insights into participants’ dietary patterns. Additionally, urinary cotinine levels were used to ensure the validity of the smoking variables. RESULTS: Participants earning a low income and with less formal education had higher blood Cd levels. After controlling for smoking, the association between income and Cd levels substantially weakened. Further controlling for education, the association between income and Cd levels disappeared. However, there was a strong negative association between education and Cd levels, even after controlling for smoking history, pack-years, and urinary cotinine levels. CONCLUSIONS: In cross-sectional data from the KNHANES, blood Cd levels were significantly higher among those with a low income and less formal education. Smoking history contributed to, but did not fully explain, these associations.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Cotinine , Education , Hordeum , Korea , Negotiating , Nutrition Surveys , Occupations , Smoke , Smoking , Social Class
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to find the exposure level of environmental harmful substances related to the secondhand smoke (SHS) using a nationally representative data of the general population in Korea. METHODS: Total 3,533 people were included in this study. We compared the proportion exceeding 95 percentile of the concentrations of harmful substances by sex according to SHS exposure. 16 kinds of substances related to tobacco smoke were analyzed including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, and environmental phenol. For 16 kinds of substances, the odds ratios (ORs) for exceeding 95 percentile of each harmful substance were calculated by multiple logistic regression according to SHS exposure. Age, education level, marital status, body mass index, drinking, and exercise were adjusted as covariates. Cotinine level was additionally adjusted to increase reliability of our results. RESULTS: SHS was associated with high exposure of mercury, methylhippuric acid, fluorene, and cotinine. In women, SHS was associated with mercury, methylhippuric acid, fluorene, and cotinine, while in men, it was associated with cotinine. After adjusting covariates, ORs of blood mercury, methylhippuric acid and hydroxyfluorene in the exposed gruop were greater than that in the non-exposed group. Especially in female, methylhippuric acid and hydroxyfluorene showed consistent result. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding demonstrates that SHS is related to several harmful substances. Therefore, to reduce the health effects of SHS, it is necessary to educate and publicize the risk of SHS. Future studies are necessary to more accurately analyze factors such as exposure frequency, time, and pathway of SHS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Mass Index , Cotinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drinking , Education , Environmental Health , Female , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Marital Status , Metals, Heavy , Odds Ratio , Phenol , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Smoke , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Volatile Organic Compounds
8.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019018-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although smoking is associated with both low socioeconomic status and blood cadmium (Cd) levels, the association between socioeconomic status and Cd levels remains unclear. Therefore, our study aimed to examine this association and to clarify whether smoking is a confounding or mediating variable in this relationship.METHODS: Data (n=7,734) were drawn from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008- 2011), including years that contained data on blood Cd and urinary cotinine levels. We investigated the associations of income, education, and occupation with blood Cd levels. Smoking was investigated by categorizing participants by smoking status (never, former, and current) and pack-years into quartiles. The weekly frequency of rice and barley intake was analyzed to gain insights into participants' dietary patterns. Additionally, urinary cotinine levels were used to ensure the validity of the smoking variables.RESULTS: Participants earning a low income and with less formal education had higher blood Cd levels. After controlling for smoking, the association between income and Cd levels substantially weakened. Further controlling for education, the association between income and Cd levels disappeared. However, there was a strong negative association between education and Cd levels, even after controlling for smoking history, pack-years, and urinary cotinine levels.CONCLUSIONS: In cross-sectional data from the KNHANES, blood Cd levels were significantly higher among those with a low income and less formal education. Smoking history contributed to, but did not fully explain, these associations.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Cotinine , Education , Hordeum , Korea , Negotiating , Nutrition Surveys , Occupations , Smoke , Smoking , Social Class
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760688

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the factors affecting passive exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in non-smoking student nurses. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 196 college students who had not smoked cigarettes in the past 12 months. Urinary cotinine levels were examined to identify exposure to SHS, and social factors were identified that influenced exposure to SHS, including requests that smokers extinguish cigarettes. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the factors influencing SHS. RESULTS: Urinary cotinine measurements showed that 32 students (16.3%) were exposed to SHS. Risk factors that increased exposure to SHS affected 80 students (40.8%) in the previous 7 days. Students who were exposed to SHS were 4.45-times more likely to have increased urinary cotinine levels than those who were not exposed. Students who asked others to extinguish their cigarettes were 0.34 times less likely to test positive than those who did not. CONCLUSION: Urinary cotinine was a useful biomarker for identifying exposure to SHS, with respect to the influence of demographic, health-related, and smoking-related factors. In non-smoking nursing students, avoiding exposure to SHS was attributed to self-assertive behavior by requesting smokers to extinguish cigarettes.


Subject(s)
Assertiveness , Cotinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Inhalation , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Smoke , Students, Nursing , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Smoke Pollution
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) has been shown to cause health problems. Recent studies demonstrated an association of SHS with depression and poor mental health. The urinary cotinine concentration (Ucot) is an objective indicator of exposure to SHS. In this study, we evaluated the association between depression and Ucot in adult non-smokers adults in Korea. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 3,417 adults, aged ≥19 years, who participated in the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016). The eligible subjects were non-smokers. Depression was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The subjects were dichotomized into two groups: the high depressive symptom group (PHQ-9 ≥10 [n=185]) and the low depressive symptom group (PHQ-9 <10 [n=3,232]). The demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics of the subjects were retrieved from the survey data. Ucot was dichotomized into high-Ucot (≥10 ng/mL) and low-Ucot (<10 ng/mL). The Ucot and other characteristics were compared between the two groups. To adjust for confounding variables, we conducted a logistic regression analysis and determined the difference in Ucot between the two groups. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, the high depressive symptom group was found to be associated with high-Ucot (odds ratio, 1.824; 95% confidence interval, 1.020–3.262). Sex, education, socioeconomic status, marital status, occupational status, limitation of activity, and the presence of an underlying diseases (diabetes and dyslipidemia) had a significant effect on depression. CONCLUSIONS: This concluded that depression was associated with high urine cotinine level in adult non-smokers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cotinine , Depression , Education , Employment , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Marital Status , Mental Health , Nutrition Surveys , Social Class , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoke Pollution
11.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 27: e3194, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1043087

ABSTRACT

Objetivo verificar, por meio da tecnologia de biomarcador de cotinina urinária, a ocorrência da doença da folha verde do tabaco em trabalhadores que cultivam tabaco do tipo Burley. Método estudo caso-controle pareado, com base no status tabágico e na proporção 1:4, com participação de 20 trabalhadores-caso e 91 controles. Para a coleta de dados foi realizada entrevista por meio de inquérito domiciliar e coleta de urina para exame de cotinina. Foram utilizados os testes t de Student, Mann-Whitney, qui-quadrado de Pearson ou exato de Fisher. Resultados dos 23 casos suspeitos, 20 apresentaram níveis elevados de cotinina, sinais e sintomas de dor de cabeça, irritação de pele, náusea, enjoo e mal-estar geral, principalmente pela manhã. A maioria trabalhou com tabaco molhado decorrente do sereno e o clima estava quente. Conclusão verificam-se sinais sugestivos da doença da folha verde do tabaco nos trabalhadores do tabaco Burley. Faz-se necessária a atuação de profissionais de saúde no desenvolvimento de ações promotoras de saúde e preventivas sobre essa doença relacionada ao trabalho.


Objective using the urinary cotinine biomarker to verify the occurrence of green tobacco sickness in workers who cultivate Burley tobacco. Method paired case-control study, based on smoking status and on the 1:4 ratio, with participation of 20 case workers and 91 controls. Data collection included household surveys and urine collection for cotinine examination. Student's T-Test, the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used. Results of the 23 suspected cases, 20 showed elevated levels of cotinine, signs and symptoms of headache, skin irritation, nausea, sickness and general malaise, especially in the morning. Most had worked with tobacco that was wet from the morning dew and when the weather was warm. Conclusion there are signs suggestive of green tobacco sickness in Burley tobacco workers. The action of health professionals is necessary for the development of health promotion and preventive actions addressing work-related illness.


Objetivo certificar, por medio de la tecnología de biomarcador de cotinina urinaria, la ocurrencia de la Enfermedad del Tabaco Verde en trabajadores que cultivan tabaco del tipo Burley. Método estudio caso-control pareado, con base en el status tabáquico y en la proporción 1:4, con la participación de 20 trabajadores-caso y 91 controles. Para la recopilación de datos se realizó una encuesta por medio de cuestionario domiciliar y de recolección de orina para análisis de cotinina. Se utilizaron las siguientes pruebas t de Student, Mann-Whitney, chi-cuadrado de Pearson o exacta de Fisher. Resultados de los 23 casos sospechosos, 20 presentaron niveles elevados de cotinina, señales y síntomas de dolor de cabeza, irritación de la piel, náusea, mareo y malestar general, principalmente por la mañana. La mayoría trabajó con tabaco mojado por el sereno y en un clima caluroso. Conclusión se certifican señales sugestivas de Enfermedad del Tabaco Verde en los trabajadores del tabaco Burley. Se hace necesaria la actuación de profesionales de la salud en el desarrollo de acciones promotoras de salud y preventivas de esta enfermedad relacionado con el trabajo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tobacco/poisoning , Biomarkers/urine , Case-Control Studies , Occupational Exposure , Cotinine/urine , Headache , Nicotine/poisoning , Occupational Diseases
12.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(6): 477-485, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984599

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency of active smoking among patients with asthma and individuals without asthma by self-report and urinary cotinine measurement. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil, and involving 1,341 individuals: 498 patients with severe asthma, 417 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, and 426 individuals without asthma. Smoking status was determined by self-report (with the use of standardized questionnaires) and urinary cotinine measurement. The study variables were compared with the chi-square test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Of the sample as a whole, 55 (4.1%) reported being current smokers. Of those, 5 had severe asthma, 17 had mild-to-moderate asthma, and 33 had no asthma diagnosis. Of the 55 smokers, 32 (58.2%) were daily smokers and 23 (41.8%) were occasional smokers. Urinary cotinine levels were found to be high in self-reported nonsmokers and former smokers, especially among severe asthma patients, a finding that suggests patient nondisclosure of smoking status. Among smokers, a longer smoking history was found in patients with severe asthma when compared with those with mild-to-moderate asthma. In addition, the proportion of former smokers was higher among patients with severe asthma than among those with mild-to-moderate asthma. Conclusions: Former smoking is associated with severe asthma. Current smoking is observed in patients with severe asthma, and patient nondisclosure of smoking status occurs in some cases. Patients with severe asthma should be thoroughly screened for smoking, and findings should be complemented by objective testing.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a frequência de tabagismo ativo entre pacientes com asma e indivíduos sem asma, usando questionários padronizados e dosagem da cotinina urinária. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado em Salvador (BA), com 1.341 indivíduos, sendo 498 com asma grave, 417 com asma leve/moderada e 426 sem asma. O tabagismo foi identificado por meio de autorrelato utilizando questionários e por mensuração da cotinina urinária. Para a comparação das variáveis estudadas, utilizaram-se os testes do qui-quadrado e de Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados: Dos 55 participantes (4,1%) que se declararam tabagistas atuais, 5, 17 e 33 eram dos grupos asma grave, asma leve/moderada e sem asma, respectivamente. Desses 55, 32 (58,2%) eram tabagistas diários e 23 (41,8%) eram tabagistas ocasionais. Observaram-se níveis elevados de cotinina urinária entre não fumantes autodeclarados e tabagistas pregressos, especialmente no grupo asma grave, o que sugere omissão do hábito atual de fumar. A carga tabágica entre os fumantes e a proporção de ex-tabagistas foram maiores no grupo asma grave do que no grupo asma leve/moderada. Conclusões: O tabagismo pregresso esteve associado à asma grave. Tabagismo atual também foi observado em alguns pacientes com asma grave e detectou-se omissão em alguns casos. A investigação de tabagismo deve ser meticulosa em pacientes com asma grave e a entrevista desses deve ser complementada por uma avaliação objetiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , Smoking/urine , Cotinine/urine , Self Report , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Biomarkers/urine , Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smokers/statistics & numerical data
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(1): 31-39, Jan. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886250

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the influence of subcutaneous injection nicotine in osseointegration process on different implant surfaces. Methods: Twenty-two male rabbits were distributed into two groups according to the subcutaneous injections: (1) nicotine 3 mg/day/kg and (2) 0.9 % NaCI 3 mL/day/kg, three times a day; subgroups were then designated-machined and anodized implants were placed in the right and left tibia bones, respectively. The animals were submitted euthanasia after periods of eight weeks to determine nicotine and cotinine levels, alkaline phosphatase and biomechanical analysis. Results: The plasmatic levels of nicotine and cotinine were 0.5 ± 0.28 ng/mL and 9.5 ± 6.51 ng/mL, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase analyses in blood levels in control group were observed 40.8 ± 11.88 UI/L and 40.75 ± 12.46 UI/L, for the surfaces machined and anodized, respectively. In the test group was observed levels 37.9 ± 4.84 UI/L, for both implant surfaces. No significant differences were observed between control and test groups and between the implant surfaces regarding alkaline phosphatase blood levels. For biomechanics, no significant differences were observed in control group between the machined (25±8.46 Ncm) or anodized (31.2 ± 6.76 Ncm) implants. However, the treatment with nicotine induced higher torque than control in both machined (38.3 ± 13.52 Ncm) and anodized (35.5 ± 14.17 Ncm) implants, with p = 0.0024 and p = 0.0121, respectively. Conclusion: Subcutaneous injection of nicotine following implant insertion didn't have effect on osseointegration, independently from the implant surface.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Dental Implants , Osseointegration/drug effects , Bone-Implant Interface , Nicotine/adverse effects , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Biomechanical Phenomena , Smoking/adverse effects , Random Allocation , Torque , Cotinine/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Injections, Subcutaneous , Nicotine/administration & dosage , Nicotine/blood
14.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52: 70, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962275

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe urinary cotinine levels in tobacco farmers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2,570 tobacco farmers. All participants that reported green tobacco sickness in the week prior to the interview plus a subsample of 492 pesticide applicators were included. We collected urinary samples and information about sociodemographic, behavioral, dietary, occupational characteristics, and pesticide poisoning during their lifetime. Stratification by sex and smoking was performed and the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametrical tests were used to analyze cotinine means. RESULTS This study included 582 individuals. There was no difference in urinary cotinine means between green tobacco sickness symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Among non-smokers, having picked tobacco in the previous week was associated with higher cotinine means in both genders. Cotinine levels were higher on the first day of symptoms and reduced exponentially with each day in female non-smokers. Male non-smokers had higher levels on the second day and a more gradual reduction. The cotinine level rose up to 15 cigarettes/day of consumption. CONCLUSIONS The urinary cotinine measures exposure to nicotine up to its saturation point; while green tobacco sickness, affected by tolerance, indicates nicotine poisoning. Strategies to reduce nicotine exposure in tobacco production are needed. Mechanization could be an alternative, as long as it overcame the challenge of irregular terrain and did not affect the quality of the leaf. More studies are needed to evaluate the chronic effect of nicotine exposure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tobacco/poisoning , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Cotinine/urine , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/urine , Farmers , Nicotine/poisoning , Pesticides/adverse effects , Skin Absorption , Time Factors , Tobacco/metabolism , Brazil/epidemiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nicotine/metabolism
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze environmental tobacco smoking exposure in female nonsmokers by public transportation mode using representative data of Koreans. METHODS: Data from the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012–2014) were analyzed. Urine cotinine was analyzed by public transport behavior, secondhand smoke exposure, socioeconomic factors, and health-related factors. Participants were 1322 adult females; those with the top 75% urine cotinine concentrations were assigned to the high exposure group. A logistic regression analysis was performed considering appropriate weights and stratification according to the sample design of the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey. RESULTS: The geometric mean of urine cotinine concentrations differed according to public transportation modes: subway (1.66 μg/g creatinine) bus (1.77 μg/g creatinine), and taxi (1.94 μg/g creatinine). The odds ratio [OR] was calculated for the high exposure group. The OR of the taxi (2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–5.69) was statistically significantly higher than the subway value (reference), and marginally significant after adjusted with life style, sociodemographic factors and involuntary smoking frequency (2.42, 95% confidence interval, 0.97–6.04). CONCLUSIONS: The odds ratio of passengers who mainly used taxis was marginally significantly higher than those of passengers who used subways and buses after adjusted with life style and sociodemographic factors. Implementation of supplementary measures and further studies on exposure to environmental tobacco smoking in taxis are warranted.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cotinine , Environmental Health , Female , Humans , Life Style , Logistic Models , Motor Vehicles , Odds Ratio , Railroads , Smoking , Socioeconomic Factors , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Tobacco , Transportation , Weights and Measures
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Relapse is the common situation of smoking cessation attempts. There are few studies that analyzed the related factors of smoking relapse among military personnel. Thus, This study was performed to investigate factors related to smoking relapse among military personnel who participated smoking cessation clinics in Korea. METHODS: The study subjects were 19,874 military personnel who enrolled smoking cessation clinic from January in 2015 to December in 2017. Smoking cessation applied to criteria exhaled carbon monoxide and urine cotinine levels. Binominal logistic regression analysis was performed to confirm related factors of smoking relapse among military personnel who succeed to quit smoking. RESULTS: The smoking relapse rate of study subjects who succeeded in quitting smoking for 1-month was 15.3% after 3-months and 60.8% after 6-months follow-up. The factors associated with relapse smoking included implementing year, past year quit attempts, number or cigarettes smoked per day, regular exercise, blood pressure. Levels of nicotine dependence affected smoking relapse at 3-months follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Tailored approaches are necessary to reduce the rates of smoking relapse for military personnel who succeeded to quit smoking shortly but relapse back to smoking.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Carbon Monoxide , Cotinine , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Military Personnel , Recurrence , Smoke , Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use Disorder
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718512

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Smoking is associated with hearing loss, while the correlation between tinnitus and smoking is not fully elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors of tinnitus in adolescents in terms of smoking, and we identified a rectifiable parameter that can be serially monitored. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with 2,782 participants aged 12 to 18 years, from 2008 through 2011. Participants with history of ear disease, hearing loss, and inadequate responses to questionnaires were excluded. We investigated the prevalence of tinnitus and tinnitus-related annoyance by questionnaire and sought potential risk factors in blood and urine tests and smoking history. RESULTS: The prevalence of tinnitus in the 12- to 18-year-old population was 17.5%, with 3.3% reporting tinnitus-related annoyance. On univariate analysis, the prevalence of tinnitus increased with age (P < 0.001) and was higher among girls (P=0.012). Blood tests and urinalysis showed significant correlation between tinnitus and red blood cell count, alkaline phosphatase levels, and urine cotinine (P=0.002, P < 0.001, P=0.018, respectively). In multivariate analysis, the urine cotinine level was the only parameter associated with tinnitus (odds ratio, 1.000; 95% confidence interval, 0.999 to 1.000; P=0.038). Smoking was also significantly correlated with tinnitus (P=0.043), and amount of smoking with tinnitus-related annoyance (P=0.045). However, current smoking and past smoking were not correlated with tinnitus. CONCLUSION: Urine cotinine may be a rectifiable marker for management of tinnitus in adolescents. This suggests that smoking cessation should be incorporated in the management of tinnitus in adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alkaline Phosphatase , Cotinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ear Diseases , Erythrocyte Count , Female , Hearing Loss , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Tinnitus , Urinalysis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Green tobacco sickness (GTS), an occupational disease in tobacco harvesters, is a form of acute nicotine intoxication by nicotine absorption through the skin from the wet green tobacco plant. We carried out a questionnaire survey and measured cotinine concentration, the metabolic product of nicotine, to determine the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of GTS in Korean tobacco harvesters. METHODS: We measured cotinine concentrations, and administered a questionnaire survey to tobacco harvesters in Cheongsong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. We repeatedly measured urine cotinine concentration five times with a questionnaire survey. RESULTS: Cotinine concentration at dawn was significantly higher than that at other times; it was significantly lower during the nonharvesting period than during the harvesting period. However, little change in cotinine concentration was detected in the daytime during the harvesting period. Study participants included 20 men and 20 women. The prevalence of GTS was 37.5% and was significantly higher in women than in men (55.0% vs. 20.0%, p < 0.01). GTS incidence according to number of workdays was 3.4 occurrences/100 person days. CONCLUSION: In this study, nicotine exposure and metabolism were experimentally determined from the time of cotinine exposure, and biological monitoring was performed in each season. In the future, this information may be valuable for medical decision-making in GTS prevention.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Clinical Decision-Making , Cotinine , Environmental Monitoring , Farmers , Female , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Male , Metabolism , Nicotine , Occupational Diseases , Plants , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Seasons , Skin , Tobacco
19.
Clinics ; 72(12): 785-789, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase. Both tibias were dissected and weighed; the lengths were measured, and the bones were then stored in a freezer for analysis of bone mineral content and mechanical resistance (maximal load and stiffness). RESULTS: Exposure of rats to tobacco smoke significantly compromised bone health, suggesting that the harmful effects may be time dependent. Harmful effects on bone growth were detected and were more pronounced at 60-day follow-ups with a 41.8% reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.01) and a decrease of 11.25% in tibia length (p<0.001). Furthermore, a 41.5% decrease in bone mineral density was observed (p<0.001), leading to a 42.8% reduction in maximum strength (p<0.001) and a 56.7% reduction in stiffness (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Second hand cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected bones that were weaker, deforming them and making them osteopenic. Additionally, the long bone was shorter, suggesting interference with growth. Such events seem to be related to time of exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Tibia/growth & development , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Bone Density , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Cotinine/blood , Tibia/physiopathology , Bone Remodeling , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23884

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was done to develop a strength based I-change smoking cessation program for middle school boys and identified its effects. METHODS: The study design was a nonequivalent control group pre-post test design. The participants were 97 middle school students from D city, who were in school from April 6 to September 25, 2015. The experimental group participated in the strength based I-change smoking cessation program, while the comparative group participated in a general smoking cessation program. The control group did not participate in any program. Data analyses involved χ²-test, Fishers' exact test, Bonferroni test, and Repeated measures ANOVA, with the IBM SPSS for Windows (version 20.0) program. RESULTS: Compared to the comparison and control groups, the experimental group showed significant improvement in knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, behavior change. Also cotinine in urine and modeling of social influence in the experimental group significantly decreased after the strength based I-change smoking cessation program. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the strength based I-change smoking cessation program is an effective intervention for middle school boys who smoke. The findings suggest that such programs can be used at public health centers or through school health education to decrease smoking in adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cotinine , Education , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Humans , Public Health , School Health Services , Self Efficacy , Smoke , Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Statistics as Topic
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